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JPN Pahang Teachers Guide

Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave

When the vertical displacement of two waves are in the same direction as in Figure 6.50 constructive (a) and (b), (constructive/destructive) interference occurs. (b) Destructive Interference + Before superposition Figure 6.51 If a wave with a positive displacement meets another with a negative displacement of the same magnitude, they cancel each other and the combined amplitude becomes zero. . Interference of Water Waves = During superposition

Exercise 6.5
B C A

Figure 6.53 1. Figure 6.53 shows the interference pattern of water by two coherent sources of water waves. constructive (i) At point A, two crest meet resulting in .. interference. constructive (ii) At point B, two through meet resulting in ..interference. destructive (iii) At point C, a crest meet a trough resulting in interference. 2.. Complete the table below. Before superposition During superposition After superposition

Figure 6.52: Interference of water waves 1. 2. At the points of constructive interference, the water moves up and down with a large (large/ small) amplitude antinodes The points of constructive interferences, is known as ..( nodes/antinodes) nodes The points of destructive interferences is known as (nodes/antinodes).

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Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave

3.

Categorize each labelled position as being a position where either constructive or destructive interference occurs.

(a) Constructive interference:. (b) Destructive interference:.. C,D, E, F .

A ,B

1. 2. 4. The diagram shows a full-scale interference pattern of a ripple tank experiment 2 seconds after vibration started. The crests of the water ripples are represented by the dark lines. (a) What is represented at P at this instant? P is between two crest. Therefore, P represents a trough . (b) What is the frequency of the vibrator? The diagram shows crests from each source. In 2 seconds, 4 crests are produced. 4 Thus the frequency is = 2 Hz 2 5. Two dot vibrators which has a separation of 5.0 cm are placed on a water surface in a ripple tank. The distance between two adjacent antinodes on a screen is 3.0 cm. If the perpendicular distance between the dot vibrators and the screen is 10.0 cm, what is the wavelength of the water waves? Answer: 5.0 x3.0 l= 10.0 3. 4. 5. 6.

coherent Two sources are said to be if they have the same frequency of vibration and a zero or constant phase difference. interference We can use a ripple tank to observe ..patterns of water waves. constructive Antinodes are points where ..interference occurs. destructive Nodes are points where interference occurs. antinode Antinodal lines are lines joining s nodes Nodal lines are lines joining

= 1.5 cm

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4.

The wavelength of monochromatic light can be found by the formula:

is the distance between the slits a = .. is the distance between consecutive bright or dark x = . fringes is the distance between the double-slit and the D = .screen Exercise 6.51 1. In a Youngs double slit experiment, a light of wavelength 633 nm passes through Vertical fringes are observed on a screen placed 4 m from the slits. (i) Calculate the distance between two adjacent bright fringes. (ii) What will happen to the distance between two adjacent bright fringes if a light of shorter wavelength is used? Answer: (a) l = 633 nm = 633 x 10-9 a = 0.5 mm = 0.5 x 10-3 m D =4m x= 633x10 -9 x4 0.5x10 -3

A ray of light passes through the single slit and reaches the double-slit will give rise to two coherent light rays.

x = 5.064 x 10-3 mm (b) 1. Interference occur when at least two coherent light waves overlap or superpose 2. The superposition of 2 rays produces: constructive interference (i) destructive interference. (ii) 3. bright When constructive occurs there will be a (bright/dark) fringe dark When destructive occurs there will be a (bright/dark) fringe If l is smaller, x will also be smaller. Therefore , the distance between two adjacent bright fringes of light will smaller.

14 mm

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Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave

2. The wavelength of light can be determined with a double-slit plate. The diagram above shows the pattern of interference fringes obtained in a Youngs double-slit experiment. The separation distance of the two slit is 0.20 mm and the distance between the screen and the double-slit plate is 4.0 m. Calculate the wavelength of the light used in the experiment. Answer: 7x = 14 mm x = 2 mm = 2 x 10-3 m D = 3.0 m Interference of Sound Waves a = 0.2 mm = 2 x 10-4 m 2 x10 -4 x2 x10 -3 l = 4 = 1 x 10-7 m

Answer: (a) a = 2 m D = 4.0 m 2x1.2 = 0.6 m l= 4.0 (b) f = 550 Hz V=f l = 550 x 0.6 = 330 m s-1 6.6 Analysing Sound Waves

The wavelength of sound wave can be found by the formula:

1. Sound waves are longitudinal waves which require a medium for its propagation. amplitude 2. The loudness of the sound is depend to the

distance between two loudspeakers a = .. distance between two consecutive loud places x = . perpendicular distance between 2 speakers D = . Exercise 6.52 1. Two loud speakers placed 2 m apart are connected to an audio signal generator that is adjusted to produce sound waves of frequency 550 Hz. The detection of loud and soft sounds as a person moves along a line is at 4.0 m from the loudspeakers. Calculate the (a) wavelength (b) speed of the sound waves. frequency 3. The pitch of the sound is depend to the ...

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Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave

4.

a phenomenon when a sound wave has been reflected off a Echo is surface , and is heard after the original sound.

boundary from one medium to another medium, a When a wave reaches the (1) .......... portion of the wave undergoes reflection while the other portion of the wave undergoes transmission across the boundary. loudest The (2). sound will be heard when the angle of incidence, i equals the angle of reflection, r reflection Therefore, we can say that sound waves obey the laws of (3).. Echoes (4).. that are causes by multiple reflections from numerous reflecting surfaces of a large hall can create an impression that sound lasts for a long time. If the reflector is near to the sound source, the reflected sound will overlap the origin sound. It will not be heard as a separate sound, but as a prolonged origin reverberation sound known as (5) 2. In an expedition to determine the depth of a freshwater lake using an ultrasonic ruler, a pulse of ultrasonic sound is generated and travels to the bottom of the lake and reflected by it. The time taken by the pulse to travel to the bottom of the lake and return to the ruler is 0.35 s. If the speed of sound in freshwater is 1482 m s-1, calculate the depth of the lake. Answer: v = 1482 m s-1, t = 0.35 s 2d=vxt 1482x 0.35 d= = 259.35 m 2 3. . Fill in the blank. Field Medicine Industry Application Sound waves of high energy are directed to the kidney stones to destroy them in the cavity of the kidney. Sound waves of high energy are directed to the kidney stones to destroy them in the cavity of the kidney.

Application of Sound Waves 1. Ultrasonic waves with frequencies above 20 kHz cannot be heard by human ear. 2. The ultrasonic ruler is used to measure the distance between itself and a target. 3. The depth of sea water can be calculated using the formula : 2d = v x t Exercise 6.60

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6.7 Analysing Electromagnetic Waves

Exercise 6.70 1. The diagram below shows the pattern of spectrum electromagnetic. In the boxes provided, write the names of the parts given . Radio wave microwave gamma ray x-ray visible ray infra-red ray ultraviolet ray
wavelength

1. The electric and magnetic field vibrate ..(perpendicular/parallel) to perpendicular each other and to the direction of propagation. 2. Properties of electromagnetic waves (i) Transverse waves (ii) Do not require a medium to propagate and can travel in a vacuum (iii) The waves travel at the speed of light, c = 3 x 108 ms -1 (iv) Undergo the same waves phenomenon : reflection, refraction, diffraction and interference. 3. Sources and applications of electromagnetic waves in daily life Type of em wave Radio waves l = 10-1 - 105 m Microwave l = 10-3 10-1 m Infrared l = 10-6 10-3 m Visible light l = 10-7 m Ultraviolet radiation l = 10-9 10-7 m X-ray l = 10-11 10-9 m Gamma rays l = 10-14 10-10 m Source Electrical oscillating circuit Application

Gamma ray

X-ray

Ultra Violet

Visible light

infrared

microwave

frequency

(a) telecommunications (b) broadcasting : tv and radio transmission Oscillating electrical (a) satellite transmissions (b) radar charge in a microwave transmitter (c) cooking (a) night vision Hot bodies, the sun and (b) thermal imaging and physiotherapy (c) remote controls fires (a) sight The sun, hot objects, light (b) photosynthesis in plants bulbs, fluorescent tubes (c) photography (a) identification of counterfeit notes Very hot objects, the sun, (b) production of vitamin-D mercury vapour lamps (c) Sterilisation to destroy germs (a) Radiotherapy x-ray tubes (b) Detection of cracks in building structures (a) Cancer treatment Radioactive subtances (b) Sterilisation of equipment (c) Pest control in agriculture

2. Table 6.70 shows electromagnetic waves P, Q, R and S and their uses Electromagnetic waves P Q R S Table 6.70 Identify P, Q, R and S Answer: P = Infra-red rays Q = Microwaves R = Visible light S = Gamma rays Uses Remote control Radar system Photograph Kill cancerous cells

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Reinforcement Chapter 6 Part A : Objective Questions

5. Wave length of given wave does NOT depend on. A. B. C. D. velocity. Frequency Amplitude Period.

6. 1. Calculate the frequency of the given wave above A. B. C. D. E. 8 Hz. 1/8 Hz 4 Hz. Hz 12 Hz

What is the phenomenon shown above? A. reflection. B. Refraction. C. Interference. 7. A given wave travels at a speed of 4 x 105 ms-1. If the frequency of the wave is 1000 Hz, calculate the wavelength A. B. C. D. E. 100 m 200 m 300 m 400 m 500 m

2. Which of the following is NOT an electromagnetic wave? A. B. C. D. x-ray. Gamma ray water wave microwave.

3. Which of the following cannot travel through vacuum? A. B. C. D. x-ray gamma ray sound wave light wave.

8. Which of the following is a common characteristic of visible light, ultraviolet rays, infrared rays, gamma rays and X-rays? A. B. C. D. Influenced by magnetic field. Possess the same frequency. Possess the same wavelength. Possess the same velocity in vacuum.

9. Which of the following electromagnetic waves are arranged in the order of increasing wavelength. A. B. C. Visible light, X-rays. Radio waves. Infrared waves. X-rays. Visible light. Infrared waves .Radio waves. Radio waves, X-rays. Visible light. Infrared waves.

4.

Based on the given diagram above calculate the wavelength. A. B. C. D. E. 4 cm 8 cm 10 cm 15 cm 20 cm

10. Which of the following waves cannot travel through vacuum? A. Sound waves B. X-rays C. Radio waves

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Part B: Structured Questions

(a) Explain how the sound from the loudspeaker produces vibration on the ping pong ball. The vibration of the loudspeaker moves the air molecules around it. The sound wave produced by the loudspeaker transfers energy to the ping pong ball and causes it to move (b) What will happen to the vibration of the ping pong ball if the loudness emits (i) a louder sound? The ping pong ball vibrates with greater amplitude Figure 1 (ii) a sound with a higher pitch? The ping pong ball vibrates with higher frequency. (c) If the frequency of the sound is 50 Hz, calculate the wavelength of the sound produced. [Assume the speed of the sound in air in 350 ms-1] v 350 l= = 7m = f 50 3. (a) Figure 3 shows two sets of ripple tanks used to study diffraction of waves.

1. Figure 1 shows the use of sonar equipment to measure the depth of the sea. (a) State the phenomenon of sound wave applied in sonar equipment. Reflection . [1 mark] (b) Sound waves with frequency of 6.0 x 105 Hz are used to determine the depth of the sea. [speed of sound in sea water = 1500 m s-1] (i) What is the wavelength of the sound wave in sea water? v 1500 l= = 2.5 x 10-3 m = f 6.0 x10 5 [2 marks] If the time interval between the instant the sound wave is sent to the instant the echo is received is 1.5 s, what is the depth of the sea
vt 1500x1.5 d= = = 1125 m 2 2

(ii)

[2 marks]

(i)

Figure 3.1 Figure 3.2 What is meant by the diffraction of waves. Diffraction is the spreading out of waves when they move through a gap or around an obstacle Which of the two sets will show a bigger effect of diffraction. Explain your answer. The set shown in Figure 4.1 will show a bigger effect of diffraction. This is because the narrower the gap, the more the waves spread out. Redraw and complete Figure 3.1 and Figure 3.2 to show the differences between the two diffraction patterns. State the characteristic to the diffracted waves in terms of waves in terms of wavelength, frequency, speed and amplitude compared to the incident waves. (a) Wavelength remains unchanged (b) Frequency remains unchanged (c) Speed remains unchanged (d) Amplitude becomes smaller compared to the incident waves

2.

(ii)

(iii) (iv)

Figure 2 A ping pong ball is held with a string and placed near a loudspeaker as shown in Figure 2 The loudspeaker emits a low frequency sound and the ping-pong ball seems to vibrate to it.

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Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave

4. You are assigned to investigate the properties of waves that could be used in broadcasting and communication. Table below shows the properties of six types of waves P, Q, R, S T and U. Wave Type of wave Material medium for propagation P Transverse Not required Q Transverse Not required R Transverse Not required S Transverse Not required T Longitudinal Required U Longitudinal Required Speed of wave 3 x 108 ms -1 3 x 108 ms -1 3 x 108 ms -1 3 x 108 ms -1 330 ms -1 10 ms -1 Penetrating power Penetrates matter Absorbed by glass Refracted by glass Medium Weak Weak

5. Figure 5.1 shows the arrangement of the apparatus for an experiment to study a wave phenomenon.

Based on the table, select the most suitable wave that could be used in broadcasting and communication and give your reasons. [10 marks] Answer: Characteristics It is transverse wave It does not require material medium for propagation It travels at a very high speed It does not need a high penetrating power Reason It can be modulated by the signal frequency It can travel through vacuum Information can be sent immediately to any destination Information can be transmitted in a straight line from one place to another Figure 1.2 Figure 5.2 Figure 1.3 Figure 5.3 Figure 5.1 Figure 5.1 shows the bright and dark bands of the wave pattern formed on the white piece of paper produced by the vibration of two spherical dippers on the water surface.

Wave R is chosen because of it is transverse wave, not require material medium, very high speed and doesnt need a high penetrating power.

(ii) Observe Figures 5.2 and 5.3. Compare the wave patterns produced by the spherical dippers. State the relationship between the distances of the two coherent consecutive node or antinodes lines. [5 marks] Answer: i. The spherical dippers are closer in Figures 5.2 and they are futher apart in Figure 5.3 ii. The wavelength is the same in Figure 5.2 and 5.3. iii. The distance of two separation between two consecutive antinodes or node lines is smaller in Figure 5.3 than 5.2 iv. The angle between the successive antinodes or node lines is smaller in Figure 5.3 than5.2 v. The smaller the distance between two coherent sources, the larger is the distance between the two consecutive antinodes or node lines.
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Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave

Part C: Essay 1. Figure 6.0 shows the arrangement of the apparatus for an experiment to study a wave phenomenon. (ii) Observe Figure 6.2(a) and (b). Compare the waves patterns and the wavelength of the waves before and after they pass through the gaps. Relate the size of the gaps, the waves patterns and the wavelengths to deduce a relevant physics concept. [5 marks] a. In figure 6.1(a), size of the wavelength is the same as size of the gap // In figure 6.1(b), size of the gap is wider than size of the wavelength b. In figure 6.1(a) and figure 6.1(b), size of the wavelengths are the same before and after they pass through the gaps. c. The waves emerging from the narrow gap in figure 6.1(a) is circular wave fronts d. The waves emerging from the wider gap is plane wave fronts e. When a wave passes through a gap, the wave spreads. The narrower the gap the greater the spreading of the wave Figure 6.0 Figure 6.1 shows the bright and dark bands of the waves pattern formed on the white paper when plane waves passes through the narrow and wide gaps. (c) Figure 6.3 shows the seashore of a fishing village. During the rainy season, waves are big. One year the waves eroded the seashore, caused the jetty to collapse and damaged the fishermens boats.

Narrow gap Figure 6.1(a) (a)

Wide gap Figure 6.1(b) Figure 6.3 To prevent similar damage in the future, the fishermen suggest building retaining walls and relocating the jetty. Make further suggestion of ways to help the fishermen solve their problems. You should use your knowledge of reflection, refraction and diffraction of waves to explain these suggestions, to include the following aspects. (i) the design and structure of the retaining wall, (ii) the location of the new jetty (iii) the size or energy of the waves [10 marks] Answer: 1. Build slanting barrier to reduce speed of wave 2. Build the rough barrier to reduce reflection of the waves 3. Build the new jetty at the bay because the water is calm at the bay 4. Build the small opening surround the bay because diffraction happens at the opening 5. Build the barrier at the bay because the wave is spread according to the shape of the bay

Name the wave phenomenon shown in figure 6.2. Diffraction [1 mark]

(b) (i) Explain how the dark and light bands are formed on the white paper. [4 marks] Figure / Troughs act as a concave lens Figure / Crests act as a convex lens Figure / Every crests will converge the light, bright fringes are formed

Figure / Every troughs will diverge the light, dark fringes are formed
B D B D B D B

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