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<Mi0"<

^*

T C^ P

a ALIENS
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CATALO&I

.m.

JL'^

THE LIBRARY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LOS ANGELES

Ikhwanu-s-Safa

he Lowei

Sak
Ait' Laiii

in

Hindi

-ZiuOai)

Oriental Penmajiship.

^rPe

I)ici

...ionary,

Pers-

nar of the Persian Languag


IgUB

ar-i-Solieli.

.-i-Mushin

CJa-Oa^IjU^

OM^

y cJU

'/^^^
^N

/^^t^<^.2^^ )

I?

GRAMMAR
OF THE

AKABIC LAITGUAGB.

BY

E. H.
FELLOW OP
ST.

PALMER,

M.A.,

JOHN'S COLLEGR, AND LORD ALMONEE'S nEADP.Il AND PHOFESSOR OF AUABIC IN TilE V:<IVEKSITY OF CAMBRIDCiB,

LONDOIST;
Wm. n. ALLEN &
CO., 13,

WATERLOO PLACE,

S.W.

rUBLISllEBS TO THE INDIA OFFICE,

1874.

WM.

H. AlLEir

&

CO.,

PEINTEBS, 13, WATEEIOO PLACE, VAJJL MAll, 8.W.

TO THE

HOIs^OUEABLE

AND VEEY REVERENJi

GERALD WELLESLEY,
DEAN OP
AlTD
ST.

M.A.,

GEOEGe's CHAPEL, "WINDSOE, lOED HIGH ALJIONEB

DOMESTIC CHAPLAIN TO HEE MAJESTY THE QUEEN,

THIS WORK
IS

BESPECTFIJLLT AND GRATEFULLY DEDICATED.

:r-,r;ir'

PEEFACE.
I

HAVE endeavoured

in the present

work

to furnish the

beginner with a trustworthy guide and the advanced


student with a complete and easy book of reference.
I have followed the system adopted
it to

by the native

grammarianSj believing

be more suitable than the


the same time I have
in

Greek or Latin methods.


not
scrupled to

At

make such

alterations

the

order

and arrangement of the various parts of the subject


as

appeared to

me

necessary for aiding

the

memory
of

or facilitating reference to the

book.
etc.,

The Tables
and

Yerbal Forms, Broken Plurals,


fully

have been careclearly


at

tabulated,

so

as

to

exhibit

glance the correspondence between the various forms.

Another feature in the work

is

the addition of a glossary

of the technical terms of Arabic grammar,

by means of

which the Student


difficulty the

will be enabled to translate without


classical

commentaries which accompany the

Arabic poems and other standard works.


Arabic grammars written
little

In

all

previous

for the use of Eiu'opoans, too

attention has been paid to Prosody

and the rules

of versification, and a most valuable aid to the critical

study of the language


comparatively neglected.

and

literature

has thus been

This deficiency I have eudea-

VI

PREFACE.

voured to supply in
will, I believe,

tlie

section

upon Prosody, wMcli

be found

to contain all that is necessary

for a

thorough understanding of the system.


chief works

The

which form the

basis of this

grammar

are the following

^L^i ^U^

c^l:;^

by Dr. P. Bustani, Peyrout, 1867

c-JlUl <.L^

^ ^M\ ^\,^ u^[^ by Dr. P. Bustani,


^ i^\]^^\ J^ L^{^ by the
2nd
late

Beyrout, 1854;
L^V^'i] LiJ J^^^

Sheikh

J^assyf el Yazji of Lebanon,

edition, Beyrout,

1866;
and
for the Prosody,
\iL:L

'ij^\J\

Jj:
el

Sj^lill

(^.-..t!l

c-^k^ a

commentary hj Mo-

hammed

Makhzumi on
MS.

the

poem

of

Dhiya ed

din el Khazraji (a

in the University Library,

Cambridge)
^J>jy^\

J-c

^_^

yLvll Lus'*
;

c_jIj:J'

by Dr.

C.

Yandyck,

Beyrout, 1857

and
el Yazji.

yUl
Dr.

ILiD L^h^

by Sheikh Kassyf
to

In conclusion, I have

express
of

my

gratitude to

W.

Wright,

Professor

Arabic at

Cambridge,

not only for carefully revising the proofs, but for kindly giving

me many me

valuable suggestions and criticisms;


St.

and

to the

Eev. C. Taylor, of

John's College, who


final revision of

also aided

very materially in the

the

proofs.

E.
Br. John's College,
1st JtiHiiidi/,

n.

PALMEK,

Cambridge

1871.

TABLE OF CONTEIfTS.
PAET I.ACCIDENCE.
SECTION
The Alphabet
Numerical Value of the Letters
Orthographical Signs
.

L OETHOGEAPHT.
PAGB
'

6
6

Vowels

Tenwiu

Correspondence of the Vowels and Semi-vowels

Hemzeh
Meddah
The Vowels
Jezmeh
Teshdi'd

........
or Sukiin

....

....,

9
9 10
11
,
.

as Signs of Inflexion

Hemzet El-wasl Hemzet


El-kata'

11

,.,..

13

The Pause
Anomalies in Writing

14
15

Examples

for Practice in Ptcading

.......

..

16

SECTION II. ETYMOLOGY.


The Measures
of "Words

19

Hoots containing Semi-vowels


Acsimilation

20 23

Vlll

a:ABLE OF CONTENTS*

SECTION III.PAETS OF SPEECH.


PAGE

The Verb
Different

24
Kinds of Verbs
24

Parts of the Verb

25 26 26
.

Tenses of Verbs

The

Preterite

ThoAorist

27

Moods of the Verb


The Imperative

27
29

Forms of Simple Verbs

30

The Noun

of Action

,....'.......
.
,

31

Derived Conjugations

32 33
Root)
33

Signification of the Derived

Forms
to the

First

Group (adding One Letter


4th Conjugation, Jxsi

33

2nd Conjugation, Jje


3rd Conjugation, ^j\i

34 35
Letters)
.
-.

Second Group (adding


5th Conjugation,

Two

35

,J^

35
36

6th Conjugation, Jx-uj* 7th Conjugation, tj^dj] 8th Conjugation, JjtJ]. 9th Conjugation, J^l,

37

. ,

37 37
38 38 38

Third Group (adding Three Letters)


10th Conjugation,
J^ri::--!].

11th Conjugation,

Jli
*

12th Conjugation, J.^^*Ji

39 39

13th Conjugation, Jj-^1

The Tenses of Derived Forms


(1)
(2) f3)

39 39

The

Preterite
.

The Aorist The Imperative

39
41

TABLE OF CONTENTS.

IX
PAGE

The N"oun

of Action

42 43 41

Tables of the Derived Conjuirations

Active
Passive

u
Quadriliteral Yerbs

44
46

Nouns Derived from Verbs


(1)
(2)

Noun
Noun
Agent

of Unity of Species

46

46

(3)

..."
of Action formed with of

46 47

(4) Passive Participle

(5)
(6) (7)

Nouns

Mim

47 48
50
51

The Noun

Time and Place

Noun
Noun

of Instrument of Quality of Colour or Defect

(8)
(9)

Noun Noun

........
Agent

51 51

(10) (11)

of Superiority (or Comparative)


of Excess or Intensive

The Noun

....

52
53

Note on the

ITse of the Tables

Table Showing the Correspondence of


Irregular Verbs -o^

Forms Derived from Verbs

56 58 59
59

Paradigms of Irregular Verbs


I.

...,*.,
. .

,......
.

Doubled Verbs
Derived Conjugations of the Doubled Verb
Preterite of the Doubled
i

59

Verb

60
^

Aorist of the Doubled Verb

CI

Imperative of the Doubled Verb


II.

62
62

Hemzated Verbs
1.

Verbs having Hemzch for the First Radical


Derived Forms of Verbs with luitial Herazeh

2.

Verbs having Hemzeh

for the

Medial Eadical

Derived Forms of Verbs with Medial


3.

Hemzeh

Verbs with Hemzeh

for the Final Radical

Derived Forms of Verbs with Final

Hemzeh

... ... ... ... ... ...

62 63
63

G4 65
65

X
III. Assimilated Verbs
1. Initial

TABLE OF CONTENTS.
PAOK
.

66 67 68 68
69 70
71

2. Initial

Derived Forms of Assimilated Verbs


IV. The Hollow Verb

Derived Forms of Hollow Verbs


Preterite of the

Hollow Verb (Medial j), Measure Jxi> Jxi

Aorist of the Hollow Verb (Medial j)

......
....
JxJj^

71

Imperative of the Hollow Verb (Medial ^)


Preterite of the

72

Hollow Verb (Medial i_c), Measure

Jue

72
72

Aorist of the Hollow Verb (Medial

^)

. .

Imperative of the Hollow Verb (Medial ^5)


Preterite of the

73 73

Hollow Verb (Medial

),

Measure

Jjtij

Jxs

Aoristof the Hollow Verb (Mediall)


Imperative of the Hollow Verb (Medial
\)
. .

74
.

74 74

V. The Defective Verb


Changes in the Termination of the Preterite Changes in the Final Kadical of the Aorist
Changes in the Final Eadical of Nouns
Derived Forms of Defective Verbs
Preterite of the Defective Verb (Final ^), Measure Jx>u

....
.
.
.

74 75 75
77

.....
J^

77
78 78

Aorist of the Defective Verb (Final j)

Moods

of the Defective Verb

........

Subjunctive

Mood
etc.)

79 79
79 79
)

Apocopated (Jussive,
1st Energetic

2nd Energetic
Imperative of the Defective Verb (Final
Preterite of the Defective

....
Jwtjo J.%i

80

Verb (Final

^i),

Measure

80
80

Aorist of the Defective Verb (Final

^)

Moods

of the Defective Verb (Final ^j); Measure

J^, Jaj

Subjunctive

Mood

81

TABLE OF CONTENTS.

XI
PAGE

Apocopated
1st Enero;etic 'O^

81
81

2nd Energetic
Imperative of the Defective Yerb (Final ^5), Measure J.;uj J,o
Preterite of the Defective

82

82
82 83 83 83

Yerb (Final

3),

Measure

J.<ti)

^<^

Aorist of the Defective Yerb (Final ^)

Moods

of the Defective

Yerb (Final J )

Subjunctive

Apocopated (Jussive,
1st Energetic

etc.)
*,
.
.

83
83

2nd Energetic
Imperative of the Defective Yerb (Final ^), Measure J,.^^ Ji^J

84

84 84

Doubly Imperfect Yerbs


1.

Initial

and Final j or

o
j_>
. .

84
85
,
.

2.

Medial

and Final j or

Formation of Yerbal Nouns from Irregular Yerbs

86
87

Hollow Yerbs Declined


Indeclinable Yerbs
,

as Strong

Yerbs

88
89

The Noun
Primitive Nouns
^

89

Nouns Derived from Yerbs


of

90
91

The Genders

Nouns

Formation of the Feminine from the Masculine

...

93

Common Gender
Note on the Termination
Declension of Nouns
S"

96

97
97

The Cases The


Ancient Declension

97
98

The

Cases of

Nouns with a \Veak Final Radical

....
;

99

Imperfectly Declined Nouns


Indeclinable

100 103
. .
.

Nouns
of

The Numbers

Nouns

103

Xii

TABLE OF CO^'TENTS.
PAOB

The Dual The Plural

.,

104 105

Regular Masculine Plural

106
108
110

Regular Feminine Plural

proken Plurals
Plural of Paucity

110
Ill

Gender of Broken Plurals

Forms

of

Broken Plurals

Ill

Plural of Quadi-iliterals
Plurals of.Quinqueliterals

112 112
112 113

Note on the Formation of Plurals


Tables of Broken Plurals
1.

Table of Broken Plurals from TriliteralJfouns

...
Verbal

114
121

2. 3.

Table of Broken Plurals from Triliteral Feminine Nouns

Table of Broken Plurals from the most

common

Nouns
4.
5. 6.

122

Table of Broken Plurals of the Masculine Agent, Form Js.\i 131


Table of Broken Plurals of the Feminine Agent, Form ^j^li Table of Broken Plurals of Quadriliterals General
133-

....
.

134
139

7.

View

of the Formation of

Broken Plurals

Plurals of Plurals
Irregular Plurals

139

,.....>^*
Nouns
. .
.

139 140 140


141

Examples of the Declensions of


Regularly Declined Nouns

Imperfectly Declined Nouns


Declension of Nouns ending in a

Weak

Letter

....
.

142

Formation of Nouns

not immediately derived from Verbs

144
144
147 148
151 151

Noun

of Relation

Abstract

Noun

The Diminutive The Pronouns


Personal Pronouns

TABLE OF CONTEXTS.

Xlll
PAGB

Changes in Towels,

etc.,

before the Affixed Prououns

152 153

Yerb governing two Accusative Pronouns


Signification of the Inflexions of Verbs

Note on the Pronominal

154
154
156 157

Demonstrative Pronouns

The Relative and The


Article
.

Interrogative Pronouns

The Numerals

158 158

The Cardinal Numerals The Ordinal Numbers


Other Classes of Numerals
Particles

IGO

163
165 165

Prepositions

Conjunctions

165

Adverbs
Interjections

166
167

Imitative Sounds

168

PAET

II. SYIS^TAX.

SECTION I. THE YEEB AND THE NOUN,


The Tenses of Verbs
I.

169 169
.

The

Preterite
,

II.

The Aorist
of Verbs

171
,
.

The Moods The

171 171
'.

Indicative

Mood
in the Aorist

Change of the Vowel

171

The Subjunctive Mood

171

The Apocopation
Particles

of the Final

Vowel

of the Aorist

....
. .

173

which Apocopate the Aorist of two Verbs

174 176
177

The Energetic and Jussive Mood


III.

The Imperative

Xl\

TABLE OF CONTENTS,

The Cases

of

Nouns

177
178 178
180

The Subjective Case

The Agent and the Yerb


Concord of the Yerb and the Agent

The Subject

of a Passive

Yerb

184
188

The Objective Case


1. 2.
3.

The Object

of a Yerb

188 189 190


191

"Words Defining or Specifying the Action

....

Nouns used Adverbially


The Cause
or Effect of an Action

4.
5.

State or Condition
or

192

The Genitive
Prepositions

Dependent Case

...........
,

195
195

Other "Words used as Prepositions

...,..,

.
.

197
198

Sentence as the Complement of a Preposition

TheYocative
Apocopation of the
last Syllable of the

199
Yocative
.
.

200
201

Nouns Nouns

Definite and Indefinite


in Construction

........ ......>.<.
in Construction

201
201

Of the First of Two Nouns

Of

the Second of

Two Nouns

in Construction

....
.
.

202 204
206

Other Modes of Expressing the Relation between Nouns


Ellipse of the First of

Two Nouns

in Construction

The Gender

of an Adjective Qualifying

Two Nouns
,
,
.

in
.

Construction
Separation of

207
207 208

Two Nouns

in Construction

,...

Concordance of Nouns and Epithets

The Noun
The Numerals

of Action as a Qualifjdng Epithet

....

208 209 209

Construction of the Numeral

and the Thing

Numbered

Agreement

in

Gender of the Numeral and Thing Numbered

213 215

The Use

of the Article with Numerals

......

TABLE OF CONTENTS.

XV
PAGE

The Ordinal Numbers


Dates
Proper

216

217

Names
,
.

219
. .

Simple Proper Names

219
219
221

Compound Proper Names


Constituent Portions of Proper

,....
Names
,

Nouns which Govern


The Use The Use

like Verbs

222
222

of the Infinitive or

Noun

of Action as a Verb

of the Agent,

Intensive Agent,
.

and

Passive

Participle, as a

Verb

225
,

The Noun

of Superiority

226
231

Other Words which are Cognate to Verbs

SECTION IT THE SENTENCE.


Parts of a Sentence
^
. .

234 235

The Subject and Predicate


Omission of the Predicate

238 239

Concord of the Subject and Predicate


Inversion of the Subject and Predicate

240
241
241

Omission of the Subject


"Words Affecting the Subject and Predicate
1.

Abstract Verbs

242

2.
3.

Approximate Verbs
Verbs Denoting a Mental Process
.

244 246
247
248

4.
5.

Verbs of Praise and Blame


Particles

which Resemble Verbs

Position of ^1 in the Sentence

250 250

Use

o{

^\
ij\

Cases in which either

or ^j]

may

be used

...
^t,
1

251

Loss of the Final

in the Particles

^\ and

252

XVI

TABLE OE CONTENTS.
PAGE

6.

Negative Participles

253
.,

The Absolute
Eelative Sentences

IS'egative

254

256
.

Eelatives or Conjunctives

256
258

Other Conjunctives

Nature of the Eelative

259
to the

The Pronoun which Eefers


Conditional Sentences
Protasis and Apodosis

Antecedent

....

260
260

262

Inversion of the Verb and

Xoun

'...

263

On

Certain Involved

Forms
. .

of Expression

264
265

Exception.
1.

![

266
i_5j^

2.^i. and
3. lill,

266
li.1:^

iX,

and

267
267

Apposition
1.

Description
iN'ature of the Descriptive
.

268

269

Concordance of the Descriptive and the


2.

Noun

....

270
271

Simple Apposition
Particles

Employed in Forming the Apposition


,

....
.

272
273

3.

Corroboration

4. 5.

Apposition of Substitution

276 276
277

Explanatory Apposition

Admiration

............ .<.......,
WOIIDS.

SECTION III. THE PARTICLES AND INDECLINABLE

Particles

279

Certain Adverbs of
Pleonastic Particles

Time and Place

280
283

..*.<....,.<.

TABLE OF CONTENTS.

XVll
PAGB

Indeclinable
1.

Words
Expressions

Compound
tl-'Ul:^

283 984
285

2.
3.

Metonyma

Adverbs of Time and Place


of the Principles of Arabic

286
Syntax

Summary

287

PAET
Nomenclature

III.PEOSODY.

SECTION I. THE METRE.


291

Elements of wbich the Feet are Composed


Quantity
. .

292
293
*

.^

The Normal Feet

294
295

The

Circles

TheEirst

Circle iiUi:'^^

yj J

295

Diagram of the

Eirst Circle

297
297
298
298
299

The Second
Diagram

Circle,

(ai^^

vJ^

of the Second Circle


Circle.

The Third

L^L^UyJ J
Circle

Diagram of the Third

The Fourth

Circle,

<U^i.2U"Jjl J
Circle

299 300

Diagram of the Fourth

The Fifth

Circle,

jii^f ^JjMj

300
301
^^^

Diagram
Scansion

of the Fifth Circle

Variations of the Primitive Feet


1.

302

(_jl^Jji Deviation
{a) <S,Ai^TL_jU-j!ii
(J)

302
Simple Deviation
Deviation

302

^^3ulTijU-pi Compound

....
"

304

2,

iLii Defect

304

XVlll

TABLE OF CONTENTS.
PAOB

Tables Eepresenting the Variations of the Primitive Feet


First Foot,

307

^fi

307
308 308 309 309

Second Foot, ^J^\siy


Third Foot, ^^fLcll^

Fourth Foot,
Fifth Foot,

^\^

^ 9

^li
J^li^^

Sixth Foot, j^^U^ll^

310
311

Seventh Foot,

Eighth Foot,

Luif^*

312
313

The Metres
Tables Exhibiting the Different Metres
1.

314
314
315

Jj^'T^ The Long Metre


Examples of

Jj^f

2.

T=^c^,:^ A-'A^Ksr The Extended Metre


Examples
^O^ of ^.^X^-l
9

'"
318 319

3.

L^TJsT The Outspread Metre


Examples
of

322
323

'L.^M

4.

y ^pTJ^ The Exuberant Metre


Examples of Ji^jh'

326 327
330
331

5.

J^l(jTj:^ The

Perfect Metre

Examples of J^lill
6.

-jjfj:^ The

Trilling Metre
\

334
335

Examples of ^jA
7.

'S^y\%r The Trembling Metre


Examples of J:>^i

338
339

8.

J^^TpC

The Punning Metre


J'*^'^

342
343

Examples of
9.

^^tj^

The Swift Metre


*

346
.
. .

Examples of ^.j^\

347

TAELE OF CONTENTS.

XIX
PAOB

10.

^^~

_^I^TJ^ y

The Flowing Metre


-waL*J1

350
351

Examples of _
11.

...... .'

ujLJ^ ^^3^7 The


Examples of

Light or Easy Metre

354
355 358

u-g_g'^i

12.

^lj2fjl^ The

Doubtful Metre

Example
13.
(

of Cjl,J^^

358
360
.

*iii^Tj:^ The
of

Curtailed Metre

Example
14.

cl-Jju^t

., ."....
.

360

tj^c^l
Examples

,csr

The Docked Metre


.

362
363

of ^Jl^^u^'^X

15.

<

^J\k:^\ jsT

The Tripping Metre


.

366
'

Examples of ijj\ic^\

367

16.

t:J ,U":>2T
^
->

V.^ The

Consecutive Metre
*
i

370

Examples

of

C^j\S:^\

,.,,..

371

SECTION II. THE EHYME.


Different kinds of

Rhyme

,.<,......
;

373 373

Consonants of the cUjIj

.<.>........
.

Vowels of the
i_^^- Faulty
jc^ll
^'j!;-*

Xlilj

374
o75
375

Rhyme

............
............
Grammar
<*

Poetical Licence

APPEXDIX.
Glossary of Technical Terms used in Arabic
.

377
'i05

Index

'

ADDITIONS AND COEEECTIONS.

Page

12, line 25, /or

^^j

read

^\^

16,

17,

fata

fatan.

26, after line 7, add'.


different meanings, in

The same verb may have

which case

it

has

a different noun of action for each, as

<

j>.
^ ^
it

to fall prostrate,"
.

J}j^'

jiPage 45,

to rush

with a noise (water),"


:

jJ^.

after line 13,

add

This kind of quadriliteral verb

is

often onomatopoeic, and

is

formed

by a

repetition of the imitative sound,

as^^i^

to gargle," ^_^y^^

"to whisper."

Foreign nouns are also often employed in the formaa girdle," ji:^^'
to be girt."

tion of quadriliteral verbs, as (_p2:>^

The culJLs^,
ostensibly

or

derived quadriliterals,

in

the text,

are derived

from

triliteral roots.

Some

quadriliterals are formed from obsolete triliterals, as

S^
God

to

become a pupil," from


phrases in

j^

(Hebrew

'^^&>).

Others are formed from

common

use, as
i"j ^

qSa^^

to say

AiJ^

^^^^

praise be to

'*
;

(Ji^=- to say ^IlL> V\

J^^ ^
^1

" there

is

no strength and no power

but in God ;" J^ku^ to say

*.uj

in the

name

of God."

Page
There

47, to the first paragraph add:


is

another noun which resembles the agent in form, and

is

XXU
therefore
called

ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS.

J.rUJl

*~)Ij

<^-wi!U^l

tiLJl

the qualificative re,

sombliDg the agent noun."

It is of the measure J-tii

a3

^y
iJ^

"to be joyful,"
to drink,"

^y
.

"joyful." a drunkard."

t_-J^

Page

50, to the account of the


a

noun of time and place add

Adding

to this
-^

noun gives the sense of

abounding in," as J^i


'-

S^

'a lion," is'jurfU

*a place abounding in lions."

Page 53,
,jx3

to the list of

Nouns

of Excess add :

as

Jjj-

immense."
"thin."
hard."

J^
JUi

as

yis>-

sweet."

Jjti

J5j

^Is.--'

"brave."
merciful."

Jxi

L_-^
^

juj

(^l/.5>-j

The form

J^,

when

derived from hollow verbs,

is

frequently conr^f^^)

tracted, as c:-^r*

C'-^.-',^'*)

dead,"

l::-w*

j^

good,"

j^

in the last case

-:>- is

the form actually in use.

Page 64, in the heading


MEDIAL HEMZEH.

to second tabic, for initial

hemzeh, read

Page

94, line 22, to the

words

5.

J^ when
:

it

has the significait is

tion of J.cli," etc., add as afoot-note

This happens when


intensive.

derived

from a neuter verb, in which case

it is

Page 95,

line 3, for

c-jo^ and ^,f>y


the word

read

^y>j

and ^,fj'

1, to

Jj^A^ add (when

derived from transi-

tive verbs).
>j
>

">

>>

>>

>>

>>

>>

12,

jjcls

(when derived from neuter


verbs).

ADDITIONS AND COERECTIONS.

SXIU

Page
tain the
J\

95, line 28,

add

Feminine nouns of
as J^l:^^
it

this

form (J^li always con;

meaning of d-M j,
\^\

= jj^>- lUi J
cow

so in Kor.
etc."

ii.,

63,

(j^jli ^ iJo_

Verily

is

neither aged,

where

Page 99,

line

2,

for ^'j b

read >\j\b].

}>

!-'>

>>

j*^

>>

(-'

100, line 18, /or "for

^^ "

read " for ,^:J ."

146,

19,

"for^"

"for^."
"for ijj-"

20,
18,

"for J;i"

after orJl

father,'

"add

or Juj: servant of."

304,

1,

for -.^Jj^] read ^jJj^\


u
the addition of one letter to a foot of

306, lines 8 and 9, for

four letters," read

the addition of from one to four letters."


.^sPreac?

Pages 327 and 329, heading of the page,/or jy

ii

.sT

Page 332,

line

9,

/or ^^)xU:;,

rea^? jJ-^li::^.

>>

12 '-'J
2,

j>

,,

333,

,,

^jxiiwi*

,,

^^xA..

S
>>

^9
i

>>

c,

344, 348,

3,

jy^^^
(j:^b
j\^\i^ ^ ^

^i"^**
ci^li.

11,

365,

3,

jlfJb.

ARABIC GRAMMAR.
PART
SECTI0:N'

I.-ACCIDEi^CE.

L OETHOGEAPnY.
THE ALPHABET.
left.

(1).

The Arabs

write from right to

Their alphabet consists of twenty-eight


sonants.

letters, all con-

ARAEIC GRAMMAR.

ARABIC LKTTEKS.

THE ALPEABET.
c c
,

wlien medial and


-_

fijialj

change their form

slightly,

becominc; k and
(J/,

i_

when
,

initial

and medial, becomes


and medial, become

and C and

re-

spectively.
j^
t_f

when

initial

^^

-.

re-

spectively.
j,

when
when
^

initial

and medial, becomes ^ and ^


becomes a; when

re-

spectively.
^,

initial,
^,.

final

a.;

and when

medial

or

DETACHED.

ARAEIC GRAMMAR.

used as mimerals

iu their numerical order they exactly

correspond with the alphabetical (and also nnmcrical)


order of the

Hebrew

or Phenician alphabet,

and confol-

sequently of the Greek, as will be seen from the

lowing table
HKURKW.

CHRONOGEAMS.

The
thus

letters in their

numerical order are arranged in a

series of

meaningless words to serve as a memoria techniea^

This use of the

letters

as numerals

is

confined to
is

mathematical works and "chronograms;" that

to say,

words or sentences containing

letters

the

sum
more

of the

numerical value of which gives the date of any event


that

may be
as

required.

In order

to

be

still

easily

retained in the
verse,

memory

these are usually

woven

into

in the following

upon the accession of the

present Sultan of Turkey

Abdii'l

14-Ziz,

fortune smiles
!

upon him with might and happiness, by

tlio

grace of his Creator

On

the day of his accession the world holds festival in his liononr,

writing the date (in the words),


throne.''^

ou

it

he was estahlished on the


,

The sum
of the

of the numerical value of the letters contained

in the sentence

^fJ\ J^y^

makes up 1283, the date

Mohammedan

year corresponding with 18G6 of the

Christian era.

The Arabs

of Morocco arrange their letters in a slightly


:

different numerical order, thus

In ordinary transactions the Arabs make use of the


following cyphers borrowed from the Indian, and written

6
in precisely the

ARABIC GRAMMAR.

same manner as onr own,

i.e.

from

left

to right, the reverse of the Arabic writing

1234567890
\

e
e.g.

lAvr 1872.

OETHOGEAPHICAL
VOWELS.
(3).

SIGN'S.

The vowels and other orthographical


dhammah, and
a^ as

signs are

written above and below the letters.

The vowels

are
re/,

fethah, spectively
in ft.

in fat ;

JcesraJi^ pronounced u, as in full ; and


sigiis

as

Fethah, hesrah, and dTiammah denote the


hesr,

-^

while feth,

and dhamm denote the sounds

a, i, u.

These sounds are modified


;

by the hardness

or softness of the preceding consonants

like those of the

consonants, they can only be approximately rendered in English.

The

student must therefore learn the correct pronunciation of the language


orally.

TENWIN.
(4).

When the vowels are


an^

doubled, thus

4^, they are


This
is

pronounced respectively

un and

in.

called

%^^

tenwin, i.e.

"giving the n sound,"

The vowels thus


Jcesrahy

doubled are spoken of as tenwln fethah^ tenwin


tenwin

and

dhammah

respectively.

The
vowels.

tenwin or nasal vowels are intimately connected with the long

The

old Arabic, like

the Nabathean, seems to have declined its


this

nouns with long vowels, and

form

is still

preserved in the con-

ORTIIOGRAPniCAL SIGNS.

struct form of a few nouns expressing the most primitive relations of


life,

namely
father."

brother."

"mouth."
s

possessor."

Nominative
Genitive
Objective

y>\ abli,

^\
i^^
\s>~\

ahliu,

fu

(^^ famun), ^^^ dhu.

^J\

alt,

alch'i,

ijtf'h
Is

lJ'^

^^'^-

ul aha,

akhd,

fu,

dhd.

When

the word

is

indefinite,

and therefore pronounced without

reference to any other word, a certain stress will be laid on the vowel

which

indicates the declension; but

when
when

it is
it

either in construction

or defined

by the

article,

that

is,

is

mentioned only in

its

relation to another word,

the stress

is laid

rather on the

word
is

itself,

and the long vowel becomes consequently shortened.


apparent
as
if

This

at once fashion, etc.;

we

decline an English or Latin


mus<c,''
etc.,

noun school boy


to

mus,"

of a father,"

a father,"

but in the combinations


boy," the natural accent

musa Latinorum,"
falls

the father of the

on the words

musa" and

futher,"

while the case signs


shortened.

a, m,

or of, are to a certain extent neglected

and

This

is

exactly

wnat happens

in the declension of an Arabic noun,


is

the only difference being that in Arabic the change

expressed in

writing thus:

t_->li:^

Icifdbv^,

"a

book," lLnL* malihjfi, "of a king,"

but l1S\^* '-r'^^ KiTAm^ malikin, " the book of a king,"

the dropping

of the tenwin in these cases being equivalent to the shortening of the long
vowel.

From
its

this it follows that tcmv'm is the sign of the indefinite

noun, and
It

absence implies that the noun

is definite.

is also

worth observing, in confirmation of the above hypothesis,

that the regular plural forms are nothing more than a prolongation of
the terminations of the singular, as though the vowels were prolonged

ARABIC GRAMMAR.
imply an extension of the meaning: thus,

to

^J^J^ "a believer,"

is

declined
MASCULINE.
Singular.
Plural.
^

i 9

i-

Nom.
Genitive

\j^y* fnumtnun.
o
S-

^^x^y*
i

mli7nin(ma

9
9

^^y

muminm,

"

^ .

'%9 % ^

Objective \^^y* muminsio..

FEMININE.
IN'om.

Ai^y* muminoXxxn.

LU\:>^y muminkivm.
\
>

Genitive
Objective

^yy*
^
'

inuminaiiu.

't?

CL?\L.^ jwMmwatin.

i^^y mumm&tan.

CORRESPONDENCE OF THE VOWELS AND SEMI-VOWELS.


(5).

No

distinction appears to

have been originally

made

in Arabic

between the long and short vowels

indeed, the earlier Kiific writing

makes no use whatvowels, but

ever of the short

superscribed

employs

only the letters

^.

When
last

two or more long vowels

come

together, the tone would,

accentuation, fall

upon the

by the natural laws of but one, and that alone

would remain
shortened.

long, the others being either neglected or

Arabic

The process actually takes place in modern the word -s^-J'H* mafdtihu, for instance, is pro:

nounced ^xa^ mefatih

here the long a

is

shortened by
u,

the principle above advocated, and the short

having

already undergone the shortening process in the ancient

language,

is

in the

modern

dialect neglected altogether.

From

this it follows naturally that the short

vowels
^
i

^
t/.

correspond to the

weak

consonants or semi-vowels

In Arabic writing the long vowels are formed by a combination of the two
;

thus,

Ij

ha^ jj hu^

hi.

ORTHOGRAPHICAL

SIGNS.

HEMZEH
(C).

In endeavouring

to

pronounce a vowel without a

consonant,

we make

a distinct, though slight, effort with


:

the muscles of the throat

this the

Arabs represent by

hemzeh

and the long vowels accordingly become at the


it

beginning of a word

, j1 mi^

^\

eV,

<2,

w, z;^ ^

and

preceded by fetliali form diphthongs ^ hau (pronounced as

ow in now) and

^ hai (pronounced as y in hy).


MEDDAH.
\\

(7).

In the case of
thus
^

aa the second allf is written over

the

first

<^,

or T without the hemzeli^

and

is

called

meddah, "prolongation."

as in the

The long is sometimes pronounced like our a in face, word JJ^iW pronounced ennes ; this is called
\ ,

Imaleh^

i.e.

causing

it

to incline (to the

sound of kcsrah),

THE VOWELS AS SIGNS OF INFLEXION.


(8).

The vowels
-^ or

are used as terminations of inflexion

thus,
\

for the objective.


,,

of nouns,
e.g.

or

nominative or subjective.
genitive or dependent case.

or t^

They occur both


In nouns
t_-jlui

in the

moods of verbs and in the

cases

a book," nominative or suljective, in "whicli form alone

it

can act as agent to a verb.


'

The vowels used

in the translitcratiou of Arabic words throughout this

work arc

to be pronounced as iu Italian.

10
(^^\::^

AEABIC GRAMMAR.
genitive or dependent,

dependent on the pre-

ceding word,
bls^
ohjective,

expressing state or condition.

And

in verts
jxh^

he does"
that he

(active).

Jjtw

j^l

may do"

(conditional).

From

this it

would seem that some such

significations as action,

dependence, and objective state or condition lurk in the respective

vowels themselves.

Some

philologists

have supposed that the Arabic language was

origi-

nally monosyllabic.

If such were the case, the above suggestion as to

primary

signification of the

vowels will enable us to understand the


letters,

arrangement of ideas in Semitic languages in groups of three


or triliteral roots, corresponding with these vowels.

The
fj.xi

preterite passive in Arabic contains all three in proper order,


it

was done," expressing

an

action,

rr depending upon or

proceeding fi'om some one, -^ resulting in a certain condition,

JEZMEH", OR StIKUN.

(9).
1.

There are only two kinds of syllables in Arabic.


consonant with a short vowel, as
<-_>

ha.

2.

Two
In

consonants with a short vowel between, as


this case the

c:-^ hit

mark

-^ is placed over the last,


off."

and

is

called

siikun, "rest,"

orjezmeh, "cutting

A letter without

a vowel
Note.

is

called quiescent.
cannot come together; such a combiinadmissible
:

Two quiescent letters


l::^^
*

nation, for instance, as

bist is

the letters of pro-

longation are considered as quiescent.


^

In

spelling, the vowels are


(t
'-

always

named

after the consonants; e.g. c-_? hu-fethah,

ba";

<JL~^

Id-tdkcsrah,

bit" (not ba-Icesrah-td).

OETHOGEAPmCAL

SIGXS.

TESHDID.

(10).

When the article


it is

^! al precedes any dental, liquid,


it,

or siUlant letter,
itself is

assimilated with

and the

letter

JJ^I

doubled to compensate for the elision; thus we say ash-shcmsu, not al-shemsu. Like all other permuta-

tions of letters in Arabic (of


this is obviously

which I

shall speak presently),

merely a euphonic change.

Letters of this class are called

<Lw^^
They

^jj^'^ al-huriif

ash-shamsiyeh, "solar letters," because the

word

J^
lunar

"sun" begins with one

of them.

are just fourteen

in number, comprising; half the alphabet.


are called kj^^^

The remainder

^;j^^

cd-lmriif al-Jcamari7jeJi,

letters," for a similar reason.

The mark of reduplication is called ing," and is written thus ,


HEMZET EL-WASL
(11).

teshdld, "strengthen-

(sCO 6).

at

The Arabs cannot utter two consonants together but to the beginning of a word without a vowel
;

facilitate the utterance of the first

they employ a hcmzet

el-

wasl, or "point of conjunction": thus, the English word

"smith" in an Arab's mouth would become ^^L^| ismith. The heinzet eUvasl is important, not only in an orthographical, but in a grammatical point of view,

and must

therefore be treated of at greater length.

In many words the rule

for the formation of the

word

and

for the addition of the

vowel points, would bring two


beginning of a word in the
in all such cases the hcmzet
(as will

consonants together at

tlio

manner
cUvasl

just indicated,
is

and

employed.

Such cases are

be seen in
:

the rules for the conjugation of verbs) the following

12
(1 j.
(2).

Ar.ABIC

GRAMMAR.
simple
triliteral

The imperative The


preterite

of

tlie

verb

and verbal noun of the derived con-

ugations
(3).

VII X.
:

The following nouns


S-'O.
_

SO
jjJi

^.

ihiun, *ij j^ ihnamiin, a son.

(When

the

word

^\

occurs be-

tween two proper names the


iUjl ihnatun, a

alifi^ not written.)

daughter.

*-j)

ismun, a name.
istun, the anus.

'^

j^uj^ ithndni (masculine),

two ("numeral).
jM^:^^'

tthnatdni (feminine),

*-^i tmraun, a
.^1 iinraatun,

man.
a woman.
oaths.^

i"^

^^;^

aimnmm,

The

Jiemzet el-tvasl^ wlien following a vowel, is elided in

pronunciation, and the


alif to denote this fact
;

mark
thus,

tvaslah

' j1

is

placed over

tlie

uJ^Q

ihnu H-meliki. not

ihnu al-meliki.
sylhible

In y^\ and

lljj^

the vowel of the second

may

follow the pointing of the succeeding vowel

thus
^y^ :/*!?
*-j\j (*-f'i

c>^j J^J "*^^


P

'

^^

^
>

so^

J^^o

jaa rajulun wa'bnumun w'amruun


^
?

came
^ ^'^^ ^

o^^
ravca.
I

Vy^^^

^^1j

^^"^

''---^iL'

son

Raaitu rajidan w'ahiaman w'amraan

man."
' Passed by a
son

^*)j *^Mj

<J^y

'--tl/^

man

tmrartu hi-rajulin w'ahnimin w'amnin

a man."
but rather an

Strictly speaking the hemzeli should not


:

be written

m these words,

a/t/ with waslah, thus

...jI

wi

etc.

OETHOGRArHICAL

SIGNS.

13

Here
syllable,

it

will be observed that the


''

vowel of the second


a

which in the case of

Jo?-j

man " remains un-

changed, in the other two words varies with the final


vowel.

At
word
first
(3)

the beginning of a sentence Jiemzet el-tvasl

is

pro-

nounced

(1)

Wiili fethah

in the article

]}\

and in the

(j^t.

(2)

With dhammah
it is

in the imperative of the


is

form of verbs of which the aorist


all

of the form
liesrah.

Jjtl)

In

other cases

pronounced with

Sometimes the hemzet

el-tvasl

comes

after a letter

which

has no vowel, and in such cases the foUqwing rules must

be observed: (1) The quiescent

letter in the following

words takes the vowel fet/iah :


pronouns),

^ "from," ^
;

^^,

^^ "me,"

"my" (affixed

"witli," and the imperative


is,

of "doubled" verbs

that

of

which the 2nd and 3rd


(2)

radicals are alike, as j^ "extend."


syllables consisting of

All other monolast of

two consonants the

which

has no vowel, except


parts of a verb

wV-.

since," take kesra/i.

All those
last con-

which have no vowel on the


(3)

sonant take kesrah.

The

final letter of the

words

jJ

"since," j^ "you," "your," '^ "them," "their" (affixed pronouns), l:ut "you," takes dhammah. After a iemv'm the

hemzet el-wasl

is

pronounced with kesrah.

HEMZET
(12).

EL-KATA.'.

Hemzet

el-kafd^

"the point of disjunction, or


is felt is

hiatus" (because a hiatus

before the vowel intro-

duced by

it is

pronounced),

either a radical letter or


^^Ujt

a sign of inflection prefixed to verbs; as in

"I

act,"

where

it

denotes the
it is

first

person singular of the

aorist.

In such cases

of course not elided.


k>-1 akhuitu Hhija^

The words

*Up

"I

write out the

14
alphabet," contain
signs.

AEABIC GRAMMAR.
all

the short vowels and orthographical

The

learner

is

referred to the examples in reading

given at the end of this section, a perusal of which will


render him familiar with
of the letters.
all

the possible combinations

Hemzet
written T;
sentence,

el-tvasl^

when but when it


written
is

following a vowel or temvm, is


stands at the beginning of a
i.

it is

t , 1 u^ \

Hemzet el-katd

always written in

full 1.

When

the
-f-

latter occurs in the

middle of a word, and introduces

dhammah
is

or

kesrah^ the alif^

which serves

as its prop,

changed into the semi-vowel analogous

to the short

vowel; as '^y* mu'-minun^ "a believer,"

L:u^L>-

"I came."

When
it

is so

used, the dots are omitted, to distinguish

from the

letter of prolongation.

THE PAUSE.
(13).

The

final short

vowels are dropped in pronuncia;

tion at the

end of a sentence

thus ^:^)\

J^}^ ^\
;

*-^

Bismi
I
,

HldJii

Wrakmdni Wralim, not .....


s

''rralnmi.

with or without temum^ becomes

in the pause

as

iU^ ijLi'Xs^^
dhammah t^
becomes

pronounced jd-at rahmah.


are dropped; as

Temvm
and
jjJj

kesrah and

aj

'l:>-

cij^, ^xq-

nounced j'd'a Zeid and marartu hi-Zeid) but temvin fethah


{
I
,

as IjjJ

<.::^f\jj

pronounced
nun^

ra'aitu Zeidd.

The

single emphatic

which

is

sometimes added

to the imperative

and

aorist of verbs, also

becomes
Ij

T; as

-iU pronounced at the end of a sentence

Jl idhrihd.
Sj

Words
<2 kill

of one letter

add

in the pause; as

rah and

for J ra

and j ku

ANOMALIES IN WRITING.
"Words like ^li, in
wliicli

15

the temvm Jcesrah stands for

a 1^ which has dropped out, reject the temvm in the pause


as

^Uj

cL^'i^,

pronounced marartu

hi-Jcadh.

ANOMALIES IN WRITING.
(14). Arabic is

pronounced as

it is

written, except in

the Pause, as mentioned above, and in the following instances


(1)
:

The

niin ^j in the following

words

is

not written, but assimilates


it.

with the

first letter

of that immediately succeeding

^J^
j^l

and

^ when

followed by

U, become U^,
^,

Ujs.
^'^

becomes

1 j^l or

(2)

An

alif

is

written but not pronounced


;

(1)

After ivaw,

when
also

that letter terminates a verbal form

as

V r*
As

dharahii.

This
;

is

occasionally found in the construct form of a plural

noun

as S:

\^ \j>
;

dhdrihu Zeidin,
as iJjj Zeiddn.
<(

the strikers of Zeid."

(2)

a prop to tenwin fethah

(3) In the words ^\^, ^^ycjv^, miatun, imatdni,


^

"a

hundred,"
(3)
uld'i,

two hundred."
J
is

wmo

written but not pronounced in uXiljl uUlJca, ^l.l


;

jJjl ula,

those

" in the direct and oblique case of .^^kc (nomi;

native ^j^^^, pronounced lAmrun


to distinguish it

oblique j^.^., pronounced ^in),

from

,as.

'Omar.
:

(4)

Alif

is

pronounced but not written in the following words

i^\ alldhu, "God,"


maluilcatnn,
^
*'

ar-Rahmdnu, "the merciful (God)," iX^L* ^^>-J^ angels," cul^^^-: samdwdtun, " licavcns," tliCj dhdlilca,
''

f'

'

-
'.

"

"that,"

(-!-C!_jl uldilca,

"those,"

liU

(fern. lj^Jj thaldthun),

"three,"

^yij thaUthuna,

"thirty,"

Idkinna,

"but,"

\si> hddlia, "this,"

'

16
Jt^j>j

AEABIC, GEAMMAE.
Ahraham," ^xa,^]^

IhrdMmu,

Ismail,

Ishmacl,"

i^-'l Ishdhi,

Isaac," and sometimes in the proper

names (^Is

'Otimidn,

,^r*r^

Sulaimdnu,

^^f*J^

Nomdnu.

In this ease a small alif is generally written


it is to

perpendicularly above the consonant with which


(5)

The Hornet
<Uj1 *<uJ

phrase

II
Jijj
;

be pronounced.

el-wasl is omitted

(1)

from the word j^\ in the


\

for ^U) *:V lismilldhi,

in the

name

of God."

j^i

when

it

occurs between

two proper names where a

correlation exists;

as jj-Kc.

Zeidu'bnu Sdmrm,

Zeid son of Amr."

If

e'Jw

with the
el-

second proper

name forms
as
r-^^^

the predicate of a proposition, the hemzet


^..^i

tvasl is retained

<^j Zeidiin Ihnu M.)nrm,

Zeid

(is)

the son

of

Amr."

(2)

In the

article

jl when following

J
J

"to," as i^u-J'^

to the

man."
TT^ae^
.

(6)
((
.

is
^

omitted from such words as


^
^^
It

t-^i

JDd^ud, for t-^j'^

David ;"

(jwujj

Ru-us, for ^^wjjj

heads."

(7) 1^ pointed with fethah or tenw'in fethah at the


silent,

end of words
he

is is

the vowel

a only being pronounced


a youth,"
near,"

as ^^Ji, yardhd,

pleased,"

^zi

fata,

^^^

maid,

when?"

jglj laid,

cer?',

tainly," ti'Jo

/(/a,

^\

ild,

to," ic^^^- ^<^a,

until," ^L:^

upon."
s
(8)

wdw

is

pronounced as

alif in

^ ., i^;^>\

Urn

s
"

I \

haydtun,

life,"

i^J^

saldtun,

prayer," iij zaMtun,

alms,"

when

these words are in the


or having

singular and stand

by themselves, not being in construction


;

the article or a pronoun affixed


is

when

not standing by themselves alif

generally written instead of wdw.

(15.)

EXAMPLES FOR PEACTICE IN EEADING.


y
9

%hi

sa

zii

ri dha

du

khi

ha

ju

ihi

ya hu wa

ni

ma

lu

Tea

hi

fii

ghi

a dhu

ti

^ha

su

EXAMPLES FOR PRACTICE IN READING.

17
jl

^^
ri

b
dhd

_jJ

^^
M}.

bhd

^
ju
'd

^
ihi

b
td

y
la

u?l

^\
i

jl

dk

ai

au

md

lu

led

k'l

fii

ghj-

^(i

i'l

dhd

su

shi

sd

zu

yd

yu.

hit

wi

wai wd

ni

S^
mudh

js
sar

-Li

Jci.

ki
ka{

^j
ruh

^
haj

Ow"

tJ-^v^

ij:-^

c:-^
fut
c?

i_--J

kd

Unidk

had
o^x

mit
c>^

lit

tab

<

ox
u^.

ux
u*"^
das

v^
j'^

r^

jj
zur

saf

kam

lal

dur

i,

-^1

xo<*0

O-^

OXC-^

X-CJ "^O

tva'Udhi

fi ^l-haydti

dlaihi

fi U-liarhi

fi 'z-zamdni

linndsi

lil'haydti 'd-dunyd

lalittu ila ^l-yaumi lilluhi

xOx ^o-o

''

O X

tca-kadha 'lldhu hdda dhdha ^jtimd'a

Bi-al'i

man wadattuhufaftaraknd

And after that God


ing,

decreed a meet-

(May) he
ed)

by

whom I love (be ransommy father we parted,


!

Z;dw0 taslhnuhu dlaiya

wadda

fa^ftaraknaliaiilanfalammaHtakaind

His (only) salutation


Farewell!"

to

me was

Wc

were parted
met,

for a year,

and

when we

18

AEABIC GRAMMAR.

/cat?

raha yalcfuru hi W-Eahmdni tak-

wa-jdhilin yadddiji 'l-ilmifalsafatan

lidd

"Went and denied the existence of


the Merciful

An

ignorant fellow, pretending to

God

dogmatically,

the science of philosophy,

dnaita nafsaha mdkulan

wa-mdkudd

wa-kala arifu mdkulan fa-kuUu lahu

" You mean that you yourself are


hobbled fmdkulanj and fettered
!

And

said,

know

that

it is

so

by

common-sense /'wiaMZfl?^/" Then


I said to him,

flraX-rt!

takrau haban dnJca masdudd

min aina ania wa hddha


tadhlcuruhu

's-shai'u

I see that you are knocking at a


door which
is

"What have you to do with this


thing which you mention?

shut against you."

fa-kultu lastu Sulaimdna 'bna Ddudd

fa-kdla inna

Icaldm'i lasta

tafhamuhu

And

I said,

"l am

not Solomon,
,

Then

said he,

"Tou

do not undcr-

the son of David

!"

stand

my

speech.''

This

may be

paraphrased as follows

I lately found,

A foolish
Said he,

Atheist,

whom

Alleged Philosophy in his defence


' The arguments I use are sound." " Just so," said I, " all sound and little sense,

" Tou talk of matters

far

beyond your reach

You're knocking at a closed-up door," said I, Said he, " You do not understand my speech." " I'm not King Solomon !" was my reply.
Alluding to the

Mohammedan

legend that Solomon understood the language of beasts.

THE MEASUEES OF WORDS.

19

SECTION

II. ETYMOLOGY.

THE MEASURES OF WORDS.


(IG),

Every Avord

in Arabic

may be

referred to a sig-

nificaut root, consisting of either three or four letters, the


triliterals

being by far the more common.

The

letters (_J

and

c_j, c_;

and

^,

cJ and ^, cJ and

cannot, for obvious cuplionic reasons^ exist side


in the

bv

side

same

root.

In Euroj^ean languages significant roots are irregular


in form, prefixes

and the grammar of those languages and


affixes,

treats only of

by which the meaning

of the root
e?^

is

modified.

Thus

in English

we add

the termination

to

express the active participle or agent of a verb, and m(j to

express the infinitive or gerund

as make, maker, making.

In Arabic, however, such modifications are obtained not


only by prefij^ing or affixing, but by inserting letters in
the root.
Jxi fdl^ signifying mere action^
is

taken as the

typical root for exhibiting these modifications,

and the

formulcc thus obtained are called the "measures of words."

For instance, the insertion of an

allf

between the

first

and second

radical,

and pointing the

latter

with the vowel

kesrah^ gives the sense of the agent or active participle

thus
the

3j^

becomes Jxli ''one who does," and


all

tliis

Avord

is

measwe upon which

other agents of this kind arc

formed.
It
is,

in fact, a

mere formula,

like the letters used

20
in AlgeBra or
;

ARABIC GRAMMAR.
for as (a

h)

may

represent (2

3),

(4

+ 5),

any

otlier

numbers, so for the

triliteral root

J.^ in J^li

we may

substitute

any other

triliteral root
;

and obtain the

same modification of meaning

as

" a striker." <lJj^ dharhm, "striking," cL^^.U

3^
where
i1j^}J>

katlun, "killing,"

Jj'^

"a

murderer."

and

^jIj are said to

be the 3^1j of the

re-

spective triliteral roots to

which they belong.

ROOTS CONTAINING SEMI-VOWELS.


(17).

The

triliteral root

may

contain one or more of the


\

weak consonants

or

scmi-vowols

^ in

which case
These

certain euphonic and other changes will take place.

changes are called the Permutations of weak consonants,

and depend upon the principle above advocated that the three weak consonants ^ ^^ are respectively homogeneous
\

to the tliree vowels -^^^.

When

the vowel and

weak

consonant in any derived form are heterogeneous, the

vowel changes the weak consonant into another weak


consonant analogous to
itself.

To understand how a vowel can change one weak consonant into another analogous to itself, when we should
rather have thought that the consonant would be stronger

than the vowel,

we must

investigate the nature of the

'^measures" above described.


If,

instead of the three radical letters of a significant


*
i,

root

we

substitute the signs (i) (2) (3),

and then

proceed to form "measures" of nouns and verbs in the

THE MEASURES OF WOEDS.


ordinary manner,
following

21

we

sliall

obtain such results as the

22

ARABIC GRAMMA R.
I have before suggested that the old Arabic had no

short vowels

the last form, therefore, must originally


falling;

have been LJ, and the natural accent


penultimate would leave that alone
long,

on the

while the ante-

penultimate would be absorbed, and the word become


as

Jj

we

actually have

it.

In the 3rd person preterite active of the same verb Jli


the two
fetlialis

conquer the j.

In the 1st person

(.IJli

the long J being quiescent conquers, and the accent falling on it, it becomes ci-Sy but this is naturally shortened
;

in pronunciation, aiid the rule holds that


letters

two quiescent

cannot come together.


:

This, then, is the general principle of permutation

When
to
it

a vowel and a

weak

letter

which

is

not analogous

come together in a form, the ordinary laws of


yield,

euphony require that one should


vowel conquers:
e.g.

and in Arabic the

The measure JUj^, from ^\t, "would be ^'^y*i and the measure
Jsxi^, from
jj, would be
^.

-^'^

but ^'ij'*
therefore

miwzumm and

^j>4;^*

muijkinun are repugnant

to the ear,

and

become ^jry^ mudfiun

and

(.t^v*

muktnun,

A permutation of
takes place;
is

other than
instance,

weak

letters occasionally letters

as, for

when two

which

it

impossible to pronounce together occur in the same


;

form

then the softer of the two

is

changed into the cor-

responding hard one.

This can only take place in dental

or pcdahil letters, for they are the only ones in

which

such a difficulty

is

likely to arise
Jv'cil iftadla

e.g.
''*?

Forming the measure

from the root

we

should

ASSIMILATION.

23

have L-jj^\ idhtarala


as the soft
t

this,

however, would be unpronounceable, and


t \s,

CLi will actually sound like the hard


'"

the latter

is

-^ \-^

written instead, and the form becomes w_J,l:;jt

Another euplionic change of which


ccptible is

letters

are suc-

ASSIMILATION.
(18).
is

One

letter is often assimilated

by another, which

then doubled.

This naturally occurs

when

the same

letter is repeated
ju^

without the intervention of a vowel, as


;

for jjc^

maddim

or

when two

letters of the

same

kind come together, as ^J,^* makatta for cl-iC* maJcathta,


although this
last
is

kind of assimilation

is

optional.

RemarJc it

obvious that in practice cases will oc-

casionally occur for

which the foregoing rules will not

at first sight entirely account.


is,

The
it

principle involved
is

however, always the same, for

the operation of

the natural laws of euphony which produces every such

change.

Instead, therefore, of burdening the student's

memory with

a long

list

of

7'iiles

for

Permutation and

Assimilation, I shall content myself for the present with

the 'principle just given, reserving the consideration of the


less obvious

permutation for cases in which they occuiv

24

ARABIC GRAMMAR.

sectio:n' III. parts


(19).

of speech.

The parts of speech in Arabic are three : 1. The Verb. 2. The Noim (including the pronoun and adjective, and what we are accustomed to call the participle). 3. The Particle (including the preposition, adverb, conjunction,

and

interjection).

THE VEEB.
(20).

An

Arabic Verb with

its fifteen

conjugations, its

active
etc.,

may

and passive voices, subjunctive and energetic moods, well seem a formidable thing for a beginner to
shall,
it

encounter.

We
which

however, see that the multifarious phases


all

can assume are

capable of being reduced to

a few measures easily remembered, as they depend more


or less one

upon another, and are intimately connected

both in sense and form.

DIFFERENT KINDS OF VERBS.

Arabic Yerbs are of two kinds, sound and

zvcalc.

These are further subdivided into


active

transitive

and

neuter,

and passive.
three letters

They are either simple or augmented. The simple verb cannot contain less than
or

more than
It

five.

one

may happen that in conjugating, all the letters but may disappear, so that a simple form may seem to
letter, as in

have been one

i^

ti,

the shortened form of

L^l

Ui,

from

^]

atdj

"he came."

THE SERVILE lETTEES.

25

The augmented verb


certain other letters.

is

fonned either by repeating the

second or third radical, or by employing one or more of

The

letters thus

employed

to

augment or conjugate
servile^

verbs and inflect nouns are called

and are con-

tained in the last three words of the foUowincj verse


^
"Ci

-O

P Pl --O

i^'s-

I asked the servile letters concerning their

name

they answered,

and did not he: J^,.wJj j^ti

{i.e.

safety

and ease)."
letters

It

may

also

happen that some of these

occur as

radicals in a verb, but in such a case nothing save a

knowledge of the grammatical measures


student to discriminate.

will enable the

We
or

are accustomed to speak of the

first,

second,

and

third radical letter of a triliteral verb as the ._J fd^

c auiy

lam respectively.

PARTS OF THE VERB.


(21).

The Arabic Yerb has two voices, active and


;

passive

three tenses, preterite, aorist, and imperative

fifteen conjugations.

These

last,

however, are nothing


root

more than derived verbs formed from the simple


the sense.

by

the addition of certain letters which modify or extend

The noun which expresses the simple


sidered as the source,

action

is

con-

JI^* from which


,

all

derived forms,

whether nouns or verbs, arc taken, as


''striking;"

cl^

dharhim,

and

this occasionally supplies the place of the

26
infinitive or gerund,

ARABIC GRAMMAE.

which parts of the verb are wanting

in Arabic.

Note. As

this

noun

of action

is

variable in form,

it

has

been found convenient in practice

to treat the third person


all

singular masculine as the form from which


derived.

others are
all

This

is,

therefore, the

form under which


dictionaries.

words are ranged in grammars and

TENSES OF VERES.
*

THE PEETEKITE.
is

(22).

In simple verbs the preterite active

of the form

Jxi, Jxi, or J-o.

The
The
Fem.

preterite passive is invariably of the

form 3*i

Persons are formed as follows


DUAL.
Fem.
Maso.

TLUllAL.
Masc,

SINGULAR.
Fem.
Masc.

l::-^^

Jlxj

3rd person.

twiixj

l::-^^

L::->Ui

2nd
1st

L::-Jjti

\Note.

The

^
,

o
,

terminations

c:^

l::-^

C--

etc.,

are in reality-

separate pronouns serving as nominative or agent to the verb.

Again,

in the third person singular masculine, a masculine pronoun is said to

This paradigm applies equally to the forms Jjti, Juii, and to the passive

Ui,

which arc declined in the same way


u:.,J-i

^.jL-^M

Ui

<

''l

TIIE TENSES

AND MOODS OF VERBS.


to the affixes

27

be implied.

The same remarks apply

and prefixes by

which the persons of the

aorist are formed.]

THE AOEIST.
(23).

The

aorist active of the simple verb is

formed as

follows
PLURAL.

28

ARABIC GRAMMAE.

persons which end in that letter preceded

by a long

vowel, thus:
PLURAL.
Fern.

DUAL.
Fern.

SINGULAR.
Fem.
Masc.

Masc.
9 9i^y

Maso.

^C cox

f^xs3

JjtaJ

Srd person.

iUii-

L^

.Jjtij

J.XSJ

2nd
1st

>

2.

It

gether

may be apocopated, i.e. lose its last vowel altowhen preceded by certain particles, or used as an
be declined
DUAL.
Fem.
Masc.
P P'^^

imperative, or in a conditional or alternative sentence.


It will then
PLURAL.
Fem. ^^ 9 ^ ^
Masc.

SrVQULAR.
Fem.
J-xiJ
Maso.

(J-^l Srd person.

^O

.'O^

9 9

o^

Ldi-

L5

^^'

Jotii"

2nd
1st

Wl
To the
conditional form of the aorist a nun
|t,",

either

single or doubled

and preceded hj
:

fetJiahj is

some-

times added to impart emphasis


this tense is

it is

chiefly used

when

employed as an imperative.

It is then de-

clined as follows
1
.

With
PLURAL.

the doubled nun '^.

THE TENSES AXD MOODS OF VEEBS.


2.

29

With
PLURAL.

the single 7im

J.

Fein.

Masc.

"Wanting

,ji^.

30

AEABIC GRAMMAE.
letter,

word beginning with a quiescent


inadmissible.

and therefore
a hemzet
,

To remedy

this defect

we add

el

wasl pointed with

J^\
^'^\

if the vowel of the aorist be if the vowel is either or as Jjel but with
,

as

or

The remaining persons


to the

of the imperative are formed


aorist, as

by prefixing J
_

apocopated

C^^^, "let him

strike."

Imperative.
PLURAL.
Fern.

Masc.

DUAL. Common.

SmGULAR.
Fcm.
Masc.

h6\

L5

FORMS OF SIMPLE VERBS.


(26).

There are six classes of verbs in Arabic, ranged


is

according to the vowels with which the medial radical

pointed in the preterite and

aorist.

FORMS OF SIMPLE VERBS.


MEASURES.
Aorist.
Preterite.

31

EXAMPLES.
Aorist.
Preterite.

4.

_j^L to rejoice.

,i

to understand.

to be safe.
/>^o^
,;>^

5.

Jxl;

Jaj
9 9
<^

(__J^ to be charming.
^

^\^

to

bo easy.
is

This form imj^lies natural or inlierent qualitieSj and

always neuter or intransitive.


c*

6.

\.xsj

(>i
is

to reckon.

This form
verbs;
as,

rare in sound but

common

in

weak

<^jl

cl.J^(j

to inherit.

j^V.

1J3

^o

^^ near.

Some verbs have

different forms,

and may take any one

of the three vowels on the middle radical of the preterite

with a corresponding difference of meaning


To be
sad.

e.g.

jAdepress.

To be
To

cultivated.

j^5^ To sadden,

^J

raise.

jA- To cultivate, build, people.

^J To have a high (loud) voice.

j^

To

live to old age.

THE NOUN OF ACTION.


(27).

The noun

of action corresponds in

many

respects

to our infinitive.

In simple verbs

it is

irregular in its

formation, but the following arc the most usual measures

32

AEABIC GRAMMAE.

1st,

2nd, and 3rd Classes.

Transitive J-xi

Neuter Jyi

MEASURES.

SIGNIFICATION OF THE DERIVED FOEilS.

33
transitive

1.

Adding one

letter to the root,

which in

verbs strengthens or intensifies the action/ and in neuter verbs imparts a transitive sense.
2. 3.

Prefixing

clj to

imply "consequence" or "effect."

Adding two

or

more

letters to the root to

modify

the original meaning.


4. Distorting

the original form of the root as well as


it.

adding

letters to

This implies a corresponding

distortion of the meaning, and indicates either


colour, defect, or intensity.

The simple
2, 3,

triliteral

verb

is

considered as the

first

conjugation, and the fourteen derived forms are

numbered

and

so on,

up

to 15.

In the following account of

the signification of the derived forms these numbers are

placed against the measures, but they are described in a

somewhat

different order.

SIGN"IFICATIOIT OF

THE DEEIYED FORMS.

FIRST GROUP (adding ONE LETTER TO THE ROOT).


4:th

Conjugation^ J^sT.
cl Jcatd to

(20).

The

prefix of hemzet

the root gives a

transitive sense to neuter verbs,

and a doubly transitive


transitive.

or causal sense to those


1

which are already


of the

It

is

commonly received theory

Arab grammarians that a " redundancy


-it's-

of form generally indicates an extension of meaning," O-^ yy-^y ^ y yl^^L,-> y y -i, y <J ^
'

^
's.

"-V

^-^

See Es-Sheikh Hasan el-Burini in his commentary upon Ibn el-Faridh's verse
\^yy^y

i^

t^'Ci-^

yy
->'i3

ju^

f^

y y

(^

'^

c -o

-i-^

^> ^f:\

^^\

A_^...

^..,i liL-^-i^

^.)\

c^oU

34

ARABIC GRAMMAR.

The

following are the most usual significations


;

3p1 "lie caused to descend," from 3JJ '4o descend;" CJ^\ "he caused to strike,"
Transitive or causal
as

irom

L-jja.
to,

Going
to 'Trak."

or

making

for,

a place

jy^t " he went

This will explain such forms as 3?*^ "^le ad-

vanced;" ^jt

"he

retreated."
for sale,"

Exposing or displaying: ^Ol "he exposed


from
?l?

"to

sell."
;

Turning into
desert."

as

J^jV\ Lp/i\

"

The land became

Being or becoming
in the morning
;

at a certain time; as

^^\J\

"he was

" ^^^\ " he was in the evening."

A transitive
this

verb occasionally becomes intransitive in


fell

form; as

C^\ "he

prone," from

Z<>

"he throw

him on

his face."

Ind

Conjugation^ Jxi.
intensifies the

Doubling the middle consonant


of the root,

meaning
Its

and makes

it,

if

neuter, transitive.

most

usual significations are


Transitive; as
in front."
^^ji

"he

sent forward," from ^li "to be

Intensive or frequentative; asjll "he broke to pieces,"

fromjli"

"he broke;"

pieces," from

^\
cut."

c^-rki

"I

cut the rope in

"he

Attributing

to,

regarding

as,

or

making out

to

be

as

jlS "he
^
-jj

looked upon him


as,

as,

or proved him, truthful;"

>

L_?j^

"he regarded him

or proved

him

a liar."

THE DERIVED CONJUGATIONS.


This form
j,!i-

35

used in deriving a verb from a noun ; as " a tent ;" j1^ "to ''he pitched his tents," from I^IL
is

skin," from jIp-

"a

skin."
identical with that of the English
;

This use

is '^almost

verb formed from a noun

as

to

water, to sldu, to peel, etc.

ord

Co7ijugaiion,

^}s.\i.

The

insertion of alif

between the

first

and second
;

radicals gives
''he fought,"

an idea of reciprocity
^iL-

to the action

as

Jj'Ij

from

''he killed ;" 4;jli

"he fought with


of a second

blows," from CJj^

"he

struck."

The notion

party

who

reciprocates the action is always implied.


;

It sometimes implies repetition

as t-jLtU

'

he doubled,

but

is

sometimes used to express simple action; asyL,

"he

travelled."

The form jll: would mean "he

Avi-ote

book," or

"he

disclosed."

When

the original verb requires a preposition to


the 3rd conjugation
;

make

it transitive,

may be
as ^
letter."

used in the
" he wrote

same sense without the preposition


to

CJ^

him;"

Z:l^

"he addressed him by

SECOND GROUP (ADDING TWO LETTERS).


^th Conjugation, jkaj.
This,

by the

prefix of cls, expresses the consequonco


;

of the
jlft5

2nd conjugation 3-^


so

as ^ys

"he brought forward;"

"he was

brought forward."

From

this sense

comes that of experiencing or


afraid,"
i.e.

ac-

quiring; as LlJiV^

"he was

he was affected

36

ARABIC GRAMMAR.

with the fear with which others inspired him," from cl-^ "to inspire with fear;" ^(i "he grew proud," from

^ 2ud conjugation from ^I;^ "pride."


When
will

the original root

is

a concrete noun, this form

imply simply adopting or employing; as sly "he

reclined his head on a pillow," from

Z^ 2nd

conjugation

(from fjll)

"a

pillow."

^th Conjugation^ J^ul-.

This
cu)
,

is

formed by prefixing to the 3rd conjugation JIlS

implying consequence, with the same results as in the


3j"'^"

6th conjugation; thus

"li

^^^^^

one of the parties


jili

engaged in a fight between two," from


tion of (3^

3rd conjuga-

This prefix of

cls to

forms which signify reciprocal

action, necessarily limits the idea of reciprocity to one of

the two parties concerned.


one, JjU*

Thus,

if it

be said of any
to a distance,"

"he fought,"

or SzIj

"he removed

the other party to such reciprocal action will become

^Cj
it

"removed

to a distance,"

and

Jj'115

"fought against;"

follows, therefore, that the former will have an active

sense, while the latter will

be passive

but passive only

inasmuch as

it is

consequent on the other.


is

The

sense of feigning

sometimes contained in this


It appears to
:

form; as J=Jl^' "to feign

illness."

come

somewhat in the following manner

A hypothetical

form

^^j^ must
ill,"

have existed, which in such a word

as this, from Ji.-

"to be

can only

mean

that his illness


this, again,

was

merely for the sake of affecting a second party, and

could

THE DERIVED COXJUGATIOXS.


only

37

mean

that he displayed

it to

deceive another, and the prefix i

limiting the consequence of such action to himself, j^^sjUJ will that he


effect

mean

was one who was


i.e.

afflicted

with

illness in order to

produce an

upon another,

he assumed

illness.

^itli

Conjugation^ jilsU
tlio

This conjugation expresses

state or condition reJ(xi


;

sulting from the action of the simple triliteral verb


as a.^^

"I cut

it;'"

^'i^\ "it was cut."

It is necessarily

neuter or passive in signification.


8//^

Conjugation^

Jj;jt-^i\.

This does not

differ materially

from the 7th conjugation,

the only difference being that while the last indicates the
state or condition resulting from, or exhibits the effects

of the action of the simple triliteral verb, the 8th conju-

gation conveys the notion of being affected by the action


as 'icjf^ ''I collected it;"

L^^\

"it was feathered to-

cether, or

was in a

collected state."

From

this idea of

"being in a

state

of" the form

obtains a reflexive

meaning; asj-^j^ "ho made bread

for himself;" lI-1^^


profit."

"he took

to a trade, or to

gaining

In

this

way
;

it

approaches sometimes in meaning to Joe

and

J^ll^

thus

we

can say cIjI^ or tl?!^^] " he drew;"


?>

\J%^\^ or

\J*.^^:^\

"tliey disputed.'

9th Conjugation, ^^M

The form
is,

of

noun used

to express a colour or quality

as

we

shall presently sec, J.l; the 9th conjugation

38
appears to
"be

ARABIC GRAMMAR.

formed from

this

by doubling
it

tlie last

con-

sonant to imply action, and thus making

into a verb.

The

licmzet el katd,

being a characteristic letter in the


is

formation of derived conjugations (see 4th conj.),


chansred to the hcmzet
el wasl.

here

This form

is

used to express any quality which


as,

is

very

conspicuous, especially colour or distortion;

y^^\ "to

be red," fromj^! "red;" iljlL\ "to be hump-backed," from (Ij^y "a hunch-back."

THIRD GROUP (aDDING THREE LETTERs).

10 th Conjugation, Jjtk-jU
This conjugation implies asking or seeking, asyxu-^

"he asked pardon."


Finding or considering a thing to be possessed of the
attribute implied in the original verb, as lii^^j, " to consider grand or mighty."

From

the sense of "desiring" comes that of "desiring

to be," ^jX^\

"he was

proud," "desh-ed to be thought


into, as

great," and hence

becoming or turning

^^y^^-^M
i.e.

"The
to

clay began to turn into stone," or "petrify,"

become stone-hard.
11//^ Conjugation,

jl*.j^^.

This

is

of very rare occurrence,

and

is

merely an ex-

tension of the 9th conjugation ^^M^ both in form and


signification
;

e.g. ^ll^^

" to be very yellow."

The

inser-

tion of the

may, as in the 3rd conjugation, convey some

THE TENSES OF THE DEEIVED CONJUGATIONS.


idea of reciprocity, and
jll^J^

39 be of

may

therefore

mean

to

a brighter yellow colour than other things of the kind.

12th Conjugation, J^^^U

13//^ Conjugation, Jj-^j^.

These imply great intensity, as ^T^lji^^ "to be very


rough and rugged," from

^A^
;

"to be rough."

The grammars give two other forms


tion jjil^l
,

14th Conjuga-

and

5th

^^^\

but these are very rare, and

may be
which

regarded as varieties of the quadriliteral verb, of

I shall speak further on.

ITo verb is susceptible of all these forms ; those in use


will depend

upon the nature

of the original verb,

and

it

must be

left to practice

and the common sense of the

stu-

dent to distinguish which

may

or

may not be

employed.

THE TENSES OF DEEIVED FORMS.


(1)

THE PEEXEEITE.

(30).

The 3rd person

singular masculine of the preterite


last section.

has been already discussed in the

The

re-

maining numbers and persons are formed as in the simple


triliteral

verb; as jli, cJlis, ulAii,


(2)

etc.

THE AOBIST.

The

aorists of derived
:

forms arc pointed according to

the following rules

The vowel
flection,

of the final radical


is

is

a termination of in-

and
it is

affected

by

particles or other governing


of,

words

therefore independent

and accidental

to,

the measure, like the case-endings of a noun.

40

AEABIC GRAMMAR.

In derived verbs consisting of four


take dhammah

letters the prefixes


is

and

the last radical but one

pointed

with kesrah , thus

4.

THE TENSES OF THE DERIVED COXJUGATIONS.


have
also the fiual radical

41

doubled in the preterite, sup-

press the hemzeli^ but do not otherwise change the vowels


until the last
;

as
Aorist.

Preterite.

11.

JUi^jSUip

jUij[J_,l^;], JUi)-,etc.

(3)

THE IMPERATIVE.
is

The imperative

of the derived forms

formed like

that of the simple verb, namely, from the aorist,

by

re-

moving the pronominal


vowel; as
3.

prefix,

and apocopating the

final
^^ijli

Jjli

"he

fought," ^all; "thou fightest,"

"fight thou."

As
if
it

in the simple verb, too, a hcmzet el wasl

is

prefixed,

he necc^mry to the prommciation ; as

42

ARABIC GEAMMAE.

THE NOUN OF ACTION.


(31).

The Nouns

of Action of the derived conjugations


;

are regular in their formation


gi'oups, thus

they

may be ranged

in

TABLE OF THE DERIVED CONJUGATIONS.

43

(32). TABLES OF

THE DEPJ^^ED CONJUGATIONS.


ACTIVE.

Preterite,

Aorist.

Imperative.

Noun of Action.

FERST GKOXTP.

One
2.

letter

added to the root.


radical, express9
)

Doubled

>-

ex

s -^ ox
or iUjtiJ

4.

ing action or intensity Prefixed alij, expressing


action

)^i
c
c

J^^*

J>*il
9

3.

Inserted

expressing reciprocity or emulation


alif,

^C

.Uli L/^

JUi or LL:li.-

Aor.act.

J^....i^j

pass.

Jj...,,

SECOND GEOUP.
L

"

"i

prefixed to root, implying

consequence.
5.

-Si

^y

-Jj

z'^''

Consequence of Consequence of
,

2.

.bcJ

s
6. 3.
,

^^

J^li:^

Aor. act.

_;

pass.

c-

THIRD GROUP.

Two
7.

letters added, modifying the sense of the root.

or

more

Exhibiting the effect of the action of the root 8. Eoing affected by the action of the root 10. Asking for or regarding
as the original idea ex(J-XAlM

XO^'

(J-x-ij
9

O^O ^

\x^J\

pressed by the root


Aor.
act.

J^ ....

;
^_

pass.

^....\
Ci

FOUKTU GROUP.
9.

^o

'-J.

<

-'o

Colour or defect
11.
Aor.
act.

Ui...ij

Great intensity

3.)
Aor.
act.

J'^l

ARABIC GRAMMAR.

PASSIVE.

QUADRILITERAL VERBS.

45

Examples of

qiiadriliteral

verbs,-"Jr^j ^'he rolled

(it) ;" Jxll'l " to creep

with terror (the skin) ;"

^^^\ " it

(a crowd) thronged."

46

ARABIC GRAMMAR.
tenses, persons, derivative conju-'

In the formation of

gations, etc., these conform exactly with the ordinary-

forms of quadriliteral verbs given above.

NOUNS DERIVED FROM VERBS.


(34). Certain

nouns derived from verbs may be con-

sidered as particular forms of the latter; they therefore

range themselves naturally under the same head.


principal forms are the following
(1) IfOUIf OF UNITY.

The

The "Noun of Unity from

triliteral
1j^.j>

verbs

is

of the

measure A-bJ; as CJjJ "he struck,"

"one blow."
it is
;

From

all

derived conjugations, or quadriliterals,


'^

formed by simply adding

to the lN"oun of Action

as

j%j^ "departing" (7th


parture."

conj.

from ^_^)j

ijlllk)!

"one

de-

(2) NOTJN OF SPECIES.

The Noun
verbs; as

of Species

is

of the form

ii^ from

triliteral

^ij "he
all

rode," 12^
it is

"mode

or style of riding;"

and from

other verbs
;

formed in the same manner

as the iNToun of Unity

as

j%;1 " departing," aj^^ "mode

or style of departure."
(3) AGENT.

The Agent cl^U "a


it is

is

formed as follows : From simple


1,1c li;

tri-

literals it is of

the measure

as CJJh

"he

struck,"
letters

striker;" from verbs of

more than three

formed by changing the

first letter \

of the aorist

NOUNS DERIVED FROM VERBS.


into

47

U mim pointed with dhammah, and pointing the


Icesrali
;

penultimate with
' ^
Ij

as
S
'-'

ly

''

^,s.L>

^,r>-_vj

to roll,

^ j>--V<

a roller.
^^^^ generously.

*^1
, ^ia^il

/^.O

to

be generous,

fV^* ^ ^^"^

Jsx^i

to deduce,

.isa^w^ one

who

deduces.

(4) PASSIVE PAETICIPLE.

From
measure

the simple triliteral verb this


Qf-s-*\ as
all

is

alwaj^s of the

^^j^-* ''beaten."
it

From
letter

others

is

formed by changing the

initial

of the

aorist

passive into ^

mim

pointed with

dhammah ; as
Preterite.

48
"Verbs of
.

ARABIC GRAMMAR.

more
S
. . .
,

tliau three letters, wlietlier derived or


9

otherwise,

J^

A,p\ to honour,

(V^

honouring.

J.j'li

to fight,

Jjlii' fighting.

.^J\

to deduce,

_,isa*. deducing.

In verbs commencing with

j waiv

and pointed with

kesrah on the middle radical of the aorist, the wdw^ as


shall presently see, is apocopated in the aorist
:

we

in form-

ing this noun, however,

it

must be

restored,

and the

penultimate, contrary to the general rule, then retains


the Jcesrah ; as
Preterite.

KOUXS DERIVED FRO:i VEEBS.


chase," from '^SJ^\ "to buy;"
j^'.^

49

"a

place or station," from fSi\

"

to

remain stationary."

As

in the verbal

noim formed with mm, the

tvatv is

restored

and the

Icesrah retained in

verbs of the form

Preterite.

Aorist
cV"tJ

kc

as

iju:.^

a place in which a promise


is

performed.
,

In

all

verbs commencing with


aorist
is

even when the second

radical of the

not kcsrah, the second radical


is

of the

Koun
as

of

Time and Place


Aonst.
> ^ ^
.
.
.

pointed with that


of

vowel

Noun

Time

Preterite.

^^^^j ^j^^^.^

^/

_Jj to put down.

X:*^-'

t^>"*

^ P^^^^'

All verbs having


in the

licsrali iii
;

the aorict retain that vowel

noun
.,

of this form
1 Aonst. ,

as
^^^^ p,.^(.g^

NounofTiri3
'^

Preterite.

SOX

j^ ^^j
I

>

T^^

.-.<,;>,

a time or place of striking.

The penultimate sometimes, but rarely, takes even when the last-mentioned rules do not apply
Preterite,
/-

kesrahj
;

as

Aorist.

Koun

^^

f 9

1^

''

of Time anil Place. S ^ y

_li5 to rise,

^'^i
9 ft^^

t4-^'*

^'"'"^ *^^ P-^^^^

"^ rising (of a

star or constellation).
jjh. to set,

'-r'^-^K

f-r^y^*

a.

time or place of setting (of


the sun),
i.e.

the "West.

po X

/VJj to

risCj

^JJ^,

(Jj^-*

a ^^'^^ ^^ V^^^^ ^^ rising (of the


eiin), i.e.

the East.

iXs-' to adore,

a^-^.
(JXuu:.j

J^jsT'* a

mosque.

cLCJ

to

perform the

CS^'-^

a time or place of sacrifice, or

rites of the Ilajj,

of performing the rites of

he Hojj.

60
to slaughter,

AllABIC

GEAMMAE.
j'j^'* a

,;5>-

i^^sT

time or place of slaughter.

ox

^L<s to dwell,

..X-u*-'

1^***^ a dwelling.
L::-^i^ a place

e:^
/

to

grow,

where a plant grows.

to rest the elbow, ^_^^

r>

^ -^

a place where one leans with

the elbow.
/-

^ ^
fall,

p f

<^

^
l^JLu*.^

kiL; to
iji

^^^^^.

a place in

which one

falls.

to part (the hair), (Jj^,


to breathe

hair. fj Si^ the parting of the

^^ /

through

the nose

j^i

j=^

the nostril.

(7) NOTTN OP INSTEUMEIfT.

"When a primitive noim

it is

of course irregular; as X.aj

"an

adze,"

^L^

''a knife."

When

derived from verbs,

the most

common forms

are
EXAMPLE.

MEASURE.

i^j^ a

file.

JUX^

^l:iL a key.

fusuallv in words with \ s


a

s
(^o'^'St^"^) a strainer.
^^

weak

final

radical,

iJiJtS^

M'^
(
I

but sometimes in sound


verbs),

^(^^
x-

^^^^,03^^^

Eare forms are


S
?l~

(^

JffO^
(J:sa,

ijxkyt as

kxw-^ a snuff-box,

XicC _ a sieve, ^'^X^ a pestle, anything


^ ;

used to pound with


^
9

^^X

9 ^ f

an instrument for oiling

1^

^pyc

or varnishing, also an oil-jar.


for
liolil,

<LijtL as

iHs'^* a box

i.e.

antimony, with which they anoint


a box for alkali or soda.

the eyes,
'

tLj -s:r*

The same form


it is

is

used for the instrument with whicli a thing

is

applied, or in

which

kept.

NOUXS DERIVED FROM VERES.

61

(8)

NOtJN'

OF QUALITY.

This noun

is

called

by the

Ai-ab gi'ammarians

'4he

Attribute resembling the Agent," and imi3lics the exist-

ence of an inherent quality.

From
3-fli

triliterals it

is

irregular in formation; as ^^y^^

"handsome," from

^.1>-;

J,llU "thirsty," from ,>ki

"accomplished," from ^\Ji.

It is seldom

formed from any but neuter verbs of the


^\^i^
'd;!^

measures J^*, as

and J^,
simple
;

as ^J^.

From

all

beside

triliteral

verb

it is

identical

in form with the

Agent

as 3^-^* "equable, moderate,"

from Ja^I.
(9)

NOUN OF COLOUR OR DEFECT.

This
is

is

properly ranked with the


its

Noun

of Quality,
J,-e!
;

and

regular in

formation on the measure

^"^ j\J\

"brown," '^^\ "squinting," JS^^\ "having a slender


waist."

be observed that the 9th conjugation of the derived forms is nothing more than this noun with its
It will
final radical

doubled to give

it

action, and, in fact, trans-

form

it

into a verb.

(10)

NOUN OF SUPEEIOEITT (oR COMPARATIVE).


more accomplished,
*i-ii

Jxil as

t\JJi\

more learned.

This form serves for both comparative and superlative; as


OjJ ^^^ j-^^ Greater than Zeid.

JA

i^\

God

is

Greatest.

52
If indefinite
tive.
it is

ARKBIC GEAMMAR.
comparative and
if definite

superla-

When
is

its

nse

is

impossible, the

word 11a "stronger"

employed

instead, followed

by the adverbial accusative

of the noun; as
i"

./.=-

^\

Stronger as to redness,

because the form^^t, signifies the presence of colour

without reference to

its

degree, and has not, therefore, a

comparative or superlative force.


It follows

from this that the

Koun

of Superiority,

when

formed from simple


tioned measure

triliterals, is

always of the

fii'st-men-

Jjtst.
it is

From
word

all

other verbs

made by

the addition of the

Jv^^

"more"

or "stronger;" as
more
or

L*U::j\ jJ^\

most vengeful. -b^

(11) TnE NOTJIT OF EXCESS OS INTENSIVE AGEXT.

The most common forms


Jbu
^1

of this

noun

are

as

j\^
-^

a great helper.

,,

J,^^
ij'^j^'*

<_:'.

J^ a

vey

tnithfiil person.

,,

(.t-iwu*^

a poor or wretched person.

JbtL
Jjxj

,,

jL.iw^ a very lazy person.

u^j

^'^

apostle, one entrusted

with an

important mission.

Q^^

a very ignorant man.


ill>

J^

1^../*

sick.

<f^_j^

wounded.

NOUNS DERIVED FEOM YEELS.


This
last

63
to tlio

form

is

often equivalent in

meaning

passive participle J^.^.

In

all

the above cases

tlie

addition of a consonant or

long vowel appears to give a sense of intensity, corre-

sponding

in

this respect

to

the

four-letter

group of

derived verbs.

By

the addition of
is

'i

to

imply unity,
;

still

greater in-

tensity

given to the noun

as

iUlc a ViTj learned man.


,

^\>\j

a reciter.

Other but rarer forms of the I^oun of Excess are


TCP

J^
<LLsi

as

S ' ^-xz very heedless.


o^

itCs'^ a

man who laughs a great deal


(with the
i"

of unity).
title

jjy:^b

,,

CiJ'^ Discriminating (a

of the

Khalifeh Omar).

Jjxj

,,

{j^*-^:

Most Holy.
bulky.
cautious.

^
UUi

^
i O
X

-'

luV*-

Note.li will be found of great assistance


to take anj^ of the roots

to the student

which have been given as examples


and construct
for

in the preceding pages

himself the

various derived forms


dictionary.

by means

of the tables and the


root cljyi occuriug

Thus he may take the

several times on page 47.

The

dictionaries will tell


?

him
on

that i^jl

makes

its aorist i-rir^!.

^^^

this

by the

table

page 32 he will see belongs


triliterals.

to the third class of simple

64
In
tliG

AEABIC GRAMMAE.
tabic on pp.
class

5657
is
(3)

then

we

find

that the

imperative of this
(1)

for

i (2)

for x

and

Jj^\, and by substitnting l^ for J we get C^j^l which


,

is

the imperative of the verb in question.

Coming next
this class, its

to the

noun
is

of action,

we

find that for

transitive verbs the

form

1y^ and

cl^

belonging to
^

noun of action should be CJjl


Similarly
Agent.
t_-J,U

which

is

the proper form.


Noun
of Unity.

we

get
Patient.

Noun

of Action in

mim.

'

aj.^

t__j.-.i^

L^j^a^

Again, amongst the derived conjugations, suppose

we

wish

to

form the third ; we have then


Preterite.

Aorist.

J-ilJ =

JjU?

J.C

. .

AJ

= L^j " "^,


coming between

i.e.

(the dots implying that


first

any

letters

the

and second radicals are unchangedj

^^^:

Passive (Preterite).

Passive (Aorist).

i.e.

(all

intermediate letters remaining unchanged)


Noun
of Action.

c_.-Jl^'.

Agent.

i.e.

(the letters represented

by the

dots being

unchanged

as before)
Noun Noun

Ci;^*

Patient. of Action in mhn. of Time and Place.

^ )j^
\
s.
J

Jx

^ = as

_.

s S

y. ^^

^ ' f

before c_-^ui

And

so

on with

all

the other forms.


of deriving its forms that Arabic

As
diff'ers

it is

in this
all

method

from

non-Semitic languages, the importance of


it

early acquiring practice in

cannot be over-estimated.

METHOD OF USING
Anotter advantage
is

TIIE TABLES.

55

that the learner speedily begins

to appreciate the fact that,

when he
a

has once mastered the

table, every fresh root that

he learns adds some six or


ocabnlary together with

seven score of fresh words to his

the different shades of meaning of each.

The following

table shews the correspondence

between

the various derived verbal forms

(35).

TABLE SnOWIXG THE COEEESPO

SIMPLE

(]

OF FOEMS DERIVED FEOM YEIIBS.


Noun
of

mil of
'ii.tv.

Noun

of

Noun
Agent.
Patient.

of

Noun

bpc-cies.

Action in

mi in.

of Time or Place.

Instrument, or
Intransitive

Noun

Noun of Superioritv uperiority


Superlative).

I
I

of Quality.

(Com omparativt' Intensive Auent. and

Agent.

^^ ^

5,li

bti^

J,li

;>

)>

))

>^
S"
-^

y'

151
.ddins^ a to
liouii

'^i^

the of Action.
?j

Ic

. .

.^

Lc...,

Jx...,-#

Wanting: Jx...^ "Wanting


VJ^
!.^'i

l.^]

58

ARABIC GEAMMAE.

lEREGULAE VERES.
(36). Irregular verbs are those of

which the second ana

third radicals

are alike, or
^ or ^^
.

which contain one of the


are of five kinds

weak
I.

letters

^ ,

They

Doubled^ in which the second and third radical are

alike,

and in the

inflections of

the two last letters


as
jk^ lor jju.

which an assimilation of takes place for the sake of euphony


a

II.

TIemmted, in which one of the three radicals

is

hemzeh\ as 1^1
read."

"he

took," jll

"he
first

asked,"

1^'

"he

III. Assimilated, in

which the

radical is either j

or ^^; as j^j

"he promised," JuJ "it was dry."


letters in the place of the

[As the occurrence of either of these weak


fiist

radical affects the forms of the verb but slightly, the inflection is

assimilated to that of the sound verbs,

whence the name].


letters ^ or ^^

1 Y.

Hollotv,

which have one of the weak

for the medial letter; as


;_:^')

'J

(for

Jy) "he

said," ^l? (for

"he
as

sold."

Y.
letter
;

Defective,
Sjk

of

which the

final radical

is

weak

(for jjl) " he (for

made a

raid," ^^VJ (for

^j)

"he threw," ^^j

^J).

Combinations of these

may

of course occur,

and a verb

may have
to,"

all

the three radicals weak; as


recourse to."

J^ "he repaired

"he had

be noticed that the weak consonants or semivowels are \ licmzeli (not alif)^ ^ ivmv, and ^ ya alif is not regarded as a consonant at all, but only as a prop for
It will
:

hemzcli or as a letter of prolongation.

THE DOUBLED YEEB.


(37).

59

PARADIGMS OF IRREGULAR VERBS.


I.

DOUBLED VERBS.

j^ "to extend,"
PASSIVE.

"to

flee,"

^^

"to

bite."

60
It will
is

ARABIC GRAMirAR.

be noticed that in the 3rd and 6th the

(which
in the

the characteristic letter of the conjugation),

is

passive changed by the

(which

is

the characteristic

vowel of the

voice), into the corresponding semi-vowel,


etc.,

namely

J.

The forms 5U, 3U5,

as well as

3U

(for

jjU), in the agent, are exceptions to the rule which prohibits a quiescent letter

from following a long vowel.


this exception

There are two reasons which make


sible
:

admisit

first,

that if the long vowel


to distinguish

were shortened

would be impossible

between such forms

as the 3rd conj. active and the passive of the first; and, second, because
letter is

when

the assimilation

is

resolved, the first


e.g,

found to be only apparentlij quiescent,

jU =

jjU, and not jjU/


TEEXEEITE OF THE DOTJBLED VERB.
PLURAL.

TENSES OF THE DOUBLED VERB.

CI

resolved whenever the second of the two letters would be


quiescentj

because otherwise

it

would
letters

violate

the rule

which prohibits two quiescent


together.

from occiu-ring

The

passive differs from the active only in the vowels.

PLURAL.

G2

ARAEIC GEAM^iIAR.

IMPERATIVE OF THE DOUBLED VERB.

The same remarks apply


It will

to this as to the other tenses.


fern,

be noticedj however, that in the plural


el-tvasl is
PLURAL.

the

hemzet

restored

by the

rule (25) given on p. 29.

YERBS WITH INITIAL HEilZEH.

C3

DEEIVKD rORJrS OF VERBS WITH IXITIAL HEMZEH.

64
PASSIVE.

ARABIC GEAMMAR.


TERES WITH FINAL
3.

nE:!J:ZEH.

65
\.i>
1,3

Yerbs with hemzeh

for tlie final radical.

to

congratulate," 1J "to create," Cs^^ ''to rust,"


read," j^p- "to be brave."
PASSIVE.

"to

66

ARABIC GRAMMAE.

The

tenses of the hemzated verhs do not differ from

those of the sound verb, thus

VERBS WITH INITIAL

WAW.
jA;

67
in the aorist,
is

(2)

when

the verb

is

of the measure

the J of verbs beginning with that letter


that tense.
1.

di'opped in

INITIAL

J.

i;; "to promise," ^y^^^ "to be afraid," ^SJ "to let

alone,"

^^^ "to
PASSIVE.

inherit,"

ll;5

"to be beautiful."

68

ARABIC GRAMMAK.

2.

INITIAL

^,

^;
,-uuj

''to ripen,"

^J

"to be dry,"

^^

"to ascend,"

to be easy.
PASSIVE.

THE HOLLOW VERB.

G9

lY. THE HOLLOW VERB.


[In
order to explain the a hypothesis.

nature of

a medial j or ^j,

I must

make

Let us suppose that the names "hollow" or

defective" really

mean what they imply

namely, that the


defective

holloio

verb has no medial radical consonant, and that the


actually defective in the final radical
;

verb

is

we may then

represent the
;

hiatus by the
refer

mark *

as

we

should do in ordinary writing

and

if

we

them

to

one of the six classes under which the sound verbs

are arranged, all difficulty vanishes.


dictionaries

Thus Jo,

aorist

Jyij,

is in

the

and grammars said


aorist

to be a verb
it

with a medial

of the

measure

J^,

J^.,

i.e.

belongs to class 1; see (26).


^'^

In
is

this case the

Jb

stands for Jji and J^^V.


first is

Jj-S!

'

^-^^

second

an

obviously euphonic change, but the


since
If,

not so evidently required,


J.-J kabaJa.

Jy
*i
;

kawala would be as easy

to

pronounce as

however,

we

regard

it

as a really hollow verb, the


its

measure will

then instead of saying that

medial radical is,w be hollow),


let

(in

which
it to

case,

having a medial

radical, it could not


it

us refer

the class of sound verbs to which

belongs,

namely

J-'^ij, (_Ui,

and
i

*3,

J*^J. Here
in

the tvro fethaJis in


,

J*3

coalesce into

and the

dliammah

* i^.

from

its

position in

the peuultimato,

where

it

naturally receives an accent, retains the long sound which


to

I have already supposed


forni is

be inherent

to all

vowels

see (5).

The

then written JyJJ, and the ^ thus ohfained


Similarly c.u, aorist

is

treated as the

radical letter of the root.

j--^^.,

with a medial
^^^Jti
,

ya

(_>,

may

be written
>

c*j and
is

referred to class 2,

J^;

be-

coming ^*J, 9*r^.


hypothesis, but

that

u, ^-^-

This

is,

of course, merely a

it at least

suggests the jirinciple of the permutations

which take place

in the forms of Arabic irregular verbs.]

70
ci;

AEABIC GRAMMAE.

"to

sell," Jli

"to say," ujU- "to fear."

PASSIVE.

TEXSES OF THE HOLLOW VERB.

71

made by

prefixing U to the aorist, and pointing the last

radical but one with kesrah.


PEETEEITE OF THE HOLLOW VERB (MEDIAL
ACTIVE.
PLURAl.
Fern.
"),

IIEA9X7EB

(J**:'.

W**

DUAL.
Fem.
Masc.
9

EINGVLAR.
Fem.
o
-'

Masc.
y

Masc,
^

yi^9

^ ^

ei^lj
<l9<j9

Jlj
^
of"

3rd person.

CCOC

CO

UiJj

c:^1j
9

l::-Jj
O
9

2iid

1st

PASSIVE.
PLTJRAI/.

DUAL.
Fem.
Masc.
9

SrNGXTLAR.

Fem.
y-O

Masc.

Fem.

Masc.

:^L
<)

JJj

3rd person.

;o

CT

r^:

Uuli

ij:^
9 O

u:^

2nd
1st

Ui
AOEIST OP THE

HOLLOW VERB (mEDIAL


ACTIVE.

j).

PLUHAL.

72

AEAEIC GEAMilAR.

IMPEEATITE OF THE HOLLOW VEEB (mEDIAL


PLURAL.

).

TENSES OF THE

HOLLOW VEEB.

73

ARABIC GRAMMAR.
P.'^^^
y,'^'^

AOEIST OF IHE
PLURAL.
Fern,

HOLLOW TEEBS (MEDIAL


DUAL.
Fem.
y
.^

!),

MEISUKE J*A> J*j.


Masc.
9

SINGULAR.
Masc. y y y

Masc.

Fem. 9 - y
(

y y

liUr (J
e;

...liUr

sLsT'
y y

uJls^ 3rd
9

person.'

y y

^i\=^
9

_jUi^*
y'i-

2nd
1st

PASSIVE.
PLURAL.
Fem. y <^ y 9
Masc.

DUAL.
Fem.
y y 9
Masc.
9

SINGULAR.
Fem.
9
,

Masc.
\y

y 9

y 9

y 9

4_Jlikr'

uJl^
9 y 9

3rd person.

<^

yUl^
9

c;^
9

y f

"%

ji\s-\

1st

^J^^

f.y^y y,yy

IMPERATIVE OF THE HOLLOW TEEB (mEDIAL


PLURAL.
Fem.
Masc.

1),

MEASTJEE

jJ*JJJ

DUAL. Common.
lili.

SINGULAR.
Fem,
Masc.
o y

c;^^

^l^

L-i:i-

2nd person.

V. THE DEFECTIVE VERB.

The

defective verb

is

that which occasions most trouble


its

to learners;

the rules however which govern


all

per-

mutations are very simple, and are


following table
:-

contained in the

CHANGES IN THE TEEMINATION OF THE PEETEEITE.


y y
a.

becomes

(
\

In the Preterite of the 1st conj. only


.

in all the

derived forms j becomes

"

't,
i_f

like

c.

I.

^y
Here the
final

vowel

is

dropped and the

^_f

is

c.

^
iy

<

then silent, ihefethah alone being pronounced.

This letter
d.
>'

is

called short altf.

PERMUTATIONS OF THE FINAL SEMI-VOWEL

75

CHANGES IN IHE TEE:!JIXATI0N OP THE AOHIST.


9
d'.
4

becomes
remains unchanged j
)

e,

( .

become f^?^\ become

cS

g.

become

c5.
A. (
i_>

remains unchanged i^^)

76

ARABIC GRAMMAR.

from the Alfhjeh^ an Arabic Grammar, in mnemonic


verses,

by Ibn Malik.
p
<5

^o ^
>>

'-

o5 S ^

i-t

tt

4 S ^

^O-^/ o

>

op

-Ci

fx-xx

Any

verb of which the last radical


defective.

is

alif or

wdw

or

ya

is

known

as

In the (verb with


apocopated
;

final) alif

you must suppose

all

moods except the

in such verbs as

J*^,

and (C^. J^^ ^y express

the subjunctive mood.

In both

cases

you must suppose the indicative mood

and

to express

the apocopated
all

mood you must


so

cut off the final

weak

radical in

three

by doing

you will be following a fixed rule."

DEFECTIVE VERBS.

^^j "to throw,"


satisfied,"

jjl

"to make a raid,"

^J

"to be

^^

"to run,"_^ "to be noble."

PASSIVE.

rOKMS AXD TENSES OF THE DEFECTIVE VERB.

77

BERIYED FOEMS OP DEFECTIVE VERBS.

Verbal

Noun.

78

ARABIC GEAMMAE.

MOODS OF THE DEFECTIVE VERB.

79

BX7BJUNCXIVE MOOD.
PLURAL.
Fem.
Masc.
/

DUAL.
I

SINGULAR.
Fem.
Masc;

Fem.

Masc.

3rd person.
'4/^

2nd

I*

"t

iBt

APOCOPATED (jussive, ETC.).


PLURAL.

80

ARABIC GRAMMARIMPEEATIVE OP THE DEFECTIVE VERB


PLURAL.
Fem.
Masc.

(fII^AL j).

DUAL.
Common.

SINGULAR.
Fem.
Masc.
i-o^

oi

^o^^
Si

wjil
{i^i'cS

2nclper3.

o'J

1st Energetic

(^^j}i^

i^j^^

2iid

>r

U.
O
O''

^ ^'
.

PBETEEITE OP THE DEFECTIVE VERB (fINAL


ACTIVE.
PLUEAL.
Fem.
Masc.

^_s),

MEASURE

J^.

J-""

DUAL.
Fem.
bk-i

SmOULAR,
Masc.
Tern.
2,

Masc.

\^y

..

*J

^ l5'*^

^^^ person.

Si

co^^

c<'o

^^

V
y

'-^^^J
o-'
*

2nd
1st

u-^
PASSIVE.

PLUEAL.
Fem.
-'

DUAL.
Fem.
Masc,
9 ?
i^

SINGULAR.
Fem.
y
9

Masc.
p

Masc; y ?

"^^J
Si
<"

\^J
y
9

3rd person.

o"

<>

yj

^^j
9

c:-N-'^
9

2nd
1st

c:-:r^j

AOEIST OP THE DEFECTIVE VERB (FINAIi ^),


ACTIVE.
PLURAL.
Fem.
t/

DUAL.
Fem.
y
f^y

SINGULAR.
Maso.
'

Masc.

Fem.

Maso.

o--

9i^y

c
^_5^y

^^c-V.

3rd person.

vy

9 (^y

iy
>

'^-^
^

1st

See note, p. 79,

See note,

p. 77.

MOODS OF THE DEFECTIVE VERB (fINAL


PASSIVE.

^-).

81

PLURAL.
Fem.
Masc.

DUAL.
Fem.
Muse.

SINGULAR.
Fem.
Masc.

ujV

/^_5^.

3rd person.

ltV

u^v
^.

1st

c-

MOODS OF THE DEFECTIVE VERB (fINAL ^), MEASURE JjtL J-ti


SUBJUNCTIVE.
PLURAL.
Fem.
Masc.

DUAL.
Fem.
Masc.

SINGULAR.
Fem.
Masc.

L5^'

LS^-

'^^'^

person.

u
L^y

!/

L5^y

L^y

2n(i

L5^J'

1st

APOCOPATED.
PLURAL,
Fem.
Masc.

DUAL.
Fem.
Blase.

SINGULAR.
Fem.
C/^

Masc.
G^

3rd person.
G-'

G^

^^y
-r^

yy

W'V'
Gt

2nd
Ist

1st ENERGETIC.
PLURAL.
Fem.
w >
Lf^

DUAL.
>'G-^

SINGULAR.
Masc.

Masc.
"Si

Fem. X G''

Fem.
Ci
-^

Masc.
gi

G''

G-^

G^

^^rV
- ^
I.
..

c;:^^.

3rd person.

G^

..1

cJ^y'

cr^^y

2nd
^^^

eJrr'V

82

ARABIC GRAMMAR.
2nd energetic
PLTTEAL.

DUAL.

SINGULAR.
Fern,

rem.

Masc.
*

Masc.

"Wanting.

^J'^Jl

^rr^y Wanting.

^^A

3r(i

person.

"Wanting.

^j^Ji

>

'.

f'^

'.'''

IMPEEAXIVE OP THE DEFECTIVE VEKB (fINAL ,^), MEASUEE (J^ij J-*i


PLURAL.
Fern.

Masc.

DUAL. Common.

SINGULAR.
Fem.
^c-^j^
Masc.

^ (*jI

2nd person.

^ o

1st Energetic

'

i^^^:'^j^ ^
<.^

i^J^
er*J
', '' t.-'

2nd

PEETEEITE OF THE DEFECTIVE VEEB (fINAL j), MEASUEE


ACTIVE.

J^A;*.

< ^ cJ^'

PLURAL.
Fem.
Masc.

DUAL.
Fem.
C-*5

SINGULAR.
Masc.

Fem.
o
-^

Masc.

^ ^

Uk*s

"-"^J

L^J

^^^ person.

L*::-.*?

JL^^j ^^:^j
9

2nd
1st

^
!;

"
>}

WVA^

u:^*^
PASSIVE.

PLURAL.
Fem.
Masc.

DUAL.
Fem. yy 9
Masc.

SINGULAR.
Fem,
9
1^

Masc. y 9

\^a >'
i,

^^"^J
9
iii'j

L<fJ
9

^^^ person.

<^

''9

Xa^^s 'J
UtM^

^-^^-^j

2nd
let

,,

?J
1

'^>
See note, p. 79.

>>

MOODS OF THE DEFECTIVE VEEB (FINAL j).


AOEIST OF THE DEFECTIVE VEEB (fINAL
ACTIVE.
,),

83

MEASURE JjtO l/*^


SINGULAR.

PLURAL.
Fem.
^ t/

DUAL.
Fem.
X X ox

^ Ox

Masc. X o -^ ox

Masc. X X OX

Fem.

xox

Masc. X Ox

^y
X ^ox

/lTV.

3rd person.

XOX

xOS

^j\
PASSIVE.

let

PLrRAL.
Fem. X Ox O^
Masc. O X o^

DUAL.
Fem.
Masc.

8INGULAH.
Fem.
X 07

xxo?

xxo^

Masc. X o/*

C5*^y
C

/lT^'
xo?

3rd person.

xo?

ui

ltV"

kS^J 2nd
,\

t^-/
SUBJUNCTIVE.
PLURAL.
Fem.

^r
DUAL.
SINGULAR.
Masc. X xox
Masc. o X ox

Ist

XOX ox

uy

Fem. XX ox

Fem.

Masc.

xox
tc-*/
O xox

xox
i^ir:*.
x'OX
"^"^^

person.

W/
L^j"
APOCOPATED (jussive,
PLURAL.

u5^j^
ETC.).

1st

84

ARABIC GEAMMAR.
2nd energetic.
PLURAL.
Fem.
Masc.

DUAL.

SINGULAR.
Fem.
JIasc.

AVanting. u**^^.

ij,-J-;

fjir'J,
t/ -'

^^^ person.

Wanting,
Wanting. ^\y^Ji

-'

o^

e;trV

c;--^^^'

2^^
1st

lilPEEATIVE OF THE DEFECTIVE VEKB (fINAL


PLURAL.
Fem.
Masc.

t),

MEASURE (J*^; J-^


Masc,

DUAL. Common. X xO

SINGULAR.
Fem.

^^js

m-

i^j^

3rd person.

xoxo
1st Energtic i^---^jj^

-ii

P ^ c

i^ri'l
o y

xo

0^0
Wanting.

2nd

J,

Wanting.

^^^^^^

DOUBLY IMPERFECT VERBS.


1.

INITIAL^ AND FINAL J OR ^J

(38),

\J\

(initial ^

and

final

cs-,
. ,

measure JxlJ

Jli),

" to

guard

;"

^=^^ (initial^ and final

measure jIIj

Jxl), " to

be

sore-footed;" J^^ (initial^,

and final o, measure

J^l-

^),

"to follow

close upon,"

PASSIVE.

DOIBLT liirERFECT
2.

VI RBS.

MEDIAL J

A>-D

FIXAL

_j

OE,

(_>.

(_5^ (final
^,

tj:,

measure jAi
J-^j)?

^^Q),

"to wrap;" ^^J


?)

(final

measure Jxi;
PASSIVE.

"^^ ^^

"^^^^^^

irrigated.

86
(39).

ARABIC GRAMMAE.

FORMATION OF VERBAL NOUNS FROM IRREGULAR VERBS.

Treterite.

HOLLOW VERBS DECLINED AS STROXG VEEBS.


The formation
of the remaining nouns
is

87

regular,

and

can present no difficulty; in the form Jxit, from verbs

with a medial weak radical, the strong form


jjljt,

is

used, as

not

jQ

HOLLOAV VERBS DECLINED AS STRONG VERBS.


(40).

few verbs with a weak medial radical pointed


declined like strong verbs.

with

Jcesrah are

Preterite.

S8
third conjugation,

ARABIC GRAMMAE.
which we
be
'jli.

find to be J.^li

the corresponding form


is

of

Ua

will obviously
jy,

Again, the aorist of the third

of the

measure J-s
becomes

which

this

case will

bejjUj; but j^ by g

^.
person
for the i of the

further reference to the table of persons in the aorist, p. 27 (23),


first
\

teaches us to substitute the prefix of the

3rd person, and

we

get

'^^'

ughdu, the form required aorist


is

The

final

short vowel -^ of the

variable,

depending upon the action of


.

particles,

etc.,

but the

remaining vowels of the forms are constant, and therefore exert a stronger influence

upon a weak

letter.

By

applying these principles,

all difiiculties as to
;

the conjugation of
shall find that

verbs containing

weak

radicals will disappear

and we

such a thing as a reaUy irregular verb does not exist in the Arabic
language.

The student
until

is

recommended

to practise this process


all

he

is

completely familiar with

the permutations
;

which can occur in conjugating a weak verb


tables,

the foregoing

in which examples of each kind of irregular verb

are given, will enable

him

to correct his exercises,

INDECLINABLE VERBS.
(41). Indeclinable verbs are those
tense.

which have only one

They are (1)

^J

"he

is

not,"

^li

"perhaps,"

which have only a


(2)

preterite.

The following which

are only found in the impera-

tive: cyla

"give," Jli; "come."

These are declined like a regular imperative, thus


PLUEAL.

SINGULAR.
Fern.

Mase.

THE

NOUN".

89

Some grammarians include


properly a verb;
expression
(Trf
it

ll^ ,

which

is,

however, not

is

most frequently found in the

II^, literally,

"take and

di'ag

along" =

"and

so on."

THE NOUX.
(42).

In the category of nouns the Arabs include also

pronouns and certain prepositions, adverbs, and interjections.

Nouns

are either primitive or derived.

PEIMITI^^ NOUNS.
Primitive nouns are those which cannot be referred to

any verbal

root.

The following

are the most

common

forms of primitive nouns.


1.

Triliterals.

90

ARABIC GRAMMAR.

3. Quinqneliterals.
MEASURES. EXAMPLES.
Si''-'

MEASURES.

EXAMPLES.

ff^O^'^

jLti
Jijti

Jj>- i-j quince.


i_,>*i7^ cloud.

jLi
S
-'O

J^^r JJ stout (a camel)


r

^ o ^

JiUi

:tijA.sET an old

woman.
etc.,

Primitive nouns sueh as "a horse,"

"a

camel,"

cannot of course be reduced to rule, and must be learnt

by

practice.

NOUNS DERIVED FROM VERBS.


(43). I

have already treated of the nouns immediately There are a great many other forms ex-

derived from verbs, and corresponding more or less to our


participles.

pressive of specific ideas

which may be studied with

advantage ; the principal of these are the following.


1.

Trades and
S^
-'

offices are of

the measure
Ajl:;*i

Illje

as

ds^^

craft, artizanship.

office

of secretary,

iJ^UsT trading.

ijljj office of vizier.

dJ^Uri- tailoring.

<bjt^ office

of viceroy.

S '^
d^^
\\

agriculture.

tLJi^

office

of Caliph.

2.

Pains of the body are of the measure J'*i; as


cijk..^

headache.

Jw*-' cough.
<-^U$

fXij catarrh.

liver complaint.

3.

Sounds are of the measure


S .P

^^ or 2r^
J-r;^ neigh.

as

^y cry.
^Uj
(J

j-i^s "whistling ^S-

bark.

S
i\j bray.

(J*-y^ sob.

c:jUj roar

THE GENDEES OF NOUNS.


4.

91

Motion, commotion, or emotion are expressed by

the form ^i^, and sometimes

3^

as
revolving.

^^^1^

palpitating, fluttering.
-

J^jj^
I

jfjCJ:^ running.

Ch~^J departure.
5

5. riiglit

or avoidance
flight.

by 3^:

^s
J\.^ " bolting," running
^uV refusal.
off.

j\J^

jlij flight, aversion.

6.

A small portion is expressed by ly^


iy^ a broken
'ixoL!^

as

crust.

^j^
s^o;>

^ ^^o'

a fragment.

7.

A small
i?-'0 ?

quantity,
a handful,
trifle.

by lUi

as
J^'Oi'

X^J
ij

hJ^

a drink (of water, etc.).

jkJ a

8.

Colour in the abstract, by lUi


ijAs>' redness.
|

as
yellowness.

"^^
;

9.

Small pieces, refuse, by iJUi


iL^^y clippings, filings.
Sjj;J filings.

as
sweepings.

^U5
I

THE GENDERS OF NOUNS.


There are only two genders in Arabic, masculine one form and feminine some words, however, have only called of the common for both, and may therefore be The neuter does not exist, but its place is most gender.
(44).
;

commonly supplied by the feminine.

02

ARABIC GRAMMAR.

The following
1.

are feminine
as

Proper names of women,

d^

'^Illnd,"

'J\^

Mary," and nouns applicable only


mother,"
2.

to females, as It

"a

\^6>-\

"a

sister,"

J^l^ "pregnant."

Nouns ending

in

i',

as

o^U "a
it
;

striker" (female),

unless the sense be opposed to

ctaJ^ "Caliph ;"

and some

proper names of men, as


3.

i'Sllc

" Obeideh," ^^s^ " Talhah."

Nouns ending

in

o,

as ^^_^^

"Sulma"

(a proper

name), ^Ls>. "most beautiful" (female),


brance," 13j (for
[If this
it

^<j "remem-

^__^'^)

"the world."

is

not a grammatical termination, but belong to the root,

may
4.

be masculine.]

Nouns ending

in

^T,

as

^l^^\ "Khansa"

(a proper
*T.s**

name), ^Ij^ "red,"


"desert."
5.

^U'li

"grandeur, sublimity,"

Proper

names of towns and

countries,

as

J^

"Egypt,"
6.

^lITf " Syria."

Names

of wind,

fire,

or wine,

as^^ "wind,"
"hand,"

^^
^^

" the north wind," >' "


7.

fire," ^X

" wine"."

The double

parts of the body, as jJ

"eye,"

J^

''shoulder,"

^j

"foot."

(Some others
J;-?

which are not double are

also feminine, as

"tooth,"

li

"liver.")
Collective nouns, especially

8.

when they add

i"

to

express an individual of the species, as *U;?- "dove" (the

genus dove), 'iCX^^


9.

"a

dove."

All

"broken"

plurals.

10.

The following nouns

are considered as feminine.

THE GENDEES OF NOUNS.


altliougli tliey

93
lieads giveu

do not

all

come under the

above.

94

ARABIC GRAMMAR.

^ and
2.

l!

before

become

as
a young
girl.

^i
J*j;
as

a youth, fem.

il:xi

iNoims of the form

J^

make

their feminines in

^S^
y

drunk, fem.
angry,

j^y^
^ o
--

X O X

^L^i
But
J^iti

^^^

and ^2)^ make their feminines in the usual


'^\xi\
''OX

manner ajLe and


S

as
?x

<^x

j^U#jJ repentant, fem. ijLjJ

jjbr naked
3. jlsl

t^-jy. '^

when

it

expresses the comparative or superlative


;

makes

its

feminine ^Jbe

as
fem.

^1
/x o S ^*rf>'

greatest,

i^j^
^^ '

smallest

t/r*^

j/^

first (for

JV)
o

J^i

j^\
4.

(for^^n)

o>^l

Jiet
its

when

it is

descriptive of colour or deformity


;

has for

feminine
^x o S
-1

*lii
red

as
xo ^

fem.

^\

^xoS
^i-tf^
P X o

yellow

,,

'\jLa
_' ox
j^bjc*.

c-JJo-! hump-backed

5.

j^ when

it

has the signification of J^Ij has no


S
^

different

form for the feminine, as


S-

/x

jy^ i^^j

a patient man.

j^

'i\y%\

a patient

woman.

THE GENDERS OF NOUXS.

95

Eut

J^
S

with the signification of J^ti^ makes lly^ in


/>

the feminine, as
o^

s^ a riding horse or camel, fern.

oX

^fy*
spy

'^,fj^
<1.'L>.
S-'

L-JyL>~ a milch camel

9 y

fjy^j a messenger (one sent)


6.

^^j

Vice versa
for the
s S
S

J-^
^

in the sense of

J^^ has only one

form

masculine and feminine, as

spy
murdered man
s'i-y
1^

J^l^i ij-^j a
y

^y^
y

'i\'j^\
'J

a murdered

woman
man

9 y

f^j'>-

J"^
S'i-y

a wounded

S
^
.

f^.y>-

i\^\ a wounded woman,


.

while ^\^i with the meaning of J^li makes ILxi in the


feminine.
!.

Sy

y j_-uLi)

?/ Sy
..

/
y
_

an intercessor, fem. <U^JJi.


a helper,
nice,

S
S

-aJ

^jf^
Sy
y

t^-k!

AiJal.

The

other forms of the intensive nouns


also

J^,

Jl^.^,

and J-*l^, being

nouns of instrument, do not take

the feminine termination, with the exception of jl^ '^an

enemy," fem.
^
j2,lir^
''

'Lsz

^-w^ y
^-z
'

a poor person," fem <LX^* y ^


sy y

speaking the truth," fem. ^U-^.


their nature can only apply to

7.

Nouns which by

females neither require nor take a feminine termination, as


^J-^ls*-

pregnant.

^Ir*
s
'

a divorced wife.

>a

girl

with swelling

breasts.

^^sJls^

menstruating.

C6

ARABIC GEAMMAE.

COMMON GENDEE.
(46).

The following nouns


^eil.

are used either as masculine

or feminine
jli]

THE CASES OF NOUNS.

97

"NOTE

ON THE TEEMIXATION
i expresses either

if.

(47).

The termination

the feminine gender or

unity.
1

In derived nouns

it

generally serves to

mark the feminine

of the

individual to which the quality or action applies; as <Uj\^


striker" (as distinguished from a male striker).
2.

a female

In primitive nouns
slave

it

serves to

mark the feminine generally


a slave girl" (as a
class).

as

^Ic " a
3.

boy"
it

(as a class), ttLi

Sometimes

distinguishes the individual from the species

as

"^

"fruit," i'.^

"a

fruit."
gifts."

4. Itdistinguishessingularfromplural, as^>i^sr"aglft,"(_i:sr' 5.

And sometimes uce

versa, as J>"*'^

a camel driver,'

<OUj:?-

" camel drivers."


6.

It is used also to compensate for a letter


i^-*\i\

which has been dropped

or apocopated, as
7.
8.

for

/^y|.
polishers."
f~ '^

It serves to corroborate the plural, as 'L^ V*

And,

lastly, it is

used as a sign of intensity, as *iU

a learned a professed

man,"

'L*ks.

" a very learned

man

" ^j " a reciter," ^\^j

reciter."

Note.
i^

The pronominal CU (fem.)


^
J
..

is

written C-?
..I
.

at the

end of verbs,

'

--

as

c^j-i

and

at the end of nouns, as <Sj^U

DECLENSION OF NOUNS.
THE
(48). Arabic
CASES.

nouns have

tliree cases,

the nominative or

subjective, accusative or objective,

and genitive or de-

pendent.

[I shall use the

terms subjective, dependent,

and objective as more in accordance with the principles of


Arabic grammar.]

These cases seem originally to have


7

98

AEABIC GRAMMAE.

been expressed by the three long vowels ^


p. 7).

and

^ (see

To

these temvm,

i.e.

the nasal vowels, succeeded

for the indefinite, noun,

and the short vowels were em-

ployed in the definite noun, thus


INDEFINITE.

Subjective

t^vtii a book.

Dependent
Objective

^-'l4 of a book.

yu^

a book.

THE A:XCIENT

DECLENSIO]!^'.

99

Or

tlicy

may

take

in all three cases, thus


i(M
>^ij

Subjective

M
\i\

Dependent
Objective

Aj\

<^j

Ai\

^j^}

As

Ul::jli

J^-^

lAb Jj

b IjUjI

IjsIjI

J,

" Verily her

father and her father's father

Have reached

the same limit to which she has arrived."

and ^^ may be declined in the ordinary manner, or after the ancient manner, as

100

ARABIC GEAMMAR.
of,

following results (already treated

see p. 74)

must be

remembered

Nouns Nouns Kouns


in Cs
as

of the measure Jxi from verbs with a final

in

the root, change the

into ^'by/', as

Uj

for LJj.

of the measure jij from verbs with a final


1$ into o"j as ^is

^,

change the

of

more than three


from

letters, of
,

the form

Jj

* * *

whether from a final radical^ or ^ make their termination


'

^J^^y*

^j

^}S*
t^^

from

l^J ( .^j).

into

Nouns ending T by ^'.

in ^^ or

change that termination

Examples: dj "satisfaction;"
Cadi."
MEASURE.
INDEFINITE.

^Jxs

"a youth;"

^ji^ ''a

DEFINITE.
"With Article. 'With Pronoun.

Jjo

Subjective

uj^i

for

j^j
^
-ij

\^j
-^

i^U^
^
:(Uij

Dependent
Objective

Uij

,,

U?J LiJ

l^

ijJ^

ilJj

Juti

Subjective

^^:;J

,,

^:J

is"^"^^

(^'^

^'^)

Dependent
Objective

,^xj

^^^
^__^

15^'
i.^^'

*^ (^^ '^'^) ^^
C^''

^^
for

'^)

,U'J

Subj.

(>l^

Ijh^

(^^*^^

^-f ^

Depend, j^lj
Obj.
^r?*^^
}>

s^^

k^^^^
^JliiJl (regular)

^t^^
i^\i

W^ (regular)

IMPERFECTLY DECLINED NOUNS.


(51). Certain

words are not susceptible of

temvin,

and

employ fethah both in the dependent and objective

case.

Such nouns may be arranged in four

classes.


IMPERFECTLY DECLI^'ED NOUNS,
1.
a.

101

Proper names which have been changed from


;

then' original form


jA- Omar,

as
originally

j,y^ the one who

lives.

J-^J Zuhel (the planet Saturn)


1.

J^'J

the loiterer.

in
as

Foreign proper names of more than three letters, or which the middle consonant is pointed with u vowel

i^cli^i

"Joseph,"

'^\^ji\

"Abraham."
first,

Note.

Such
it is

Si'S ' proper names as J.-j or^J are declined; the


it

because

an Arabic word, and the second, because


is

has three

letters, the

middle one of which

quic scent.

2.

a.

Distributive or collective numerals from 1 to 4.


9.

..'

J Is- \

ones,

-'

foiirs.

to

^-^
?-y'*
^'^'""

tXr^^4 one

by

one,

^^

^^^''-

Some grammarians
to ten
;

include the remaining numerals up

viz.

^j^\a^
j>

fives,
I
1

jl^i
y
-

tens.

-'

o ^

to

j
'

o ^

^s^,*^*

five

by

five,

'

JLx^t ten by ten.

^
c.

J.

^^1 plural of ^"XS (fem. of^^^i), and such words as


"all,"

g^

"some,"

^ "some," ^' "few," which


J-tit, if

are analogous to the numerical forms above given.

Nouns

of the form

nouns of colour or deS'

scription,

and not making the feminine in

as ^1^\
ft

" more accomplished," J^t "red."


Note.

Such words

as _j ^

four" (fem.), being neither descriptive

nor comparative, and other nouns of the same form, which moreover

make

the feminine in

i,

are declined.

3. d.

]^ouns of the form ^li,

if

they are adjectival or


i',

descriptive,

and do not make

their feminine in

as

!,ViI.

102
^'

ARABIC GRAMMAR.

drunk," feminine

Jf^\

but

if

the

first

syllable

be

pointed with j-^ as J,Ij^ "naked," or


substantival sense, as ^2,^P

if

they have a

"a

flint,"

or

make feminines

in

l^

as ^U!>jj fern. liUjJ "repentant," they are de-

clinable.
4.

The following nouns ending

in J- or ^T; (l) if that

termination
^T;^-*

mark the
(2)

" a rock."

^J^j "remembrance," Proper names, as ^t/j (3) Broken


feminine, as
.

plurals,

as^_^^ "wounded,"
or

-^XisJ^

"friends."

(4)

De-

scriptive

passive

adjectives,

as

^J^

"pregnant,"

"red."
JVoie.

Proper names ending in


al^Lli
,

s,

whether masculine or feminine, as

<!^^ and
5.

are imperfectly declined.

Proper names of /??w/e5 not ending in


letters, or if
is

S,

if

they have

more than three

they have three

letters the

middle one of which

pointed with a vowel, as t-Ll^J "Zeinab" (a woman's name), Jil " Hell " ; but if they
is

are of three letters, and the middle one

quiescent, they

may

be either declined or not, as


Ou^ or
Ju^ Hind
(a

woman's name).

>>

Ifote.

Compound proper names are treated of in the Syntax.


,

6.

Proper names ending in ^\


Proper names
having

as ^!iV^

7.

a verbal

form,

as

s^^]

"Ahmad";
as
Ijjj

or if they appear actually part of a verb,

" Yazid,"JIi,
plui-als

"Shammar"

(Shomer).
letters

8.

Broken

which have two

after

an


IMPEEPECTLT DECLINED NOUNS.
inserted
as

"

103

alif,

1^\1^

''places

of worship,"

''mosques," i^jJ "beasts of burden" (for

ulop)

J--/^^ or
;

which have three

letters after the inserted alif^ the

middle

of such letters being a quiescent

oj

as

^^l^ "lamps,"

and AoIIj " candles."


[The omission of tenwm in these forms probably
operation of the principle advocated in (5), p.
of vowels which do not receive the accent.]
8,

arises

from the

respecting the shortcuing

Exception.
aJjl-Mtf

When a

i"

follows such letters, the plural

is

declined, as

"polishers."

Note.kVi indeclinable nouns when in construction or


preceded by the article take kesrah in the oblique case, as

Sometimes by poetical license an imperfectly declined

noun

is
%

made
9

declinable, as in the following verse


OC -C

O^

S^

''

9-'?

O fO-O

9<i-i^^

"

'Tis as

though he in his beauty were Joseph's form, though


I, in

And

as

my

grief,

were his (Joseph's)


t-i-j^t.

father's heart."

Where

u-il^. is

improperly used for

INDECLINABLE NOUNS.
(52).

Some nouns
/ol--:

are altogether indeclinable, as

^'ojliAj^
!

" Niftawaihi,"

" Sibawaihi."

f* and

^ " silence

though indeclinable, when

definite drop the

tenwm and

become
former

a^,
is

^,

the difference in meaning being that the

vaguer and more general.

THE NUMBERS OF NOUNS.


(53).
dual,

There are three numbers in Arabic nouns, singular,


plural.

and

104

AEABIC GRAMMAR.
THE
DTTAL.

MASCULINK

THE NUMEEES OF NOUNS.


If the termination
lie

105

added to the root without "being

a feminine sign, you

change

it

to j, as

may either leave it unchanged or from ^UL " a sinew in the neck," dual
for a radical letter, as
it

u^^V^ or ^^jLU If it be substituted


_j*uOj

5lir(from
it

we may

either leave

unchanged or change

into

wdwy as

t^^^'^-1^

and ^^^l^.

Words

of over five letters

may

drop the

final cdlf in
^ is

the dual, although the insertion of the euphonic

the

more regular method,


j^IjLjIj

as ^U-?li

"a

jerboa's hole," dual

or

i^^jU-tflj

The two following nouns


<L.j:r>- testicles,

'i^\ buttocks,
I,

in forming the dual reject the fcmiinine termination in the following verse from the Ilamdsah

as

"Fit quasi duo


facta

ejus testiculi hue illuc fluitantcs pera essent e corio

ac

longo

jam usu

attrita,

intra

quam

duoe cucurbita)

inclusse sint."

This verse presents an instance of an another grammatical peculiarity, namely, the use of J:^l, the numeral
ttvo,

instead of the dual of the

noun Ji^, There appears

to be an ellipse of

some such word as


til

grain, as in the

Persian idiom ^..^^

JjJ " two apples."


THE TLrEAL.

(55).

The

plural in Arabic

is

formed either by

affixes

or

by a modification of the

original form of the singular,

as in English

we

say ship,

pi.

ships

man,

pi.

men.


106
ARABIC GEAMilAE.
first

The

kind

is

called teclinically a regular plural

the second a broken plural.

The regular
and objective
If

plural has only one

form

for the

dependent

cases.

the

singular be
is

a regularly

formed
:

participial

measure, the plural


Masc.

made by
is
.

addition

as
ter^

^
^i^

nom.

jThis
i

an expansion of the singular -^


r-

oblique'

mination
80 f^^

for

as

un=u,

,-

una

5j uu.

Fem.

'

"

^^
)

This

is

an expansion of the regular feminine

CLi]

affix i.

EEGirXAB MASCULINE PIXTEAI.

(56).
for

The regular masculine

affixed

form

is

only used

Nouns of a participial form derived from verbs making their feminine in i and signifying rational beings. 2. Proper names of men, provided they consist of a
1.

single word,
3.

and do not end in

s.

Diminutives of proper names of the description just

mentioned, and diminutives of ordinary nouns, provided

they denote rational beings, and are of the masculine


gender, as

J^^j
4.
6.

little

man,

plural (jy-^>y

Eelative adjectives ending in J>.

Nouns

of the measure Jxi] provided they have the

comparative or superlative meaning.


It cannot

be used in nouns which are common to both


jy^c

genders, as

f^_^ wounded.

patient.

THE NUMBERS OF
There are a few words
wliicli

NOr>,'S.

107
to the

form exceptions

rules above given; they are


^^A
son,

plural

(^ij

^\i^ family,
'

^^\
^ijj

_jj possessor,

,,

and

I 1 .I.i

JU
^j\
jLs.

world, universe,


,,

i^y^'^^

earth,

^y^j^
s^^j^t: twenty.

ten,

(And the other


and ninety.)
<lu-:

cardinal numbers, thirty, forty, etc., between twenty

year,

plural

i^^
i.e.

Together with

all

nouns similar
is

to the last,
I

nouns of

which

the last radical

cut off and a

added by way of
;

compensation, as <LjU
tree,
i^ y
"'

"a hundred,"

"^.L^

.Li^j

"a thorny

A peculiarity
plurals,

of the class of plurals last mentioned

is

that in the dependent case they

may be
;

treated as broken

and declined throughout


Sub. Mrrr^

e.g.

Dep.

^J*^

Obj.

^^^
,

"When the last letter of a noun is a weakj


of the aorist of verbs and of nouns
< j^^'^ a judge,

^ or tcnwm

the rules given on p. 75 for the change in the termination

must be applied.
\

tjy^^ by

z.

plural

,Ji2-.2^

Mustafa,

^^tsl^^s^y*

,,

h.

Before a hemzet

el-ioasl

these lose their


-.'c
.
?

'-^

^ and
9

take

and

ir'-'.-o
^^'^

respectively, as aQ^

^^~"

pl-

^ u:^


108
ARABIC GEAMIIAE.

In construction with a following noun the regular plural


loses its final

^, as
JjJ iJ^us the strikers of Zeid.

FEMININE REGULAR PLURAL.

(57). In forming the regular feminine plural,

nouns of

the form llxi remove the sukun and point the second
radical like the
first,

making the

plural

cJh6

unless the
is

second radical be weak, in which case the sukun

not

removed, as
<i.^-.j

an egg, plural

CJU^o

[The Benu Hudheil do not observe


describing an ostrich,

this rule, as the following verse,

by one of

their poets, proves

'

The brother

of eggs going to

and

fro night

and morn."]

If the

noun be

adjective the sukun remains.

Some-

times

it is

retained improperly

by

poetical license, as in

the verse

"

And

the soul shall rest from

its

sighing."

iNouns substantive of the form ^xi


(JL'Lj
,

make

their plural
ilihti
.

and sometimes
letter

for the sake of

euphony

If

the

weak
is

be

^ the dhammah must not be employed.


radicals are alike, the
all

When
sukun

the second and third


retained in

cases in forming the regular

feminine plural; as
"rejection;"
i'

l^

pi. cS^ji,

"attack;"

iJ^.

pi. cL>1j^

li pL
K

ciLjlli

"glanders."
becomes
Cl^l

A
A

(from

final ^)

dj^j'^

(from final ^5)

^LIj

THE NUJIBEES OF XOUXS.


N.B.
i"

109
ci?

whether singular or plural becomes

when

followed by a vowel, as tj^\ "brothers," Ijylt " his brothers."


*T

when

in construction becomes ^T in the dependent

case (see p. 14); these follow the ordinary rule of per-

mutation;

e.ff.

subj. /j\^^

"his women," dep. f^Uj.

But

if

the second radical be weak, as ^^jj " perpetual

rain," the sulcun

may remain and


from pointing

the letter be pointed

with fethah, because the Arabs are averse from the sound

p, which

results

with

kesra/i.

If the last radical be weak, as

,!>jlj

" bribery," the sidim


;

may

either remain or the letter be pointed with fctliah


(IjiS'yLj
^

thus, pi.

or cb\jl,j

But

if

the

first

radical has

dhammah

or kesraJi, such

change must not be made, as

i^jj pi. c:j^'jS

"pinnacle."
the
plural

Nouns substantive
c:-?ii

of the form aI:^

make

as

Ij^

pi. ci;l^>-

"retirement,"

"a chamber," and

sometimes

cbllUi
tlie

[The Benu Tamim allow

mliin to remain in this


S^
9

case,

but

if

the

second radical be weak, as in <L!jJ "vicissitude,"- the


remain, and
it

mlun may

may be

pointed

VhMCo. fcthali,

as lL'I'.J or cL'l'iJ.j

The regular feminine


in nouns

plural in &J\

is

frequently used

which have a neuter


lU>. bath,

sense, as
pi.

ciJuUr..
ciJljl^*)

^Ld^
*

the

month Eamaclhan,

,,

See p. 60, note


i--

2.

9
is

iU.j

considered by some as

equivalent

in

meaning

to

S o^ ij.j "a

state

or

dj-nasty."

110

AEABIC GEAMMAR.

BROKEN PLURALS.
(58).

There are two kinds of plurals recognized by the


;

Arabic grammarians

namely, Che plural of paucity, and

the plural of multitude.

The The

plural of paucity expresses

any number between


any number from ten
exists, is neces-

three and ten.


plural of multitude denotes

to infinity.

So also a plural form, where only one


sarily

common

to

both,

but most nouns have two or

more forms.

When
plural

a plural of such a

noun

is

required,

it is

for the

most part formed on the measure of the regular feminine

by

affixing isj\.

The
The
this

plural of a plural cannot be less than nine.


plural of paucity, as well as the sound or regular

plural, cannot

be

less

than three or more than ten (unless

be the only form of plural in use for a particular

noun, in which case there can obviously be no such


limitation).
PLTTEAL OP PAUCITT.

(59).

There are four measures of the plural of paucity:


J}xi\

as Jjf-ji from Jjf-j foot.


<L*Ii
,,

iSki
<LL*il

,,

/ii.

slave

iU***^^

,>

^l^i dress.

(This

only occurs

in

words which have the penulti-

mate a long vowel).


jJujI

JUk>-)

,,

Jv.>-

load.

This

is

common

to plurals

of multitude also.

BROKEN PLURALS.

HI'

The

first

and

last

forms are capable of having a second

plural formed from


quadriliterals,
i.e.

them on the ordinary measure of


J-flil

^\i\ and

The

sound plural and the plural of paucity denote

several individuals^ while the broken plural denotes rather

the whole
(60).

class.

Nouns implying multitude,


Ti "people/' "a
tribe,"

if

they have not a

singular, as

and plural nouns


i',

(unless the singular be distinguished

by

asys-- " trees,"


\

L^--), are called analogues of the plural

*JLsl

<u^

GENDEE OF BKOKKX
(61).

PITJEALS.

Broken

plurals are invariably treated as feminine;

thus a certain poet says,


Kj

-^

-^

^ y

O^

"CJ

Verily

my

people collected

togetliei',

And

talked of mm'dering

me

I care not for their collecting

Every crowd

{ov plural) is effeminate/''

FOKMS OF

BSOKEIir' PLURALS.

(62).
1.

There are three forms of broken plurals.


inserts

That which

an additional

letter

among the
.

original letters of the singular, as


2.

j\^j plural of Jb-j


,

That which
" ^^ apostle."

rejects a letter, as J-^j

the plural of

2;4;
3.

That which changes the vowels only, as


"lion."

Sli plural

of

Ju-t

112
Irregular

AEABIC GEAiTilAR.

broken plurals are formed from

triliteral

nouns and from some of die quacbiliteral verbal nouns


treated of in p. 46.

PirEAL OF QrADEniTEEALS.
(63).

The measure

for

the plurals of quadriliterals,


last
(4)

excluding those mentioned in the

paragraph,
(3)1(2) CD,
>>, ,

may
f.

be

regularly represented by the signs

which
J^Ul*,

y^

will be found to embrace all the forms Ac^l*,

J^ll^

etc.,

as the position of
is
^

any of the three radicals


I'll*

in the form
(1)
(3) -(2)

immaterial.
^^

Thus from
.

(1)

_^li

'i

'^

= ^j}l^
i

(the

"key," we get
into ^),

\
\

changing the

where

the

first

radical

of the root occurs in the second place

of the measure
(4) (3)

(2).

And

from
fii'st

'(3)
'

(j)

ji

s^=

^^ Ji^l^

1^1:^ ^

"jewel,"
s>-

we have

where the

radical

occui's in the

first

place

(1).

PLrBALS OF Qri>'QrEIITERALS.

(CI). In

words of

five or

more

letters all

above four are

cut off in forming the plural, as


j,_^Jvij: nightingale, plural J-^u.^
S,

(s-":0

U
'(4)

^
(3)

"^

L.^

^-(2) -(J)

u^-^

quince,

-,'^

(J)

^ j

NOIE OX IHE FORMATION OF PLCRALS.


(65). It is

worth remarking that the

letters

used in the formation of


tenses,

plurals are the


viz.
c:-~J'^
;

same as those
fact,

\;vhich are

used in the formation of

in

these,

the
all

long vowels,

and the
in use;

tesM'id,

or

doubling of a consonant, are


strictly analogous,

the increments

they are

both in nouns and verbs; for just as they modify

. ;

TABLES OF BROKEN PLURALS.

113

the action of a verb in a manner corresponding to the modification of


the form, so they modify the nature of the noun.

Two main
1.

ideas

seem

to influence the

formation of plurals.

The addition of one

or

more

letters to express

an addition

to the

sense as in verbs.
2.

Marking the opposition between singular and


still

plural.

These are

further influenced by the nature of the vowels used,

as a careful study of all the forms will show.

In the measures of the broken

plurals, as in the

measures of the

verbs, the vowels are the characteristic

and really important part of

the form.

They
thus

will therefore exert their usual influence

upon a weak
for the

letter

l.\-A,*

= (4)

'(3)

(2)

(1),

and should by the rule

forma(1),

tion of broken plurals from quadriliteral

nouns make (4) (3)

'(2)

that

is

j-4 u 4^ but the

is

is

the most important form to preserve, and


to t_f , the

the

therefore yields and

changed

word becoming

^j'li,*

Plurals are for

tlie

most part irregular, but some

measures are of more common use than others.

TABLES OF BROKEN PLURALS.


(65).

The following

tables will

be found to contain
use.

examples of every form of broken plurals in


left

The

hand column contains the measures of the singular;

the horizontal line at the top of the page gives the

measures of the plural.

114
1.

ARABIC GRAMMAE.
TABLE OF BROKEN PLURALS

TABLE OF BROKEN" PLUEALS.

115

FROM TRILITERAL NOUNS.


a y>>

116

ARABIC GRAMMAR.

TABLE OF BROKEN PLURALS

TABLE OF BROKEN

PI,TJRALS.

117

FROM TEILITERAL
S
'oS

l^OTT^S continued.

118

ARABIC GRAMMAR.

TABLE OF BROKEN PLURALS

TABLE OF BROKEN PLUEALS.

119

FROM TRTLITERAL
S
-'O

"SOTJl^^S continued.

120

ARABIC GRAMMAR,

TABLE OF BBOKEN PLURALS FROM TRILITERAL XOUNSconiinued.

TAELE OF BROKEN PLURALS.

121

-^ P3

% O
Pi Pn

CO

(J
P-!

w o
Pi pq P^

o
-:

oi

122

ARABIC GRAMMAE.

8.

TABLE OF BROKEN PLFRALS

TAELE OP BROKEN PLUEALS.

123

FROM THE MOST COMMON VERBAL NOUNS.


s
-^

JUi

124

ARABIC GRAMMAR.

TABLE OF BROKEN PLURALS

TABLE OF BROKEN PLUEALS.

125

FROM THE MOST COMMON VERBAL

l^OTJNScontimied.

126

ARABIC GEAMMAE.
TABLE OF BROKEN PLURALS

TABLE OF BROKEN PLURALS.

127

FROM THE MOST COMMON VERBAL

lH OJJliiS continued.

Not from hollow

verbs.

128

ARABIC GRAMMAR.
TABLE OF BROKEN PLURALS

TABLE OF BROKEN PLTJRALS.

129

FROM THE MOST COMMON VERBAL

^0X1:^5continued.

JUi

130

ARABIC GRAMMAR.

CO

P o
iJ

o
o H o

H o
CO

p
Ph

o o
fa

BROKEN PLURALS.

131

4.

BROKEN PLURALS OF THE MASCULINE AGENT, FORM ^li.

j^Rare.
^

i?

5-

',1^ pl.

'r-

drinker.

^s>\a

pl. l_-;'ls:'^

comrade.

jj\j

j^

JU
helper.

/Lj sleeper,

'

ys-l;

,,

^'^^^ merchant,

jFt"^ "

J^ merchant.
f \;

^^-j peasant.

ih

rider.
'J

^li

*Lj

standing.

ilJlo
Rare.
-Jblj

pl. 'V^'-i

plunderer,

J^l)
S
''

pl.

j-^j thirsty.

s ^ ^

J\^
servant,

,,

tt'ls*^

comrade.

*jl.>.

(*^^

\^^^^

e_^>iJ:

seeker.

Plural of paucity

rare.

follower.

-%llr

pl.

jLJ^^ purified, clean,

.^Vj

j\^\ helper.
S<iP

Not from

defective verbs.

Not derived from


J-cli
pl. <Ujti

defective verbs.

workman,
^l:>pl.

. p

Ss-

ruler.

J.^!^

iLL*.^ perfect.

I)

j^y sleeper.

j>\^

jS^

magician.

_-^Ui

,,

c.^^-,i absent,

_5 Ij ,, 'is\i for tU-J seller. (^^ .77

(j^

>,

u?;-^ warrior) (rare).

132

ARABIC GRAMMAR,

BROKEN PLURALS OF THE MASCULINE AGENT


S ^P Not from
defective verbs.

^^

continued.

BPtOEEN PLURALS.

133
s^ iH^lj
-

5.

BROKEN PLURALS OP THE FEMIXINE AGENT, FORM

131

AEABIC GRAMMAR.
6.

BROKEN PLURALS
(3)

'(4)

\\2)

\l)

BROKEN PLURALS.
OF QUADRILITERALS.
'(4)

OK

(3)

({2)

(i)

136

ARABIC GRAMMAR.

BROKEN PLURALS

BROKEN PLUEALS.
OF
QJJADmLlTERALS conimued.

137

V)

-.(3)

\\2)

\l)

138

ARABIC GRAMMAR.

BROKEN PLURALS OF QUADRILITERALS, miO. continued.

lEREGULAR PLUEAIS.

139

PLURALS OF PLURALS.
(66).

In the measure of the quadriliterals and quinformed plurals of plurals; thus,


(t^^.b hands,
pi. of pi.

queliterals are

Jkj

(^J>j)

pi. JjJ

jU

(o^V.^)

gifts.

Or

a regular plural

may be formed from


;

the broken

plural, but it

must be a feminine plural


road, pi.
pi.

see

(j^,,jO

J;";^

of pi. Cl^'U.!?,

IRREGULAR PLURALS.
(67). Plurals

formed from singulars obsolete and other

than those to which they are referred.


/I motlier, pi.
S''

c:jL^^
it

as if

from

A^.l

'CS

*i mouth,

i^yl

s^
it*

*t water,

iU^l

The two

following are also irregular.


S^
*l-3
O

women,

pi. ii^*3

and ^^y^^
S
(rare
y

O ^(^ ^Lu3\ man,

^i

^/^^^

and poetic) and

ijj\j

From

relative

adjectives a collective plural

may be
'i)^

formed by simply adding the feminine termination


^tiLi
SLafiite, coll. pi. ^C-^Li) the Shafiite sect.

as,

The

table opposite this page (No. 7) contains a general


plurals.

view of the broken

See p. 97 (47).

140

ARABIC GRAMMAR.

EXAMPLES OF THE DECLENSIONS OF NOUNS.


(68). EEGULAELY DECLINED
1,
NOTTNS.

Nouns derived from a verb (except

jist)

and desinner."

noting rational beings; as t^j.^,


PLUBAL.
Fern.

fern. <Lja^
SINGULAR.

"a

DUAL.
Fern,

Masc.

Masc.

Fern.
>>

Masc.

yy o ^

Qy ^ 9
<UJi\^

<-

ur:^'

\,^^'\y*

Subjective

'

c;* ^

x^ ^3>.^
^' o ^

i-^^ls^
^
o 9

Dependent
Obi active

do.

do.

do.

do.

l^X^

LJiX^

2.

Proper names consisting of


is

tliree letters

the middle

of which

quiescent

as Sjj Zeid, a man's

name

ola

ffmd,^ a woman's name.


PLURAL.
Fern.

DUAL.
Fern.

SINGULAR.
Masc.

Masc.

Fem.

Masc.

s^
iX>J^

s<^y

i^\

Subjective

<Axa

JljJ

Dependent
Objective

do.

do.

do.

do.

IjkX^

\jkjj

3.

Proper names of
Arabic ; as

fication in

men having an intelligible j.Ii'* Mohammed (Praised).

signi-

PLURAL,

IMPERFECTLY DECLINED NOUNS.


4.

141
(4) (3) (2) (i),

Broken
\

plurals, except those of the

form

(4) -.(3)

(2) (1),

and those ending in


PLURAL. S

o ov ^T;

as x^\

'lions,"

ij^j

apes."
f

^^

f'}

it^.j

i_\~;\

Subjective

iJu\J

(A~;^

Dependent
Objective

i'wVi

1j<-j^

(69). IMPEErECTLY DECLINED NO0NS.


1.

I'roper

names

of

men

or

women

not included in

classes 2

and 3 of the previous section:

^l^

"Othmau

)j

L2j
Fem.

"Zeinab."
PLURAL.
Masc.
y P ^
(^

DUAL.
Fem.
9

SINGULAR.
Masc.

Fem.
9

Masc.
9
,

^xo-'

^o^
,

^'^9

^-ij
yyi^
*V*N-^.)l

ur
y
.,***J

>_^u.'
'O 9

,Uj>^ -J U'
.

Subjective

y
rr'f.j

O -^
^^.j

Xo ^i>

/Dependent
\

V^^XZ

^-y
>".

ami and

IJ'
(

Objectiv

2.

IN'ouns of the

form Jol, whether comparative or

'

l^;?

descriptive

of

colour

and deformity; as j2jI "more

accomplished."
PLURAL.
Masc.

DUAL.
Masc.

SINGULAR.
Masc.

y 9 y

'^'i-

Kl)

)Ui

A^iil

Subjective

Dependent
^
c;r:

.^i\
^^o.

\^\
1

and

Objective

3.

Nouns

of the form Jiri, adjectival and descriptive,


their feminine

and which do not make


of
I.

by the
last

addition

These are declined like 'j^^ in the


but one.

paradigm

142
4.

ARABIC GEA3IMAR.

Broken

plurals of the form


;

(4) (3)1(2) (i), (4) -.(3) 1(2) (i);


-^.^li^

as

^jd

''dirhems" (drachmce)
9

"keys."

y^

t?'
i-li.

J^l^J
I

Subjective

Dependent
and

^,

\
'

Objective

(70 j. DECLENSION OF
1.

NOtTNS ENDING IN A
*l,

WEAK

lEXTEE,

Nouns ending

in

the hemzeli being radical.


^Tpj ''a

These are declined quite regularly; as


PLURAL.

reader."

DECLENSION OF NOUNS ENDING IN A


3.

WEAK

LETTER. 143

I^ouns endini? in M.
PLUKAL.
DUAL.

SIXOrLAR.

The
plural
ing.

regular
is

want-

J,h^
^Jlc

'Ijjoi

Subjective

<;^
I
^ 1 (

Dependent
and

See p. 130,
note.

SI iw 1 .j^^

Objective

Broken
of this.
4.

plurals in *l are declined like the

singular

Proper names of

men ending
6INGULAB,.

in

as

A.\

"Zachariah."
PLURAL.
DUAL.

Si

XX

un;/j
or

,^vl

XX

^k/0

Subjective

<*

_^

X X or

_-3

x^

r
I

Dependent
and

Si-C:

^^

(ObjecUye

6.

Triliterals
PLURAL.

ending in Tfor j
DUAL.

SINGULAR.
5>

Regular plural
wanting.

l,.-ic

Subjective

!5>

See

p.

96 {b^).

l^<!

Dependent
Objective

do.

l*.3

Similarly
etc.,

tl>1,

^1, etc., for JjI, J>-1,

make

^^j-Jt, jj;^^^^

in the dual.

6.

Nouns ending
PLURAL.

in Jr for
DUAL.
---

Zs,

SINGULAR.
^X

Regular plural
wanting.

^lii

Subjective

See p. 96 (56).

^j:j

Dependent
Objective

do.

':j

144

ARABIC GRAMMAR.
in ,^ (witliout
tlie

Kouns ending

temvin) are similarly

declined in the dual.


7.

Quadriliterals ending in
PLURAL. DUAL.

for j^ or ^^.

SINGULAR.
^Js\i

uW^
.^li

Subjective

^Ij
L^lj

Dependent
Objective

FORMATION OF NOUNS NOT IMMEDIATELY DERIVED FROM


VERBS.
NOTJIi

OF BELATION,
is

(71).

The noun

of relation
all

formed by affixing the


i"

syllable J>^

and rejecting

such inflections as the

of

the feminine, or the signs of the dual and plural, as <LC


relative

JX^;

J^j

"two

Zeids,"

rel.

o'^j; uj^jj

rcl.

In nouns which themselves end in the termination


the relative
is

J)-,

formed by rejecting
letters,

this, if

preceded by
J^^,

more than two


as "^-i
,

and adding the termination

rel.

".-.-i,

so that the

two are

identical in form;
first

but
yds

if

preceded by only one


is

letter,

the

of the two
is

pointed with fethah and the second

changed
If the
also

into ^, as Jj^
first

"an Arab

village," rel. Csyp^,

of the two 7jds

stand in place of a ^

it is

changed into that

letter, as J^l?

"a

fold," rel. ^jr^y^.


is
^

When

the third or fourth letter of a word


it is

the short

alift or ts (see p. 74 c),


relative affix, as

changed into

before the

l^

"staff,"

lsy^\

"youth," lsj^\

THE NOUN OF RELATION.


but
is

115
word,
it

if

the short alif

is

the

fifth

letter in the

apocopated altogether before the termiuation is\ as

^ll?-

"a

bustard," Ls]^'-, "Mustafa" (chosen), ^^J^^^

In forming the noun of relation from nouns ending in


long
alif^

when

radical, the

same rules must be applied


"

which were given


as ^TJ

in the case of the dual (see p. 104),


"jT^I;
^TI.i

"a
and

reader,"
o'^.ljlj
;

^U^ "a sinew


garment,"

in the neck

^\^^
But

''a

,^j,L1^

and

J/^lIi.

if it

be a sign of the feminine, the noun of relation

should be formed with^; as ^T^I^ "red," Jc.V^.

When
final t/d

the termination of a noun

is

occurring after

the second or third letter, and being a substitute for the

with iemvm
.the

^Xg'

p. 75), this
is

is

changed

into

wcuv

and

preceding letter
relation, as

pointed with fclhah in


tZfjili.
it

forming the noun of


If,

^li "a judge,"

however, the

final

yd

follows a quiescent letter,

remains unchanged, as
note
If
2).
it

f^li^

"a fawn," V-'^


a word,
j.-Ii,*

(see p. %Q,

occur as the

fifth letter of

it is

rejected

altogether in the
rel. ilss:^x^]

noun of

relation, as

"inimical,"

ji-Jl^ "grand," "lofty," rel. 'XrlL.^.


is
-. ,

If the penultimate

in nouns derived from verbs


is ivcak^

of which the final radical


'i ,

or in nouns ending in
letter, as

and derived from verbs with a sound middle


for

jji

= j[^Ac

y^)^

'^-^'trPT

^^^ -^r^) the yd


J/^Lc

is

dropped in
of 'Ah',"

forming the relative: as


'^j'^

"a descendant

"of the
;

tribe of Juheineh,"
if

and lj^=^ "Hanefite"


is
;

(a sect)

but

the final radical

sound^ or the medial

tvcak or doubled, the

yd

is

retained

thus

2^

a proper
10

146
name, J<Li^;
'i^i^

AEABIC GRAMMAR.
''fall,"

l^^

-OJ^ "excellent,"

If the second letter of a


this

word be pointed

witli kest^ah,
relative,

vowel

is

changed
J

to fethah in
Tbut
it

forming the

as j^^ "liver," JfJ^r^

if

the kesrated letter follow


either

more than one


at

letter,

may be

changed or not
of the

pleasure:

ZJ^

"Taghleb" (proper name


tribe), J^-lxf or

founder of an Arab

^u5.

In forming
restored to
its

relatives

from plurals the noun must be

regular form, as j^^iT/ "religious duties,"

J^Jj

unless the plural be used as a proper name, as j\aj]


tribe), c/^^^-t;

"Leopards" (name of a
(title of

jl^t "Helpers"
Zfj^^\

the companions of

Mohammed),

IS'ouns of relation

from compound words are formed by


first

adding the termination ^^ to the


"

portion and rejecting


^
;

s
J^IXj

the

last, as

uJCIXj "Eaalbekk,"
first

Jlr

<LlI:^ "fifteen,"
Jj>\^

".j^uX^,

unless the

portion be the words

"son,"
is

or v^ "father," in which case the

noun
Lt

of relation

made

from the
juJpr^;!

last portion only,

asjo

"Abu

Bekr," ^'p/j
'1

"Ibn
"

el

Walid," hlS^\ u^S\\'^ '"Abda

'

^^ ^

In forming the noun of relation from nouns of which


the
first

radical has been apocopated,

the suppressed
letter;

letter is restored, if the last radical

be a weak

as 'L^

"marking,"

tlf^-ij;

but not otherwise, as ij^

"a

promise,"

o'^ "promissory."

In words of which the last letter has been apocopated without any compensatory hemzeh being added, or of

which the medial

letter

has a vowel in the original form,

THE KOUN OF RELATION.


as

147
the missing

0\

(for^l), and 2jl "lip" (for

1^'i.),

letter is restored in

forming the

relative,

;md the com-

pensating

i,

if it exist, is

dropped, as ty\ "paternal,"

^i-i

labial."
;[)\

But

if

the compensating hemzeJi has been

added, as

(for ^^J), or the

middle

letter is quiescent
it

in the original form, as ^S (for ^^j),

may be
as "^1
'"'

restored

or not at pleasure

if restored, it

takes the form of

even though the original radical be

^^
"

or

IjZ ^^'

''filial,"^3ori-p''bloody!"
In words which consist originally of only two
letters

when

the last

is

a sound consonant, this


j*?

may be

either

doubled or not, as

"how much?"
^ tvaw^ it
is

rel.

'^

or

"^

but

if

the last letter be a

always doubled,

asyif,".^-:j.
If the last letter be an
allf^

it is

doubled, and either

hemzeh or

who
^

is

substituted for the second alif thus

obtained, as in

(a proper name),

^^^

JJ^J.
is
",;!.

Another form of the relative termination


IS

This
;

principally used in technical or scientific terms

as

^3U1^
jjjlj!^

"corporeal," ^jl^^j "spiritual," jf^i "external,"

"internal."
irregular

Yery

forms are

f\l "Syrian,"

j2

"of

Yemen."

(These are declined" lilve ^'J).

ABSTRACT NOUN.
(72).

From

the

Noun

of Eolation an Abstract Substan-

tive is
if,

formed by the addition of the feminine termination


"divinity." Li works (especially Christian) the termination
^'!!

as

\ "a god," l^ "divine,"

theological

148

ARABIC GRAMMAR.
"divinity," "deity,"

l?/is used instead, as

c:j.i>i

^zj^

^kingdom

(of heaven)."

THE DIMINUTIVE.
(73).

The diminutive is formed by

inserting

(quiescent

t/d) after

the second letter of the noun, and pointing the

initial letter

with dhammah and the second

letter

with

fethaJi^ as J^-j

"a man," dim. J^j*


letters,
all

if the follow

noun has more than three


-

which

the inserted

are pointed with hesrah^ as

^j^
is

"a drachma," dim.


not a radical, but

1-,^^^.

In such nouns, however,


is

if

the additional letter

one of the feminine affixes

l,

i^^or ^T, the inserted alif of such forms as the broken

plural

3^1, or the termination

'J\

added to proper names


original pointing with

or epithets, such letter retains


fethah, as

its

?^5 "a date," dim. 'i^]


m;;.^',

^j^
dim.

"small," dim.
"loads," dim.

^jli^;

r{J^ "red," dim.

'S^\

jU-^1;

^UU,

proper

name,

J^^^^ J^j^

"drunk," dim. 'j^j-^


In nouns where the characteristic vowel has changed a weak radical into another weak radical homogeneous with
itself,

such radical
;

is restored,

as cJ^? (for

^j?) "^ door,"


l^;^, (for Ifj^^)

^;
'
'

4.15 (for
' '

410
weak

"a

fang,"

^1^

a balance,

j^-o^
letter before the inserted 1 of the
^ luaw^

quiescent
is

diminutive

changed to

as

^j\^

aim.

c-^.^-i

Jj^ "a
the

lion," dim.

j^*^;

^-^^.j ^^^'

^^5-

^^^

^^
it

weak

letter occur after the 1


-.,

ya

of the diminutive,

becomes

as

f.^

"a key," dim. ^ill; Jji^ "a small

bird," dim.J-ilsi.

THE DlillNUTIVE.
The reason
teristic

149

for these last

two

rules

is

ohvious, because the charac-

vowels of the diminutive form are dhammak at the beginning


at the end,

and kesrah

and consequently these vowels influence any


occur in these respective positions.

"weak letters which

may

"When the

last syllable of the

noun of more than three

letters con-

tains a long vowel, such

vowel
-.

is

influenced by the kesrah characteristic


rules of permutation already
letters

of the form, and becomes


given, as ji-.2j., dim.

yd by the

^i^.,.2s:..

In nouns of four

of
-.

which
of the

the third

is

a long vowel, such long vowel coalesces with the


^lli.

diminutive, as

slave boy," dim. ^-J-i for

*--]-::

When

there are

more than four


is

radical letters in the

word, the diminutive


rule for quadriliterals,
letter, as Js^jSl^

formed by applying the above


all after

and rejecting
^^.a-!.

the fourth

" quince,"
for

Sometimes the rejected


?/d
-. ,

letters are

compensated

by

inserting a

as ^_^}^

In nouns which contain

five or six letters,

but which
or verb,

are derived forms of the simple triliteral

noun

the diminutive

is

formed by rejecting the servile (or


but not the

characteristic) letters of the derived form,

participial prefix * mim, as ^^jsX^-* " deducing," dim.

^-.s^;

<__>,k.2^

amtated,

'

ami.

c-j.-..::^.

In words which are feminine in meaning, but not in


form, or which are arbitrarily considered as feminine,

the feminine termination


as ,j^

is

added

to the diminutive,

eye," ^^-^^

jM

house,"

Sji*'^'

In nouns of two

letters

from which the third has been


is

apocopated, such apocopated letter


diminutive, as *j (^V*^) "blood,"

restored

in

the

J^x>j.

If anything has been substituted for the apocopaterf


letter,
it is

dropped in the diminutive, as

'^^A^

"Z,

Ji*

150
for '\a^,

ARABIC GRAMMAR.
unless
tlie

J^,

substituted letter be tbe femiit

nine termination, in which, case


"lip,"

tli.

In 1^^] "sister,"

is

retained, as

tsJ:,

"daughter," the

feminine termination cj assumes


diminutive, which becomes aLl^l
,

its

usual form in the

illL

In nouns of more than three


has been dropped, this
as j^Ij
is

letters of

which a radical

not restored in the diminutive,

"a

Cadi,"

J^y
by the foregoing
^^^J^ijjj;

Diminutives of plurals of paucity, or of regular plurals,

may be
*J-Jl
;

obtained
^j>vj

rules, as ^S^\

ribs,"
eJiJu^i).

Zeids,"

e^^ioc^

Jdmds,'

Broken

plurals of multitude, however, are not sus-

ceptible of a

diminutive form
is

this

is

only obtained

from the singular, which

then inflected with a regular

plural masculine in the case of rational masculine nouns,

and a regular feminine plural in the case of feminine or


irrational
3jii&

nouns

as

AJ^L "poets,"
(from
J<i>);

^^jyi*)^

(from^l);

"Hinds,"

ilS\sx.i,

o^^

"camels," e-jil^?-

(from J/i^).

Compound nouns take


first

the diminutive only in the


as

part
;

of
I

the compound;

tllCbJ
I

"Baalbekk,"
.A^
<u.k>-

'

'

lI^-Lxj

aJJIjoj:

" fifteen," yLs.

Abd d^-^.

allah,"

^lilj^^;

Declinable nouns only are susceptible of

.a

diminutive.

Diminutives of the demonstrative

pronouns occur,
is
IJ

though

rarely,

and their

initial

vowel

always fetliah
"that,"
fern.

instead of dhammah, as

"that," bj;

C"; tl<:JU "that,"

cbbj;

c/|i "who," bSi; Jl^ "who,"

fem. LJl.

THE PERSONAL PROXOUNS.

151

THE PRON"OUNS.
(74).
affixed,

The Pronouns

are of two kinds,

separate

and

PERSONAL PRONOUNS.
1.

The

separate pronouns are

1st person

2iid

3rd

These only express the nominative


^a and

case.

before the conjunctions ^

and

may
;

lose
Ol is

their first vowel

and become

^^j,

^i and

^^!tj, ^^.i

pronounced ana (not and), and is considered in poetry as consisting of two short syllables.
2.

The

affixed pronouns are

"

152
because
it

4rtAEIC

GRAMMAE.

serves to prevent confusion in verbs, the inconsist

flexions of which,

when they would otherwise be absorbed by

of short vowels,

the letter of prolongation.

This confusion actually takes place in nouns, there being

no distinction between the various cases of a noun when


the pronoun of the
first

person

is

affixed to

it

as ^l::|
etc.

''my book," (nom. and

objective),
is

"of

my

book,"

The nun of
particles

precaution

often

used with certain

which resemble

"that,"

IP

verbs, such as lj\ "verily," ^J\ "but," y.^ "as if," ^Q "perhaps." It is

always used with

6^
it

"would

that."

It is also

used

with the particles ^^^, ^^ "from," and J\ "that;" geneWith li or i in the rally with 'JS\ "with," "near."
sense of ''enough,"

may be

used, but

is

more

fre-

quently rejected.

It is not unfrequently
first

employed when

the pronoun of the


j2s1 l^,

person

is

added to the form


cCJ\

expressing admiration,

as

^ j^
!

\J^j^^

^*

"

How much

I need the forgiveness of

God

CHANGES IN TOWELS,
(76). After a long
4'i;il^^

ETC.,

BEFOEE THE AFFIXED FEONOTJNS.

vowel ^^ becomes

as Ijlk^ " sins,"

"my

sins."

The pronouns
Jcesrah

of the third person,

when preceded by
to kesrahj as ^'bi,

or ^'j change their


;

dhammah

" (of) his book "

j:^!^

" upon them."

N.B. If a hemzei
pronoun, the

el-wasl follows the plural masculine

mm

must be pointed with


!"

as ^'hJ\ *^J-c

"peace be upon them

The feminine termination Tbecomes - before the affixed pronoun, as Ij}:4 "writing," l^i^ll^ "her writing."

As

the

addition

of

the

affixed

pronoun serves

to


THE PEESONAL PROXOUXS.

153

make
The

the

noun

definite,

tlie

tenwin necessarily disap-

pears (see p. 7).


il)

of the regular plural

and the

ij

of the dual are


ilj'c^

omitted before the affixed pronouns, as

"his two

books;"

iJ,'-i

"his strikers."
first

With
the
^
/; P- 75).

the affixed pronoun of the

person singular
for
lJ^^.J^

and

coalesce into ^J

as

Ijj^

(by

Similarly the

mute

is

di'opped in the third person

masc. plural of the preterite, as

i^

" they wrote

it."

A TEHB GOVEEIfING TWO


(77).

ACCTTSA.TIVE PEONOUIS'S.

When

a verb governs two accusatives, and both


iS<u2o.^\

of these happen to be affixed pronouns, as

" I gave

thee

it,"

the second

may be
b]_

either joined

or written

separately, the

word

being used as a peg on which to

hang

it;

thus iM

lL^';^L\

"I gave thee


the

it."

If the two pronouns are joined, the natural order of

the persons must be followed,

1st preceding the

2nd, and the 2nd coming before the 3rd.

N.B. The
(1)

separate form with

U]_

can

onl}^

be used

in a case like that given above,

where two affixed


;

pronouns would otherwise come together

or

(2)

where

an affixed pronoun would immediately follow the pronominal termination of a verb, both referring to the same
person, as

d^ "I was
(3)

he," where
it is

^KA^

<jl^ would bo

preferred; or
sative

where

required to place the accufor the

pronoun before the verb


''''Thee

sake of emphasis,

as jJtj o'ol

we worship."
folis

When

pronouns of the second person plural are

lowed by another affixed pronoun, a long j

introduced

154.

ARABIC GRAMMAR.
/>

;>0

-'

OS
''I

f ?

9f'-"'

cS

between the two, as S=J^\


gave you
it,"

gave you,"
^^.^krl

iy%L-J^:2.z\

"I
it"

f4^^ "you gave,"

"you gave

(^

appears to have been the origmal

full

form of the

termination of these pronouns).

NOTE ON THE PKONOMINAL SIGNIFICATION OP THE INFLECTIONS OF VERBS.

(78).

The

last rule

assumes a fact -which the student will do well to

bear ia mind, namely, that the prefixes and affixes by which the different
persons of a verb are formed are in reality nominative pronouns
:

the

affixes serve for the preterite, the prefixes for the aorist, the tense itself

being indeclinable

thus
act of
killing " in the preterite

Jij expresses the mere

J^

"he

killed"

{^q fethah

representing the pronoun


is

Tie).

LSi.^ "she killed" (the fethah again

the pronoun and

lU

is

the feminine termination, which in nouns assumes the

form
<^:Ji:xi

i).
(^Ji^
is

"l

killed"

the pronoun

in the preterite of

verbs)} and so on.

Jij expresses the mere


f^pjb
/.^'o^

act of
is

killing" in the aorist:

"he

kills"

(j

the pronoun he with the aorist).

J^*

" she

kills," etc. (j is the

pronoun she with the

aorist),

and so on.

DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS.
(79).

The Demonstrative pronoun

is

"that," and

is

thus declined
PLURAL.

THE DEMONSTRATIVE PHONOITNS.


Ij
is

155
it

seldom used by

itself,

and when

forms a

compound the feminine singular assumes the form ^l or /i at the end, and li or cp at the beginning.
9

"When J J
follows

signifies

"possessor" (seep. 99),

it is

fully declinea as

PLUKAL.
Fem.
' ^
-.

DUAL.
Masc.

SINGULAR.
Fem.
9
.

Fem.
f

Masc.

Masc.

"i

M
M

_jJ

Subjective

(_cj

Dependent

MJ

IJ Objective

For the ordinary demonstrative denoting distant ob-

jects

is

compounded with the


asLl^^i "that."
DUAL.
Fem.
Masc.

affixed pronouns cJ. d/,

Ul,

^or^!^;
PLURAL.
Masc.

SINGULAR.

Fem.

Fem

Masc.

d/lj
I

Subjective

Dependent
lI/Ij tl>-J
,

and

(Objective

More usually the emphatic J


case the
\

is

interposed, in wliich

is

written defectively in the singular, as di^ j

see p. 15

(3).

In the dual the two liquids J aud'^

coalesce into

156

ARABIC GRAMMAR.
is

defectively wi'itten, as Ui) "this," wliicli

declined as

follows
^LURAL.


THE ARTICLE.
""^^^o-"" is sometimes,

157
rarely, declined

[cT*
Fem.

though very

PLURAL.
Maso.

DUAL.
Fem.
C^

SINGULAR.
Mssc.
O X
.:>,

Fem.

Masc.

^O^

Li)""*
o^o
-^

Subjective

o o^ ^
j^/#

Dependent
Objective]

L,

l^ is indeflinable.

\_Note.\^ and
that
is,

its

compounds are
for

also indeclinable;

they are not susceptible of inflexions for case;

endings

the

inflexions

number and gender not

being considered by the Arabic grammarians as declension.]


'J\

"who" is declined like a compound word may be formed with


(fem. 'L\)
^^"*

regular noun.
this

and the

relatives.

and
\.'',^\

I*,

which will then have the sense of


KXA "whatsoever."
is

"-soever," as
first

"whosoever "

The

portion of this

compound

declinable.

THE ARTICLE.
(81).

The

article ^t is indeclinable.

It is used with
1.
2.

nouns
;

to specify

The
The

individual

as

^S^\

"the Cadhi" (in question).

species i^jiS\

" the horse " (as distinguished

from the camel,


3.
il>,jj5t

etc.); ^^lliit

"mankind."
inir

To distinguish an individual "El Medina," the city (i.e. of

excellence

as

the Prophet).

4.

To make an

epithet into a proper


lit.

name

or sohriquet',

as

lijQ\ "Al narith,"


5.

"the ploughman.'
as

In certain proper names;


etc.

^wS "the

(idol)

Ashtoreth,"

158

ARABIC GRAMMAR.
of the Eelative pronouns

The use

and of the Article

is

treated of in detail in the Syntax.

THE mjMERALS.
(82).

THE CARDINAL NUMBERS.

THE CARDINAL NUMBERS.

159

IGO

ARABIC GRAMMAR.

MASCULINE.

90
100

1.

t..

The word

il,L

"hundred"

is

com-

mon 200
r..

to

both genders.

i^/-o>w

100

<o

1000 the numerals go-

vern the singular of the noun numbered,

300 400
500 600
700

r..

which they put in the oblique


!;>.

case, as

" a hundred men. " ^j L

f..

"When the hundreds are compounded


with units, they are put in the oblique

c
1.. v..

aL't*

{J*^'

case of the singular.

4 5,

[tOU*
;>

is

pronounced as

if

written

o.
..<)

iu.^

mi-atun.']

800

A,.

Ou

v,*j

Jlj
900
1000
^..

t...

i\ \

"a thousand"

is

common

to

both genders.

2000
3000

r...

r...

Thousands compounded with units


follow the rules above given,
treated as a thing numbered.
i.e.

they are
for

Thus
,

4000
5000

f...

3000 to 10000 the broken plural


is

iJJ

used in the oblique case

from 10000

to

99000 the accusative singular ujl


used; and from 100000 upwards the

6000
7000 8000 9000

T...

is

oblique singular c^ jA ]
V...

A...

^..

ORDIXAL NUMBERS,

161

162

ARABIC GILiMMAR.

MASCULINE.

VARIOUS CLASSES OF NUMERALS.

1G3

(84).
1.

OTHER CLASSES OF NUMERALS.


are formed as follows
{lit.

The adverbial numerals


^ ft ^
^^o^
a,j

ij^,

once

one time, one turn,

etc.).

L3I3 or i ,^ -^J "^

j\j o^
liJ^lj

or Lj[i "i,^ twice.

-J

or

<i'i3lj

i--^

thrice.

And

so on.

"We may
unity, thus

also use the objective case of the

noun of

fjj^ij^

<ijj^ <^ij'^

he struck him once, twice,

etc.

2.

The

distributive numerals are


jls^-l
?

or JkT*-*^ one
yO ^
,,

by one.
--O

^O

*Uj

jc^*

or (^i>J^

u;:?^^

two by two.

;^
y
^^i

,,

cLJi^ three by three.


j-^;-* four

cbj

,,

by

four.

And

so on.

These are imperfectly declined.


3.
'O y
J_ft,-

The
sin<?le

multiplicative numerals are


^
y 9

..^1^
s i^ p
r->_y*

triple, threefold.

\S^
4.

double, twofold.

quadruple, fourfold, square.

And

so on.

The

adjectival numerals are


S
'9
I

S _P

^Uj

dual, consisting of

two

^rlj

quadruple, consisting of
four.

^J^

treble, consisting of three.

And

so

on

164
6.

ARABIC GRAMMAR.
Fractions are
5 O fc-ji.^ half.

cj^^jj or 4-lJj or cj^ij a third.

^
.

9 >
'

l^>

'^^J

ti;
etc.

t^J a

fourth,
j >

^he

plural of these

to

fractions is of the

^ *:

^/'

""^''atPTith

form

3Q5
by the use
of

The

fractions above a tenth are expressed

the words
^

" part," ^.* ^Ij^


_

'^

parts of," as
-g-^tb.

^''^

U^
6.

U^iy^

cJ/ ^LrT'

"^^

^ P^^*'^ ^^"^^ parts,

The recurring numerals


..iJdn
lilJ

are

every third.

^j^^ Ujj every fourth.

7.

Approximate numbers are expressed

as follows

^j

''a few," used with the units from 3 to

9, as

"The Greeks

are conquered in the nearer parts of the earth, but

they shall conquer after being conquered in a few years."

Kor.
and

XXX.

1.

^^J "

a few more," used with the tens, hundreds


:

thousands, as

l^ ]

Iji^ " upwards of ten."


^.-vjJ ^t

Sometimes the words

"or they exceed " are

used in imitation of the passage of the Koran.

"

And we

sent

him

to a

hundred thousand or more."

Kor. xxxvii. 147.

PREPOSITIONS.
Similarly el-I3elia Zolieir has

65

" I kissed him on his cheek, and counted a thousand kisses or


ssr
'

therealouts.''*

about,"

jl

J^-^jj

" what exceeds," and similar


also

expressions, followed
sense.

by the number, are

used in this

PAETICLES.
(85).

Under the head

Particle the Arabs include Pre-

positions, Conjunctions,

Adverbs, and Interjections.

PREPOSITIONS.
(86).

The

prepositions are either inseparable

(i.e.

are

written as one word with the following noun) or separable.

The
namely

inseparable
.

prepositions

are

five

in

number,

t__j

in,

by, with, etc.


9

This,

when

joined with the affixed pro-

9.^9
*-&, U..&,

nouns

>,

changes their dhammah into

see

LU
.

by
by

(a particle of swearing).
(ditto).

to (with
like.

pronouns this

is

pointed with fethah).

The

separable prepositions are

Jl

166

ARABIC GRAMMAR.

jy

"above," L^J "in the midst,"

etc.

These are not pro-

perly reckoned as particles.

All prepositions take the following nouns in the depen-

dent case.
CONJUNCTIONS.
(87).

The

conjunctions are also either inseparable or

separable.

The

inseparable conjunctions are


.

and,

u_i and so (as a consequence of

what has gone

before).

The
J\

principal separable conjunctions are


"when.

COJfJUNCTIONS

AND INTERJECTIONS.

167

Or
I/.

separable, of
c

which the most common are


yes.
loJi

^ S
,

0=r^
\S\
,

oj ^.
,

or

j^.'w

ever, never.
is
all).

,.,w^l

then, in that case.

Lii only (and that


Si already.

^1

U1
^1

won't

K
3

certainly not.
no, not.

u],

verily.

J
,

not.

UJ not

yet.

UJ

only.

never, not at all.

^1 whether,
tive of

or (alterna-

Us not.

1)

-5^ when?
Jji>

how?
where
?

whether (interrogative).
here.

^1

UJJ>

Jj nay,

rather.

cLyil^, LlXJuji) there.

Such adverbs

as

S^^t?

"afterwards,"

(^Cj

"before," which
;

are merely nouns in an adverbial case

and

indefinite

nouns in the adverbial accusative, as


included in this
particles.
list,

\Sj1

"ever," are not

since they are not, strictly speaking,

INTERJECTIONS.
(89).

The
t
\

principal interjections are:


oX
i)\

lal

Uij

ij

ci>

ah! alas!
oh

f\

ho

etc., etc.

great

many

other words are used as interjections,

but are in reality verbs or nouns, and are therefore not


included amongst the particles.
All particles arc indeclinable, and as such need not be

168

ARABIC GRAMMAR.

discussed in the Accidence, which treats of the inflexion


of words.

They

are

all fully

described, with their influ-

ence on other words, in the Syntax.

IMITATIVE SOUNDS.
Note.

Imitative
;

sounds are indeclinable, and they

neither govern a following word, nor are governed

by

any preceding one


=>
J

such are
Used in
calling camels to drink.

^^J>
U>-

Ji

ft.

l!>-

lid hd.
A' d.

sheep
goats

,,

\z Ic

jjli

Ghdki.
Tdki,

Imitating the cawing of a crow.

jjll?

,,

sound of a blow.

J^

Tak.

stone falling.


169

PART II.-SYNTAX.

SECTION I.THE VEEB AND THE NOUN.


THE TENSES OF TERES.
There are three tenses in Arabic
Aorist, and the Imperative.

the

Preterite, the

I.

THE PEETERITE.

(90).

The

Preterite denotes a completed act, but the


it

time at which
defined

took place
or

is left

indeterminate, unless
particle.

by the context
act
is

by some

Thus the

may be

completed only at the moment


it,

when

the speaker

describing

as

God
all

bless the

day on which thou

art saved.

I pardon for

its

sake

the crimes of time gone by."

Or

the effect

may

still

remain, as

He

only shall repair the Mosques of

God who

believes in

God."

Kor. ix. 18.

So an Arab author, in citing a verse of poetry, employs


the expression, js\h\ Jli
Uif ''as

the poet says^

Or

it

may

express a foregone conclusion, such as na-

170

ARABIC GEAMMAE.

turally occurs in hypothetical or conditional sentences, as


lLsXj lL-Xj

^\

"

if

you

rise,

I will rise."
to

Here the idea expressed seems


sition

be

"

if this

suppo-

be granted, namely, you have

risen,

then you

may

consider this, too, as granted, namely, that

/ have

risenJ^

similar idea seems to influence the English colloquial

idiom, "if

you do

that,

you are

lost," or

"are a dead

man;" where "you


apparent preterites.

are lost," "are a dead

man," are
very

From common

this use of the preterite results another

use in Arabic, namely, in precative sentences, as

IfHij '^\ ^XS\

"may God
3

perpetuate your existence I"

And
you
!

with

"not," in averting anything undesirable,


tl.<-i
ctill

or in cui'sing, as "
(91).

t^^b

"may God

not bless

The

preterite of the verb


is

"^ with

the preterite of
^li jjj

another verb

equivalent to the pluperfect, as

'^i

"Zeid had stood up."

But the

pluperfect

is

more usually expressed by the


j^',

preterite preceded

by

the particle

with or without the

conjunction J.

The

particle j^ restricts the preterite to a time actually .^J^

past, as

S-'j

^^^

"^

"Prophets have come

to

you

before me."

We use
*

the pluperfect, designating the action that had

taken place before the occurrence of the event which


There
is

we

a well-known Arabic jest about a Bedawi, who, on being asked by one of


sale, replied curtly 1

the Caliphs whether a sheep which he was carrying was for

"no."

The Caliph reproved him


add
^

for his

want of politeness, and


bless

told

him that he should always


as above,

CX^ i^
p
I

CJj\i " God


-^

you "
!

whereupon the Arab replied

-*o

^ ^ ^

THE MOODS OF YEEBS.


are describing; the Arabs,

171

on the contrary, prefer to

mention the circumstance or condition resulting from such


previous action.
II.

THE AOEIST.

(92).

Like the
of time,

The Aorist denotes an act not yet completed. somewhat indeterminate in respect until defined by the context or by particles.
preterite, it is

THE MOODS OF YERBS.


The
aorist
is

susceptible

of

certain

inflexions'

to

express the various moods.


THE INDICATIVE MOOD.

In the direct or indicative mood, the


it is

aorist

ends in

used in

all

direct narration.

CHANGE OF THE VOWEL IN THE AORIST.


SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.

(93).

The

aorist of a

verb changes

its final

vov*^el -^

into jl, to express the subjunctive mood.

This change takes place

when

the verb

is

preceded

by any one
1.

of the following particles

may

^J ''that" (Latin ut\ visit you."


5

^J}

^!

^ "I
"the

wish that I

2. ^J='((^1

= J ^^C
as

"it will not happen that") =

"certainly not,"

J-^Ji j^^

miser

will

certainly not be liberal."


3.

^^\{

^\ ^p

"then," in that case, in answer to the

'

Two

of these inflexions, the -?- and

jective cases of nouns,

arc identical with the subjective and oband the Arab grammarians give the same name to both. The
,

remaining case, the dependent, has the apocopated form of the aorist for
in
tlie

its

parallel

verbs.

"

172
question

ARABIC GRAMMAR.
/-xo^O
9
O-^

-^

"what if?"

'LA\

J^jJ ^^\

''

tlien

thou shalt
liJI^T

enter Paradise," in answer to the question

allU

^[

"what
From

if

I believe in

God?"
^^1
,

this it will
is

be seen that the particle

expressed

or understood,

the real instrument in forming the sub-

junctive mood, and changing the _L of the aorist into jl.

The

ellipse of

^1,

especially, takes place after the

particles

"to, that,"

^ "in
rfi^J

order,"

^)
_^

"in order

to,"

jjL^ "until;" and after the conjunctions

and

uIj, as

m\ Ci3
^Ji'y
L5

" That God may pardon thee."

^-"^^^

"l

carae in order that I


(for

may

visit

Cjj^}. '^JS
C-^^iij

c^U
^-^^

you"
)

JJ J
or
till

^,.0).

L_s^^^ C/^^^

2^^^ the thief


(for

he repent''

^]

j^).

J-mjIi

j^Jlb

es**)^

"l am

content to flee and save

myself."

^Jl

<

>

JLj, cLC>/J^

JSU

Job

"Do

you eat

fish and.

drink milk

(at the

same time)?"

Ci3jblj

^je>.Uj

li

"Do

not punish

me

so that

perish."
,*i*li j^jJ^
gi

<!iJl

Juj Jj&

"is Zeid

at

home, so that I
?

may

go to him
t-

l^

is also

understood with the ellipse of some other word

after j^, as

^1

dTjjl

jl

u^v^n

^^u^^ "I
u/,^^

will brave

hardships, or meet

my

fate,"

where ^j^\

is

equi-

valent to

^^CSA J

Jl^

"till that I

meet

my

death;"

THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.


U-ijlj
or
j1

173

^yi

cLyLf " I will break


straight,"
i.e.

its

joints (a cane spear)


1>\

it sliall

come

^J^^ J

J^

"unless that

it

come

straight."

After the affirmative particle

in such expressions, as
torment the righteous."

^^^JUI

t__>A.tJ c'Ul

.li

"God

will not

of J\ with the aorist in fethah, except in the instances given above, is rare, although it does

The suppression

sometimes occur, as
a
SjissT^ i>j^
t

Tell

him

(to) dig it."

XX? ox yox (^jo-b JJJ ^>^\

-Si^-O

^^

"Catch the

thief before

he catch you."

The conjunction ^t with the subjunctive mood must


occasionally be translated as a negative, " in order not."
xOS
1

oS

f-0-<3

OxO-O

-C

X ^
X

O^
"

-Ji-O

X y

OxO X x
X

^x''

>

*'*

XX

xl

XX
O

"x

/oi X

" Those who

believe in

God and

the last day will not ask permis-

sion of thee that they should not engage in the holy

war with

their pro-

perty and persons."

I^.B.
fetJiah
tion.

The change

of the final vowel of the aorist to

always implies a subjunctive or subordinate condi-

THE APOCOPATION OF THE FIXAL VOWEL OF THE AORIST.


(94).

The

aorist of the

verb

is

the only part of speech

which can

lose its final

vowel altogether.
in either one or

The apocopation may take place


verbs.

two

The

cases in

which one verb

loses its

final syllable are

the following

174
1.

ARABIC GRAMMAR.
After J "not," and U] ''not yet," wMcli always give
aorist, as

a past negative sense to the


*ij

He

did not stand."


the

_s~l

'

"^^^

^ J "^W"

" He came, and

dawn had not

yet appeared."

2.
IJj

After

tlie particle

J nsed

in an imperative sense, as

Cv^^

"let Zeid strike."


is

\Note.

This
^

the regular form of imperative for

all

except the second person.


its

When
him

preceded by
strike."]
^

c_J,

loses

vowel, as t-r^-ii " so let


3.

After

prohibitive, as

^^J

"do not

strike."

PARTICLES WHICH APOCOPATE THE AOBIST OF TWO TERES.

(95).

There are thirteen particles which apocopate the

aorist of two verbs

jn*^
^ o

J-wwC'

If you are lazy, you will como to want."

Ui^ " Whenever that."


LjT ^1j ibt
,.,^ i__alj

^
shalt

-^1

e:^^
to

CUlJ'

UJ^

lI^jI

"And

thou,

whenever thou

come

what thou commandest


(to thee)."

Thou

wilt find

him whom thou commandest coming

^ "Whosoever."
<!j

JsT Vy^

ti'*''V.

c;'*

Whosoever does

evil,

shall be

recom-

pensed therewith."

The hemzet
it,

el-wasl, with
it

which the

article
;

commences, requires a vowel to

precede

in order that

may be pronounced

the su/cun of the apocopated aorist

jjioj

is

therefore changed into kesrah

(see p. 13).

THE APOCOPATED AOEIST.

175

U^^ and
aill

" Whatsoever."
UUiJ'

i^Asfj

j^\i

" Whatsoever good ye


" Whatsoever thou

do,

God knoweth
thou shalt

it."

tXs^r c-^Jlij*
SI-

U.-^.'^

seekest,

find.

o"^

"Whichever."
t<

^Lk-j-M cdi LiJkj

By whichever

ye

call

on Him,

for to

Him

..<w>Jl

belong the most excellent names.'*

\i\

and
o^
-'^

^* "Whenever."
^ o-o

^S

^x
^:.^

^.i

jO' ^'^l.wJl -(t-Jl

"when

I pat off

my

turban, ye will

know me."
J'.x>

^Jl

iO J<AxJ'

t<

j_^,ljli

"whenever
descends."

the

wind sways

it,

it

\^\

" Whenever "

(poetical).

jj^rsxj 'LA*a:>~ CX*^_^, ijl J

Whenever poverty
patience."

assails you,

have

[in both the above examples Jjij and


y

J-*^ are for J^j ^ y

and J-/*^"

for the sake of the

rhyme.]

Ul^,
(.:LJy^^\

jl,

^1 "Wherever."
^'*^.^

(S^j'^i V'^^*

" Wherever ye
you."

are,

death will reach

CO*
U*^^^
9
\

O ^

-iii.

L/**!;^
^ O

t-i^

Where you

sit,

I will sit."

-i

'

''

O-^^

<0j\

lLsS jiA^.

--^Ji)3kJ'

U.la>.

Where you
success
>>

go,

God

will grant

you

U
K*>-

"However."
i__5^l..2J"

<^ vJ

^"'".s^

However you
good luck."

turn,

you encounter

'

176

ARABIC GRAMMAR.

and ^^ are true particles, the remaining eleven are really nouns implying a condition or hypothesis
jj^
;

they are
'^

all

undeclined, except
^

^^-T,

which makes J}L

cuX
with
Ik.^ ,

J,

and j^ do not apocopate the


''

aorist unless joined

U=

soever."

U and

are never joined with

the rest

may

be either joined with


Note.

or not.
is

after

an indefinite noun

equivalent to the

English "a certain," or " any whatever," as

/*V.^^

cT? ^y.

77

/^

<-^^
^'*

'-^ certain

man went
^^^

out one day."

\^ ^L^-j

'^^.'.b

'

*^^^ ^*^'

^y ^^ whatever."

The n
the ^ of

of the tenwin in this case always coalesces with

U, which

is

then doubled; thus

J4"J P^O"

nounced rajulu mma.


In a conditional sentence, when the
clause
is

aorist of the second

not introduced

by one

of the conjunctions J or

uJ,

its last syllable is

apocopated, as
"visit

CS^j^\ iAjj

me

I will honour you."


JUSSIVE MOOD.
^^^

THE ENERGETIC
(96).

AISTD

The
is

syllables

^"and

added

to the aorist or

imperative give greater force to the expression, and the

second

stronger than the

first.

They

are used in

affirmation, interrogation,

command, or

prohibition.

The

affirmative

is also

generally prefixed in forming these


still

moods, especially in the jussive, to give

greater

emphasis: as

THE CASES OF NOUNS.

177

"

We

see tlie turning about of

thy face in the heavens

but

we

"will

surely cause thee to turn to a point of adoration


please thee."

which

shall

Ivor.

ii.

139.

"

my

children,

God has chosen the

religion for you, so do not, pray,

die except ye are Muslims."

Kor.
if

ii.

126.

j_5'JJi

(5^
it

fS-^-xJ ^,

v^^li

1**^=^ L^,:^ '^^f^l

*^

Go down from

both together;

and

there shall
ii.

come

to

you

guidance from me," etc.^Iyor.

36.

" Ye

shall surely see hell

yes,

ye surely shall see

it

with the eye of

certainty
life."

then shall ye surely be asked concerning your luxurious

III.

THE
is

IMrERATIVE.

(97).

The Imperative
it

used in precisely the same

manner
(p.

as in other languages.

We

have already seen

30) that

exists only in the second person,

and that

for the other persons the apocopated

form of the aorist

with the affirmative J prefixed

is

employed.

The

prohibitive

is

obtained in the same manner, by


all

apocopating the aorist for

persons and prefixing

THE CASES OF NOUNS.


(98).

In Arabic short vowels are used as terminations

to express the different cases.

is nominative, direct or subjective. is genitive, oblique or dependent. is accusative, conditional, or objective.


12

178

ARABIC GRAMMAR.
furtlior

In nouns these are doubled to express


indefinite

the

nature of the thing (see


so doubled,

p. 7).

When

they are pronounced with an n


(4) p. 6).

sound called ^i"^ (see

[In verbs only _L and' JL are used, and the aorist


the only tense capable of being modified by them.]

is

THE SUBJECTIVE
(99).

CASE.

The following

require the subjective or nomina-

tive case

The agent

or subject of a verb

j.jJ

tl^ "Zeid
;

struck."

The nominative

or subject of a passive verb

as jJj tl^^

"Zeid was struck."

Both the subject and predicate of a simple sentence in


which the simple copula
pressed
"e's" is either omitted, or ex-

by yb

as
*jljj
tf

Jl>;

Zeid

is

standing."

/ yo OS

*Jlj Axi\

Knowledge
" God
is

is

useful."

^J^

y&

diil

the living one.**

THE AGENT AND THE VERB.


(100).

The agent

is

put in the subjective case.

The agent
'Amr."

follows the verb,

and the object of the


joj

action follows the agent; as Vj^

tl^ "Zeid

struck

This order must be invariably observed in the


:

following cases
1.

"When, from the noun being unable to exhibit the

case-endings (see p. 100), an ambiguity would otherwise


arise; as

^^ ^J^\ CJji "the youth struck John."

THE AGENT AND THE YERB.


2.

179

When When

the agent

is

a pronoun inseparable from the


didst strike Zeid."
is

verb; as ISjJ
3.

\^ji "thou
verb

the object of the action

separated from

the

agent and
^^l

by the word

i\

"except,"

as
(lit.

l^

jjj

i^j^

Zeid struck no one hit

Amr"
Ij

*'Zeid struck

not save 'Amr").


is

The agent
"thou

either (1) exjDressed separately, as

^li

"Zeid stood;"

or (2) inseparable from the verb, as lI^jJJ

didst strike,"

where the pronominal


;

affix

tL' is

regarded as the agent

or (3) expressed, but separated


fl

altogether from the verb, as lLj!

il/J

"none struck

but thee."
verb

The agent cannot be


e.^.

suppressed, though the

may;

in

answer
reply,

to the question Ili

"who

stood?" you

may

1^ "Zeid."

But the agent immediately follows the object and verb when the object is an affixed pronoun and the agent an
expressed noun or separate pronoun, as
tXjJ

i^j-^

Zeid struck me."

^* H
\j\ ^\^

IjjJ <__^J

"No

one struck Zeid but

I."

Similarly,

when

the

agent has an affixed pronoun

referring to the subject, as lil uVJ

tl^

"Zeid's slave

struck

him"

(lit.

"his slave struck Zeid"

= ^P
,

jJJ lii),

in such a case
it is

not

we must not say fjuj '^Jl CJJi because admissible to make the pronoun refer to a noun
:

not yet expressed

in other words,

the relative cannot

precede

its

antecedent.
is

When
word
^1^,

the agent

separated from the verb

by the

the object immediately follows


Ijf \\ Ij^j

the verb, as

in the above example,

cl^ U.
rules

If none of

the

above-mentioned

apply,

you

ISO

ARABIC GRAMMAR.
either put the agent last or not, as
jjj
\j\s.

may
^J^

j.jj

i^ji or

CJJi "Zeid struck 'Amr."


the action
is restricted

When
<#

by the

particles UJ^ or

^Jj

to the object, the usual order is preserved, as


o
''

iro^

y ^

\jA. J^J

^J^^ UJ^

"it

is

only 'Amr

whom

Zeid has struck."

\jA. fs

'Si)

c_jyi? t

" Zeid has not struck any one but Amr.


is

But

if

the action of the verb

restricted to the subject

or agent, the object precedes, as


jjj \jA.
k-r-Vf^

^^^

"it

is

only Zeid

who has

struck

Amr."

t\j; f\
>'j
i,

S^c L^Ji J^ J

"No

one has struck 'Amr but Zeid."

[As there would not be any ambiguity in the case of !'[,


this rule is not always strictly observed
;

but in the case

of \^\

it

must never be deviated from.]

CONCORD OF THE VERB AND THE AGENT.


(101).

The agent

is

always in the subjective

case,

and

is

properly placed after the verb.


is,

When the agent


of no matter culine singular, as

grammatically speaking, masculine,


is

what number, the verb

put in the mas-

iX>J

*li'

"Zeid stood."
tt

The two Zeids

stood."

^ 4Jojll
i?o^
^

(lis
fy'

" The Zeids stood."

jjj
^oiS-*^

*^h
'

"Zeid stands."

^^

Ji>sy)\

A^'sj^

"The two
"

Zeids stand."

j^. jkjjll

>.!;

The Zeids

stand."

CONCOED OF THE VERB AND THE AGENT.

181

With
1.

a feminine agent the verb

is

put in the feminine

singular in the following cases


If the agent be really feminine, no matter of

what

number, and follow the verb, as


fc\:J5>

c^^li

^^Hind stood/*

j^ljc^J^ u:i-^^l5

'The two Hinds

stood.'*

i^\x^\
2.

<::^^\i

" The Hinds stood."


o
^-^

P c

-Ct

If the agent precede the verb, as

c:^s*ll?

^^^1

"the

sun

(it) rose."

The verb may


1.

either

be put in the feminine or

masculine singular in the following eases


If the agent be not really feminine, but only femi-

nine from a grammatical point of view^ as


^"^

"^

" The sun rose."

2. If the

agent be a broken plural, as

1^

" The Hindus stood."

3. If

the agent be a collective


9

noun

or the

name

of a

species, as

J^

CJi

'

The

trees

put forth leaves."

4.

Even when the agent


it

is

really feminine, provided

a word intervenes between

and the verb, as

"

Hind

stood to-day.''

182

ARABIC GRAMMAR.
the intervening

When

word

is

'i\

the verb
1\^

is

more

elegantly put in the masculine, as


rose not save Hind."

4xx&

^li

" there

The names
feminine

of

Arab

tribes,

when expressed and imit

mediately following the verb, generally put


;

in the

they are in fact employed like broken plurals.

As
with

is

also the case in the

broken

plural,

when

a second

verb occurs referring to the same agent, such verb agrees


it

logically in
e:-^^:!:?"^

gender,

number, and person, as

\^Uj Jl^r^^
said," the

"the men assembled and (they)


but in the second
logical

broken plural requiring the grammatical con;

struction with the feminine singular

verb

IjJli,

which
is

refers to the

same agent, the

agreement

preserved.

regular feminine plural, or a broken plural,

may

sometimes, though rarely, take a feminine singular of the

verb which follows


the followino: verse
9 9

it,

even in the second person, as in

J^3 -P. y
i^

L5^

J^^^^
y'

^
y y

^^.
9y

^^^
yyy

^.'r^^^
cS.'

LT'JI^ J^9 i
O
ij

yy

(^

9 j'o^-o

y y

y y

J**^,

iJ^

r*^ r^'^J^

C^^'^ uiy^

^^r^

SJ^.b ul "^^ Ay*^'^

"Oh!

doves of the Arak tree, carry the message of a lover


recovers not from his intoxication.

who

Say, pharar

is

in chains, fettered

far

from his country in a nigged land.

Oh! doves

of Nejd, if ye see our tents, then say:

Such

is

fortune

difficulty succeeding ease."

The reason
that

for

using the verb, either in the feminine

or masculine singular, with a feminine agent, seems to be

when we female, we say

are conscious that

we

are speaking of a

decidedly,

^^

she rose," namely, Ilind; but

COKCOBD OF THE VERB AND THE AGENT.


"when

18

we

are speaking of anything which

is

not neces-

a " he, vague affirmation of the action having taken place,


as feminine,
she, or it rose,"
it

sarily present to our

mind

we begin by

and having done

so,

we

proceed to define
clear that in

further

by naming the

agent.

It is

speaking of a

woman we more

often have the feminine

idea in our mind, but that in the case of a merely grammatical feminine, the gender

may come

as

an

after-

thought

hence we say,
IL
]

" The sun rose."

Another reason

for this

arrangement of the agent

after

the verbs, and for the apparently arbitrary manner in which the verb
is

made

either to agree with

it

or not,

is

that

the verb is regarded as complete in


affix or suffix, if any,

itself,

the pronominal

being considered as the real nomiitself

native to
as
j^jj
'*\3

it,

while the verb

remains unchangeable,

"he rose(lmean)Zeid;" seep. 154(78).


/Ij

Here

the pronoun understood in


native, while the

is is

the real agent or nomi-

word "Zeid"

only a further definition


(I

of the same; so too xji u:-^Ij

"she rose

mean) Hind,"

where the pronoun


sentence
its

cL^'^is
it.

the real agent, and


If,

"Hind"

the

further definition of
l::-,*!!?

on the contrary,

as in the

jj.a^jt,

we

le/jin

by mentioning the noun,


to the
it.

gender

is

present to our

mind when we come

verb,

by which we predicate something concerning


collective noun, such as
j^^'

"a

tribe," or a
^.ll^

noun

expressing an entire species, as 111 "sheep,"

"birds,"

frequently takes the verb in the feminine singular, and


occasionally even in the feminine plural, as
J^i^\jJ\^ y.j

c:^)b

The

children of Israel said."

"

184

ARABIC GRAMMAR.

'^:?^^
"I
are eating."

o^'^"'

see myself carrying bread

1>^ ,^1; J^ Jt^^ ^^b^ ^^1 upon my head, from which

the birds

" I^or can night o'ershado-w them nor day (protect them)
can their horses or riding camels bear them

nor

away

The names

of

Arab

tribes are ordinarily feminine

but

as they are collective nouns,

they take any following

verb in the masculine plural, as

>-'

ox

-^

p^

" Thou art master of both

men and
is

genii;

how, then, can the

tribe

of Kilab hope to remaia mistress of itself?

They have not

revolted

from thee criminally, but as a well


chink of death."

neglected

when

it affords

the

THE SUBJECT OF A PASSIVE VERB.


(102).

The same

rules

which apply

to the agent of

an

active verb apply to the subject of a passive verb.


It is

always in the nominative.


either an expressed noun, as joJ tlj-i

It

is

"Zcid was
by some

struck," or an afhxed pronoun, as (JLo^^

"thou wast

struck," or a pronoun separated from the verb

intervening word, as

l::.^?

)!^

c-^ U

''none was struck

but thyself."

The

passive state or condition

may be

expressed by a

noun, especially a verbal noun, in which case the subject


will be in the dependent case, according to the rules for the

construct state of nouns,

as^H

c-si'-o

JSl

^^

^-^^-r-^

wonder

at the dates being eaten."

If the

noun

be,

however, a

past passive participle, the subject will be in the sub-

"

TUE SUBJECT OF A PASSIVE VERB.


jective case, as with a verb, as <uli

185
^'j

C^j^*

''Zeid's

slave (Zeid, his slave) (is) beaten."

If the
as

transitive verb

have more than one

object,
first

U^J

Ujj ^^J^]
objects

"he gave Zeid a dirhem,"


becomes the
subject

the

of such

of

the

passive

verb, and the other remains in the objective case, as


l*.i>j^

juj ^JaJt

"Zeid was given a dirhem."


^j-.'^^

In the Koran the expression ^^Lpl \^^ have received the scripture,"
is

"who

of frequent occurrence,

and

is

explained by the rule above given.

^1

being the

4th conj. of

^\ "he
:

came,"

is

used transitively with two


" he brought them the
the
first

accusatives, thus

t__>L(ll

*i>liT

scripture," and

in

the

passive

object,

li,,

becomes the

subject, the second still retaining its objec-

tive function.

The following may


verb
1.
:

serve as the subject of a passive

noun governed by a preposition (when the verb

governs by means of that preposition), as J^^ J^ "Zeid was passed by," where "by Zeid" is regarded as the
subject of
2.
(y8)

J.

(a)

An

undefined noun

if

used as a proper name;


it is

a noun used adverbially, provided

restricted in

meaning by some following adjective;

in either case the

noun must be
yet)

declinable, as
-^^ fasted

lo^V

(*

"

Eamadhan."

^U^
(/3)

>-.o

The
"

fast of

Ramadhaa was kept

U-^jLj

He

marched a march."

" a good Here we may say in the passive, Jll^ 'j^ march was marched," but we cannot say simply ^IJIjJ--^

^^

186

ARABIC GRAMMAR.
witlioiit

" a marcli was marched,"

the qualifying adjective.

So too
l-O
)dl\

we

say,

juj

^^jJ

Jl>-

"he
''

sat

by Zeid," and
glory to God. n)

^^^-5

-^~j

he recited the formula


jJJ
i_^jJ

But we cannot say


aI!1

ij-1^

^eid was sat by," or


nor ^U-v are de-

^Usu

-i^.-j,

because neither

^^jJ

clinable.

The following examples


remarks
ACTIVE.

will illustrate the foregoing

PASSIVE.

^ ^

-'

V^Jrriyi^^'^^^-t
"God
gave a Scripture to the
Children of Israel."
^t^

"TheChildrcnof Israel were given


a Scripture."

^o^

^o5
"Zeid was given a drachma."

"He

gave Zeid a drachma."

" I ordered Zeid to kiU 'Amr."

" Zeid was ordered


^

to kill
o

'Amr."

^o-^

^ ux

"He

escorted Zeid from


to el-Medina."

Bagdad

"Zeid was escorted from Bagdad


to el-Medina."

05

^^ y^i-i-o

"The Sultan could

not take him."

"He

could

not

he taken (his
mO

taking was impossible)."


^U-O
-^

" 'Omar brought the Prophet some


Arabs."

" The Prophet was brought some Arabs."

a verb which governs with a preposition is put in the passive voice, as ale C^^. " he disputed about it,"
the preposition with
*'

When

its

case is stiU retained, as

'dis.

iS^,
im-

it

was disputed about."

The verb

is

then

strictly

'

THE SUBJECT OF A PASSIVE VERB.

187

personal, and therefore, in forming the passive participle,

the masculine form only

is

used, the pronoun alone being

altered to express the gender, thus


cslc LiL;4^-*Sf

" The thing (masculine) disputed about. " The thing (feminine) disputed about.

CXc

C_?^>./^1

[CII 'iJipC\^ although used


Paris es Shidiac,
is

by no

less a

person than

incorrect

and

\n^ilgar.]

This idiom

is

almost parallel to the English vulgarism


it:

by which
aboutP

have translated

"The

thing disputed

This will explain

all

such idiomatic expres-

sions as that contained in the passage of the Koran,

chap.

i.

10

"Guide us

iti

the right way, the


tho&e against

been gracious, not of


art

way of those to whom Thou hast whom Thou art angered (of those Thou

angry with)."
JSfote.

Nothing
the

but practice can teach which verbs

govern by a preposition, and which take the complement


in the objective

case:

for

example,

^\ "he came"

governs

objective

without

the intervention of a

preposition.

Generally, however, the purely transitive

verbs govern the objective.

Before

y,
/
1

introducing a proposition, the preposition


omitted, as
<^

may sometimes be
X ^o^

t"^

o-^

for

>

"

He

could not do that."

x^o^ cS

^ ^ c

t-x

o^

Sometimes even before a noun


omitted, the

the

preposition
;

is

noun being put

in the objective case

as

"

188
,^C-t''->0''

AEABIC GRAMMAR.
.'

t,>'o.<3

C5

^^j.

"He

supplied means to the

''CSo-O^

o>'^.^3

X ^

^ -'Ci

destitute

and needy."

fi^^,'-

p^

o--

63p:> for

^ c:.^

"I
"I

thanked him."

^--sil

C^j-^l

for -i:U lI^j^*!

ordered you to do good."

THE OBJECTIVE CASE.


(103).
1.

The following require the

objective case

The

object of the action of a verb.

2.
3.

Words defining or specifying Nouns used adverbially.


The cause

the action.

4.
5.
6.

or effect of the action.

Words expressing the state or condition. Words following particles of exception, vocatives (not

addressing a person present), and a few other instances


of which details are given in the following paragraphs.
1.

THE OBJECT OF A TERB.


is

(104).
action

The

object of the verb

that

upon which the


Ijuj

falls,

as \\{j

oj^

"I

struck Zeid."

A verb

may have two

objects, as

U^,j

\jiX^\ " I

gave Zeid a dirhem ;" or two objects and a word defining


the natui'e or period of the action, or the state of the
object, as Oill^L*
\y%s. Ijoj

eu-l^t

"I showed

to

Zeid 'Amr

in the act of going away."

The verb

itself is

frequently omitted in ejaculatory

sentences, but the object remains in the objective case, as


-''Sc-O ^ ^ .tco

Ju-^ \ Jc^lM

" The

lion, the lion

i.e.

,itJi\

iJk^l

" Mind the lion."

THE OBJECTIVE
{^\j-\
i.e.

CASE.

189

CS\^\
(J-1|

t<

Your

brother, your brother!"


to

iJS^\

Attend
is

your brother."

The

objective case

used in parenthetically intro-

ducing a definition, as

Jj^j

(^

lj^"^^

^-'^^^

cr^

""^^ (the
gifts,"

Arabs) are the most liberal of those who bestow


2.e. L-jj)tl\

^xx\
2.

^^

i^f:^^

we (I mean

the Arabs).''''

AVOKDS DEFINIKG OE SrECIFYING THE ACTION.

(]0'5).

These will be best understood from the follow:

ing examples

^ O

'

^ Ox x

b
XX cl^l) r^ or

ijL^jJ
,J

'l struck a blow."

C^xOx
...-.'Jj

^xox /yo 'X


tJj

.J or

.^

if.'jj

'

I struck

him

one blow

<m;o J^oj^'s

blows."
^Jllill

L_J.J
X

''^{k^

"Thou

didst

strike

him (with) the

" "
i'x0-"0 -'xo
/"jJu^

blow of an unjust man."


X
S'Ai)
<!C'IiJ

c_>^^i!l

I looked at

him with the look of

one in anger."
xo
tljl JkL?X

Ix/j^OXx
iG'

Li^
l!ry-j

jkL>-

'

I flogged

him three

strokes of a hide

whip."
''i:iJ^

I struck

him a whip"

(for

with a

whip," or
P 9

xxoS
^^y^s\

the blow of a whip.")

Oxx
I sat the best of sitting.
y

^w !.:>-

u:-Nl:>O
''X

X i^O-'O-^l

^L^i^iUl
o
-3

c:_?Jots

I sat in the posture called ^L=i.J!,"


i.e.

scjuatting.

-^

-5

J'

^ o

--uJl

Ji^ '^/^
>

' D^arched all the mai-ch."

X O XO.O

XOX

Oxx
I

^jjt^
o
-Si

tjAxi i^:^j.
X
I

knew some

science.

-o

^'yox X
c5:iJ,-i

2JI lLSj.J

'l struck him that blow."

In some instances the governing verb may be understood,

but the noun defining or specifying the action

190
remains in
I.e.

ARABIC GRAMMAR.
objective case, as ^^si
[lit.)

tlie

^L

"Welcome!'*

*_fSij^ ci^^AJf

you nave arrived a good arrival."

So in answer to the question lLjJj


struck?" you
ing the verb.

^ " whom have you

may answer
is
:

\sjj

"Zeid," without repeat-

The governing verb

always understood in such

sentences as the following

A^J La^ J 1y*

" Gently"
gently"

" wishing well

to

Zeid,"

i.e.

"act
to

wish well

(lit.

[pray

God

give] drink) to Zeid."

^\ ^Uuo "Glory
^y y ^
tlcU?
<?

to

God!"
is to

{i.e.

4J1

^Uu:
o

^J
p xc-S

.)

O X

U/.j

To hear

obey"
^^

^9

i X

!>

{i.e. is.\b

^J^\ J

U,K-J
J_,*-:1

}.

U^- ^^\
>

LZ-J\
Ox

Thou

art

my

son really."

CyO

'Ox

5"

OX

jl/Ks:'!

C-?^

ClJj-tf Jl)JJ

Zeid has a voice

an

ass's voice."

Jl^^ J

)b)l

"Welcome !"
Z^.

{i.e.

\^ e^j j
(as it

L^l

c:^'),
to

Thou hast come

wt re)

thy

family, and trodden on smooth ground.")

3.

NOUNS USED ADVERBIALLY.


last

(106.)

In the

few examples the objective case

may be

considered as simply adverbial or objective.

The
is

objective case used in this defining or specifying sense,


like the second object of a

doubly transitive verb,


j^jj

not

affected

by a change of

voice, as Uj.Ai, Ij^

tl^ "Zeid

was struck a severe blow."

Amongst the
jS^*"

defining or specifying words above re-

ferred to are to be included adverbs of time or distance, as


^
9
o-gj '

L^

^-ii-^^

I prayed some time,'*


THE OBJECTIVE
^C
PC'-Cl

CASE.

191

'ox

(^

lyt^\

(y,

Lii-v^-s

"l

fasted Friday."

\^
and adverbs of
assembly;"
\jlt^ iljsxi

'-^Vr'

I marched a mile."

place,

when they
u^\'k^'*

are immediately de-

rived from the verb, as ^Vj


or
I sat

cLvH>- "I sat in Zeid's


is

when

the place

indeterminate,

as

"

in a place."

But

if

the place be definite

and determined,
used, as
l::-J^jT,

as a house, etc., a prej)osition

must be

^ lL-II^ " I sat in the house."

Other instances of nouns of time and place used


adverbially are
50-.0

X o X

^^ ^

j^.aI\

t^V

t-i-^-^Jj^

I sat near the Emir." I sat a long time in an easterly place."

J6J.J1

^- ^.9^ ci^AuL?-

'

-JO-'-'

<

tv. ,^..f^ iJLij^


*_jJl

I walked twenty days."

J^
^^

c:^-..!^
o^
p

"I walked
I

all

day."

^o-o

tJjwJ^ ^_,^^ CJp.j

marched part of the post or day's


march.."

4.

THE

CATTSE

OE EFFECT OF TUE ACTION.


is

(107).

The cause

or effect of the action


it

put ad-

verbially in the objective case if

be indefinite and of

the nature of an infinitive or verbal noun, as


^
L,

O^ X

liyi. '-^:^i^
9-'
<|J

I fled fearing."

t^y

c-o

c/^x

ujt}U'

^\

1-::-^^,^

"l

beat

my

son to correct him."

But
of a

if it

be defined by the
substantive,
./,*JJ

article,

and of the nature

noun

it is

better to use a preposition, as


came
for the butter."

Li^-r^
9

''l

o,

oxx

iy^^

ci^^J!)

"I

fled for fear."

192
If
it

ARAEIC GRAMMAR.

he of

tlie

nature of a verbal noun,

"but in a state

of construction with

some other noun,

it

may be

either

used adverbially, or with a preposition, as


Joiill

(_J.=^

^-^y**
'-^^'^{y^

"I

fifid

fearing slaughter."

Jiii\ i_Jji:^

"l

fl6<i

^^^ ^^^^ of slaughter."

of J "and," in the sense


live, as JJ^l^Sl ^ o^jJ^I-^
It
is

^ "with,"

takes the objec-

"Zeid marched with the road."

obvious that in such a case the noun governed by ^ cannot be

in apposition with the subject of the verb, for the translation would

then be, "Zeid marched and the road


absurdity.

{&cil.

marched)," which

is

an

Such idiomatic expressions as


UjJ j
^ O

uL^/l-ij

U
'OX

"

What is your state and


get on with) Zeid?"

{i.e.

how

do you

^XOX

^ o5
^

jj j ivT* '^-^^ 3

^-^

'
'

-^^^ ^"^^

3"" off for a dish of porridge ?

"

are explained

by an
5.

ellipse of the

verb

J^lS,

STATE OE CONDITIOIf.
is

(108). State or condition


case, as
L^l, jj
#
^ o p
;

expressed by the objective

^U- "Zeid came


'^

riding."

y ^^o-<3 9

U-j^u^ ^yi^\
Ic.***^

^-^^"^j

"l
'

'"^^'^

^^^ horse saddled.^

Jjj

z*!:^

-.;

<?-!

Zeid's standing up so quichhj pleased

me."

The word thus used

in the objective case

must be a

derivative and indefinite noun,

and must moreover refer

to a preceding definite noun, as in the above examples.

In the case of such an expression as ^iSs^^j^^VX^

'

the

STATE OR COXDITION.

193

Emir came alonc^^'' iSp^ altliough rendered grammatically definite by the affixed pronoun, is properl}'- regarded as
,

indefinite in

meaning.

Similarly, a primitive
to express condition, if it

noun may be used adverbially is explanatory of what has gone


(JIj being

before, as IjJj j^sS^

<-il?

"the moon xosq fidV^

a primitive noun signifying " the full moon").

The preceding noun


dition refers,

to

which the noun expressing conbe qualified

may be

indefinite, provided it

by some

epithet or description, or be in a state of con-

struction with a following noun, as

VCb (J^^ (J^^ is:'^^


i>

-^^ accomplished

man came

to

me

riding."

P y y y p

LTs-

y
-^

Ix^w

tJ^j (^^

'--^.Ij

^^^ ^

manias slave laughing."

A
it

verb or a nominal

sentence

may

stand in the

relation of an adverb expressing condition; in this case


is

generally
^jjJiJLU

introduced

by the conjunction
came and the sun was

j,

as

%^^

" Zeid J jyj ^U-

rising

(sell, at

the same time)."

If the nouns forming the sentence tiave pronouns affixed


to them, the J
''X
9P

may
^
.

either be used or omitted, as


Zeid came to
I spoke to

yy

it

^^

^\j

^ sSi^^ JjJ
LJ^ lJ^

5 [:>-

me (with) his hand on his head."


to

^y

<*^i/ii

him mouth

mouth."

A verb
it

in the aorist thus used does not require j


''

as

^^,ii^ jjj 5\^

Zeid came running " but


;

if it

bo negative,
to

requires the^, as j^A-^.

J*^J

iji'^^

"Zeid came

me

not running."
preterite requires j
^ J^j *\j3-

The
JiJij
Jv5

and

also the particle jJ

as

"Zeid came riding."


tl/.-^^'

In such an expression as ^^\

'^S^^
13

ji'u ^\1

194

ARABIC GRAMMAE.
eat fish

"do you

and drink milk

(at the

same time),"

the conjunction J requires the following verb to be in the There is in all these cases an subjunctive (see p. 172).
ellipse of

some such expression as " your


eat fish

state is

that"
that

eg.

"do you

and your

state is (

= whilst)

you drink milk."

The adverbial
the following
\mJ6 S)
fO^

accusative

is

used in such sentences as

V
9
C.^--

Zeid was happy in mind."


I raised the Sheikh in power."

^ o

-3 -<:

^U

'-

'6\ jo:

VJ

Zeid

is

greater than

you

in wealth."

How

good

is

Zeid quA a man."


a father."

How noble is Zeid's father qua


Gotl bless

him

for a

horseman."

It is also

used occasionally with words of weight or


S
-"O

measure, as
^y ^

L>J J^ii^ ^-^^ "l


A.k:o>-

hsxe a mithkdl in gold."

..rJ^

I bought two measures of com."

And

also

with the numerals from 1 to 99.


of the objective case

The syntax

may be summed up

by saying that it is used objectively and adverbially. The following sentence contains an example of each of
the various uses of the objective case:
P^
-f

o--

^ O ^ 0..0 ^ c

5c-c^

-'S^c^

-o 1^

^ ^

''i-

9 o^^

I struck, conjointly with


severe blow

Amr,

Zeid, before the Emir, on Friday, a

by way of correcting him."

& \^ <)JJ

lit.

"to God his milk-flow," an idiomatic expression of admiration.

PREPOSITIONS.

105

THE GENITIVE OR DEPENDENT


(109).

CASE.
is

The

genitive case

is

peculiar to nonns, and

employed in two instances.


1.

After a preposition, as sJ^\ "^y L::.,^^^ "I went

out frojji the city."


2.
it

When

following another nonn, the sense of which,

defines or determines, and with


jjJ

which

it

is

said to be

in a state of construction, as

111

^/^

"Zeid's slave

came

to

me."
PREPOSITIONS.

(110).
case are:
c->,

The

prepositions

which govern the oblique


^^*4*:' ''with his

signifying

1.

Companionship, as

tribe."

This gives a transitive sense to a neuter verb, as


i^ i_l^i>j

from ij^i "he went,"


2. 3.

"he

carried

it

away."

Instrumentality, as J^'Sb "with a pen."

Correspondence,
for a
is

as

*^i^ CJ^\ o^.^

"I

sold the

garment
4.
t_^

dirhem."

employed pleonastically with the agent of


as lo^f^

certain verbs,

^b

"God

is

a sufficient

witness."
5.

In the predicate of JJ-l, as

Jlk- i^\

^^

"

God is

not

unjust."
6.

As

a particle of swearing, as

alJlj

" by God."
all

^,

signifying

1.

"Of," or "from," in

the senses

of those prepositions in English, as


P O
'-

X
'

<t:oJk^\ ...^ l::-^^-->-

went out/ro/w the

city."

196
xoj'-o ^

ARABIC gea:vimar.
y
<j

*-o

-^

jjUj^l

cTJ?

w*^j^^ '^rr'^l
Jj

Avoid pollution /ro?rt


-A.

idols.'*

A^

j^x^

(*^'^

ring

(?/

iron."

2.

In comparison, ''than," as

j^j

tir?

^^

"greater

than Zeid."
3.

"Eather than,"
satisfied

as lj^^\

^^

LjaI^ I.?^^'V

^j^

"are

you
4.

with this

life ratlier

than the next?"


de)^ or

"Some of"
-a

(like the

French

"any," as

5Wi
^-:s-

iJL^J^

I drank some of the water."

^^

cLi-xxc (Ja

Have you

ani/

news?"
as ^^\

And by analogy with the preceding, "there came not to me any oney

^ ^f^

J\

"to," "until," as
^Jk^l^
<

W ^\
Jl

L::,-;bj

"l went

to the city."

J^i^l^

L:u^.*Mtf>

I fasted until sunset."

When
|1^

followed by a pronoun, the


p. 1.65)

in

|j|_

and

in

^jJ

"near" (see

becomes quiescent, as

&^1\

"to him."

"from," "off," "away from," as


^js. /^-w-J^ l::^-^^^

ijMKsS\

I shot the arrow from the bow," I

alH

^^

<:iJ^'.xJ:>

am

occupied with the love of

God (and

p y

iLj L jji

turned thereby)

away from

all else,"

\^
i^'^.

is
(j-^

sometimes governed by another preposition, as

c^

L/"!:^!'

"^^

^^^

^y

I'iglit,"

^^.

"from

off,"

where ^^ implies the "distance from,"


from."

^ the "motion
c^wVai-^

^Ic, signifying

1.

"Upon,"

as

climbed upon the mountain."

^^

"I ^J^ also may be governed

S^^

PREPOSITIONS.
p

197
off the

<^y

by

J}^,

as

i^T JI

^^ c^;3 "I came down from

roof," literally " from upon."

Against," as J^^^\ (rebelled) af/ainst the king."


2.
''

J^ ^y^ "he went out Ji also becomes ^jl with


j^jJ

pronouns, as

^U
is

" on him."
JUll

''belonging to," as J, signifying 1. "To,"


*'

the property
2.
3.

(belongs) to Zeid."
&zj_^

" For," as c^.ot.;U

" I struck him/or correction."


as

"At"

(pleonastically),

l^T^

c^^^^

"at Zeid I

struck."

dS "like," as ^1^ ^J "Zeid (is) like the lion." %~ "until" (limiting a continuous relation),
v>
-^
'^

as

^o-iO

<->

^\1^\

^:^ l^jU\ u>v^

" I

slept

yesterday

until

the

morning."

dj and
God."
'

of swearing, as J are particles

^3ilj

dll^j

by

OTHER "WORDS

TJSED AS PEEPOSITIONS.

(111). cIjJ

"many

a," or, conversely,

"but few."

(Ijj

must begin the sentence, and the noun which it governs must be indefinite and qualified by a subsequent adjective,
as ^LjJ
*j

i J^JJ

(iJj

"

many
is

a generous
it,

man have
in

I met."

Sometimes a pronoun
followinsr

afiixed to
indefinite

which case the

word must be
^j
"

and in the accusative


"per-

case, as l^-j

many

a man."

If the particle

be affixed to

Oj?

it signifies

haps," "probably," and serves to introduce a sentence,


as 1;Tj jjJ l^J " perhaps Zeid is standing."
1

It

is

worth rcmarkincj that the long alif in the name of God


p. 9

is

pronounced with the

imd/ehsce
it

(7) if preceded by a kesrah -r


full

but

if

preceded by any other vowel,


above, but
<jjj\j hiliehi.

ispionouncedvcry

and broad: thus, w'alldhi,

t'alldhi, as

"

198
IJj
is

ARABIC GEAMMAR.
often omitted after 3, but the
<J.j.-j

noun

still

continues
Jr^j

in the genitive case, as

s^j^ /^^ r:y^

^^^
its

(many

a) night like the

waves of the sea has

let

down

curtain of darkness."
jo^, j^ J signifying
Z^jt.*^'! AJ

1.

"Since," as
have not seen him since Friday."

jo^

<)i:iJ^^

"l

2.

Absolutely, "since," in the sense of "at all," as


ju
<i^*;jU

" I have not seen him since."

jjb l:^j

(a^) jw*

&zj\j t

"l have

not seen

him

'

at all* lately."

Eut

Jo^ and j^ also take the nominative, as


(t^i

lju^\

ju^ <cjU t "I have not seen him


li,l:^,

since Friday.

i^,

iSi,

and

all

meaning "except," sometimes

govern the genitive.

jy and

SiJ,

are used as

meaning respectively "before" and "after," prepositions the length of time by which
;

they are defined


.j..^-.j

is

introduced

by

l->, as

Jo) ilj. J-Ji


^ -o

"Two
"

days before the death of Zeid."


hours after sunrise."

i,yy

(^

P9

yi^y JkXJ

^-.:.iilu..'

^^wi-lll

<^^

Two

Many
"Jli

other nouns are used as prepositions, such as

"except,"

3^

"over,"

etc.

They have the

accusative

form without tenwm.

A SENTENCE AS THE COMPLEMENT OF A PEEPOSITION.

(112).
often the

An

entire proposition, verbal or nominative, is


it

complement of a preposition, in which case


its

does not change

terminations, as

"

" "

199

THE VOCATIVE.
ili^-j Ul.j *lilj

U^^

jJJl
is

:..'

^U

aU^j
is

By God

she

is

not a

How good

the child,' her help

weepijig,

and her armour silken attire" (said by an Arab who was told of the
birth of a daughter).

\jS ,J.^^J\j\^jWJ

Proclaim,

The departure

is

to-morrow.'"

THE VOCATIVE.
(113).

The vocative
first, Ij,

particles are

Ij,

S\,

!,

Gt,

ll^,

of

which the

is

the more common.


case.
Ij^jb

They usually

govern the noun in the subjective


either expressed or

They may be
j^::

understood,
i.e.

as

iJt-^ >^Url
etc.

''Joseph avoid this,"

ti-l^J

Ij

"0

Joseph,"

The vocative
1.

is

put in the objective case


is

When

the noun

in construction, as
it
Ij

aI!^

s^

"Oh
a

'Abdallah!"

Or when
Ulll?

governs another noun in the


"

accusative, as L?^

thou who art

ascendinji;

mountain
2.
e.g..,

When
as
!

it

is

undefined, or not directly addressed,

when

a blind

man

says,

^s^
if

'd.>-

\^j b " Here


is

somebody

take

my

hand."

But

the noun
qualified

not in

construction, but

is indefinite,

and not

by a sub-

sequent adjective, being nevertheless directly addressed,


it is

put in the

nominative case withoiit


'S^j b

iemv'n.,

as
it

:vji;

"Oh
i=rj

Zeid!"

"Oh man!"
man
"
!

If,

however,

be
as

so qualified, it is

more often put

in the objective case,

l^^

^^

"

generous

Indeclinable and imperfectly declined ^-"iins do not of course take the

i;

as

^^

Ij

Oh Moses
!

!"

^\i

Ij

"Oh

Cadhi " ^r^^ ^.v.


!

"

Oh

Sibawaih

"

"

200
In

ARABIC GRAMMAR.
crj'ing for help, or expressing

wonder,

i^ P'''^"

fixed to the noun,


case, as
OX''
.

which

is

then put in the oblique


!"

>>

jjjj

l)

"Oh
" Oh

for Zeid (to help

me)

^^^
When
is

V.

for the

(what

a)

wonder

the noun has the article prefixed, the vocative


it

expressed by putting

in the nominative case


1

and

prefixing the word 1^4^ " masculine," and l^u


for all

"feminine,"

numbers, as
jJ-sliJ
\

\j^\

Oh

(thou) the accomplished !"


!

'i\

l^A.;!

Oh you woman
is

there

The name

of

God ^i

seldom put in the vocative, but

when

it is,

the Jiemzet el-wasl


b ya-allali^ or
iUl

may

be either retained or

elided, as

cUi\

U ya Hlah.

But the word


is
^I^iJl,

more generally used

in addressing the

Deity

with-

out a vocative particle.

APOCOPATION OF THE

LA.ST

SYLLABLE OF THE VOCATIVE.

(114). In the following cases the last syllable of the

vocative
1.

may be
all

apocopated

In

substantives having a feminine termination,


<uLli, vocative
!

no matter of what gender, as


Fatima," i'U, vocative
2.

1!?Ij

"Oh!

"

Oh

sheep."
;

In proper names of four or more letters

provided

they are not compound, consisting of two nouns, in a


state of

grammatical construction, or of a whole sentence,

and provided they do not resemble any part of a verb in


form asyit^ vocative Jiix^ "

Oh

Jaafer."

NOUNS IN CONSTRUCTION.
In proper names like l1^
t^<J^*

201

''Oh! Ma'di Karib,''


state of construction,
l>

compounded
the last half

of

two words not in a

may be

apocopated, as ^j^x^

The vocative jCa for ^^-s-l^ "


rare exception.

Oh my
!

companion,"

is

NOUNS DEFINITE AND INDEFINITE.


(115). I^ouns are either definite or indefinite.

An

indefinite
;

noun
or

is

rendered definite by prefixing


it

the article Jl

by placing
as

in construction with

another and following noun.

The

loss of the temv'n

is,

we have

already seen, the

distinctive

mark

of the definite noun.

FOUNS IN CONSTPtUCTION.

OF THE FIRST OF TWO NOUNS IN CONSTEFCTTON.

(IIG).

Of two nouns

in construction, the first invariably

loses its tenwin.

The use and

application of the construct arrangement

of nouns will be best understood from a study of the

following examples
jJjs-Jl j*Li
9

The
The

slave of the

man."

Jj>-j /!.

slave of a

man."
p
-^

Here the

loss of the tenwin

makes the word


it

j*li

definite

in both instances (see p. 7);


fore further to define it

is

not necessary therearticle.

by prefixing the

From

this results the rule that the first of two nouns in a state

of construction does not require the

article.

Sometimes, however, when the two nouns in con-

202
struction have

ARABIC GRAM3IAR.

come

to

be regarded almost as a single


prefixed, as

expression, the article


iJj^n
j^^-^^i

may be

'L^\ The "Ufe


^^s^\

of this ^vorld."
called

The book

"The

life

of animals" (name of a

work on natural

history).

A noun
with
it,

may have
is

several complements in construction

as 'i3[^jA\^j

^-r^^

(*4^ ^^B.e

who knows what


first

is

hidden, and what


If
it

present."
of

be necessary to leave the

two nouns
between

indefinite,

and yet

to express the

same

relation

them

as that implied

by

the state of construction, the

preposition

"to," or "belonging to,"

must be used

with the second noun, as LL<UiJ

Sometimes an indefinite
nouns in a
to
it,

^1 " a son of the king." noun may be followed by two


complement
two such nouns be an agent
quality, as

state of construction, serving as a

especially if the first of

or a

noun expressing an inherent


'L^xi^\ j_Jlj

t^AJb
Jk^s'^

**

A victim

arriving at the Kaaba."


the

4:5-

1\

^^J\

"Mohammed,

handsome

of face."

OF THE SECOND OF TWO NOUN'S IN CONSTRUCTION.

(117).

A.

sentence or quotation

may occupy

the place

of the second of two nouns in a state of construction, as

**

The hand
given

of fate gave
to

him

to drink the

cup

of,

and they were


entrails.'"

drink

boiling

water

Avliich

tore

their

Kor.
If the

xlvii. 17.

first

of

two nouns be a

participial form,

and

be used in the sense of a present or future tense, as

'

'

NOUNS IN CONSTRUCTION.

203

^J\
if
it

cljjli

" the striker of the man," and especially

govern

two nouns
"the

already

in

construction,

as

S^y^u^\j
it

4-?)^-^

striker of the

head of the man,"

may
The

take the

article, as J^^i^ c_j;1^1,

J^

J^

j>-|^

(_^LiJl.
state of

relation of the second of

two nouns in a

construction to the first 2. e. the relation of the determin-

ing or defining noun to that which

it

determines or

defineswill

be

best

understood from the following

examples
<0J1

L^'Ls^

'

The wisdom

of

God/

<Lii

LJl^

An

ess of

silver.

>j&^ .JkH

i^i

The
'^'^^

silver of

dirhems."

^^ ,^ ^*4^
^

Creator of the earth."

(jiu^ijlll

y>-

The heat

of the sun."

^^<1^'\

U^ij " The fountain-head of wisdom."


\

^jlj^lirr*^

J-^

" All created things."

j^lkLJl '^'J^
-:s^J
\

" The king's treasury." " The king of the land and the sea."

^j^\

jjllii-j

sl/tw^l

C^^
y^<

"

'T^ creation of the heavens.

^j^
.^amAjI

Those who meet their Lord." Those who are unjust


to their

^'J^

own

souls."

^IlLjpil

'-^}^ "The writer


*

of the treatise."

_jl^

Jj^

'^^^ ^^^^ ^ disbelieve."

j:jLs'*^-ui

Incrcate (other than created)."

: :

204
o

ARABIC GRAMMAR.
^ Jii t-^o-^

"

thing most pleasing.

L)

-*ri.

" The best of creation."

y o ^

^^U^
di-ciaJ

/^s*^
J-c^

-A.

wom-out

turban.

" The most learned

of philosophers."

<_;LuJ\

?-:lr*'

"Q^ic^ ^

(^^^ reckoning."

have seen that when two nouns are in a state of if it be required construction, the first becomes definite
;

We

to

express such relationship between the two, and yet


first,

to

preserve the indefinite character of the

a preposition

must be interposed,
aj3\

as

iU^j "God's mercy."


6z.,^=^j

^\

^ U^j "A

mercy from God."


mercy of His."

"His mercy."
this

^ 'U^j "A
is

Sometimes

construction

used merely to give


'al

importance to the noun, as in the verse of Imru

Kais

^^.

j^ j

^^

^}S.

jx

v^i^

.^\^j.\.i\

h2^

"And (many
to travel."

a) waterskin belonging to the tribe

have I placed the

strap thereof on a shoulder of mine accustomed to fatigue and used

OTHER MODES OF EXPEESSIXG THE EEIATION BETWEEN

NOUIfS.

(118).

The idea

of possession, companionship, etc., is

also expressed in

Arabic by the use of the following words


"possessor,"

3J masc.

^y^

fern,
'^\

C^^\^ "companion,"
"son,"
11?^

*y
.i

"father,"

"mother," "^\

or

.^

" daughter,"

^ " brother," dJ^\


JU J^^l^

" sister."

and lJ-o-C imply simple possession or endowment, as


"wealthy."

(i^Tjj "learned,"

LOCAL NAMES AND SOBRIQUETS.


t_j1

205

and

^t

imply that the thing expressed by the

following noun proceeds from, or has an intimate con-

nexion with, the person or thing so


in forming nick-names,
'ijjjb

qualified.

They are used


localities, as

and in the names of

^\

"Abu Hurairch"

("father of the kitten," the

name

of one of the companions of


j^HiiuJl
yi\

Mohammed).

Father of watching" (the cock).

f^^j jjI

Abu

Pu'ah"

father of perfume," Latakia tobacco).


father of Shiah,"
;

^^
c^^Li:^
\

<^\

Abu Shiah"

i.e.

a sweet-scented

desert herb

name

of a mountain in Sinai).

^\
*,\

" Mother of Vices " (wine).

sXijs

"Umm
or
*

Tarfa" (mother of tamarisks; name of a

valley in Sinai).
iJO

^i\^

and

c:--.:^,

'Li\^

are the converse of l^\ and


(a traveller)."

\\^

as

jj--^!

^M
^\

Son of the road


Son of howling

ojl
(J-jpl

(a jackal).

l::-^:j

The daughter

of the

mountain (the echo)."

^1

and

uL-oi^l

also
<<

imply being endowed with a quality, as


Sincere (the brother of sincerity)."

^xA\
'-

^\
>>

0-0

jjx]l ^i>\

Eich (the brother of riches)."


Trusty (the brother of confidence).
Ujs^js-I ^y^'^ ^aa

^ ^i
^1 is also

used for "fellow," as

"this

garment

is

the fellow to this one."

Note.^\\Q complement of ^i
aorist,

may

be a verb in the
as

although such construction


y
1

is rare,
^

P^ o y

jo (^O L JUuJ
yoi>,

Ju'

No! by him (through whom)

are preserved,

it

was not so."

"

20G

ARABIC GEAMMAR.
construction occurs in the following verse

The same

of Ibn el Faridh
1

jljj

i_<,j111

jUi!

Iju-1

iJt

Li>j

^bi ^^
of Shera.*'

Ooo

J-.Ji

1^1^ Jkj

Before ^e was numhered amongst those slain of (by) a fawn,

He was

a lion rending

tlie lions

Some words,

as J^ " all," require to be placed in a state

of construction with another

noun

in order to complete

the sense, as *pijT jf "all the tribe."


as ci.*^^ ~S "

In such a sentence

"^i^l ^^i^j"

which

is

an apparent exception,

the same rule holds, for

it is

equivalent to

t^^^

^=-1

J^

"every one will die."

ELLIPSE OF THE FIRST OF TWO NOITNS IN CONSTEUCTIOK.

(119).

The

first

or second of

two nouns in a

state of

construction
l^li

may be
'^

understood in such an instance as


cut off the

^^ l)^J (^
-^

^^ f^^ "May God


foot of

hand and

him who

said it;" for

<d:>-

l^li

iX)

<Ui\

-s-lij

"May God
and the
^xO-O X

cut off the hand of


foot of

him

him who
O-O
-Ci

said it."

X X

O-Ci

^^xp

X X

Ox

>'S

" Do you think every man

a man, and (every)


hospitality)
?

fire

kindled by night a

fire (of

*>

xl

^^x

" I saw

the Teimite, of Teim, of the descendants of Adi."


XX

X c

^ii

-Sj-o # -Sii-O

X X

-Jjx

*'When

it

was the reign of Nasir


of

(literally,

'the Ifasirian days'), viz.

Mohammed,

son of Kclaon."

"

UNUSUAL CONSTRUCTIONS OF NOUNS.

207

THE GENDEE OF AN ADJECTIVE QUALIFYING TWO NOUNS IN CONSTEUCTION, (120).

The last

of the two nouns gives the gender to the

qualifying adjective, or whatever other word serves as

the predicate, as

6jt.i\J\

^^^

L::.-^xkJ

"some

of his fingers

were cut

off."

The two nouns

in construction

may

occasionally be

separated, as in the following examples


-5^L:

U^lj' *xil

Jjs>

Are you leaving to me my companion?"


Verily the sheep hears the Yoice (by

\^j

Jjol

CI.* 4^ -^-.^-^j

S'IaI^

^1

God!) of
4_$'Jjj

its master.''

U.J

i^_2io *-_;li>Jl lijs-

U^ "As the book was written by the hand,


one day, of a Jew.'

SEPAEATION OF TWO NOUNS IN CONSTRUCTION.

(121).

The
a

objective

complement

is

frequently inter-

posed between two nouns in a state of construction,


the
first is

when

noun of

action, as

It has seemed good to

many

of the polytheists that their associates

should

kill their children."

^>'*i^ ^uisi cJy ^lidb


They

^><:n ^l-J^

^^ cJy.
com which

(the locusts) scatter the grains of the rich ears of

grows on the plain


l^
is

as the flails scatter the cotton grains."

sometimes inserted expletively between the two

nouns, as

Oh

sheep that should be as a prey for

him

to

whom
it

its

possession is
!

lawful.

It

is

forbidden

me

Oh would

that

were not forbidden

But

these are perhaps nothing but poetical licence.

208

ARABIC GEAMMAR.

CONCORDANCE OF NOUNS AND EPITHETS.


(122). If the

noun be

definite, the qualifying epithet

must

also

be

definite, as

^^\^\:^\
^j^1>\ ^"^ji^

"The mighty Book."

"The

faithful

Abraham."

If the

noun be in a

state of construction

with another

noun, or have an affixed pronoun, the qualifying epithet


is

placed after such compound expression, and


article, as
of Moses."

is

also

rendered definite by prefixing the

A-^^

Li**'^'*

'-r^''"-^

"The mighty Book

A,^^\ P

iJ\::^

"His honoured Book."

But

if

the noun be indefinite, the epithet will also be


as

indefinite,

^-^ s-'^ "^^ ^^


same

book."

The

rules for

the concordance of the noun and epithet in gender and

number

are the

as for the agent

and verb.

Occasionally, however, a broken plural


epithet in the feminine plural, as
CiJu
,L?
Jft-j)

may

take the

Devouring

lions.

*-'r^'J

UT^
(

Firm mountains.
Slender sharp swords.

c:.JUib-^

jj-*o

cUiJ.Jut^ /ui

Numbered

days.

collective

noun may be

qualified

by an

epithet- in

the masculine plural, as


against the infidel folk."

^/^\ ^^\ ^jl ^^\

''aid us

THE NOUN OF ACTION AS A QUAIIPYINQ EPITHET. (123).

Sometimes a noun of
is

action,

instead of an

adjectival or participial form,

used as a qualifying

THE NmiEEALS.
epithet, as

209

3^
but

"justice," instead of

^Al

''just ;" it

then

agrees with the noun in case, and in being definite or


indefinite,
it

remains always in the singular number,

and preserves

its

own
fjSs:.

gender, as
Cp^-j

a just
"

man.

J Jcr ^^j
U"^

Two just men."


^'^^'^

u^J

men."

An example
\)ij\^ <^l:;jli

of this occurs in the

Koran
''^'^.

oULu^ e;^* Irr^ ^^I'j^


if

^ ^J'^
Kor.

\J' ^.J

(^^*^

Perchance his Lord

he divorce you will give him wives better


Ixvi. 5.

than you true-believers, obedient and virgins."

Ibn Malik in

his Alfi'yeh gives the rule as follows

They frequently use the noun


But keep
to the singular

of action as an attribute, the masculine gender."'

number and

THE NUMERALS.
CONSTETTCTION' OF

THE NTJMEEAL AXD THE THING XUMBEEED.


is

(124).

iJ^^J (fem.), j^lj (masc.) one^

used as an
i]/].

adjective, as jo-ij J::>j

one man,"

i^J^'j

one

woman."
Ok^l,

fem. tJJ^S.)

i^

always a substantive, and

is

therej^js-I

fore

employed in a
of the

state of construction, as ^_^Lll


^^j^i^^

"one

men," sl^l

"one

of the

women."

Sometimes 5y "an unit,"

is

used, as

jLi 3j "of one


used.

and the same shape."


For the simple numeral one in the abstract j^lj
is

14

210

ARABIC GEAMilAR.

Tloo is expressed

by the dual number

of the

noun
J^l^

sometimes, for greater emj)hasis, the numeral ^:^\

may

be used as well, as

^^\ Jl^ji ^jy* "I passed by ^ y y

two men."

The use

of the numeral Uvo with a singular

genitive, as in the expression

J^^
(l)

liuj

''two colocynth

gourds,"

is

rare (see p. 105).


either used as nouns

From
and

3 to 10 the numerals are

substantive, governing the genitive of the broken plural,


if possible

the plural of paucity, and agreeing with

the noun in gender, as

JU-

^j^Jj

" three men,"

ci^lij c_U.1j

"three girls;" or

(2)

they

may be

regarded as adjectival,

and placed
yj^Ad>~ c:.'*l^j

after

and in apposition with the noun, as


^j^-J

'^^

^ "he had

three sons and five

daughters."
accusative, as

Very
\>\^\

rarely they are construed with the

'L^:i^ "five dresses" (see p. 194).

From one

to ten tlie

numerals are declinable and follow

the ordinary laws of construction and dependence upon

verbs and particles.

"When the thing numbered


preposition
"^^

is

a collective noun, the


^-.kJ
\

should be introduced, as

'ijt.ij\

"four birds"
kjb^^

{i.e.

four individuals of the class lird)

"iiine of the family." cT? '^'^l


to

From 11
struction

19 the numerals

are,

as

we have

seen,

indeclinable, and are therefore subject to no laws of con;

the units must, however, agree in gender with

the thing numbered.

From 11

to

99 the numerals govern an accusative of

the thing numbered.

Where
always

there

is

a distinction of gender, the numerals

agree

with the thing numbered.

The

thin

THE NUMERALS.

211

numbered being put in the


agree with
it

singular, an adjective may-

either grammatically or logically, as

^^''^^^

^^oj" Twenty dinars

of Nasir's coinage."

In the

first

place iJ^lJ agrees grammatically with the


;

singular masculine Ijb.)

the second logically with


is

the feminine broken plural J-J 155, which

implied.

We
place

may

use

all

the numerals as ordinary nouns, and

them

in a state of construction, as jjj .^A^ "Zeid's

twenty

(horses, etc.);" the


p.

being dropped by the rule

given in

108.
case

[In this

some grammarians decline the inde:

clinable numerals
-^

e.g.
.

^ ^

?.

^ o ^

-'

<<

* ^ " ~ 1 jtXt^'

au*,u*>ri.
''y

^i^JSi

These are your

fifteen

(camels).

y y y y
.

CSjUts.
kISJLs.

y V' ag,*/t^ j,rL


ij

Take your

fifteen (camels).

i:^M*j'^s>.

kiil

Give some of your

fifteen (camels).

Some few

decline the last part only, thus


Subjective
J^s.

cUw*^
^Lu.4.^
<,

Dependent
Objective

.Aj
y ^ y
.Jlt-s-

^ o /

<U.u*^].

^U,
is

^'100,"

is

a feminine noun.

After the units

it

put in the genitive singidm^ thus forming an exception

to the rule

on

p.

158.

The unit and the word

i-jU,

may,

moreover, coalesce. " 1000," is a masculine noun, and with the units (Jjijt,
follows the ordinary rule (p. 158) for the case of the

thing numbered.

^U

and

i-!cJi,

being nouns substantive, govern the

212

ARAEIC GEAMJIAE.

genitive singular, according to the rule for the construction of nouns.

Numbers compounded with


case occurs
e.g.

those already described

require the application of the various rules given as each


:

^-

iS-

-^

'Between the Hijrah and the Deluge there are 3974 years."

Here
is in

(-J^Jl is

the genitive broken plural after

the genitive singular after ^/*J,


it;

|jU forming one word


aJ^Jj
;

with

is

in the accusative case after

(^j^-^^^j

HjU

each set of numerals being connected by the conjunction j.

From

this it will

be seen that the

last

numeral

mentioned governs the case of the thing numbered.

In very large amounts the word be repeated


after each numeral,

ujiJl,

1000," must

and frequently the thing

numbered

is also so

repeated, as

-s?

/
its

As

for the province of Gharbi'yeh, the

amount of

revenue

is

two

millions one hundred and forty-four thousand and eighty military


dinars.

The higher numerals may


tives,

also

be employed as adjec-

following and being put in apposition with the

noun, as

He drew
hundred and

the net to land, and behold and,


fifty-three."

it

was

full of large fishes

THE NU^TERALS.

213

AGEEEMENT IN GEXDER OF THE KUMEEAL AND THING NUMBEEED,

(125). I have already said that the numeral agrees with

the thing numbered in gender.

This

is

also the case

when

the thing itself


''and there are
feet (feminine).

^'^l (Ir* In^.* some of them which walk on four"


<S(?.

is

understood, as jJj!

^
^

The
is
9
(^

logical

agreement

is to

be preferred even when


PL,?

it

opposed to the grammatical gender, as


9

'^

y yy

-Gis.

<^

w^

yy

So

my

shield against those I feared

Was

three persons

two budding maidens and a young woman."


(poetical for

Here, although

^^^

^^^--0

is

the plural

of a masculine noun, yet because the persons referred


to are feminine,

the numeral
4^i:-^l
-Ij'^j,

is

put in that gender


expected).

{^,a^^\

ti_jl!)j,

not

as

WO might have

With
p.

collective nouns,

such as those mentioned in


j^,<,

Ill (60), and when construed with

the numeral

must agree with the grammatical gender of the word, as


*:.AJ\

^^

'^.j^

'Four sheep."
" Three ducks."

kJI

^ ^ ^
9,9,

C-J^JJ

And

this holds

even when the individuals arc expressly

feminine, as
Lijul^ ^x!l\
Axjjl

'Four sheep

females."

jj^t) kJ^

C-J^j

"Three ducks
c-*ljj_,

mules."
epithet,

If the words

j^j and

or

any similar

immediately follow the numeral, this rule does not hold,


as they are then the things

numbered, and require the

: :

214

ARABIC GEAMMAR.

numeral to agree with them in gender.

But in proper
grammatical

names the sex alone

is

regarded, and the logical agree-

ment

therefore holds good, whatever the

gender

may

be, as

CIjIs^I IjL' "The


yy^li) <-0

three Talhas." four Zeinabs."

P ^oi

Cl>LijjJ\ jjl

"

The

For the numerals in the abstract the masculine form


is

always used, as

"LjAS ij:^ 15^11

"three

is

half six."

N.B. The

article is here

used

to express the abstract or

general nature of the noun,


indefinite

e.g. ''the

(number) three ;" an

noun

is

necessarily concrete; seep. 157 (81).

When

things of different genders are included under


:

one numeral the following rules hold

From

3 to 5 the

number of each species must be separately expressed From 6 to 10 the numeral agrees in gender with the noun immediately following it, as
^Ul
iX*cl

<^^\

^3U3 ^J "l
,

have eight servants and handmaids."

^U^

JUj J "l
,

have eight handmaids and servants."


is

From 11 19
they come, as
^y
y y
-^ (^

the numeral

always masculine for

nouns denoting rational beings, no matter in


y yy ^ yy

what order

i^

hXp^t
\s*^

1iA-

.A

iLu./.:>-

^'^^
o

I ^^^^6 fifteen male and female slaves."


fifteen female

^ i^ y y ^y

yyyyyy^y h ,lrs- .jlkS ^/.^

if JCs "l have

and male slaves."

For nouns denoting


y y ^ y
,

irrational

beings the

numeral
it

agrees in gender with that which immediately follows


i^y
./^

yy ^ yy

i^

Ailj

L*5>-

,A

^*A/*^

^Jc-c "ihavefifteen male and female camels."


ci^?^ "l have
fifteen

lU?-_j li\i iJLs.

^^/--'ci.

female and male camels."

THE NUMERALS.

215

And when
^ ^^ ^ ^
'O^
^

the noun does not immediately follow the


is

numeral, the latter


^^ o ^

always in the feminine, as


o

^ o ^

^l)

^ J.'iJ^

(^ ^^

l^ ijlLz ^^^'^rL

o Axe
o

" I have

fifteen camels,

male and

female.
>-

y ^ yt^y

y yy

Li

^y

J.'*.^_j 'tjlj

t* i^-l ^jo*^^

^Ai^

I have fifteen camels, female

and male."

THE USE OF THE AETICLE WITH NriTERALS. (126). "With regard


to

the

use of the

article,

the

numerals
yy

may be
y
9
<^

treated like ordinary nouns, as


(I

"^

-*o

y y yy

-.Ju

^yt.^\ j-^rJ

And

the seventy returned with joy."

The prime of

life is

the age

when man

is

stationary,

between thirty

and forty."

In the

last

example the

article is

used to generalize

the noun, see p. 157 (81).

The rules

for using the article

with the thing numbered

are really the

same as those which apply in the case of


e.g.

ordinary nouns in a state of construction;

JU-j ^1j

"three men,"

is

equivalent in construction to Jl^j c:,;!^!


article

"men's voices;" adding the

therefore

by the

ordinary rule to the last only,


JU-")Tcij "the three men,"
y y

we

get in both cases,

JI^TlLO y y
"^

"the men's

voices;" see p. 201 (11 G).

As, in some cases, the same two nouns in a state of


construction are so frequently used together that they are

regarded at
so, too,

last as

one word, and

may

take the

article,

may

the numeral, although in construction with a


jJlIi

noun,

e.g.

IjUj

"seven fundamental precepts;" with

216
the
article, L^^^^Lll

ARABIC GRAMMAR.
p -uJ-o ^ ^^-^
>-

-$

J U^ ^--Jl "the seven fundamental precf.

cepts of the

law;"

GllTi-Qi "the

life

of this world,"
p. 102).

scilicet^ ^\]liQh. is

so frequently

mentioned (see

This will of course apply only to the numerals from


3 to 10, and to the hundreds and thousands,
i.e.

those

which are considered as nouns, and as such govern the


thing numbered in the dependent case.

Those which are not placed in construction with the


following noun of course take the article, without refer-

ence to such noun.

them

is

that in
to

The only thing remarkable about the compound numerals the article may
first

be added

both portions or to the

only, as

tf^^O

^^X^xOx c*

^_

,,

" The

fifteen dirhems."

'

The

fifteen she-camels."

Wherever the numeral, and not the thing numbered,


takes the article, and a qualifying adjective follows, this

must take the


iL>j^^Ul

article, as in

the example given above

JUt)

f--jiJ\

The seven fundamental precepts of the law."

THE ORDINAL NUMBERS.


(127).

The

ordinal

numbers are regarded

as agents or

qualifying nouns, and are subject to the same laws.

The

ordinals for the units (except the first) are of the

form Jilj, and are therefore susceptible of the feminine


terminations, singular and plural.

Those
for

for the tens,

hundreds and thousands are the same

both genders.

'

THE OEDINAL NUMBERS.


For our expressions "one of two," "one of four,"
the Arabs say,
four," etc., as
^jSi
\

217
etc.,

"the second of two," "the fourth of


^Ij

One
One

of two.

ixij\ _jlj

of four.

Similarly, for

"he makes a

fifth,"

they say,

"he

is

the

fifth of four."
is

Here the true agent sense


verb (see p. 225), as

given to the ordinal,


like a

which may therefore either govern

noun or a

!^^,,^

,,\

"

He makes

a fifth."

DATES.
(128). In dates the cardinal

numbers are used

fol-

lowing the word


preserved

dll)

in the dependent case; the order

is units,

tens,

hundreds, thousands, and they

are connected together with the conjunction j, as


t_iJ^
.

^UiJj

>

,.,^^M^

Liux-j

''^J.j

In the year 1396.


dates, the
e.g.

In employing the ordinal numbers for day is frequently understood as with us


;

word

i^5;-i

,^ i^J^

'

c;'^^

28 th of the month Ecjob."

But

if

the article be used with the ordinal, the con-

struct form cannot of course be

employed

e.g.

;_^^

(j^

UAr^

-J

ciT?*^^^

"

"^^^ ^^^^ ^ ^^*^

month Eejob."

The day of the month is expressed either in the same manner as with us, counting from the first day, or according to the following system

218
X

ARABIC GRAMMAR.
-^

^O^-

^'t

s>-j

i^t dJj J.)!

On the first night of Eejeb


being passed."

^ ^

03?

w^^

''

'

\
)
r
1

"0^

the

now moon

or the

1st

Rojeb

^5>-j iyj or
^ ^
y<i,9

J^^
^s^-'o y

_-c>-i * -c or
-^ '^

J.^:iA*^

of Eejeb" (iti meaning the " blaze" or white mark on a horse's

blaze

forehead).
O ^
'^

O^^O^
^

2nd
3rd

to

10th

JUJ
nth
r;

being understood before

|oy^<
eleven nights of Eejeb

(j"^ l::^Ic^

S^-i*.^

i^^^^
^^o.<3

'

On

y-y'O

O^x ''^O^O

being passed.

12th


y y
(^

13th

14th

O.M'.O

15th

'x
o
o

In the middle of Eejeb."

'^

4^

f^

y ^

yUs-

16th

t-T-^^j i^'* '-^.t*^^

^Ac

r-^,j^

On

fourteen

nights

re-

to

maining of Eejeb."
_.luUj

19th

-r^>'

c;

,*'

U^>o^
y y ^

^.A.u
J"

Kj

20th

to

27th

>7
>

"

-y

.^-r

JUJ

"

..^

being understood before ^j-Jj

PROPER NAMES.
X 28tli
*^

219

^^ ^

t,^^^^

Eejeb

^r^J

c^*

^^

c;rr^^^

X ^ c

.5-^

s -^

^Z

On

tho

last

night

of

30tli

-^^jcr?J*?'^J^~'Olr'o!/^ '
^
or
!*

Reieb."

PROPER NAMES.
(129). Proper
or

names are Lre


"
aJJ\ j.^^^

either Simple, as eiuuer oiuipie, us

\\

'

Zeid;"

Compound,

as

'Abd'allah."

SIMPLE PEOPEE NAMES.

(130).

A mere proper name,


definite,
it

not having an intelligible

signification .in Arabic, is

only inflected with


not susceptible of

and

and

and being

is

tenw'in^

cannot take the

article, as
9 9
P

~-'

i-jy ^ U.<J4J

Joseph came."
1

d-uij

saw Joseph. by Joseph.

i_jL;-.J

''-^Jj^

I passed

[But Arabic nouns employed as proper names, and having an intelligible meaning, as wvlir* "laudable," are
regularly declined.]
COMPOUND PROPER NAMES.

(131).
1.

Compound proper names


as

are of three kinds.


VJ-1

Composed of a sentence,

LjU

"He

took an

armful of wickedness," the


poet and brigand.

name

of a celebrated

Arab

To

this

class

are

also referred

such names as

j^.'i>

220
''Yezid,"

ARABIC GRAMMAR.

or^^ "Shammar,"

which have verbal forms.

Such names remain uninflected and uninfluenced by


verbs, particles, etc., as

\^

LjIj s\-9>

Taabbata-Sharran came.*
I saw Taabbata-Sharran."

\jS^ LjIj l::-v>\;

\jL LjIij

c1-J;^.

"I

passed by Taabbata-Sharran."

2.

Compounded

of

two words of which the second has

become a mere termination, as cJ'^Jjs" "Hadhramaut," t<I;o; "Baalbekk."

Of

these the

first

portion

is

invariably pointed with

fethah, and the second follows the rule of a simple proper

name taking only


objective

in the nominative,

and

in the

and oblique, as
cLCIxj

i^

" This

is

Baalbekk."

lLXJjo '^z^}j
tliLl-x^j ''^J/^

" I saw Baalbekk."

^ passed by Baalbekk."

But

if

the

first

portion of the

word end in

^^ , it

remains

quiescent, as iljj ^/J^ " Madi-Karib."


3.
ajj^

Cor^ posed of two nouns in a state of construction, as

jIc "'Abdallah" (servant of

God); in

this case the

first

portion

is

subject to the ordinary rules, being inflected


;

according to the governing word


itself

the second part, being

governed by the

first,

is

always in the oblique

case, thus
aJll Jui ^U^ ^ 9 oS ^ -o ^^ o X

"'Abdallah came."
I saw

ij!\\
l-o

Ju
Ox
,\*xi

l::-^j^i
9

Abdallah."

ox ^

^\

Cl^jj^

"

I passed

by 'Abdullah."

PROPER NAMES.

221

In forming the dual and plural of proper names composed of the words
Jj\^

or

l::-Jj

and another noun, and

which are employed generally,


animals,
etc.,

as in the generic
is

name

of

only the

first

portion

capable of receiving

the inflexion, as
MASC.

FEM.

Singular

^.ftl

J|

a jackal.

Plural

ojl ciJUJ.

But such compounds

2.^

^\

sJk being proper

names

of men, especially if they are well-known individuals,

may make
allahs,"

their

plurals in the
;

ordinary measure for


" the three

quinqueliterals, viz. lULti


i.e.

'iSi!:^\

aLljL-tjl

Abd-

'Abdallah ibn 'Omar, 'Abdallah ibn 'Abbas,


for

and 'Abdallah ibn Masiid, three celebrated authorities


the traditional sayings of

Mohammed.

CONSTITUENT PORTIONS OF PEOPEE NAMES.

(132). Proper
1.

names

of

men

consist of three portions:


2.

The w^ Name,
^^J

as aJI

''Zeid;"

the

^11

or

Title, as j^jj^jU-M

''Zein el-'Abidin (ornament of the

worshippers)
is

and

3.

the

dI-1

or Familiar
tl^t

Name, which
or
'A

always composed of the word

''father,"

"mother,"

as^^t

" father of Bekr"


Title

(first

born).

When

the

Name and

come

together, the
-v^

name

must always precede, as IjQT J^\


nose';" but when the
together, the order
is

"Zcid 'camels

Name and

Familiar

Name come
"'Omar

immaterial, as^<j ^l^.*^

Abubekr," or^^ ;^ jjt "Abubekr *Omar;" and when all three come together, they may be arranged in any
order whatever.
single words, they

When
may

the

name and

title

are both

either be placed in apposition, or

222
they

ARABIC GRAMMAR.

may be

placed in construction,
S
^

asj^

j,^^ ^\^ ^'Sai'd

Kurz came."
S<^9

^'
y

^9

''

Safd

Eurz came."

of-'

9 oS^

I saw Said Kurz."

"^^.9

''

^y-

" I passed by Said Kurz."

But if they pound and one


-

are either both compound, or one

is

com-

simple, they are always put in apposition, as


Aili

^^JjU)^

^j^J

Jk-x

^U- "Abdallah

Zein el-Abidin came."

^^jjUll ^^j

^1

j- i"^.!^

"l saw

Abdallah Zein el-Abidin."

^JoUl\

^J

tX*x^ ^Ij^

"Said Zein el-Abidin came."


passed by Sa'id Zein el-Abidin."

.^>

..

JjUII

^^^J

"^-^

'"H'l/^

"^

NOTINS

WHICH GOVERN LIKE VERBS.

THE

TTSE

OF THE INFINITrVE OE NOUN OF ACTION AS A VERB.

(133).

As

in English, the infinitive or verbal

noun
as

may
jA^\

govern
jjj

another

noun

in

the objective case,

i^jL ^^

'-^^?'^

"I wonder
it

at Zeid's drinking

the wine."

When
wine,"

governing the genitive,

has a passive sense, as

.4^1 c-j-i
i.e.

^^

^^^-r^'^

"I wondered

at the drinking of the

at its

being drunk.
is

When

the noun of action

separated from

its

com-

NOUNS WHICH GOVERN LIKE VERBS.


plement, the latter
of the genitive, thns
t^l
L-uj <Ui-w.^ /^^

223

is

put in the objective case instead

(**'^>

Feeding an orphan." Feeding an orphan in time of famine."

^\x^\

Similarly,

when

the

noun ^^

of action

is

defined

by the
from

article, as \xa..^ ^-r^j-^^

J-^^

^ "I did not

desist

the striking Misma'."

Nouns which
in

are not properly nouns of action

may

take the same construction, provided they are equivalent

meaning

to the

noun of action proper,


Jk*j

as

IcljJl

i^\^\ L^5ll2

After your giving the hundred she-camels

grazing at large.

^^
*^A^
jk*j

c:-J/Jl

iJj Jow

After his driving

away death from me."


you

/|XJ
-y

CS^ljJLxi
y

By thy

associating with the generous,

will be
f y'O y
1^

numbered amongst them."


of

?i^

ifju

^J.

<i/.r-i

ij
I

The remembrance
his servant."
f'y(^y

my
y y

lord's

mercy

to

y<i-JS

yi^-api^y

The

Caliph's slaying Jaafer took place in this year."

And

vice versdj

the objective complement

may be

put

in the genitive, as

He
^
y

forbade people generally from any one addressing


to
^ s^
y'

him

or writing

him

as

my
^^

lord

and master

"
!

'

yy^^^

Ox.^3
'-r^.-^r'
^

\^ jj|^

clh:ij\

1^
->

^^
9

His pilgrimage to The House (Mecca)

who
y
-i,

can find means thereto."

y-ii

it

-"

^^:J1

15^*'^

^:^^^=*-

"My

love for

him taught me

piety."

224

AEABIC GRAMMAE.
constructions are found with the nouns of

The same

action from doubly transitive verbs, as

Verily

tlie

people

were

shocked

at

Mohammed's giving Amr

poisoned bread to eat."

If the verb governs its complement


preposition, the

by means

of a

noun of action may be used with a

similar

construction, as <uJ "m^jS^ J^&joJ^

"Abraham's asking par-

don

for his father."

This

is

especially the case in neuter

verbs, as ,^lkiLJ^

^ ^jj^

^^^ rebellion against the

Sultan."

And

if

the noun of action

is itself

in a state of conor place,

struction with a

noun expressing time

the

subject of the action will then be in the subjective, and

the object in the objective case, as


\,,t>s.

Jc^-sr^ <^,*-si

AtJ

,lli:i!'l

Mohammed's waiting
Friday.

for

Amr

on

Note.
that,

It will

be seen from the foregoing examples


fulfils

when

the noun of action

the function of the

verb, either the subject or the object

may be
noun

expressed

by

placing

it

in construction with such


is

of action.

When
with

the noun of action

undefined, especially in
it

the adverbial accusative, or


its subject,
it

when

is

in construction

frequently takes

its

objective com-

plement with J, as
^^aKsr
\^\jS\

"To

please me," instead of ^_j)s\s^

\^S\

iLj, (jj-^/Lil jj*js:***^

The

sun's

warming the
is

earth."

Vice versctj the -noun of action

fi-cquently repre-

NOUNS T7HICE GOVERN LIKE VEEBS.

225

sented by the aorist of the verb, preceded by the particle

y,
J3

or

by the

preterite with

U,

as
fast is better for

j^

L^^^" ^\
::^ Vt \jJj

That you should

you."

They would have liked


perished."

that you should have

THE

TJSE

OF THE AGENT, INTENSIVE AGENT, AND PASSIVE PAETICIPLE AS A VERB.

(134).
case if
it

The agent may govern a noun

in the objective
1

refers to a present or future time, as Lyj i-r^U jji

"this
Zeid."

is

(a

man who)
if it

is

striking, or is going to strike,

Or

be negative or interrogative, as
^-^l*

\y^s. Joj

'

Zeid

is

not striking

Amr."

\jAS. Jv-J c__>jIj1

*Is Zeid striking

Amr?"
in the usual
j^jj

If

it

refer to a past action,

it

must be put

construct form with the oblique case, as

l_^U

Ui>

"this

(is

the

man who)

struck Zeid."

The pronoun ^^

of the first person, although properly


is

used only with verbs,

when

thus used, as ^^y


<'0

sometimes joined to the agent jI^ ''^\ Ja " do you believe me ?"
as
vi

and with the noun of superiority,


OfOx X
^
'-0

Ji-OCOy'

" (There

is)

another than the Anti-christ (who) inspires

me with

more

fear for

you than he does."

(135). So too the intensive agent, as


^
o

-5^
'

\jAS.

^^j*o

He who

thrashes

Amr/

<U^ *y^

'

great tyrant to his tribe.'*

15

226
(136).

AEABIC GRAililAR.

The passive participle may govern the nominative


;

like its verb

thus, just as

you say <uLi

j>jj

<-^

"Zeid,

his slave

beaten," so also you say, ^ii C'jtr^* ^J " Zeid ; whose slave is beaten " construed with the genitive, as
is

<uii:

'-T^jr^

^jj

^^

would mean

Zeid with a beaten

slave."

AVhen the noun


the objective case, dual and plural the

or agent governs its


it

complement in
but in the

does not lose

its temvin^

^ may

be dropped.

THE NOUN OF SUPERIOEITT.


(137). If the
fixed, it
is

noun

of superiority have the article pre-

considered as a superlative, and agrees in


case with the
is

gender,

number and
f y'oS-^iTl"'

noun

qualified

by

it,

as

J^i^^
J^iJ\

Si\

" Zeid

the most accomplished. the most accomplished.

Jiiib

"Hind

is

^Jiii
Ll^''^J-JiJ
\

^^'j^^ " The two Zeids


4J1j1jc!\

are the

most accomplished."

"The Hinds

are the most accomplished."

If

it is

to

be used as a comparative,
S^^
^')

it

takes ^J^ , and

in this case remains always in the masculine singular, as


C

O
llT^

9 '^Oi

r^
O^

*-^^
9 y^s~

"^^^'^ ^^

^^ accomplished than A.mr." more accomplished than Dad."

,Y*

j^j
,^\j^\

J-^^

J^

"Hind
"
-^^^

is

(^

(J^J^

U^^J^

*^ ^ ^^ ^ accomplished than

the two
ffluJ
i

women."

^^

J-ii^

J^-J^

"

^^^ ^"^^

"^^^^ accomplished than

women."

It

may be

followed

by an undefined noun

in a state

THE NOUN OF SUPERIOEITY.


of construction with
^ 9^^s- S ^^
it,

227
it

in wliicli case also

remains

masculine singular, as
9

ijs!^j

aS\

kXJ

Zeid
iC

is

a most generous

man."

'i\jy*\

J"*-^^

>^--^

Hind

is

most beautiful woman."

But
its

if it

be followed by a definite noun in a


it,

state of

of construction with

it

may

either agree or not with

noun, as

''^

'

-'

or
..

The two Zeids

are the most accom-

:^V^%

.'"'^t

plished of the tribe."

or

The Hinds
(

are the most beautiful

((

II..

It

01 (the)

women.

'

The

first

construction

is

the most approved.

Comparatives formed from transitive verbs take the


object in the dependent case with

as

llli^ J.riJ
'

ZJ^\

la>

"he

seeks more after knowledge than you."


etc.,

Those formed from verbs of loving, hating,


take the object with
believer loves

also

J
as

as

auvoij

^^

a.IJ

^^\ ^,^>^^\

"the

God more than


^Jl^,
:r-i

himself,"

and they take


"the

the subject with


believer
is

;:;^

f^^ J|^ l.^=^1 e;*;-*^^

more beloved of God than any

other.
etc.,

Those formed from verbs of knowing,


object with c_>, as

take

i\\o

S:^ j.^

b lJ/:! Ul

" I know the truth

more than you."


Those formed from intransitive verbs require the same
preposition after
derived, as

them

as the verb from

which they are

228

ARABIC GRAMMAR.

"He

is

more abstinent
from
sin,

in worldly things, prompter to good, farther


for praising

and more eager

God.
rise

Frcqueutly this use of comparative adjectives gives


to

an

elliptical

form of expression, as
I

L^\^ ^i,*

^j^

"he needs me more than

him;" where

^^\ ^^
is for

similar ellipse occurs in the sentence

^j
which

c;rr^

L5^

'^:?

J^

.^^^ L^^ Li;"*^^

^'^>'

^^^.b

will be explained further on.

Followed by U, the noun of superiority expresses the


greatest possible degree of superiority, as

... ^

0''*^'
enemies."

tiy

'

"He

left us,

when we had most need

of him, in the plaws of our

NOUNS EXPRESSING INHERENT QUALITIES.


(138).

Nouns expressing inherent

qualities

may govern

like verbs; they will be susceptible of three different

constructions, according to the point of

view from which

they are regarded. Thus we may express in Arabic the idea of " the man handsome of face," in any of the following manners
1.

^^"^

J ^\ J-J^
-

y -'O-O

9 Zi

[In this example the article and noun of quality are


considered as equivalent to the conjunctive and the verb,
le.

^^'1 = ^^*M> uf^^ and

if

pointed with .1, i^^\

is

NOUNS EXPRESSING INHERENT QUALITIES.


eitlier

229

considered as

tlie
is

agent or nominative of such

verb =" who the face

handsome;"

or if pointed with

^"^t, as the adverbial accusative =


Similarly,
^-^1

"who

is

handsome

as to the face."]
2.
<Lj1 '^

'^-^ or

^^^j
U:^

^^^

^,

ti;:^*

or

^^.:>"i,

" The man handsome of

face,

whose
is

face is

handsome, or whose father's

face

handsome."

-^

>.

>

'J

s ^ '

A man
In (l) we

handsome of

face," etc.

may

also say &.^^\ ^^^'\

J^r^i^

which

is

merely the ordinary construction, i^'^^ '^^=^ "handsome


of face," the article

being pretixed to the compound


in a state of con-

expression formed

by the two nouns

struction (see p. 202).

The

genitive
it

is

obviously inadmissible in the other


violate the rule for the construction

examples, as

would

of nouns, see p. 201 (112).

In declining these forms of expression, the

last

word,

which

is

considered as the subject of the verb, implied

in ^J*us^^ remains unchanged, thus


^:?-

^^

(j*A=9-

iJ^J

i'*

^
^f
<^5^
'

-^

raan liandsome of face came


to

me."

c^-jl

S^:?^^ ^-w*>-

J>^

fJ

'-^

I passed by a of face."

man handsome

P O

^O-O

f9L,^ > I'

''

^'-^

i^?^^\

^i,^t

lu**!*-

ilp-t ^-^^rllj

-^

^^^ ^
face."

"^'^^

handsome of

230

ARABIC GRAMilAH.
"

^-^^^
9 9
t^

ij"-^-^

(J^V;^

Li"^^^^
9

-^^^

^^ handsome
me."

of face

came

to
y

o~o
\

9 -Oi-O

i^^y

c^:p-j

i^.*^
^ ^ y

iJ^^yV
y
9 -a

'^^Jr'*

^ passed by the
of face."

man handsome
i

f p<j ^

<^-a ^
^

-o

os^

^=rj

jj**^^

l)?^^ ^-^.b "' ^^^ ^^ ^'^^ handsome


face."

of

When
adjectival,

"fair of face"

is

expressed

by the ordinary
is

state of construction,

the

ejtithet

"fair"

of course
it

and agrees with the noun of which

is

an

attribute, as
^:>-

! \

^^yMS>- J-:^

rJ

'~~1J/'*

"*

P'^^s^^ "^y ^ ^^'^

^^^'' "^f

face."

lk:^i;^\ i:,M*s>-

'i'^j^\

l::.^;!
^_^

saw a -woman
to

fair of face."

o ^o-o y y y

d^^

l:.*ur>-

i^^^j

^J^l:>-

There came

me two men fair

of face."
.^ i^ y l^:>-j

And

similarly

where the adverbial accusative

is

used, as
(^AuTsJ.>^^ *~{/!/^ ^'^-J y ^ ^ f^ y ^y y y ^ ^o-.^ 9 o5^
',

'-^

passed by a roan fair in face."

L.:>-j cUAyj>-

iX^l *-^.\;
y
9

'

I saw a

woman
to
99

fair in face."

^o^
k'^^

yy y

_^y

c^^****" LiJ^'^J iS'^^^^

There came

me two men
L,

fair in face."

But

y
,

o ^

in the other cases the Avords

c'.^^-^

a:>-j,

etc

being
^^J*'*^>

considered as the subject of the verb, implied in

the latter Avord must therefore agree with them in gender

and number, though not in


^^^%
(^am:s-

case, as

J"^ r? ^^^jr^
l^j^i\> y

I passed by a

man

fair of face."

Uf?-j ^.A^si^

"-^jf
P
i^y

*'l passed

by a vroraan

fair of face."

9 P

^^ ^

A.^^j

i'^^:>-

J^^^
i^'^-u.jj
<>

"
^^^Jj^
CL.%.-*
-'-

P^^^^^i

by Dien

fair of face."

^^li-. |^^s-

" I passed by

women

fair of

appearance."

yy

KOUXS EXPRESSING IXHEREXT QUALITIES.


<uli

231

^ly
i<-^r^

"^j

'^^ll;

" ^ ^^^ ^ ^^ whose slave was

sick.

tOUli

^^

^-^ib

" ^ ^^^ ^ ^^ whose

slaves

were

sick.

In the comparative of the adjective in such an expres-

^^1^ J>-j} ^^jy " I passed by a man whose father was handsome," it will be necessary to change
sion as V^\

the form somewhat, and say


''I
If,

i.<^

^t^>-\

ij^t

J^

^^jy*

passed by a

man whose father was handsomer

than he."

however, the proposition be affirmative, but preceded

by a negative statement, and the subject is distinct from, the noun qualified, the adjective may assume the comparative form, a3
0-'

o^

9<j

O^^o-O
\

o^

.^

i^

% (

''

G?^

Jo

^-.

|J

cw*

(J.S

&^^

^^***^^ ^_^i

-^lb

^
it is

"l have

never seen a

man

with

kohP

in his eye

handsomer than

in Zeid's eye.'

But
*'I

there

must be two

distinct ideas in such


ijji

an ex^-^iL'

pression,

and we cannot say

^'^:>-\

a:>-j

^*

have never seen a

man whose

father is

handsomer
the

than he," because the sentence contains only one idea,

and the noun with which comparison


same which
is

is

made

is

qualified

by the

adjective.
il.^

In such a case
^::--j[;

the form of the sentence will be

^lo-l ^^\ \~^j

u.

OTHER WORDS WHICH ARE COGNATE TO VERBS.


(130).
1.

meaning of
verbs.

Words which contain verbs may govern an

in

themselves the

objective case like

Such words convey either


sense, as

A past
1

j.u-i)

" There

is

a difference

between"

= cj^,'
eyelids.

Powdered antimony with which the Orientals blacken the edge of the

"

232

ARABIC GEAMilAR.
or deprecative sense, as

A precative
c:^CA
^*.^T

"Away with"
"Amen!"

>^

" Be

it

remote."

t_^-j]. " Answer our prayer."

An

aorist sense, as

if or ijt

"Alas!"

= =

t^-^*^

"lam

in pain."

^; "Oh!"

^\
<j^J^\
cy!^l

"I wonder."

An
<ltf

imperative sense, as
or

<U

Silence!"

Hold your tongue.


"Hasten."
(it)."

^1^1^
C\j^j

= "Gently with...." =
"Look sharp!"
last

^^^1 "Delay

Sometimes, as in the

example, tliey

sidered as nonns of action, in which case

may be conthey may either


jjjj

take a complement in the genitive, as


Avith

j^^

gently

Amr;"
when

or they

may be

nsed adverbially without a


l^^.^*

complement, as
jojj,

Sj^j " gently

"=

it is

considered as an imperative,

may

also

take the affixed pronoun of the second person, in which


case
it is still

followed

by the

accusative, as

f^

^^-V.a;

" gently with 'Amr."


2.

Certain adverbs govern like verbs, as


itvj uliojJ
C3S\'^\

= Uj sL "Take Zeid." "Go on !"(?^. before you) = J1j.a5.


" Here's Zeid
for

you !"

i\-;)Il

of the J "-^V.! " Beware

lion

3.

Also some prepositions with their


Iju)

eases, as

lS^

Take care
Begone!

of Zfid

]JJj

VJl. ^-'.

^ii I5^"


OTHEE WORDS WHICH ARE COGNATE TO VERBS.
All the above are
there
is,

233

irregular

in their

terminations

however,

one form

which may be derived


used as an interjection,

regularly from any verb, and

namely i\^j as

J^J "Comedown!"
c-jI:;^

Jj-jl-

Write away!"

e^-iL

"Words of this kind conform exactly to the verb in their


functions; that
is,

they govern, but are not governed,

nor are they put in construction with a preceding noun, nor

may

they be preceded by the noun which they

govern.

"When they
and I
final

are followed

by

a verb in the aorist tense

in such a connexion, as tl^Cjcj-ti l^ " hold your tongue,


will talk to you," the verb

which follows has the


p. 176).

vowel apocopated as in the example (see

Note.

Some

of these
indefinite

words are susceptible of temvin,


;

and are then

while those which have not

temvm are

definite:

thus, X^

means "preserve
Li.Jli\
;

silence in

this particular

instance," lL^CJI

but

means

"be

silent" generally, IjyC

^CJ\.
their cases,

Adverbs and prepositions with


native, as

when ih^j

follow a negative or interrogative particle, take a nomi-

though some verb implying "abiding" were

understood, as

Jt

cl^JcLi t

You have no

property

lit.

property

(remains) not with you."


^^JJ

jljJl

-s

(_o>

Is Zeid (abiding) in the house.

But

this

may

also be explained
p. 236).

by the

rule for subjecl

and predicate (see

234

ARABIC GnAMMATl,

SECTION II.THE SENTENCE.


PAETS OF A SENTENCE.
(140).

proposition

consists

of a

subject

and an

attribute or predicate,

and enunciates the existence of

the former in relation to the latter.

The word
^'Z^" is used.

express-

ing this relation

is

called the verb.

If simple existence

be predicated, the substantive verb


(141).

sentence or clause beginning with a noun


*\i

is

called a nominal sentence, as

sij

"Zeid stood up."


either major

When beginning with a


as joj yfi

verb,

it is

called a verbal sentence,


is

"Zeid stood up." The proposition


and predicate, the
i^jj
/Ij

consisting of a subject

latter consisthis father is

ing of a complete clause, as


standing
;

''^j

Zeid

or minor,

and forming the predicate of another


in the above example.
j:^!::-*

proposition, as ai}

llj,

It
jjj

may

be

both major and minor at once, as


his father's slave
is

<uic

a.j^

"Zeid,

going away."

included a verb, as j^^j ^'he runs," where the pronominal agent is implied, see
(142).
clause (in
is

which

p.

154)

may
it

serve as the predicate to another clause, in

which case

may be

placed in apposition with


it

it,

without

the intervention of a conjunction, provided

occur after

an undefined simple noun, as ^-^i "he prays," in the


following sentence, ^^

u^/

'-^

*'
i

r*

I passed a

man

praying," where
thet of
If
it

j^L::^ is

considered as the qualifying epi-

Jj>-j

occur after a definite simple noun, as

J-if'j

%j

A^

; ,

PARTS OF A SENTENCE.

235

"Zeid came running,"

it is

considered as adverbial, ex-

pressing the state or condition of the noun.

The

aorist

indicativ^e,

following a preterite without

the intervention of a particle, often implies an act con-

sequent on the past time implied in the preterite, as


i^jLl

*u ^J^

''^
(JIl5^^

came

to

a fountain of water to
consisting
of or

drink."

If the

minor clause,

con-

taining a verb, occur after anything but a substantive

noun,

it

may
s
^ y
>

be considered either as an epithet or an


5o

adverb, as
^

o^oS

iUjJl

(Jjr,U, .^J Ijjb

This

is

a blessed notice which

we have

revealed."
1^U-j1

J-*3^ jLksM Jd^^ "Like the

ass

{Jit.

like the similitude of

the) carrying books."

In the

first

of the above examples hdyA


,

is

regarded

either as an epithet of J^i

and
;

in apposition with tZ^ll*

or as adverbial of condition

and in the second \jU\ ^^^r


1

stands in a similar relation to }C^^


really definite noun, but
species, see p.

This

.lis-

is

not a

merely has the j( which marks

157

(81),

and

is

considered to be general

and in a manner
examples of

indefinite.

The Arabic grammarians give a great many other clauses, which, by standing in the position

of an inflected noun,

may

dispense with the conjunction

but the examples given above will enable the student to


understand the principle of
all

similar constructions.

THE SUBJECT AND PREDICATE.


(143).

The

principle

which I have already suggested

for the concordance of the

Agent and Verb

(see pp. 182,

183), will apply equally to the Subject and Predicate of

236
a sentence, and
it

ARABIC GEAMMAH.
will be seen that the following rules
it.

naturally result from


1.

The predicate
If both

is

always in the nominative or sub-

jective case.
2.

subject

and predicate are

definite, it

is

usual, for the sake of perspicuity, to insert the


yi>

pronoun
for the

masc. sing.,

*j&

masc. pL,

etc.,

which serves

simple substantive verb " is," as


ii

/j-iUl

ijsM
\

&

cdSl

'

God

is

the living

the self-subsistent."

^^:^f^

>J& cL^ji!jl

" They are the prosperous."


is

"Where the subject

a personal pronoun of the


is

first

or

second person, the pronoun of the third 'person

used to

form the copula, as CX^\ tl^Ty^

lil

"I am the Lord thy


is

God."

The

subject in Arabic

is

equivalent to what

some-

times called in Latin grammar a pendent nominative^ and


the predicate
is

any thing which


SUBJKCT.
;?

is

afterwards affirmed

concerning

it,

as
PREDICATE.

ox,'
l::^*!);'

uJ

II

jj.-.,*^

The sun

it

rose."

This must not be confounded with

^XaiT

l::^^!^

'Hhe

sun rose," as such an expression, consisting of a verb

with

its

agent,

may may

of itself form the subject to a subse-

quent predicate.

The

subject

indeed be either a noun, as ^li

SJ
\)

*^Zeid (is) standing;" or a detached pronoun, as pU^is ''he


(is)

standing ;" or more than one noun, as

<Ji;li^

^*^

*'Zeid, his servant (is) going

away."

The
"Zeid

predicate
(is)

may be

either a single noun, as Lli ajI

standing;" or a sentence grammatically con-

THE SUBJECT AND PREDICATE.


nected with the subject, as
(is)
ii^l

'

237

IjU Sjj

Zeid, his father

standing;" or a pseudo-sentence,
(is)

asj\jJI

^^^\ lLSS^
it

Sjj

"Zeid

he with you or at home ?" or

may
"Zcid

consist
(is)

of several nouns or epithets, as^li)

1^ jjj

lawyer, a poet."

AYhen the predicate


substantive verb "e6'"

is

anything other than a verb, the


omitted, as

is

pU

jjj

"Zeid(is)

standing."

"When the predicate


J-J.'^ (jlXi^li
,

is

a verb,

as

in the sentence

no

ellipse occurs, since the

pronominal

ter-

mination cb

is

considered as the a^rent to the verb ^jL,

and the sense

is

regarded as complete

see p.
;

154

(78).

The

subject, if a noun, should be definite


it

but in the

following cases
1.

may be

indefinite

If the predicate be an adverb or a

noun with a

preposition (in

which case the sense


i^'S:-s.

is

complete), as
a book."

ju-JuS

I have (with

me
(is)

is)

tjs>-j j\ji\

In the house

man."
particle, as

2. If it follows
j\j,]\

an interrogative or negative
Is there a youth in the

^
LJ

J-ii

house?"

J^ U

"

We

have no friend"

{lit.

no friend

is to us).

3. If it
jS

has an adjective qualifying


ijl'y* L/r^j
-^ helieving

it,

as

,i

^*

j^
it

man

is

better than an infidel."

4.

If

govern another word by means of a preposi-

tion, 2i^'^^ 'j^'\


5.

If

it

is

^^ Zlj "a longing for goodness is good." in construction with another indefinite
i'jllc.

noun, as

^^-i)

t-iJl

^j^

^^

lA^ Jj^

"An

hour's

justice (is) better than a thousand months' worship."

238
6.

AEABIC GEAMMAR.
j^l^

If

it

occur in a prayer, as iCli

"peace (be)

upon you."
[It

will be

seen that indefinite nouns under these


;

circumstances become really defined

they are therefore

not really exceptions, although the grammarians give

them as such.] The predicate should be


Abdallah."

indefinite,

but

it

may be
"this'(is)

definite if the subject is so also, as fiil ju

\ssb

OMISSION OF THE PREDICATE.


(144).

Sometimes the predicate


It^li 1.::--.=^ j>-

is

omitted, as
!

^^\

I went out, and behold


{scilicet,

the wild beast

was before me)."


:

It is always omitted in the following cases


1.

not for Zeid,

l>j i^ "were it After i^ "were not," as \J*1 'Amr would have perished" {i.e. had not
etc.).

c3^

Zeid come to the rescue,


2.

When

it

precedes a noun in the objective case,

which could not serve as the predicate, as


"

L^U

o^

my

journey (was performed) walking."


it

f^ "were

not for," though exercising no gram-

matical influence on what follows,

may

take the affixed

pronouns, as iSp,

^ip,

(-li'iy
;

etc.

These represent the


,

genitive, not the accusative

for

one says c/^y not

^^^,

see p. 151 (75).


3.
^vl.rli^

After j "and," in the sense of

"with," as

man
4.

Jj^J 3^ "every man and his own trade," i.e. "every and his own trade should be found together" {ne

sutor ultra crepidam).

When

it

is

any form of swearing, as

^\.xii

Cjj^

CONCOED OF THE SUBJECT AND PREDICATE.

239

"by your
life (I

life

I will certainly do so and so,"

i.e.

"by your

swear)."
it

5.

When

is

an

infinitive or verbal

noun serving
i.e.

instead of a verb, as

J^'^'^ "good
may

patience,"

"good

patience (be mine) = I must be patient."


(145).
its

The

subject

consist of an adjective with

substantive following a particle of negation or inter-

rogation, in
Jj.VjjTIj^''^'*

which case the predicate

is

not required, as

"the two Zeids are not standing."


stands instead of the proper predicate.

Here

the word

JU

CS^^ ^ij^""* J^ "are your sons beaten?" In


Cji^pi^ serves for the predicate.

this case

In these instances, as in the case of verbs and their


agent,
it

is

not necessary to put the word expressing

action in the plural number, to agree with the

noun in

the plural, because


(see pp. 182, 183).

it

is

mentioned

first

in the scutenco

COXCORD OP THE SUBJECT AND PREDICATE.


(146).
its

The

rules for the concordance of the subject

and

predicate or attribute are almost the

same
;

as those for

the concordance of the agent and the verb

p.

235 (143).

If the predicate be a participial or true adjectival form

and follow the subject, it agrees with the subject in gender and number, unless it be an irregular plural, in

which case

it is
t/^
'-'9

put in the singular feminine, as


9

^^S

' ^

^J^^y*
Sy
^
9 9 9^-^^
^

i\y\ ^li
9 '^<Z
^

Both his parents were true believers."


-^^^ hearts arc blind,

^o^

i^lj ^y^J^ J

^y^

L?'*^

though the eyes

may

see."

Eut

if it

precede the subject, as in negative or interit is

rogative sentences,

put in the singular, as

240

AEABIC GRAMMAR,
two men coming in?"
going out."

^J^^)^ J^^^^

-^^^ the

Jls^^ TTj^
If the subject
plural, as ^j^}j
is
'^

^'^^ ^ ^'^^ ^^t

a collective noun, the attribute

may

be

Ji

all

are obedient to

Him."
it

If the subject is a demonstrative pronoun,

agrees in

gender with the predicate, as


All\

it

were, by anticipation, as
sio-ns."

cubl
.

CJ^ ^

"these are God's

INVERSION OF THE SUBJECT AND PREDICATE.


(147).
rule,
1.

The predicate should


it

follow the subject as a

but

necessarily precedes in certain cases.


it

I
as,

When

naturally begins
particle,

the discourse,

for

instance,

an interrogative
j^jj\
i.r-o\

(t

"

Who

(is)

in the

house?"

u_a-^ " How (are)

you?"

2.

When
its

it
;

consists of

an adverb or of a preposition
the subject
^^^^ wealth.*'
(is)

with

noun

and when

is

undefined, as

JU
When

c/t^

-'-

ti\y\ j\j!i\

In the house

woman."

3.

it

has an affixed pronoun referring to the

subject, as l^^*-l^ j^jJl

^i "in the house

is

its

owner"

(the master
4.

is

at home).
is restricted

When

the subject
l[j

in

meaning by the

particles C*j} or

as
Ziid only
'

JuJ j\Ji] j-3 \^\


/
-'^^-OCi
?

is

in the house."

^ -^

-'

g.\2\

SI

J^*-^^

ici-!i

The

apostle has only to deliver

his message."

WORDS AFFECTING THE SUBJECT AND PREDICATE. 241


5.

If the initiative and empliatic particle


Vi\s jjJJ

precede

the subject, as

^^Zeid is standing" (the one stand-

ing

is Zeid).

6.

If both the subject

and predicate are

definite

or

if,

being both indefinite, they act together as the subject to

some other predicate not yet expressed, as


clio-l jjJ
jj;
Zeid, thy brother

."

J-iil

More

excellent than Zeid."

OMISSION OF THE SUBJECT.


(148).

The

subject

may
it is,

be omitted when the context


as

indicates plainly

what

JjM
i.e.

c->Ul

The
" This

first

chapter."

Jj^^ S-'V^^

^^

is

the

first

chapter."
^ C*
^
r^<

Or

conversationally, as in answer to the question


are

iJL-ol

Jil^

"how

you ?" the answer may be J^l "

ill."

WOEDS AFFECTING THE SUBJECT AND PREDICATE.


(149). Certain verbs and particles affect the subject

and predicate both


following
1.

in furm

and meaning

they are the

The

abstract verbs.

2.
3.

Approximate verbs.
Verbs denoting a mental process

4. 5.
6.

Yerbs of praise and blame.


Particles

which resemble verbs.


particles. 16

Negative


212
AEABIC

GRAMMAR

1.

ABSTRACT VERBS.

(150).
j^o
jUtf>

The
was.

abstract verbs are


Cl^b

He
He

He was or did something


in the night.

became.

^**1

He was or did something in


the morning.

J^J t*

He

ceased not.

^^^^
rA-jl

He was or did
dawn.

something at

ly U He
_xaj
\

left mot off.

He

desisted not from.

^s**l

He was or did something


noontide.

at

(^
something in

U*

He

relinquished not.

<Jb

He was or did

the shady part of the day.


^^A**.l

^IJ

Whilst he remained.

He was or did something in


the evening.
jufcJ

He

is not.

These verbs are called


J^lf

^l

j^^l ''sisters of the verb

."

They

put the subject in the nominative, and the

predicate in the objective case, as

Uo

IJ

,lf

"Zeid was
is

generous," and
not liked."
\_Note.

\y^* ^^4-^

u**^

"^^

ignorant person

These verbs each express a particular condition or


and imply that the subject
is

phase of

existence,

is

in that particular condition.


to express state or

Now,

the objective case in Arabic

always used

condition, see p.
case.

192 (108), and

is

therefore evidently required in this

In the simple sentence J^i J^J you merely mention the subject,
affirm of

and then
mttn";

him

that he

is,

generally speaking,

a generous

but in the sentence Uj^.i jjJjI**

Zeid became generous,"

you

affirm

something more, namely, that he has entered upon the

state or condition of being generous.]

Of

these verbs

^^13

and

^^
U

are used in the pre'*^\

terite tense only, as V^jIj

cLXj

\\j

"be generous

to

Zeid wMle you remain able."

ABSTRACT VERBS.
[The abstract verbs can never be preceded by
for instance,

243
their predicate;
wV",

as,

we must

not say c:^.<J


before the

'
i

JlJ l^ or

Jj

U.j

But the predicate may come

noun which

is its

subject, as

The

others, as ^li

and the
^,i

like,

may be

used in the
i

other tenses, as C^X>-

"be wise," and

L-^f ^jJ

"do

not cease to be trustworthy."

j^y generally takes the preposition j with cate, as Jibls^: J'?J \j^ "Zeid is not a fooL"
with regard
to the order of the

its

predi-

In the case of the abstract verbs the same rules hold

noun and predicate

as

those for the ordinary verb and


ject

its

agent, or for the subp.

and predicate of an ordinary sentence, see


p.

178 (99)

and

240(147).
abstract verbs

The
verbs,

may be employed

like ordinary
dis-

putting the agent in the nominative, and

pensing with any further predicate, as


j^'iX

"The

affair

was

{i.e.

took place)."

^j^^ -4^^

Amr

passed the morning."

"What took place from our act and deed took place

and God

is

good and most enduring."

In

some

cases
c.'! <-'^^

^l^
^^

need
'^

not

be
is

expressed,

as

^^

^'"^ c;l 3
it

^-

"What

said is said,
"j
\

whether
are for

be truth or falsehood," where Cli


^^L
J, if is

Ll-

''.1

'J' IjI-* ^li

The noun
^

of action of the verb


for ^

frequently cmand
is

JWs

an abbreviation

-kj

}\ "to the end of

it,"

equivalent to

our " &c."

244

ARABIC GEAMMAR.
itself,

ployed like the verb

with regard to the governis

ment

of the object, but the subject


it,

put in the genitive

in a state of construction with


y
<^

as
thy being strong and others

o^ /

lL.x*i Ll^-.i

^f i

\^

"--^^y^

"From

weak."

The agent

of the

same verb may be similarly used, as

Mohammed, who was

a prophet

when Adam was yet water and

earth."

2.

APPROXIMATE VERBS.
are of three kinds.

(151).
1.

The approximate verbs

Expressing the fact of the action of the verb being


,

near or on the point of taking place, as ijjSj]


*'he almost
2.
its

jIs

(IJ^

"

Expressing hope, or expectation, or probability of


,

taking place, as ^j.


3.

^^,

(J^^^l

" probably he
lljt,

."
. . .

Expressing

its

commencement, as

^p^,

J-'r>

^iLc,

l^t, "he began."


all
p P
C>

These

take the aorist, as


y

y o.<3 ^
\

kJiw

jli-S (jw

jl^ "

The horseman almost

fell

"

C^

^.) LS*'^
iXjJ

Probably Zeid will stand."


'

A.(:;j

Jjwf-

Zeid began to speak."

These verbs are only used in the preterite tense, except


'S^

and

uliCijI

which have an

aorist, as Sij^ 9 5

uJ^y.
.

the latter has also an active participle, CS^y^*

They

must precede the noun, and the noun must precede the
predicate.

APPROXIMATE VERBS.

245

^^ and
tlie

tlXijI , expressing contingency, generally take


j^t

particle

governing the conditional mood.


:

With

ol^ it is

generally omitted

but

it

is

always used with

^J1>.

and ^^X\\ never with the verbs expressing com-

mencement.
1.

^-I^,

CS^L^ and
ic***^

^Jl^l^l

may be

used impersonall}", as

11-.-W 'y^r-^' jm'

You may

perhaps hate something.' perhaps come.

gjU

^^^

Ciw.t

He may

2.

i^luc

may be preceded by
it

its

noun, and
or not, as

may

either

agree with
y

in
O i

number and person


^ ^

/'--

So^
"^.{i

*Jij

eJ^

L_s***'^

Perhaps Zeid may stand up."

or

i^

"i-

^^

>

Perhaiis the

O**)^

two Zeids may stand,

P-'

oS

or

yy

9<^^ y

Perhaps the Zeids

may

stand up.'

3.

In the other persons of the preterite of ^Js. the


pointed with
is

may be
4.

Jcesrah^ as

c:-^:^*!*^:

"perhaps thou;"

but fethah
^^Ic

the more usual.

may be

followed

by an

accusative pronoun, as

^lli "perhaps he," or


lu^ is also

cJlLs "perhaps thou."


l
,

sometimes used with the negative

as

"I

liave

no power

left in

me, and devices arc not likely to do any

good.

That has come upon mo which makes me forget the gazelle and
ghazal (a form of poetry)."

tlie

246

A.EABIC

GRAMMAR.

3.

VERBS DENOTING A MENTAL PROCESS.

(152). Verbs which express certain knowledge, suspicion, or calculation, are called c_j>yjLH
J'.*it

"verbs de-

noting a mental process."


^\j
to see.

They

are
Jlrito fancy.

J.i to know.

to reckon.
*.rj

J>^. to

find.

to suppose,

^j^

to perc'ive.
*^

cXc
x ^

to count. to set

^
To

to think.

jjx^

down

as.

these are added


adopt
.--5

sXst]. to

Jx?^

in the sense of

to

make

into."

to cause to turn into or

become.
case,

These verbs govern two nouns in the objective


as the ordinary objective
^jli UjJ
liL>U
l::-^,^

one

and the other adverbially, as


(to be)

" I saw Zeid " I thought

an accomplished man.

\j^s- \.z^-^)a

Amr

truthful.

liL'Jv-s

^..G

tUJ^"^ "l

took Bekr as a friend."

11^

and

o-tj

may be
j'

used in the 4th conjugation with

the double accusative, as


^

14^:^*

x>^o^^o^ \^ \si\

o^i

l::^^^

" I showed to Zeid Arar in the act of going

away.
C'w>U iX?

C*

u:.-^^^ " 1 made

Amr know

Bekr

as truthful."

When

these words are

used parenthetically, as an

after-thought, or before a particle of affirmation, inter-


VERBS OF PEAISE AND ELAME.

247

rogation, or negatiorij they naturally cease to govern the

noun, as
;>

o^^

i;

o^

l^lrs- ij:,-^:^ JcJj

"Zeid
^^^^
I

is

(I think) a fool."

''--'^~^

tjV

'Hi

^^

truthful (at least I thint so)."

ajIs

Jup
l--

l::^^!^

knew

(it)

certainly Zeid

is

standing.*

J li
ji^z
z*^

Jk-S

e:^:^

I thought Zeid was not standing.

j4^

"^Ij^

Lii-vtlc

"l

did not

know whether Zeid was


Amr."

stand-

ing or

4.

VEEBS OF PRAISE AXD BLAME.


of praise

(153).

The verbs
:

and blame are four in

number, namely
x^
^

For

praise.

_'
,

For blame.

and Jj.i require a definite agent or nominative, in conjunction with which they serve as a predicate to a
1x1

noun, the
sentence
;

latter, hoAvevcr,

being placed after them in the


is

thus joj J^jl 1^ "lie


Predicate.

a good

man,
"J

is

Zeid."

^'"

subject.

literally.

Good

is

the

man

(namely)

Zeid.

You may

also say Joj iJ^j

1^ with

the same meaning


is

but in this case the grammatical explanation


Predicate.

Advetbial.

^'""." o/ subject.

Good
**j, Jul),

is

(he)

(110.

man (namely)

Zeid.

and

^H, agree

with the agent in gender and

number.
\jJ!p-

^L>
is

may be

used as an ordinary transitive verb.


of the

compounded

two words \Z^s- "it

is

agreeable," and Ij "that," the demonstrative pronouu

being considered as the agent of the verb.

The

subject


248

ARABIC GRAMMAR.

of the praise implied

by \x^

is

therefore merely a nomi-

native in apposition with Ij, as

"Bravo, Zeid! Hind


the women,"
etc. etc.

the
l"*

two men

the two women the men

"We may

also

add

to all these verbs, except IJ^iX,

and say U*;, Ul^j,

^l^.

5.

PARTICLES

WHICH RESEMBLE VERBS.

(154). Certain particles resemble verbs in their action

upon other words.

They

are
*-^^-^

JjJ "probably."

would that."

,^
^^\

"but."

^li "as though."


'

"that" (emphatic).^

^\^
'^^^S

verily."

These are exactly the reverse of

in their

mode

of

governing, for they put the noun or subject in the objective or accusative,

and the predicate in the nominative

case

thus
Uoli Sij

^
^

"Zeid was standing."


"Yerily Zeid
is

Jli Ijdj

standing."

Examples
aJIj
\j^^s.

^
\si\ Ijdj

^Ij "l have

heard that

Amr

(is)

coming."

Ju.j1

^ "As
^^
*'

if

Zeid were a lion."


is

iJr^
>yo
<

"But Zeid

a miser."

\^t}\

c:^

"Would that youth could return."


,05 -f 9 "that," the jk^::Jl ,,3

This

is

only a stronger form of the particle

heing added as in verbs (see p. 28).

PARTICLES WHICH RESEMBLE VERBS.

249
forgiving."

Jli.

<iJjl

JjJ

There

is little

doubt but that God

is

JJi,*

_jJkxJl Jj]

"Most

likely the

enemy

are approaching."

If the subject of

^^^

be an affixed personal pronoun,

it

must be repeated

in its detached

form with the predicate,


art the Liberal

as L-Aib^\ l::^! CS^\

"verily

Thou

One."

The
with

predicate of these particles follows the subject or


it

noun, unless
its

consist

of an adverb or a preposition
it

noun, in which cases


\>^l\

may

precede
is

it,

as

CSsu. ^\

Verily with you

Zeid."

\S}j j^-^^

^ ^^

'

Verily in the house

is

Zeid."
^\^ ''verily

In such an expression as
the house
is its

^l>-lojllll

in

owner,"

it

necessarily precedes, because


it

a relative pronoun cannot precede the thing to which


refers.

If the pleonastic C*

is

added

to

any of these

particles,

they cease to govern the noun, as pjd

Sjj \^\

"vcniy

Zeid

is

standing."
is

(Xj
is

sometimes exempt from this

rule, as Ifij

LyJ Ucx^].

[The reason

for the difference appears to

be that

not really pleonastic, but means something like " the

fact (is),"

and therefore becomes the


it

real subject, but,

being indeclinable,

does not exhibit this effect.]


is

The

particle

signifying commencement,
If
it

some-

times used with

^\^.

be joined to the predicate, the'

regular order must be preserved, as lUlJ Gjj ^\ "verily

Zeid

is

standing
is

" but

if

it

be joined
^\

to

the noun,

the order

reversed, as

CJj^ljJl^

"verily in the

house

is

Zeid;" but

tl-lljITcLj* lL^A^ "verily

Thou

art

the Bounteous One."

250

ARABIC GEAMMAR.

POSITION OP
is

,.,1

IN THE SENTENCE.
it

*,t

used in commencing; a sentence, or wherever

is

necessary to break the grammatical order and begin

a fresh clause, as
2i\i IjoJ

" Verily Zeid


to

is

standing."

Jli
^
y

aj!
9-^

^JJ\
9

<J*^ "He came


9 <^yy

me who verily

he

is

standing.'

'
rJ

J^lj

djl

Jsf

'^y "l
to

passed by a
plished."

man he

is

certainly accom-

y%

>,

-,

-'

99^>

Or simply
"I

add a fresh

clause, as J^l ^J ^^jj^j ^^;


full of

visited him,
at the

and certainly I was

hope."

Or
as

beginning of a clause connected with such


"then,"
,^,1

particles as
.

1j[
,

IJl^

\si\

cLl^

"where," "behold," and " sit where there is Zeid ^>St\

J4^

sitting."

After such expressions as


etc.,

L^JiJ

"I

said,"

t\

"is not?"
*

as
Ijli \:si\

c:-Jj

"l

said verily Zeid

is

standing.'

ili i^y^ l^ f\ "Is not Zeid standing?"

Or
''S^

before the particle


,!,!

fjo';

iXJiJi

J in such an expression as "I knew it there is Zeid standing."


where the thing sworn
J, as ^UJ
Ijjj

Or

after a particle of swearing,

to is introduced

by the
is

particle

J\^

aj.\^^

"by God

there

Zeid standing."
USE OF

^
is

^1

is

used where something

immediately introduced

by the verb, as

JU
JU

Ijjj

^\

s_sf^-

"' ^^^

heard that Zeid

is

standing.'

\L^\ ^j:^^ "I knew

that thou wert standing."

ox THE USE OF
Ciol o'J^-^
It

''.,\

c'i.

AND vj ^J
^^'-^

251

jj-ili

is

my

opinion that thou art accomplished."

j5t>Us uli^jl ^ijlib^l

"My

belief (is) that

thou art truthful."

j^,ikiJ

JJ\ Uil^ (J-^^ ''^^ "it is ^x o/^o^^ c./c-'-^ ^c~o -S


-'

the truth like as


y
o^<-S

you

utter."

B-emember

my

bounties wherewith I have been gracious to you,


to the

and that I have made you superior

whole universe."

Kor.
it

ii.

44.

And when God


be yours."

promises you one of the two parties that

shall

Kor

viii. 7.

Even where
preposition,
'j

the verb governs

its

complement with a

^!,!

introduces that complement, as


O
9
i^

^*

i,_..-^jli

<L>Ji\>^ l::^^~

'I wonder that you are writing."

CASES IN AVniCH EITHER

,.,1

OE

,.,1

MAT BE

USED,

(155). In the following cases ^\


indifferently
1.

and ^] may be used


implies conseto

After the conjunction

i_J,

where

it

quence, as
is

V?^

^ti

j^U

^%.*

"he who comes

me

(he)

honoured."
2.

After a particle of swearing,


is

when

the subject of
,^,1

the oath

not preceded
is

God
3.

Zeid
j^

by J,

as IjL* Sjj

/Jll

"by

standing."

After C\ "is not?" and


*jIj Ij^J
j^j^

y^i

"undoubtedly," as

tl

'

Is not Zeid standing?"

S Py ^i-o
aJii

-OJi

^^
)!

^^ Ajs-

Undoubtedly God

is

forgiving."

After such an expression as "I said,"


the actual words of the speaker, as
*'

when it

introduces
SJi ^jt
"

ajJ\

j^^ ^\

the

first

thing I say

is,

'

I praise God.' "


252
ARABIC GRAMilAR.

LOSS OF

THE FINAL

^^

Ilf

TEE ABOVE-MEN'TIONED PARTICLES.

Of

the particles treated of in the foregoing paragraphs,

those ending in ^, namely, ^\,

^,

"^l^

and J^G, may

be shortened into

^]^,

^t, ^Is and ^jC]

',

they then govern

under the
^,J_

following; circumstances

ceases to
its

govern

its

noun, and generally takes

before

predicate, as

^UH

jjj ^\

"verily Zeid

is

standing."
(

J appears

to

be used in
.)

this case to distinguish it

from

the negative ^\
^1 has for
its
its

noun an

indefinite

pronoun understood, and

predicate can only be a complete sentence or clause, as


*jli Jkjj 1^1 ij:^^AX.

knew

that Zeid

was standing."

lor

^li

j>.j

^\ <^:^^z

*I

knew

that

it

(the fact)

was thus

Zeid was

standing.'

If the
verb,
it

commencement of such a sentence be a declinable must be separated from the particle ^t by one
i_Jj-j

of the particles jj,


particle, as
iXjJ ^l:s-

or (^, or

else

by a negative

Si

J-^ " We know

that Zeid has come."

/yij'

(_J-j (^^ J-xj

He knows
'Does

that

you will stand."

j-4>^jjJ

^ j^LwJ|\

t^..>*csr\

man

think that
?

we

shall not
3.

<L*llic

collect his bones

"

Kor. Ixxv.

^IS has also

an indefinite pronoun understood

for its

noun, and the predicate must consist of a sentence, as


jklt j.jI >
''.r^ O'

"as

if

Zeid were a
,

lion."

If the sentence begin with a verb, the latter must take

the particle

j^j

or J

as

KEGATIYE PARTICLES.
1/'

253
stood up."

Juj

j*lj

jJ

j^li

As though Zeid had

Jcj;

C-?V.

'^

kj^

'-^^

though Zeid had not come/'

yl.

^^

never governs a following word, because on the


its final

removal of

it

ceases to have

any

direct con-

nexion with nouns, and becomes a mere conjunction, as


^^^^-^M^^* lyl^ ^^^J

"but they were of the unjust."

6.

NEGATIVE PARTICLES.

(156).

The

particles of negation,

U,

f,

cbS and ^\,


j^Jj, see

govern words in the same manner as the verb


p.

88(41), and

p.

195(110)5.

The following

are the rules to be applied


if

governs a word in the objective,

the negation be

complete and continuous, and the order of words correct, as UjIj Joj

"Zeid

is

not standing."
if

But

if

the

negation be afterwards qualified, or

the usual order of

words be disturbed,
S
^
"^

it

does not exercise this influence, as


Zeid
is

S o^*

^
ti*

j\L

V\^

^J

nothing but a poet."


is

tVJ

J li

L*

Not standing

Zeid."

governs like a verb 1. If both

its

noun and predicate

are indefinite.
2. If the predicate
3.

do not come before the noun.


afterwards
qualified,

If the

negative be not

as

f-^l^

^j

"there

is

no man present."

6A
and

can only govern a noun of time,


are

when
when

the

noun
as
is

predicate

not

both

mentioned

together,
it

M^-^t Xs-KL lL>^ j i'UJ^ *ju

"rebels repent

not

the hour for repentance," for *A^^


^^^,

dl\l> ll\lS\ <j:A^^.

according to some grammarians, can never govern

254
a noun
;

ARABIC GEAMMAR.
others say that
is
it

may govern

it

if

the proper

order of words

preserved, as

He

has no temporal authority except over the feeblest of madmen."


is

frequently used with the particle


;

^^1^

to corroborate

the negation

in this case

it

exercises no grammatical in^t,t

fluence on any following words, as 3^1:?jjJ is not a fool." THE ABSOLUTE NEGATIVE j^i^sT iLiU (157).
1
.

"Zeid

When

the negative particle


it

denies the exist-

ence of a thing absolutely,


as
lj\
,

governs in the same manner

i.e. it

puts the noun in the objective case, and the


;

predicate in the subjective case

provided only that both


f

noun and predicate are undefined, and that


the noun, as
If the
j^jIj

introduces

^^j

"there

is

no man coming."

noun be grammatically unconnected with any


is

other word, the tenwin

dropped, as in the example


is

the

reason for this

is

that the whole species


is

the subject
defi-

of the negative, and species


nite, e.g.

always in a manner

A^\

''

knowledge in the abstract"

{la scienza),

see p.

157

(81).

If

it

be a regular feminine plural, as cblL^, WiQfethah


be used to represent the objective case, although
its

may

still

the feminine plural makes both

dependent and objective


S

iuT (see pp. 106

and 140), as j^JJl ^^ (orcijll^j^) t^lL*^ "there are no believers (fem.) in the town."

Duals and regular masculine plurals are used in the


regular objective case, as
(JJ^UJl
^^.-A^l

c^v"*"^

"There

are not

two moons

in the sky."

^ ^^^^

There are no believers (masc.) in the city."

ABSOLUTE NEGATION.

255

If the subject of the negation be immediately connected

with any other word, the


U^x;^ \s>- UJlb
^

temviii is retained, as

"There

is

no one with us going-up-a-mountain." no passer- by-Zeid present."

j-iU-

i^ji

\j.^1 "There
1

is

jo\s^ jS^ As.

There

is

no travelling servant present


is

'*

[In the last example the tenw'in


because the noun
is

dropped, not on account of

f,

but

in a state of construction with the following one.]

But

if

the

noun be

definite, or separated

by any
1),

interis

vening word or words from the negative


governed by the
latter, as

it

not

Zeid

is

not in the house, nor


is

Amr

and there

is

not in the house

a man, and there

not with us a

woman."
i

In such cases as the above


each separate negation.

should be repeated with

"When there

are several nouns to be denied, and

i is

repeated (such nouns being undefined, unconnected with

any other word, and introduced by the


of the above constructions

^),
;

either or both

may be used

thus

There

is

no strength and no
in

power but

God."

The
in the

prefixing of an interrogative particle to

does not

alter its

government, asJ^jjT^,i J^J

^t

"is there no

man

house?"

256

ARABIC GRAMMAR.
it

If the predicate would be otherwise ambiguous,

must

be expressed, as

jjj ^^^

lA J^j
if it
is

"there

is

learned than Zeid." But


tood, as ^J\j
i

be obvious,

it

no man more may be under-

" there

no harm,

scilicet

Cj^^l to thee."

RELATIVE SENTENCES.
(158).

The

relative sentence in
(2)

Arabic consists of four


relative or conjunctive

parts (1) The antecedent.


noun, pronoun, or particle.
(4)

The

(3)

The
c
-Si-

qualificative clause.

The pronoun

referring to the antecedent, thus


/
iZ.l\j

^jJ\ J^J^
(2) (3) (4)

JVl^^
literally,

The man

who

saw

him.

RELATIVES OR CONJUNCTIVES.
(159).
definite
i^'^'\
is for

definite

antecedents only; for in-

^^ "who?" and U "what?" are used. In interrogation we may add the demonstrative pronoun and say, "who is that?" l3 IJ. "what is that?" ^3

The

article Jl is

regarded as a relative:

(l)

when joined

to the agent or passive participle, as *'the striker


'd^j\

t_>?^^T j i^jds\

and the struck;"

(2)

in such expressions as
(

^J^^ "the
228 (138);

beautiful of face"
(3)

= a^j

see p.

when

(as it sometimes

l^y^ lS^^\ though rarely

is) it is

joined to a verb in the aorist, as in the following

verse

And he
ena of

entices the Jerboa

with

sh'ihah^

out of the hole at the


it

its lair,

and out of the hole by which


\

enters," _~2JbJ|

^
'

J->^3icj ^_^ jj

into

which

it

pops."
growing in
desert, especially ia

"

SMhah"

a kind of sweet-smeiiing plant

tlae

the mouatain

distiicLS.

RELATIVES OR CONJUNCTIVES.
\_Note.

257

verb

is

sometimes put in apposition with

the agent and the


as a conjunctive
;

article,

when

the latter

is

thus used

as

By

the horses rushing about breathing hard, and striking

fire

with

their hoofs against the stones,

and making incursions upon the enemy

in the morning, and raising

up dust therein."

Kor.

c.

4.]
etc.,

3I "which" (of two or more), "the one who,"

may

be used in four ways, as

He
S _j^ ^9 09

of

them who
pleases

is

standing

09

me."

^i.'i-

''P-ii's.

\^\^ \zJ\

are occasionally used to express something

particular,

and distinguished from anything


;

else of the

same nature

the noun so specified being put in the

accusative, as
iUL=^
'C^O-O
\

\^\
''^i

JL^\
/-^Ox

^^1
\

God

pardon us

we who are a special


so

(y^^

\d

^^ ^'^

band."
9

S"^'

e;^ "We
\A

will do so

and

we

the tribe in

question."

C^)\

\^\ ^J^

J^l

"l

will do so

and

so I

individually."

and 1^1 may be omitted, provided the noun thus specified have the article, as

Or

l^^J

tc-.^iJ ^_^U1 ^ji\ ^-?^l ^^sT

"We

Arabs are the most hospitable


of

men

to guests."

*-^l;y ^

'W^^^4^"*

\cJ^

" Wc, the bands of prophets, never

have heirs."
17

258
--I

4lEabic

grammae.
is

followed
;

admiration

if it

Ly the come

genitive
after

also

used to express
it

an indefinite noun,

agrees

with

it,

as J^-; Hs^ J^jJ

c^^ "thou
"
it is

hast brought

me

man
as

and what a man


it

If

follow a definite noun,


o"^ jjj

put in the accusative,

^j

^^^^" "2^eid came

to

me

what a man The


and number

is)f"

^ and U.
noun
^*^..
1

Although these are indeclinable, the pro-

referring to

them must agree

in gender

with the thing for which they stand, as


^.t

J^-yl

'*^^.^_^

I saw a

man who
me."

(masc.) did not

please
"i

jj-^ ilujol

^j^ '*^Jj

-^

saw a woman who (fem.) did not


please

me."

i^<

and

are always masculine singular, unless specito the contrary, or to avoid ambiguity, as
{lit.

ally defined
L5
"l

^ A^\ ^
(her)
y
9

"-^^j
o

''

saw a woman who


" (where
t^9

of

women
nine),

who) did not please me


oy
-^

-^-Sc-*o ^

is

femi-

and ^'^^^0

(V'^^ i^^^j'j
it is

"^

visited people

who honour me" (where

plural).

OTHER CONJUNCTIVES.
(160).

Amongst

the
^^^1,

conjunctives
^!,t,

or

relatives

are

reckoned the particles

^,

U, ^.

^t "that," with preterite or aorist of verbs, as


c^/tJ
(jiij'

^^
(^1

l::^-js-

I wonder at that you stood."


I wonder at that you should stand."

^^

i..:^^-

J\ "that," with a

noun and

its attribute,

the substan-

NATURE OF THE RELATIVE.


five verb
'*

259
^^jJCj
''

is

" being understood, as


is

l5li

CvJ ^\

have heard that Zeid

standing."
aorist, as l1(,.j1

^
''I

or ^^4

"that" with the


I

^^G

c:--v-.p-

have come that

may

visit

you."

"what," "that," as in the following examples


l::-^-.^-^
p
K,

Ijjj ci-^-J U>^


ro^
-a

I wonder ichaf you struck Zeid /or."

>jl5 Jo", l/^ l:^^-^-'^

wonder what Zeid

is

standing for
is

(but this last construction

rare).

"if,"

"that,"

is

used with either the preterite or

the aorist, as
,'

^ ^
4,\i

c
p
*yi_;

Juj

<-^'-V^^

"l would

that Zeid

had stood."

joj

J.\

I would that Zeid would stand."

is

generally used in this sense with such verbs as j^


of,"

"to like" or "to be glad

seldom with any other.

NATURE OF THE RELATIVE.


(161).
1.

The

relative

must be one of three things:

sentence consisting of a subject and predicate, as


A,\i

^^'<^\

L<J^^=r
9
i^-i.'-

Se came
I

to

me

wlio

rose.''*

9 pi-

tS-O

jli i^\
2.
its

tj?^^^ c:-^.'lJ

saw him whose father

is

standing."

An

adverb of time or place, or a preposition with

noun, as
tl/jki^ (^^iJ^ ^i-.js*;l

I like

him who

is

with you."
the heuveu

^i;^^ J

c:jlj.4>^n

|J

'

To God

(belongs)

what

is in

and in the earth."

But the meaning must be complete

you cannot

say,

2 GO

ARABIC GEAMMAR,

for instance, il3o ti^ST^T^

"he came who by you


"

,"

nor

j*jJl

^jJl 5^_

lie

came who to-day

3.

An

agent, a passive participle, or a

noun expressive

of an inherent quality, as

" The

beater."

" The beaten."

" The

fair of face."

These, however, can only act as relatives to the article


l}]

when

it is

considered as a conjunctive (see above).

THE PRONOUN WHICH REFERS TO THE ANTECEDENT.


(162).

The pronoun which


it

refers to the antecedent

agrees with

in gender, number,

and person, as
I struck.

^iyi u?^^
Lk.^
-J

^^
'^\j>-

He came whom

^^ jJl

They two came, both

of

whom

I struck."
is

Sometimes, though rarely, this correlative pronoun


idiomatically omitted,
as

in the

proverbial expression
(for

^Ij e^t
iU^lj "its

^i\ "decide what you are the decider"

decider").
of any but the third person as the pronoun
is rare,

The use

referring to the antecedent

although

we do meet
\j\

with such sentences, as

i^\-J^\ CS^ul3.z\ ^'^\

"I am

he

who

gave you the book," literally " I

am who

gave you

the book."

CONDITIONAL SENTENCES.
(163).

In conditional or hypothetical sentences the


is

apodosis
_J

generally introduced

by one

of the particles

and cJ

The

aorist subjunctive, pointed

with fethah^ and intro-

"

CONDITIONAL SENTENCES.

261

duced by j^ or
proposition
1.
;

t_i

is

used in the apodosis of a conditional

of this there are eight cases.

Imperative, asCi^-y^^^^ lI^C^Ij ^ijj "visit me and If the command be a noun, and I will honour you."

not a real imperative (see p. 233), the aorist

is

pointed

with

dhammah, as C3^\

^y^^

^ "hold
j^

your tongue,

and
2.

I will treat

you well."
>----i.'V. ^

Prohibitive, as tlCLc

i-^'-iM ^^J ^-y^^'

^'do not strike Zeid, or he will be angry with you."


Similarly, in negation, ^)^'} ^

^ ^j>v^
visit

ul/,^J

uJ^l

i5

"I do

not

know your house

or I

would
^
*\

you."
^_5t?'^;

3.

Precative, as l^^U

,\^
"
!

J-^li

^j

'

I^ord

aid me, and I will do right


4. Interrogative, as

a.JJ^ tirvTl

^^

^JV-^ t>:l^

^.y-!

J*

'

^^^

Zeid a friend he can lean upon?"


5.

Polite invitation, as

\j^=>-

^..^^i

^^:xj

Ua:^

Jj:.j'

)!1

"will you not alight with us, and you will meet with

good treatment."
6.

Urgent request, as CS.^ij


to

^^ CS^Jj^

LJ|^ i^O' b>

"won't you come


7.

us? we

will

honour you."

Desire, as

i.i

j Ju^il ^ ^ j j^^ili ^U
away
^
j\

J lt^ " would that


J-'^J

I had wealth to give


8.

in alms
j^jI*

Hope, as

^.0

<);.-#^.C:i

u^^^^^'^

"perhaps

our friend will come,


Note.

and we

will

honour him."
time
;

The

aorist subjunctive
it

always

refers to future

if

the

present be intended,

must be

in the indicative

mood, as

" 2eid

is so ill

that they have no hopes of his recovery ;" or when, in


li

the course of conversation, you use such a sentence as

jU> CS'^^y JJ
'

2^2

ARABIC GRAMMAR.

then in that case I think you are speaking the truth," in reply to

some previous question expressed or implied.

PROTASIS AND APODOSIS.


(] 64).

The

protasis and apodosis of conditional sentences

like those given


If,

above should be aorists of verbs.


aorist,

however, the protasis be an

and the apodosis a


LLvil?

preterite, the

former must be apocopated, as


(lit.

J-^" ^\

"if you have patience, you will win"


i.e.

"have won,"

as

we

should say, "as good as won"), see p. 170.

If the protasis be a preterite,


aorist,

and the apodosis an

the latter
cLJ^ltf ^\^

may

be either apocopated or not, as

ji^ -y^j

"if you have patience, you will win."

If both be preterite, there can, of course, be no apocopation, as lL."^

lL^

^\^

"if thou standest, I stand."

The introduction
aorist, as

of (_j prevents the apocopation of the

<^^^
.'

r*yV.J^

^,.^ (*^^

L::-^/J

"if you

rise,

your brother will

rise too."

k_^Jbjj

j' i>_,AJbJu Is L::_^*Jij

"if you do not go, your companion


will not go."

i_>wc5-Ui i_^ji>jj)!

The

apodosis
t-::-Ni^

may be even
(^1 M^ya t::-^\
for

omitted, as

You

are
it."

unjust

if

you

have

done

>Jll? (.:i-Jli L::-J>xi

^ A% c:^!

"You

are unjust
it

i.e.

if

you have

done

you are unjust."

In the protasis of conditional propositions the verb

must not be
it

preterite, at least in
;

meaning; neither must


;

imply a request

or be a neuter verb

or be governed

by any

of the particles I, uljp, or

and

it

must not

be preceded by any negative particle except

JJ

or S.

INVERSION OF THE VERB AND NOUN.

2G3

In the apodosis, should the verb be affected by any of the


reasons which would have disqualified
it

from occurring iu
as ^ilixu^i ^-^jr^

the protasis, it

must be introduced by

^,

^
be

"

if

you have patience, then you


whether
,

shall succeed."

If

it

an

aorist,

aifirnlative or

rendered negative by the


;

particle i it

may

either be apocopated or not


(_i.

but

if

apoco-

pated,

it

must be introduced by

The

particle L^^, in the protasis

always refers to present


is

or future time, although the verb


preterite.

mostly put in the

Even
Jo

if

the aorist be used, the apodosis must

have the

preterite,

but the sense will be


'ij^^^'^

still

present or the pro-

future, as U-il

1:1=^

^^>

^V

\j\i

"when

mised term of the future


tosrether."

life

comes,

we

will gather

you

Kor.

xvii. 106.

iNVERS^ION OF

THE VERB AND NOUN.

(165).

We

have already said that the proper arrangeis


.(2)
(3)

ment

of a proposition
(1)

Verb,
(3)
(2)

Agent,
(1) (2)
(1)

Object, as
(3)

./Kc.

JoJ

f^j^

Ze'id.

struck

Amr."

Either tbe agent or the object, however,


first,

may be

placed

as
i<r.j^ '^j
iz.ij3\j>j\
'Z^^^ struck

(1)

mc."

(2)

Zeid
Zeid

I have struck him."


have struck his friend's

(3)

<ll-sjs-Us

(li l::^-^

Joj

I I

slave.
(
.^

i^.'tijc

i-i

lU\^ Lvj
^^^^9
lAki

Zeid

have passed by him, or by by hid


friend's slave."

(4)
\

'^

-'

iL>j>-\^

his slave, or

2C4
In
(1)

ARABIC GRAMMAR. Zeid


its
is

regarded as the subject, of whicli the

verb with

object

^J^

is

the predicate.
is

In

(2)

some word governing Ijjj


is

understood,

e.g.

Qj ^1

and the clause thus obtained


of the proposition, the verb
predicate.

regarded as the subject


its

and

object dzjja is the

If the object of the verb which thus precedes


itself

it

be

preceded by any word which ordinarily introduces


it

a verbal proposition^
l13o^ ^^j^ ^;j
j^]^

is

put in the objective

case, as

" If Zeid you strike him, he. will " if" being always used with verbs. strike you;" ^\

But
behold

if it

be preceded by any other word,


'iJy^.-i

nominative, as
!

Vj

^"^^

it is put in the " I went out, and '"^^-^^

Zeid

they were beating him


"Zeid

;"

\'^\

being used

wdth nouns.
If
it

be not preceded by any other word,

it

may be

put either in the nominative or accusative indifferently,


as dcj^ )ju; or jo;

I stnick him."

When
iCL^

an exception

is

implied, the second

noun

is

in

the objective case, as


\

.A^

>

CS^-.>.=>-^

LZ-^ " I was thy

friend,

but (and) as

foi'

Amr

S 9 ^ <Uj J \\S.
9
^ij

I was an enemy of his father."

O,*

^Kj ^

"^

-^

ic.^Ji>ii\

iri*^ J XKsrr*

(j-u3s5-

Mohammed sat down,


I sent

but as

for Jaafar

him away."
for

ii4ljJj

^r'*>*i <X'J

(J^

Zeid was killed, but as


did not kill him."

Amr

they

ON CERTAIN INVOLVED FORMS OF EXPRESSION.


(166). There are certain involved forms of expression

which, although they occur but rarely,

it

will be well to

notice: (1)

jJj Sx- j *Ij

"Zeid

rose

and

sat."

This

is

;;

EXCEPTION.
simple case
the
actions

265
so

follow

closely

one upon

another that they

may be
is

almost considered as one verb,

of which the agent

expressed afterwards in the usual

way.
Zeid."
first

(2) fjoj lL^jJJ j

^J^J^

"Zeid struck me, and I struck


j*jj

This seems a mere ellipse of the agent

in the
it

verb, as

though the speaker were mentioning

in

passing as a reason for the action described by the second,


as " he struck

me

so I struck Zeid."
;

Toothing but the agent can be so elided


for instance, say,
IxTj

you cannot,

(Jio^j i^ji "you struck him, and

Zeid struck you," because in this case the i in au;^ would be ambiguous, being in fact a correlative pronoun
referring to a

noun not yet expressed, which

is

inad-

missible in Arabic (see p. 179).

'^ and
ibt GoTi

the cognate verbs, from the nature of the case,


last rule,

form an exception to this

and you may


Zeid's father

say,

QJ

^i--^j

1^^:^

"I thought

was

standing, and Zeid thought I was standing."

"When more than one agent


of the verbs must agree with
it

is

expressed, one or other

in

number and
rose

tense, as

cy(^\ Ixs^ UIj "your two brothers


the
first

and

sat,"

where

agrees with

it

as occupying the

most important

position; or ilS\^^\ ^S^e


it

*lj,

where the second agrees with

as the nearest.

It is better, however, in all such cases

to adopt the usual order of words,

and

say,

a.^*

^ j^j

^^li

EXCEPTION.
(167).
,

The words used


is

in Arabic to imply exception


;

are 1l which
\ls.,

a particle

and

o>~!,

which are nouns

ik-j

and

l-iU-,

which are

particles partaking of tho

nature of verbs.

'

'

2G6

ARABIC GRAMMAR.

to

1.

^1

"i]

takes the objective case,

if

the preceding clause


fjoj
i\^

is

neither negative nor interrogative, as

j*j1T11j " the

people

use except Zeid."

Otherwise
's^j 1]^

it is
j*'\i

put in simple

apposition with the noun, as

Jo-t

"no one

rose

but Zeid."
If the

noun

to

which exception

is
^\

made be understood,
is

the noun excepted and following

put in the case in

which such noun would have been, as


TO''
tfi

-^

jjj

1'!^

^['i

There rose not save


I saw but Zeid.

Zeid.'*

Iaj;
Oy'

*1
-a

lt-oK t
9
t/^-*

4ij^

^\

<-::^jj^

U
2.

" I passed by but Zeid.'*

r^i

and

^ij-^

and

t^j-j,

being nouns, place the thing excepted in

a state of construction.

^y^

is

indeclinable,

but^i

is

declined,

and follows the


,

same rules
^}\

as those given for the

noun following ^

as

j^

(*y^^ (*^
'
-i.l/'*

-^^^ people rose except Zeid."

i^\jj^ (*y^V

'"

passed by the people except Zeid;"

where

it is

put in the accusative.

i\i\jJ: iX>"l ^Ip- L*

No

one came except Zeid.'*


;'

Jkj

- Jks-

b c:j

^..t

I passed by one but Zeid

where

it is

either declined or not.

<\>\j^ 5^^ \^

'

None came but Zeid."

. ;

ArposiTiON.

2G7
Zcid.'*

Jk);

-^i Li-^'^ t*
vx
^
O''

"l saw none but "l

Ox

lijjjJc

c:-?,.'*

U
^ A

passed by no one but Zeid;'*

where

it is

declined.
X y

3.
\s.y

Ur, y~, and LiU-.


are generally construed with the

iJ-,

and

liilp^,

objective case, \lz and


particle

iX having

for the

most part the

prefixed.

(jjj \11

U Z^jT^U
^

" The people came except Zcid,"


)

^i^^,
t

/-o^
>_jiL]
1

'y

m- wbat
\

is

beside (or free

Jjj Is-

^Tp^

fi.oni)

Zeid.

If

U
H

be omitted, they

may be

construed with the

oblique case, but this


U--0

is rare.

"especially,"
it,

may
^\

take either the nominative or


i

genitive after

as ^yj

SJ uL^
is

^^\

^j;^\ "all the

people pleased me, especially Zeid."

In the
jjj ^^

first

case Jyj

KZ^

"i

considered as equivalent to
a.j
is

JL^

^,

and in the second

regarded as the

complement of
the particle

and in a

state of construction

with

it

being pleonastic, and exorcising no


p.

influ-

ence on what follows, see

207 (121).

APPOSITION.
(1G8). "Words in apposition are put in the same case,
as J^IIjTj^j ^1^

"Zeid the accomplished came," where

the noun and qualifying adjective are considered to be


in apposition,

and are both in the subjective case with


be indeclinable, the second
first
1

But

if

the

first

is

put in the
it

case which the


declinable, as

would have exhibited had


''

been

J^

illO j *-^.1;

saw that man."

268
If the

ARABIC GRAMMAR.

noun has

lost its

case-ending accidentally,

as,
it

for instance,

by
!

a vocative particle, see p. 199, (113) 2,

may

take either
''

or

as

1^1

jt

^^J>^\

j^j

Ij

"Oh

Zeid

the generous

There are
1.

five kinds of apposition


lil-otj

Description.

2. 3. 4.
^*

(Jlial
Ik-^y

Simple Apposition.
Corroboration.

jjJ Substitution.
toQTwil^r. Explanatory Apposition.

1.

DESCRIPTIOIf.

(169).

To

this class belong


it

what we should

call

ad-

jectives; but
tlie

cannot be too strongly impressed upon


that there
is

student's

mind

no such thing in Arabic


:

as an abstract adjective.

Thus

in the expression

1)^ Jp-J

"a generous man,"

the word

l;^i

does not signify "gener-

ous" in the abstract, but rather means a " generous


being," of what kind the context must define.
strictly literal translation will therefore

The

be "a man, a
it

generous one."

This will explain

how

is

that

we

speak of "apposition," rather than of "the concord of


adjectives

and substantives," a phrase which could have


to

no meaning in Arabic, and which would lead


misconception.

much
as

The Descriptive

either applies to the

noun

itself,

^i ^^_

"^jj*

"I passed by

a generous

man;"

or to some-

thing connected with the noun, as i^\


passed by a

^J

Jj>-^ ^jj"*

"

''

man whose

father

is

generous."

APPOsiTiox.

2G9

NATUEE OF THE DESCPJPTIYE.


(170).
1.

The Descriptive must

"be

derived form, as

s S

;o.
^ ^

from

c_^.
'

handsome," from

,.,

^oS

j-iil

more accomplished," from ^y^.


1

2.

A demonstrative pronoun, as
Zeid here."

j^

jojj ^^^jy*

"I passed

by

(thisj
3.

noun introduced by some other noun implying


as,

possession

JU

^^U ^\ ^j
as

J-=r^

cu^
<-^^f*

"I

passed by

man
4.

the possessor of property."

A relative noun,
of Beyrout."

^*^{ u^?.

"I passed by a

man

The noun thus qualified must be expressed and if it be indefinite, it must be limited to one individual, as in
;

the foregoing example.

The verbal noun

is

sometimes used as a descriptive, as


a just

Jj^ jlc

Jj^jj lI:"^

"I passed by

man;" but

this is for
itself

c^i

"a

possessor of justice," and


it

must stand by
;

and be masculine, as though

had ^ J prefixed

see p.

208 (123).

A
a

sentence consisting of subject and predicate

may

stand for the descriptive, as "^^ VS\ Ji-j

^f^
"I

"I passed
by

man (whose) man who

father
as

is

standing."

Or

consisting of a
j^assed

verb and
a

its object,

J^l ^^^' J4>?

^^*

loves knowledge."

270

ARABIC GRAMMAR.
its

1
So too an adverb or a preposition and
jijj\

case,

as
or

^y

(Jjjc^ Jsr^j

^^'\

1 iiive

man with you"

" in the house."

CONCORDANCE OE THE DESCRIPTIVE AND THE NOUN.


(171).
it

When the
it

descriptive applies to the

noun

itself,

follows

in gender, number,

and

case,

and in taking

the article or not, as the case


C-O P
3?

may

be, as
came.'^

(J^liJl

J^J^ ^^^

The accomplished man

j^-.L?li ^'^:>'j '^^^^i})

I sa^ two accomplished men."

iLLjli i'^j^l) cl-?,^

"l

passed by an accomplished

woman."

When
and
case,
it

the descriptive applies to something connected


it

with the noun,

follows the preceding


article;

noun

in

number

and in taking the


agrees with what

but in gender and

person

follows, according to the rules


p.

given for the concord of the verb and agent, see


(100), as

178

" The man came whose father


are

is

or whose two
^0.^0
9

parents, or parents

accomplished."
99 y^

9 ^.^t>0

99^1^"^ 9^

9 <i-*0 _^

" The man came whose daughter is or whose two, or daughters are

accomplished."
In these cases the singular or the broken plural may

be used

at pleasure, as i^\A ^\y ^\ ijbT

J=r-^

^y*
In
is

"I

passed by a

man whose
way

parents are generous."

short,

the descriptive in these and in similar examples


sidered in every
(138).

con-

equivalent to a verb, see p. 228

APPOSITION.

271

2.

SIMPLE APPOSITION.
is

(172). Simple apposition

of two kinds, grammatical


are joined

and

logical.

The

first is

when two words

by

a simjDle conjunction, as
j!r^ i
9
i^

^j
.

^. ^[^^
*Ji_j

Zeid and llmr came to me.

fJi

y\^^^i^9yt^

^^^\ c_^Jjij

^^

"Whosoever gets up and goes I will

honour him."

If the

first
it

word be a pronoun forming part of a


must be repeated
"Zeid and
I

verbal form,
as jjj J
\jt

in

its

detached shape,
I

i-i:_Jj^

came
in

(lit.

came, I and
it

Zeid)," unless a

word intervene,

which case

need

not be so repeated, as
to-day."
If the
first

IJj

^^r^^

<^:,^3

"I and Zeid went

word be a

preposition, with its noun, the

preposition
0>.O

must be repeated, as
'-

J CS-^ '"Vr*

Passed by thee and by Zeid."

cLC;.t

1^^

J^

" The property

is

between

me and

thee."

If the words thus connected are both verbs, they

must

agree in tense, as
lAxs

aUj

He
He

rose

and

sat.'*

Jkxiij
_j

^yi)

rises

and

sits."

If the

first

of two words so joined be a participle govern-

ing a noun like a verb, the second

may be

a verb, as

And by
ing,

the cavah-y making incursions on the

enemy in the morn-

and raising up dust therein."

Kor.

c.

3-4.


272
ARABIC GRAMMAR.

Similarly a verb used as a


in apposition with
it,

noun may have a noun

as in the verse

Oh

many

a fair one of the tribe of el-Awdhij, mother of a boy

who

has crawled and

is

beginning to walk."

where ll^

ji

is

equivalent to a participle.

PARTICLES EMPLOYED
(173).
tion J

IN"

FORMING THE APPOSITION.

The

particles

employed in forming the apposi-

are
"and," implying simple conjunction,

asJ^jSjj
as

*'Zeidand'Amr."
<_J

"and," implying sequence or consequence,


A^ "Zeid rose and 'Amr."
series, as

^^X
1)

ilj

"then," implying progressive

^Xc

11 j^j

'A^

"Zeid came and then Amr."

^j^ "even

to,"

implying limited progression, as


to the Prophets.'

'Lj),M y^^>- ^jwU^ CIjU "The people died, even


i'LluJl
i_5^^^^

r^"^^

"The
i*'^^

pilgrims

arrived,

even

to

those

walking on foot."

implying simple disjunction, as^J^l "Zeid or 'Amr came."


jT "or,"

Ji j^J

i^.

"or" (after "whether"), Zeid or *Amr with you ? "


"j.!

as

^^

J.V

5j

i^2J

"is

^
either
1'

"either," as l^^r U^_j

lyii U]^ ^^lo-j

"and he learned

law or grammar."

" not," implying simple negation, as jjil

"Zeid came

not 'Amr."

S j^j

A:^

APPOSITION OF CORROBORATION.
''nay," "or rather," alternative,
to

273
Jj j^J

j^b

as^^

"Zeid came

me

nay rather *Amr.'


(J^U- "Zeid came
come."
y
^

^f^

IP
i^rsT
C/^
l.:j-

"but," as
J
ff

^^;'-c

(j^
,

k^Jj

to

me, but

Amr

did not

o ^

50^

jJJjj^x ijSj

^\ ^*Ip-

L#

Zeid came not to me, but

Amr

ha3

come."

3.

CORROBORATION.

(174).

The

corroborative apposition takes place either


(2)

(1)

the words, or

the sense.

The

first

consists of
itself,

simjDle repetition

by way
J^l:?-

of emphasising the
Zeid, Zeid

word

as

^\
JkJj

<ro^ so-^ A.;;

came

to

me.

<-r^/*

'"-^

^^^*^ struck, struck.

*..0

xj

Yes, yes

Or

it is

the use of synonyms, as


4X-01

ci^J
jk^

^l:^ X ^
,^

lion, a lion

came."

iTo^ ^ ^ ^
fcXjj

^j^^
*xj

Zeid

sat, sat

down.
!

,-j>-

Yes, certainly

Or
"Zeid
If

it is

is

the repetition of a clause, as lUs s{j lUi juj


is

standing, Zeid

standing."

it

be required to repeat the affixed pronoun, the

word

to

which

it

is

affixed

must

also

be repeated, as

clio ulio i^jj^

"I passed by

thee,

by thee" [not tlX^.

It

may, however, be repeated separately in its nominative

form, as lI^I tl^

^X'*

" ^ passed by theethee."


its

So, too,

the initiative
^^'J

'^\

cannot be repeated without


verily Zeid " [not l^j J^

noun, as

u[

^^'.j

^p.
18

274

ARABIC GRAMMAR.
tlie

If the pronoun be inseparable from


position, etc.,
X

verb or pre-

it
L
-t

must be repeated
'^

in its detached form, as


1

Ox X

Jl ^-^{;*

"mi Thou hast struck

1,1

thou. "
i1

UT i_S^.r^
Ji)

"Thou

hast struck

me

me."

i^

CLJ

y*

I passed by. him

him."
it

In one case a verb in the third person singular has


the corroborative detached pronoun following
first

in the

person,

namely,
\^\^

after

the particle

of restriction

Uj5_, as Ol

*^

"no one

got up but me."

L5
I
rights;

am he who

provides

them with

livelihood, and

who

defends their

and none but I or the like of

me

protect their honour.'

By

the " apposition of corroboration" which takes place


is

in the sense

meant such expressions


them," and the
:

as

"he

himself,"

" they

all of

like,

which are expressed


its

in Arabic as follows

my

our

yourthem

thyhimher
are rendered
j^^i

self

selves,

by the words
or "essence,"

jjuli

"self" or "soul," and

"eye"

with the affixed pronouns.


the noun, as

J^sS agrees in

number with

MASCULINE.
A^JiJ J^ij
\
f
i

Zeid himself

.xj'y'oi

,xo^-o
jo'^Vj-^^

~x

UL-gM

carne
to

Lsi^^

'^^^

^^^ Zeids themselves


me.

^,-Jj\ L:j?"^V^

"'^^ Zeids themselves

FEMININE.

x^

o X ro

^.ej

jc^ ^
^

Hind
c:^^^-

herself

U^^ijl lO^*^^
^^Ijj^
c:-j\j>i^l

The two Hinds themselves

>

came.

The Hinds themselves

'

"SELFj" "selves,"
is

etc.,

HOW

EXPRESSED.

275

"J^

used in the singular only, as


j^A--c ^^JwS-Il
'

The Zeids themselves. The HinJs themselves."


^in 'propria

i^^^

lu\s:^^

'*

We

may

also

say

a^A-^

persona^

'

as

A^ssj sjj A:>-

'Zeid came in propria persona^'' and so on.


is

"All of them"
"all,"

expressed either by the word Ji

with

the

affixed

pronoun and agreeing with

the noun in gender and number, or

by the word %^.^\ "altogether," employed separately; "both of them," by

the dual word

^K,
as
\

fern.

^:^^^

construed in the same

manner

as

-"ll,

^^^
U>i>iii

j*^iJ

^\:>-

"The

people came,

all

of them."

" ^^)>^}\ *^"

The two men came, both of them."

l/i.^^.-:di

^jjM^b

^-^jj^ '^I possed by the two women, both of


thoni."

(The word '^


Jl2T(2!S 1J'^'^>^
^ ^
kj

is

often used to express thoroughness, as


is
-^

"he
y

a thoroughly learned man.")


I

^ o -^ oo
^ji*.-^'!

7--^^'
^

c:-^-^
'^

met the army

all-together."

t^

%
^LjT

^^A-zsA

^^z

And on

his family altogether."

If
or

it

be necessary to repeat the pronoun affixed to


"self,"
it

^^.L'

is

to

be repeated in the nominative


first,

detached form, and placed


tiX>.uiij l::^! l::-^ -J

as
thyself didst strike."

Thou

^J-c

^
=

'-r-N-a

He
:=

himself struck.

In short the words J^IJ


Ji

"

self,"

J.l3*

=" selves,"

"all," '*-^^\
in"

" altogether," are used in almost the

same manner

Arabic as in English.

276

ARABIC UEAMMAR.
other," ''one another," are expressed

"Each
"a
mntual

by J^j
to the

portion," repeated for each of the


action, as
O'-

two parties

;>

o^

Ox
^_/i*j

jkX t/^iv XX CPx^^xOi? xo

(*-^*^'V
wi

'5~^1
X
(^

Go down, enemies to each other."


To
those prophets have

^ V -i-^?

^Lc ^^xj

j-a>uLij

J-j^^ lL$3j

we given

pre-emmence, one of them over another."

4.

APPOSITION OF SUBSTITUTION.
is

(175). This
1.

of four kinds

Simple substitution of one word for another conit

formable to

in meaning, as

fvjj

tl/k1 ^X^ "Zeid,

your

brother, came."
2.

Substitution to correct a statement respecting the


to

whole of a thing, and


/X^OS oS
jJx

imply that a part only was


X
-Si-O
/

OS yxoy

CxS

meant, as
a third of
3.

*yiil ^^ doi^J^l ailj c_r_.rjl

c:^\ "I eat the


it."

loaf

it

half of

it

most of
word

Substitution of a

or phrase to correct a state-

ment respecting
is

a person or thing,

and

to

imply that

it

not the person himself or thing


it

itself,

but something

connected wdth him or


9 9 ^^
PP
(^

which
'

is

meant, as

P9(^

SOX

xxoS
i^i-js-1
X
9

<tK _

tU...^.:^-

_ (Ui^ Juj

I like Zeid

Pyox oS >'pxx i;ox

speech,"
garment."

his knowledge beauty


etc.

ijy

j\

^ji

i^jj

L-^]^

Zeid was plundered his mare

his

4.

Substitution of a

word

or phrase to correct a lapsus

Unffitcv,

or a statement erroneously

reflection, as

tjU\

iJJj^jT .jj^Jj

made through want of " I rode the horse the

she-camel."
6.

EXPLANATORY APPOSITION.

(176).
larly

Explanatory apposition defines more particu-

something that has gone before, as

'

"

APPOSITIOX OF VOCATIVES.

ADMIRATION.

277

Si\ (JJ^-o-l^ "^Xs^


v

'

Your

friend Zeid came."

'Hi tJ-^^ '-r'j^^ ^^

"I am the beater of the man seep. 202 (116).


is

Zeid,"

In these two examples the word "Zeid"


in explanatory apposition,

said to be

^^CjT^ji^.

noun (substantive

or adjective) in apposition to a
;

vocative,

may

be put either in the subjective or objective

unless

it

be followed by another noun in a state of conit,

struction with
objective, as
^

in

which case

it

must be put in the

"

-W j.,*^"*

I)

"Oh! ilohammed, "Oh!

the Prophet."

JiWl

Sij b

Zeid, the intelligent."

^\ J-U.

(*rr^l/l

V.

"0^ Abraham,
^^
^,5).

the friend of

God."

154-^ c^^ iV^o^fe. If

^^J

V.

^^^ s*^^ of

brother."

the word

occur between
its alif^

two proper
-3,

names, and consequently lose


the noun to which
either
it is

see p. 12, (11)

in apposition

may
'

be pointed with

dlmmmah

or fethaJi^ as

*^

cJi

"^I)

Zeid, the

son of

Amr.
ADMIRATION.

(177). There are


in Arabic, as
l^li ijj
tUi

many forms

of expressing admiration

God

bless

him^

for a

horseman "
!

" what

a fine horseman!"
b)|^ bb^j

^^.^luJ Ulj " Bravo

Selma

bravo

bravo

Such as these are of course irregular; but there are

See p. 60, end of note

2."

9 See note, p. 194.

278

ARABIC GRAMALVR.

two forms which may be derived regularly from any


verb, viz.
(1) (i)

Joef

U. and

(2)

Jxi\.

J^]

takes the accusative of the thing admired, as


^^fj'*^
<Ufcu5^^

]jj\

^
U

"How
How

handsome

is

Zeid!"
is

handsome he

!"

(2)

Jjet governs the thing admired in the genitive


c_;, as

by

the preposition

jjjj ,.,*u-\
/'I
<1L'

How
<

handsome
noble he

is

Zeid !"

*,i\

How

is

"
!

The thing admired must immediately


Jt

follow the forms

and

Jjtj!,

and cannot occur in any other position

in the sentence.

The thing
if it

adaiired need not be expressed with J.^] l

be already sufEciently obvious from the context, as

"l

see

Umm

Amr, her

tears

pour down, weeping for

Amr; and how

patient she used to be!"

where

]^--sl

^^li

I* ^

stands for

U^l

^l^
la

the thing

admired, in this case the pronoun


obvious, although not expressed.

being sufficiently

The complement may be a ^t or U, as

proposition introduced

by

"Oh,

my

two
!

friends,

how fit

is it for

man

of intellect that he should

seem patient " etc.

279

SECTION

III.

THE

P ARTICLES

AXD

IXDE-

CLIXABLE WOEDS.
PAETICLES.
(178). In addition to the particles already treated of
in the course of this work, there are
it

some others \Yhich

will be necessary to indicate.

Of these the following

are the most important

used in conditional sentences, and followed by J in the complement, as 'icl.^jS SjJ A^ ^' "if Zeid had come, I would have honoured him."
'^

"as for," as Jll^- %j C\ "as away;" see p. 16G (87).


l^t

for Zeid, (he is)

going

This last

is

chiefly used to introduce a subject, as in

the phrase with which, after the formal exordium, most

books commence,

viz. s^j

ut

lit.

"as for after,"

i.e.

"after

praising God," etc.


1 interrogative, as
'

ft
'

jjj aUs^

Did Zeid stand up?"


Is Zeid standing ?"
o-fc

li

'

Jl.' ;i

When
J^ji
OS

an alternative follows,
iL'iil
f,\

it is

introduced by

^*^,

as

cJ

u-*:'"?

'

Is it dlhs (syrup of raisias) in the

vessel or
^
yO
"
''

honey?"
the iar or in the

t--o

s-

\'1\

*\ (.iiLu.O<Ljl^l

Jl "is your

dihs in

leathern bottle?"
Ji>

asks a du-ect question, and

is

never hsed in alterna-

tive questions, as

"

280
S'-''

ARABIC GEAMMAR.
^
'

o
J-fe

Jjj *Si

" Did Zeid stand up?"

JU

-4X Jji " Is

Amr

standing
it

If used with the aorist,


>*3

J.J&

gives
'\^\

a future sense.

'Yes."
Oh, yes; certainly!'*

"Yes."
Just so."

^b

-c?-

^\ "Yes"

used only with

inter^_f ^

ui
^T
t*l

"Yerily."

rogatives or oaths, a aUIj


(<

"is not? "(before a vocative).


Is not?" (before an oath).

Yes, by God I'M last are also

The two
course
Ij>
;

used in solemnly opening a


petition.

dis-

V\

is

also

employed in making a

" Hulloa !"

When

this is

used with the demonstra-

tive

pronoun

1J,

the detached form of the pronoun often

intervenes, as
liyj)

U
*^
]I \

"Ho!

that one there."

\3 L^J^ li

"Ho! you

there."

are used with the future tense to excite or encourage


to the performance of

an action

when used with

\j

the past tense, they imply blame or reproach for

Q
(179).

having neglected

it.

CERTAIN ADVERBS OF TIME AND PLACE.

tl4^

signifies

"where," and

is

generally joined

to a sentence.
^^A is

an interrogative of place,
commonly used
for

Id Egypt \^i\
is

is

^
\

"yes!" and

in Syria

and els^vrtere
is

^\

frequently prefixed to

Jo
r

thus,
to

^ ^1

"yes!"

<)J3^.

'

^J^
*

also used,
.

especially

by Turks, as equivalent

our "farewell," on formally taking leave

of any one.

CERTAIN ADVERBS OF TIME


c
c

AJs^D

PLACE,

281

^jJ or tjjJ signifies ''near"

= jc^.
pronoim, as
^;jJ

^jJ becomes
\_Kote.

^-jO

with the
its

aflB.xed

^jJ

governs
it

noun in the

genitive,

with the sole ex-

ception of

ij^, which

governs in the accusative.]

,jj^\

"yesterday," but
in construction

it

means any day that


it is

is past.

If

it is

with any other word,

declinable

as an ordinary noun.
bj

"at

all,"

used with a negative, and referring to


c'<^\j

past time, as Lj

" I have not seen

him

at all."

^Ic
time.
it is

(all

three terminations being recognized) signifies

^'everj"

it is
it

used with the negative, and refers to future

If

be placed in construction with another word,

declined, as ^^-.^lil j^y: "for ever

and ever."
it

jlJ^

and

j^*

j|^

^j^

"since," cJ^J j| "then (when

was so)" ^r:^ "then," ilVJ "on that day."


\d\

"when,"
."
. . .

refers to future time

even when joined

with the preterite tense, as ^.j^\^\


shall be

"when you
II^

are, or

ul "when," requires a complement, as

^jtjuli "and

when
i\

saw him, he

rose."

"when,"

refers to past time.


is
is is

^\ "where?"
^^bt
i.?
^
^.'-<

interrogative or conditional.

"when,"

interrogative or conditional. interrogative or conditional.

"how,"

^il

"now,"

refers to present time.

This

is

not properly

speaking a particle, but the adverbial accusative of the

noun
(ij^

^2,T

"time," with the


t-i-^:o>-

article.

and

may have

either a nominal or a verbal

sentence for their complement, as

282
S
S 0-'
O

AEABIC GEAMMAE.

j^\
9^9

Sij j\ ^g)\ ^\s>9


i^

"My

father

came when Zeid was Emir."

j^s. jJj J^

S^ ^ ^\ (-I-jL* "My father died


i^-v^Jj^
P

when Omar was born."


sitting."

i/yuJU" u::^!
p o ^5
\

'-^-^:r*"
-J,

"l

sat

where you are

^^

-o X

y'i.

o ^

i^llaLJ^ ^\i\ ci-^-S"

""Where the Sultan


stay."

stays, there will

Note.

jijj, j^j^o-,

t^j and X^U


P^jy
/.
^

imitate the construction

of JU as
(^

P 9 ^

$ 0

P ^(^'-

i^ju5 ^-jjl^n

f-AX>

JJi

"This

is

the day

when

their sincerity

shall profit the sincere."


I^Sl:.^

li-J1 (^;:j^
^ O^
/j
fc

""When she came

to her house."

^ijjl>-

^^

Since the day he spoke to me."

j^

''that is," is

used especially to introduce a comment


t_,ja j

nponor explanation of a difficult word, e.g.


"thisis ''asjad., i.e.

^\ u\.s."^**^

jj&

gold."

J^ and

lJ*!: are

used with the aorist of verbs


i_jj-o

to

im-

part a distinctly future sense,

being the more em-

phatic of the two.


ji with the aorist expresses hope, it

may be

in English
is

by

" I suppose," as^lUJ

j*juj

rendered " the traveller ji

approaching, I suppose."

Like

its

English equivalent,
" a liar will speak
it

it is

used ironically, as ^^d^\ j^^.

jJj

the truth, I suppose."

With

the preterite

implies the

accomplishment of an expected action, as


r^^\ <~^lj
JJ

The Erair

is

mounted"

(said to people

who

are expecting his coming).

L-^
is"

ji. Jjj ^ lj>-

Zeid came

he was riding too."


who
tells

"certainly not," said to one

you

to do a

thing, or

makes an

assertion.

INDECLINABLE WORDS.

2S3

PLEONASTIC PARTICLES.
(180). Pleonastic particles are
^-j after JyTi

"it

is

not."

J "to"
S

is

sometimes,

though

rarely,

so

used,

as

with

in

such sentences as U.uT L

,.,sr L^",-!!

"we have
fathers."

never been polytheists, neither

we nor our

U in conditional sentences (see p. 175). U after '^^ and ^^^ in which case it does
them from governing the genitive as before.

not prevent

U U
word
\\

after cl^j, see p. after ^, as

197 (HI).

U^ "like what"
whilst,"

= " as."
whenever," the

\_Note.

In

U-uS
it is

and Uii

and the

to

which

joined should always be written as one word.]

after the negative

U,

as

IjIj jj^,

'^S

" Zeid

is

not

standing," see p. 254.


;j

"that," after
that

"

when

"when?" Zeid went we went."


l^^

as

ll^

ITj

^<^

^'

INDECLINABLE WORDS.
(181). Indeclinable words,
i.e.

those

ivliicli

do not cliange

their terminations to indicate the different cases, are

the

following
Particles.

The

preterite

and imperative of verbs (see

p. 2G, note

the pronominal prefixes and affixes being considered as


separate words).

The

aorist

when

followed by the energetic

^ or ^.


284
All nouns,
first

AEABIC GRAMMAE.

when

joined to the affixed pronoun of the

person.

The demonstrative pronouns.

The

relative

pronouns

^ and U.

Interjections.

Nouns which serve


In addition
to

as verbs; see p. 231 (139).

the above, which have been already

described, there are


1.
2.

Compound
<-ibljl-^

expressions.

or

metonyms.

3.

Certain adverbs of time and place.

1. COMFOtrifD

EXPRESSIONS.

(182). 1.

The compound numerals from 11


'' ''

to 19,

y ^

"i-

^'

jlL. i^sA

^U- "Eleven
"l saw

came.'^

JLs. Ss-\

(::-y,K

eleven."

yis.

Jk5.lj

'-^jj^

'l passed

by eleven."

jjortions of the
t^ j^nout.
ujj^

compound

are pointed with fethah

jLs.

is

however an exception, the

first

portion being

declined as an ordinary dual noun (see p. 158),


2.

Compound adverbs
fV^ i^V. cJ^
)

of time
^

and

place, as

^Uu.^

^^'1 so

comes

to

me morning and

i^AjM^ ^\s>^\^ * U.-L-s'

evening." evening.

^ ^^

O''

i^\j!:l\
''

JJi

This wine

is

middling."

y ox

S ^9

.::^^

i-^W"

U^

So and so
ijiit.

is

my

next door neighbour"

house liouse=liouse to house).

cL'bll^

METONYMS.

285
is

3.

The

first

portion of

compound proper names


(see p. 220).

in-

declinable, as i^y^jJ^^
s
2.

tl>3^

Cl^blii METOXTMS.

(183). These are


So and so."

^ o <

^ o

'.

These are used with or without the conjunction

j,

as

^z^ ^ u:-^^^\
Lii-vO
i.:^.

^^
<y

^_^li

The

affair

was

so

and so." and so."

Si.::-Jj

I said to

him

so

2.
J:^

"how many?"
is

This

construed either with the adverbial accusative,

or with the genitive, with or without ^^^

*Jk^L> aS

>

How many

dirhemsi*"

C^'j^ cry r^

'

If

it is

separated from the noun to which

it refers,

the

latter is

always in the accusative, as

IS-I

^J

|i!^

"How

many

slaves have

I?"
predicate of this
is

3. JclS

"how many !" The

generally

a sentence, as in the verse

i'^j ^^y" ^^. ^

J^^

i^V

^^^"^

c.'^

^'^^
he suffer

How many
Ah
!

griefs that the physician cannot heal does

would that my saying 'how many/ could express it!"

4.

\^ "so and

so,"

"so many," which always take the

accusative, as

Uijj

\j>^

^'^ "I

tiave

such and such a

number
It

of dirhems."
also repeated with or without the conjunc-

may be


286
tion, as

AEABIC GEAMMAR.

l^J

Ijo ^ \'6^

Ijo U\i

u,^* "I

liad

so

many

dirhems."
3.

ADTEKBS OP TIME ANB PLACE.

(184).

Some

indeclinable adverbs of place

may

be

used absolutely without a governed noun, and are then


pointed with
jjjj

dhammah.

They

are

before


SUililARY OF THE PIIINCIPLES OF THE SYNTAX.

287

SU^MAEY OF THE PRINCIPLES OF ARABIC SYNTAX.


(185). If
of

we

analyze Arabic sentences by the rules


shall find

European syntax, we
if

them

full of

anomalies.

But

we

discard our preconceived notions as to the

concord of substantive and adjective, nominative case

and verb,

etc.,

and look

at the question

from an Arabic

point of view,

we

shall find

them

consistent and logical.

The following
to
1.

are the principal points of Arabic syntax,


is directed.

which the attention of the student


Sentences
are

composed

of

nouns,

verbs,

and

particles.
2.

Arabic nouns are


call

all concrete]

that

is,

they are

all

what we should
abstract ideas.
3.

substantives,

and do not express

The verbs contain


is

a pronoun inherent in the form,

which

their real agent.


\

Consequently, in analyzing the sentence ^^J^ "^{j A^ "Zeid the generous came," rather than say, as in Euro-

pean languages, that


the verb
sl:>-,

1y)\

is

the nominative or agent to


is

and that ^J^\

an adjective agreeing

with

jkJj,

I should prefer to say that the true explana-

tion is
*l=j-

He came"
I

(the agent he being contained in the

word

^l>-).

Juj

mean Zeid " (Zeid being the name of the agent J-c uJ
and therefore in apposition with
it).

^^,

>jiJ

The generous one"


with the name).

(also in apposition

with the agent or

4.

One noun may

define or determine another; such


is

a state of dependence

indicated

by the dependent

case,

as Js^cL-l^ "the book of the man."

288

ARABIC GEAMMAE.
indefinite

The
tenwin.

nature

of

a noun

is

expressed

by

The
and, if

definite nature of a
it

noun by the
it

loss of the tenwin

stand by

itself,

except

be a proper name, by

the addition of the article.

The absence
noun, unless
it

of both temvln

and

article
is

shows that the

be a proper name,
it.

connected with that

which immediately follows


5.

sentence naturally consists


is,

of a

subject and

predicate, that
to speak,

the thing about which

we
as

are going

and some statement concerning


SUBJECT.

it,

PREDICATE.

JiXi jjj

Zeid

(is)

standing."

Both

subject a7id predicate are

put

in the subjective case

with dhammah.

The simple
if

logical copula "z5," is generally omitted;


is

emphasis be required, the pronoun

used to supply

its

place, as ^jT^y* ixj

"Zeid he

(is)

standing."

The
ooj

predicate

may

consist of or contain a verb, as

CJj^ '*Zcid struck."


^^Zeid.^^

This

is

properly

^^

He

struck,''^

namely

the verb,

The agent "he" being contained in and the name of such agent being subsequently
for the sake of clearness,
is to

mentioned

hence

it

follows that

the natural order of words


after the verb.

place the so-called agent

But
also

if

the verb

is

active or transitive, there


falls,

must be

an object on which the action

as \ja1 juJ _Jli

" Zeid struck 'Amr."

The
If

object is

put

in the objective case with fethah.

it is

neuter or intransitive, further explanation

may

be needed as
\l,..u*^

to the state or condition of the agent, as

jjj IIj

"Zeid rose

hastily."


SUMMARY OF THE PIUNCIPLES OF THE SYNTAX.
State or condition
case.
is

289

always expressed Vy the ohjective

I have said that both subject

and predicate are put


''

in the direct case, as in the sentence

Zeid

(is)

stand-

ing," in which

tlie

logical copula "is,"

and 'a noun or a

verb with

its

true inherent pronominal nominative, form

the predicate.
If,

however,

we wish

to express existence in a state ofis,

or, the

fact of becoming^ that


it

of assuming a certain conrule above given,


case, as

dition

is

clear that

by the

such

state

must be expressed by the objective


U.5li S}\ (^li
if-

Zeid was standing."

"Ci

S^^
Jl.-;

ILL:>-

iLs

" Zeid became a

tailor."

Hence

the rule that ^JS

and similar

verbs

put

the

predi-

cate in the ohjective case.


6.

Particles modify the sentence

by extending
few,
^j.

or re-

stricting the action of the verb.


like,

Some

^'^^^

^^^

are exactly the reverse of ^^^

see p.

248 (154),

putting the subject in the objective case, and the predicate in the nominative, thus lUl) \sij
is
^J\^

"verily, Zeid

standing."

Here the predicate

is

introduced by a

second or subordinate

initial particle

J.

The explana-

tion of this seems to be

^
IjkjJ

am

going to speak of
Zeid,"
i.e.

my

subject.
{ivhence

qud.

in

bis condition of Zeid

iJie

tise

of the ohjective case).

*juJ

Well
a

(J) be
new

is

standing'' (wbicb last becomes, as

it

sverc,

predicate,

and

is

tlierefore

properly put in tbe

nominative).

19

290
These
are

ARABIC GRAMMAR.
the
principal

points

which the student


these,

should bear in mind.

Having mastered

and made

himself familiar with the further details given in the


course of the work, he should study some easy native
oi-ammai-, siich as the
to

Ajrumiyeh.

This he will be able

do Avithout difficulty with the help of the Glossary of

technical terms at the

end of

this

book

291

PAET III.-PROSODY.
SECTIO]^ I.THE METEE.
(186).

knowledge of Prosody
it

is

absolutely necessary

to the student of Arabic, since

enables

him

to correct

the errors of copyists and printers, and, in this way, to

understand passages which would be otherwise obscure.

NO:\IEXCLATUEE.
(187).

The

technical

name

for prosody is i^*y^\ ^l^,

the word ^'j^ signifying a "pattern" or "standard of

comparison."

It is also called J-U:^l

*bj from the name

of the inventor of the system.

The Arabs have

instituted a fiinciful comparison beliJ-j {lit.


^^^^-

tween "a verse of poetry," ^X^


poetry") and
(cloth)."
9

"a house

of

"a

tent," y-O^

^rA^
or

"^ house

of hair

The

parts of the^-i-l
JJ'J or

l::^-j

verse" are named after

those of tlie^ii,

"tent," thus:

Each of the two


is

hemistichs of which the

d^
Jjs-^

is

composed

called a

c\^^ "one of the two


of the tent."

flaps

which form the folding-door


is

The

first

of these

called the

Jl^

or

"fore-part," the second the

or "hind-part."

Each of the ^l^^J^


(sing.

consist of

"feet," called

^'\y>A

^)

"portions" when spoken of as integral parts

292
of the Terse
;

ARABIC GRAMMAR.

but when spoken of in the abstract they


^xki),
i.e.

are called J-^ll5 (sing,

"representing the

measure by parts of the root J*j " (see p. 19). The last foot of the first ^Vj^ is called the
determines the metre
;

J^*/^, as it
is

the last foot of the second '^j^

called the lIj^, or "class,"

and determines to what sub-

division of a particular metre the verse belongs.

The opening
first

foot of the verse is called the

jl^

the

foot of the second


all

9)^^

is

called the ^Tjcj[

"be-

ginning;" and

the remaining parts are included in


"stufiing."

the general term

JA^

The metres
means

are called J^=r (singular J^r).

This word
it

''sea," but in its

primary signification
is

means

''extent" or "space," and

applied to the "space"

covered by theyti, t^-j, or "tent."

complete poem in Arabic

is

called

Is^i

it

should

contain not less than thirteen or more than one hundred

and twenty

distichs (i^-^, pi. cbl-jT).

The
the

first

two hemistichs ^s\pi^ rhyme together, and


is

same rhyme

repeated at the end of every second

hemistich throughout the poem.

The two rhyming hemistichs with which the poem commences are called the ^Ll.^ "exordium." A poem without a ^LLiL* and consisting of only a few verses, is called I^^ "fragment."
,

The

scansion of a verse,
is

i.e.

its

resolution into the

constituent feet J-^l^',

called

^^^

"cutting up."

ELEMENTS OF WHICH THE FEET ARE COMPOSED.


(188).

The elements

of

which the

feet are

composed are
syllables,

not, as in Latin prosody, merely long

and short
;

but certain rhythmical sounds or notes

namely,

QUAXTITT.

293

294
3.

ARABIC GRAMMAR.

4.

The The
;

of

Ij't

''I," is sliort,

tliiis

or

^\=^J.
is

of the affixed pronoun

long, *,
*j, ^xil,

ys,

Jj^

so too the

with which

j*^, (^j

and

are

pronounced before a hemzet

el-wasl, is long=j,j&, etc,

THE NORMAL FEET.


(190).

From

the elements above spoken

of,

a certain

number

of feet are constructed

which are

called ^^J^, or

standards.
re^^resented

They consist of combinations of the elements by a word of the same measui-e formed from

the root JjJ (see p. 19).


NORMAL
fi:kt.

OF

WHAT COMPOSED.

ARABIC SYMBOLS.

LATIN SYMBOLS.

/^

O ^

'

+
c^

.Lili^
OP

'^

'

S'^

i^

p y

^
si/
;>

y
^

.^

P(jy

S-'-'

C/
S--

L/
S^
-'

>

o ^

S yy

??'*-?'* '^!^

"*"

oy o^ o
.

**^XJ^ /J^^

c/^ J^x

c '-ST* jjj

+ ^j^^

O-oli

ifi^

J^Ji

+ j^Lfi^Aii-

;^,U->*J

The termination ^^
is

represents the tenwin, the \^ of which,

as is explained

further on,
2

always tvritten in noting the scansion of a Terse.


also

This

may

be written

.jlcll, and regarded


P o

as

if

composed of the

following elements


THE FIRST CIRCLE.

295

THE CIRCLES.
(191).

The various metres

j^ used by the Arab poets

consist of combinations of the eight feet described in the


hist table.

They

are fifteen in number, but divide them-

selves naturally into five groups, each containing a certain

number
variety

of metres, in all of

which the number and con-

secutive arrangement of the elements are the

same
a

the

being
for

obtained

by beginning on

different

element

each metre.

In order to exhibit this corre-

spondence, the Arab prosodians write these groups in five


circles,

which I

will give

and explain in

detail.

THE FIRST CIRCLE


(192).

The

first circle is

called UL;:.^^\ 'S^aricd," be-

cause

it is

composed of
of
9
7

feet of various lengths.


it is

The elements
10

which

composed are
4
1

^'

O'^

Kow
10

if

these be divided into feet thus.


9

-^

^^
c;-'

u;-*

c^'

.r^ ^

^J e;^ cJ'

uA^^
we have
down
the
first

c/>XJ

metre of the

circle,

viz. J;;.yL

The
same
i,

second line being obtained by following out the rule laid


of representing each foot

by a word
.

of the

measure formed from the root J*j !N'ow, if instead of beginning ujion element

we

begin upon element

2,

wq

shall

have a different

effect

produced, although the consecutive arrangement remains


the same, thus

296
I

ARABIC GRAMMAR.
10
9

O XX

o ^

6 O XX

^j ^:o ^j
O
^

>>

>>

cy
wliich
is

i-^ii

the second metre of the


4,
9

circle, viz.

jua^U

Again, beginning on
1

we have
6
3

10

C y^

c y

Ox ox
C

cT*^ tj^
O ^ X
O

ox o

ox

o y

cr-:

X>JkAW.'l(

c;

,Uli

liA*^
/

xo X
\

which

is

the third metre of the

first circle, viz.

12--a-1

Thus we obtain the three metres


they are usually represented

of the first circle as

xO X

o^

o? oxo*' o^

oy

oxo^

The following
for the circle

verse will serve as a memoria technica


XX O-O
?

O X

<>

JxU L->w
jj _**,*

^>X*-11
-'

LaaJ (<J'J^ (J^^ O ^ O-O i X


-Ji

(_>i^ ^^

t,_

'

^^ X

By commencing
),jjy(,

at

the

we have
,

a verse in
recalls

word J^l, which suggests that measure; commencing


,

with

^J^

which

j^;>a^5^

a verse

is

obtained in
for l^-^jf,
all

the metre of SixiA) and similarly with

]=Lj

the verse affording a complete specimen of

three

metres with a rhyme for each.

The
facts I

followins; diaj^jram of the circle exhibits all the

have pointed out in connexion with

this part

of

my

subject.

The two outer

circles contain the

memoria

technica verse,

the point at which each

metre begins

THE FIEST AND SECOND CIRCLES.


being indicated.

207
contain

The next three inner


;

circles

the conventional feet of each metre

the

commencements

being also noted.

The

t\70

innermost circles contain the

Latin symbols and the Arabic elements.

^ O ^o-o ^ y

1st ciecle, c-iiii^'^l i("jlj.

Note.

That

in selecting a

word

as the representative

of the elements forming any foot, a form

must be chosen

which actually
circle.

exists.

This

is

exhibited very clearly in the

The same element


the foot
^JJ = ^^^^i,

^^'j being represented

by^,
it

when beginning
a
foot, as
^^,-j

^^i

^=

O^

P '
,

J^^xi

but when

ends

it is

represented by
^xs.

^U, because

^w form of the root jJe could end in

^oco-o

p>

THE SECOND CICRLE


(193).

-V b.
*

The second

circle is called

'M "ac;reeinir," '05

because

all its feet

agree in length, consisting of seven

letters each.

It contains

two metres,

viz.

298

ARAEIC GRAMMAR.
o/'
9

O?

^ ^9

it

'^

^ 9

^^_jll

^u.Lcli^ j^-Jk^li^ ^-ilcU^

The mcmoria

techiica for

which

is

,l_CA^
C-3

^ f

->

Si

o^^-'

The
feet

following diagram explains the formation of the

and metres

^occ/-^3

;>y

2nd

circle, t_ilj.,Jl

^"yJ^ii.

THE THIRD CIRCLE


(191).

^:xs.'^\ i".j!j.
J-'

P '-^ o P<^-a

The

third cirelo
its

is

called

e^L^-^^i

"hrouglit
first

on," because
circle.

feet are

"brought on" from the


''

It contains three metres, viz.


o
c

oy

'"'

^Jt^

^rr^^'^-* .J^^'^-* cA"-?^'*

THE TniRD AND FOUETH CIECLES.


j^- J\

299

XX*">,o...^

fA.^ji^.^**''*

iX^^UjM^

^i-Mi,.H^IAi

,.Hieli

And

tlie

mcmoria teclinka

is

'^

o^

The following diagram shows the

analysis of the

cii'cle

X o co-o

9-^

3kd cikcle, w^i^-/^'^

^j-^^*^

X O ?0-0 9^

THE FOURTH CIRCLE ^-oA^


(195).

ijb

The

fourth circle

is

called

cate," from the intricate nature of its

^^^^i "the intrimetres, which are

six in number, viz.


9
-Si

>X^>^'J<v.^V

"

Xj^.w^ 'V^, ,.J_^

300
9

ARABIC GRAMMAR.
xO^

..yL^li:^ ,.J^ tli ...LilL*

j^lxaiijcu-^ i^jixii'j..u*^ d-?j,"ii^

.-^1

The memoria

technica

is

The following diagram shows the

analysis of the circle

y O ^JC-O P y

<

4th

ciecle,

d-^jl^^

'^y}'^-

TIIE

FIFTH CIRCLE

JUX4,)

l \

S"jb. ij

(19G).

The

fifth circle is called ^ii:;^^!

"harmonious,"
it

because

its feet all

harmonize in length;

contains two

metres, viz.


THE FIFTH CIRCLE.
^^^o

301

t_:>^,U:;^\

J_jxi

Jy6

Ji^xi

CSj\s^\

(or

^i\}\)

^li ^UU ^li ^li


is

And

the memoria technica

L5^

jUj
^ ^

jl llii'l,
C
-f-^

<!oJ Ajij

P Pi^^i^ty

^Ir.

j\ iJjc^ <L:u,^

The following diagram shows the

analysis of the circle

Si -?i--o

py

5rH ciECLE, /;:iu^^

i'j^j,

SCANSION.

(197). Note.

In representing the scansion of a


^^-zl^-'

verso,

the words must be written as they arc pronounced.


I

The

being omitted, and ^^i^^^ and


thus

boiug written in

full,

302

AEABIC GEAMirAE.
^
-^ iO

^ ^ --o ^ ^S

is

represented in scansion as follows


C
G

ox

VAEIATIONS IX THE NORMAL FEET.

303
;

by the
the
j!aij is
1

rule given in p. 297, Note^ to ^if 'X

or as

in ,^Lili,

which then becomes M*i.

the suppression of the second letter of a foot with

its

vowel, as the

of ^,UliL, which, then becomes

jU^\

is

making the second


and by

letter of a foot quiescent


i

when

it

has a vowel, as the


p.

of ^.l^li^*,

which becomes

,^l!fi^,,
ff-r

297, Note, ^Ixi^uy^.

>

is

the suppression of the fourth letter of a foot


quiescent, as the k of ^Xx-kx.^^,
i^l^lxL*^
,

when

it is

which then be-

comes
io-^

and

is

changed into ^^*lt*


fifth letter of
,

i-j

is

the suppression of the

a foot

when
;

quiescent, as the of the


i_s

of Ji^xi

which becomes ^y^


of a foot

or

of ^i.-^ll^,

which becomes J^(s^.


fifth letter

jii

is

the suppression of the


I

when

it

has a vowel, as the


^^.ill.*,

of ^ILu.m,
p.

which then becomes

and

is

changed by

297, JVofe, into ^rU'X^.


of a foot,

t_U^i

is

making quiescent the


I

fifth letter
(^^yd^ll^,

when

this has a vowel, as the

of
,

becoming

j:Lz\L^^,

and subsequently ,]!^ll^


lJ^
is

by

p.

297, Note.

the suppression of the seventh letter of a foot


is

when

it

quiescent, as the

of !^5%Ij, which becomes

ci^'lili;

or the

in

^,!

_i::Jl,*

becoming ^^^JJl^..

Note.

These

modifications can only occur in a i.lSl

or ^'chord,^^ as ^" or ^^;

we

cannot, for instance, apply


1,

the

^^

to the foot ^'j^^^, because the second letter


is

although considered as quiescent,


^\J',

part of a
to

j.jj

or "^/-"

nor can

we

apply the

^^

the foot [Xx^jLl,


is

because, although the seventh letter


part of a juj, ^^'t

quiescent,

it is

304

ARABIC GEAMMAR.

{I.)

^jJJ^)

i__Jl?-'-.l

COlirOTJND DEVIATION".

Jl>-

is

the occurrence in one and the same foot of ^-^^

and

as the suppression of the


i

of "^J^sLU* l}^^^, or,

by by

1^^-,
p.
1}y>- is

and of the

by

^,

leaving

297, Note,

^1^.

the concurrence of
:;

j^l

^ii^l

^^

as the suppres-

sion of the

of i^UU'U

by J^\i and
cJc^, as

of the

by

rir,

leaving
J-C^
is

^^i'ic.*

= ^^xii^
'Q^ and
by
(TtJ^,
\

the concurrence of

the suppression

of the

of

j^]

^Ixu*^
;

and of the
(^

^ by i^,
,

leaving

j_lv*

or of the

and

of ^j%:li

leaving

JfiiiJ

is
I

the concurrence of

^^ and

tla^, as
,

rendering the

of ^-l^ll* quiescent

by <l^z and suppressing the

j_^

by (^, leaving

l::J.^11^

= J-^li.*.

2.

lijtll

DEFECT.

(200).

The

"iSs.

consists either in

adding to or taking

from a

foot.
is

Amongst the former

are
JJ^

Jjy

which

adding a ^^sJ>- cl-ll Q^i) to a ^^^-^


foot, as

at the

end of a

adding

to ^Ullu!,,

which

becomes ^i'iL*
j->jj.;

= ^;'lcU::^, by p.

297, Note.

is

adding a quiescent

letter to a

\y*^

J^j at

the

end of a

foot, as ^^ to ^Lcll';J,

which becomes ^u\s.[^

i---uaJ is

the addition of a quiescent letter to a

ijiJ^ l1->^

at the

end of a foot
Jjij^^,

as the addition of

to

^j'

at the

end of

which then becomes ^Itlj =

^^Ij^Irl/.

VAEIATIOXS IN THE NORMAL FEET.

305

Those
foot are
<_Jio-

wliicli

are forraed

by taking away from the

which

is

the suppression of a uj:-.i^

C^

^^ ^^^

end of a
^]y6
LlckJj
;

foot, as of the ^1 in
iji'

^L^'i^ becoming

^^^ =

or

in ^'ji~^, wliich becomes %Ij

= ^U Ij.

is suppressing a ^-ii u^ll at the end of a foot, and making the previous consonant quiescent; as

the suppression of ^J from j^^'sS* and making the

J
jJi
is

quiescent, the foot then

becoming ^AL* =

the suppression of the second letter of a

^m. t-i-i:^ ^f^


letter

at the

end of a
;

foot,

making the remaining

quiescent
the

as the suppression of the

and making
J.^ll^

quiescent in

^L^U, which becomes


,

or similarly in

.L*

wliich becomes

J^

^^

is

the suppression of the last letter of a

^^^^

jJj

at the end of a foot, at the

same time making the

preceding letter quiescent

as the removal of the

and making the


becomes
is
j.xji::.^.*

quiescent in

^UlU^, which then

= jj^tji^*

the suppression of one of the two moveable cL-^j letters of the c^'*"^* j^^ in ^i%lj, which becomes

^^jUU or ^^f6 (according as the

or

of

is re-

moved) =
ijois

!J;^'

the suppression of the entire


foot,

c^^^

jJ.'

from the

end of a

as

of the Jks. from ^^l^ljb^,


.

which

becomes

\kx^

= J^x.i
the

fu

is

the suppression of a j/,1* j5\ from the end of a


as of

foot,

d^i from

cu'iJiXt,

which becomes

I is

the suppression of the last letter of a ^^X^ jJj at


,

the end of a foot, as of the c-j of tL'Sj^l*

which then

becomes

iljju,

= ^<f^^

20

306
si is

AEABIC GRAMMAR.
the making the last letter of a ^*J^ ^j quiescent
the end of a foot, as the
c:-?

at

of

c:-'i;.*jl*,

which

lecomes cbi!^-^

= Jy^

There are some kinds of

ilr.

which resemble the

elil^j

in being used as occasional licences or variations in the


feet,

and not being permanent changes

in the feet con-

tinuing through the whole poem.

Of

these are

^i~ which

is

the addition of one letter to a foot of four

letters at the letters at the

beginning of a verse

or of one or

two
It

beginning of the second hemistich.

more frequently occurs in the beginning of the verse,


its

occurrence at the beginning of the second hemi-

stich

being rare.
S
ft.

iV^
^'j^

*j^

is

the suppression of the

first letter
i

of a j'^i'*
of
^jSj--?i,

at the

beginning of a verse, as of the


^^^^s.

which

thus becomes
Jj
is

= ji^xi
,

the same as Vj^

when

it

occurs in a foot which

is

perfect in all other respects,

and

is

not affected

by

any
"ji

of the other licences or variations.


first letter

J is

the suppression of the

of a ^^s-'*

J^-|^

at
it

the beginning
occurs

of a verse,

when

the foot in which

is also aff'ected
s

by the
of
9
9

licence called
,

jLi

as

the suppression of the


_
,

^Lo and
9

of the

^ by

,_^J,

the foot

then becoming

= J^ J^.^
L:^-

o^

^Li

is

the concurrence of Xjk- and Jl^ in

^J.-^'X-*

the

being suppressed by
the foot ^Ul^
s -^
ij>. is

and the

-.

by

j^iiJ

making

the concurrence of Xp- and

(_S

in

,^A-^li-

the

being suppressed by "^^ and


foot J.r5 w

^ by

uJa^,

making the

= Jj^*

VAEIATIONS IN THE NORiTAL FEET.

307
at the be-

\1J^

is

the suppression of the

a>

of

ginning of a verse, leaving ^j^^^.

^
1^

IS

the concurrence oi j^^and

k^,>iit

j:^\i^

the
\

first

removing the
:

and the second making the


^:iLilj

quiescent
is

the

first

thus becomes

= ^^<tl^

the concurrence of j^^ and (Jlc in ||^^ll<, the first removing the ^ and the second the 1, leaving

^^J^Ai is

the concurrence of
first

^^
*
,

'-,

and L_o

m
,

^-^J^i'oJ^ :

the

removing the
I

the third the

and the

second making the

quiescentj the foot then becomes

is

sometimes thus employed as an incidental varia-

tion of the foot in the metres

i^ijX and

iS-c^'^*

and ul'j^

is

occasionally so

employed in the metre

(201).

TABLES EEPEESENTIXG THE YAEIATIONS OF

THE

PRIMITI^TE FEET.

FIRST FOOT,
Name
'

JiM.

of Foot.

308

ARABIC GRAMMAR.

SECOND FOOT,
Name
of Foot.

TABLES OF VAEIATIOXS

THE
L,

XORIUiAL FEET.
^

309

? ^

FOURTH
Name of Foot.

FOOT,

..^ficlj.

310

ARABIC GRAMMAR.

SIXTH FOOT,

o ^ o ^ o ^ ^J^^ku>jy*,

Name

of Foot.

TABLES OF VARIATIONS IN THE NORMAL FEET.

311

SEVENTH FOOT,

^\r.{JcJ*.

Name

of Foot.

312

ARABIC GRAMMAR.
9

O ^

EIGHTH FOOT, ej^^tl*.

Name

of Foot.

THE METRES.

313

THE METRES.
(202).

Each

of the fifteen metres (p.

295)

may be

subdivided into classes, according to the variations of

which the Jo^^l

is

susceptible.

These classes may be

further subdivided

according to the variations of the

cl/p

Thus, the
;

first

metre

Jj^lJ

has for

its

normal ^*j=is

the foot ^^-^U,*

in

practice,

however, this

seldom

employed
i^^/tj

in its integrity, the

two variations

^Jl^ll

and

being the only ones in use.


J:'jl2lt

These two classes of

contain respectively four


to the variations of the

and two subdivisions, accordiug


^^^

A
from

single instance will suffice to

show the method of


tables.

employing these and the foregoing

The verse

my
x-c
--

edition' of the
^
^ y

Poems

of El

Beha

Zoheir, p. 7.

l^;K^
is said to

UjLT

l^,.'

t_>^Uui"

^U^ Sii

1^'*^'*^* (*^

J^

be ^i^^\ ^3 15

^^

the second class of the metre

l!^ow,
is

the second cJ J of the

first

^^j^ of

this

metre

called

J^y^^

(p-

314)

if

we

turn to the table (p. SOS)

of the second foot

^^i--^'!*

(the normal CJj^)^


is

we

shall find

that the variation ^.-L*

equivalent to the foot ^^IxU-.

which
list

is

the actual C^^j^ of the verse in question.


^J^-^^

In

tlio

of variations (p. 303), under the article

we

find

described the process by which the change


1

is

made.

Now

in tlic Press.

314

AEABIC GEAMMAE.

TABLES EXHIBITING THE DIFFERENT METRES.

^S'PP.

10X0 METRE.

315
(^'p').
-^

o
y'
If

's

"-5

Is

I-

'J
1-

o
CM
*3

M
.1^

1
til

r
v-0

4,

ll

"3

cs
-^'A
\

f
n
^

0"

^.

1.
:3^
1.1

'b

The examples
first

of 1, 2,

and 3 are from the

treatise of

Sheikh Nasif el-Yaziji; they form a memoria

technica, tlie

word

tJLJlLI

serving to recall to the student's

mind

that they illustrate the metre J)j]^.


*

These are examples of

,.^.

16

ARABIC GRAMMAR.
licences permitted in
tliis

The
the

metre are J^j and


fifth

wlif

^^J, the suppression of the


foot, affects

quiescent letter of

both

^,'iJU

and

|^Lcli^,

making them

re-

spectively
tlif ,

J^ and

(I^Lll*.

the suppression of the seventh quiescent letter in

foot,

can obviously affect only

[^l-rll*,

which becomes
foot,

Both
licence

licences cannot occur in the

same

such a

form as Jcli^ being impossible.

This exclusion of one

by another

is called ^'IjlC

Examples:

OC

1.

^^pj, as

O*"

^y

-'^

9''

O?

9"

<^

""

in which every foot except the CJj^ loses cent


letter.

its fifth

quies-

a
2. <jis, as

>>

--

(>

O^

""

;'x

O?

yy

1^9

py

yy

o?o^

where the second


quiescent letter.

foot in each hemistich loses its last

In the

first

hemistich the

first foot suffers

Jj (see below).

Of the
occur.
1.

licence called

^lL, j^,

pj,

and jy sometimes

^y^\

LICENCES IN i_jLjT.

317:

where j and

JvIj

are respeetiyely prefixed to the verse

2.

pii'

where, instead of ^j^, the verse begins with

^^IXI (l^^|.)'

where, instead of J^^'

the verse begins with IS^ (j

l).

The
the

Jij.yi

and d/Ji of a poem usually

differ.

But

since

two hemistichs rhyme together, and the rhyme concludes each distich in the poem, it follows that in the
first

first distich

the J^^y^. and JJ-i will .correspond.

Thus

oi'.<''

the ^ij.^ being ^ljt


first

-,

,-,

and the

dji

1^

-^

1^

9
;

^^i-^ll*
,

but

in the
.

couplet the
*-J^"

^
^O''

/^ becomes ^Lcll^

like the <Uj>

The
y y

may be
9

repeated in the course of the poem,


el

as in the
ii

same kasidah Imru'

Kais says
S
y y

^oS-i

^o

yy

-^

^"^

S yy
*

Instances of

^^^

An

instance of

l^

^ y
.

318

ARABIC GRAMMAR.

--

o V >3-

"5
/y^
^<f 5-

^3 J

yTcO p^g
P'lg
IS [s

oi

I
,o
r

/'V

JD
=

<u

H
^

;^
J

P H M

-A
.a

W H

1 o
CQ

n
C3

V^
c4

V
<ll

00

a>

?^ .<
^

1% Ha
;-^

5i) ^T) ^i)

o
-j

be

^*\^

H.
xl

^
IS

.5

c-o

>>

o ^

EXAMPLES or SjS^

319

^^%^
^'.S.^'T

\
,

^^%^
\

"-

rr-(

'"^

.i^
:5
\

CO

^3
1

^
->\N

so,
Jr^
/^

">

vr9

-3^

n;j

o
03
P-(

'A

M
pi?

=i

^'^

X
'^

Nr9

3^

?\

"b

'^

pa

:*!} o
a

320

AEABIC GRAilMAR.
licences allowed are
,

The
1.

^jX

as in the second of the

two following verses

where ji and
2. 3.

j^

are added to the metre.

,2r^ in the
t>i^

^^,

in ^Uli

and ^;J%li.

and
first

Jli> in j^%l-'.

In the
the
,

(^^^^ the

same licences are allowed

as in

yL^ but

in the

first

cl^

only '^j^
is

is

allowed.
it

In the second J^*j^, ^[^ be confused with the third.

not allowed, or

would

El

Khali'l does not allow ^2r^ in the


it:

^^.-.^iU

tl/^, but

El Akhfash permits

this ilJ^ is of

such rare occuris

rence that El Akhfash declares that only one aJu^i

found in that measure amongst the poems of the ancient


Arabs, namely, one by ^U^LH, of which the
first

verse

is

YAEIATIONS IN

^^2\

^.
(i.e.

321
the loss

wliere all the seven-letter feet suffer uJi


of the seventh quiescent).
i70,x

J"

0-^3

Ox-i?
O)'''-^

<i

>

-ii

vJ-

yxx

O^-'

'^

<^

y'

where the seven-letter

feet in the first hemistich suffer

The metre '^i^\


most
difficult

is

considered

by

native poets as the

of

all,

and few,

if

any,

examples of

it

occur in the later writers.

The modern Arabs have


which
consists of ^.<J^it

invented a metre called


reversed, as

jc^v^'I,

Vt

{^

it

(.

ij

1^

(^

C-C

^%li ^li

^;%li ^,Uli

^j%li ^J^li

^-^li

..A-ii

21

322

AEABIC GRAMMAR.

^'^
(.1

^ Pi

"*.
(-1

CO

> ^ (.T^

:3

d^
p?

^
^

Ph

P O
H
W

\13

^^^
CO
J'

-t)

'0^^
\I3

;-l)^

r?v

.0-

*I-,

a
^

'^

?0

^i^^iiia^^ oj
t>Jft1

^
(4^

::/

EXA:5rPLES OF

323

14-

%
5>

>">

w
J

>

.v'u

oil.

ra
CO

'A
.VJ 'v-i

'^i>,

\i^
\3

J-

o^

V3

<;

.J

^.J!>
'^J

;A-"

^i*)^

13

^1.

oJ

-3

.<;

u]n b o

x-^j

:o4
'I

j;:/-^

1!^'

^..

t4^

^1
J

324

ARABIC GEAMMAR.
licence called ^Ji-

The
metre
;

may be

used in the "^L^ of this

and of the

tlil^j the feet ^^Lli

and

^l.*!;:^ suffer

j!^, and
1.

^.^^ol.* suffers

^ and
-IE
-^

jl=s-.

^^
o o ^

c-o

^5

ox^-^

c-^

o-^

The

verse belongs to the second clyJ of the third

consisting of eight letters (inj_^j^, the words ^_5^0^,

cluding the upright alif\ are


the metre by

all

added over and above

j^.

t-

y-

1^9

y>

<^

<^

'

yf

^'

^'

''

'

t^

'

<^

y 9

where every
!<

foot suffers ^,f^.

3.

iJ=:

(y

yv,p

iy

J?

-'oy

>>

x"-'

of

--Of

where

all
is

the seven-letter feet suffer 'Qs.


also admissible
,

2^
^^

sometimes in the

fii'st

tl^
o>'

of

the second ^^js^

as

Oi-o
y y(y9

-'

o^;>o^>
-'^:''

-^

,'-''*

"--C/S

^ X

JU^^^-w^
I,

^^Ll<:r^
of
''

c:^l^
o^oy

U^UJ
Of o.'Of

L:^.iU.\
Of
y

'^'jj^^V.

of

Of o^

o y

so-*

OfO-'Oy
for

By ^^j>-

^Uili***^.

VAEIATIOXS IN l^^^TjS^
4.

325

J^:

^^y ^Ixi ^Uli

^_^uL

^^Ly

^Ly

^Lli

^^
^If.

It is also allawed in the first CJji of the second

as
I

In the third
licence
is

^^.jS-

of this metre a

somewhat unusual

allowed, the J^^j- and CSji both being sus)

ceptible of ,2;r^

the foot

(^;.'i

becoming

^^^.t^*

= ^^S.-o

as

in the following verses of 'Obeid ibn al

Abras

_^j juC* J-^^ i_^J J.i


9
9 ^ y

(jwAi'* u^*j

^j
^Ji

jXi
-ipy

O^O-O
9

i'^'

i?/o^
C-'_j^t_j-

C_J^Ia**^ (._^Lj ,_^ J


P

Ji _j
y
y.

J.j1
y ^y

ij^
-"^

^y y

9 'iy

where the ^^j^ and cLvJ arc sometimes


times ^^!^.
^^xi
,

^f.C>

and some-

If the ^^^^-^ of every verso in the


is

poem

is

the metre
''Jls>.

called

k^

^i:-*

as in the table.
,

The

may

also suffer ~'^j^

326

AEABIC GRAMSTAR.

.'O-O

o ^

EXAMPLES OF^J^l^pC-

327

ca

is

328

AEABIC GRAMMAR.
licences

The following

(cjl^J) are allowed in

tliis

metre: c^-^^, Ji^, and ^'ij.

1 ^~
i
\j ^

^ c ^
;l

-^

9^

where
2.

all

the feet in the yl:^ suffer

^^J^

Jib:

Q
9

-s^v/:

-i

.-o

'^

y yo

yy

'

>

>'

-y

-'

-Ji

jUj
0;>
>>

^^-^l^d
^

^^i^^'l-^
P

jJ,si
Oi>

ij\:il
P

^^^J
9

^X

yy

yy

The
K-

fii'st

tlJ^ of the
'^9

first

^^^ may
-I-

suffer

J^,
y"}.

as
y
t,yy

y
^ o

99

y S>Oy y

,^
^
y
-i^y

;>

?y

yi^9

yL,yy

o ^ -

y 9iyy ,_

ij

9y

^9

y y

'-'9

yy

LI/

5"^

'^

^^

"' I

^^'iLili^

If the

c_^-2i occur in every foot in the second ^jO^j^ of this measure,


J
1

it -will

be identical with the Jrs-

^J-sr*
is

but

if

the foot

^:J_cU^

occur once

only in the course of the poem,

it

sufficient to

stamp

it

as belonging to the

metre

J u.
o-o y

Similarly, if the
"Ci

Jju

occui' in every verse of

it, it

will resemble the

9 ^y

-o

^ y

^c-o yo

x-

VAEIATIONS IN

J^^]^^.

329

Of the
il^s-j

.IL (seep. 307):

1^,

u^^^i

a^d 1a^ sometimes occur in

tliis

metre, but they are not considered elegant.


1

lL

-^-

'

330

AEABIC GRAMMAE.

n3

)<i

-JV._

5-^

y
H

54,

H O
P^

J^

? g
.

-^x lO

[^1
VI

1_

V.

1_

n H O
U

'V

-i

"1

n'l

^^-^

H^^

'

EXAMPLES OF /ul^i.

331

O
(.1

-<^^l
-^l

73
i=l

t>\

CO

_3

\-1

1 N

^'^

'

^v^

o-O

o
05

'^3

^
"^J

"I

-A

-A

-A
3
1

] ^3>

0^

1^
^J
10-

v^

'^

^o=

b
_

i-

332

ARABIC GRAMMAR.
S, X o.

The

licences occurring in this metre are J.aJ:\


,

Jajj^

which may be employed in the ^jy^ and tl^J as well as in the body of the verse (Jil^).
and Jjrk
1.

'.Iwh^
c

,i'o'

o^

o ^

O^OO?

0?0-'0?

OCO^^^^

0?C^07
first ^ji^f-

O^C-'O^'

O/C'OJ'

and in the second CJJa of the

^^*i^

^LsU::^ ^jLzXkx^
last foot

^J^^Xsc^

^Jk.[h^

jJxljb^
il^j-i,
i.e.

The
J^'i^,

having become c^Ll^ in the

suffers

the .further modification of


table, p. 311.

j^\, and
contains
in the

becomes c^ial^J.^^, see

The

following

(from

El

Baha,

Zoheir)

examples of the jUJt in the JL^\

lS^], and

body of the verse

An

example of ^l^^ in the Jj J^

foot is

ir,
^

'"

o.

If

jUk^i occur

in every foot, the verse will resemble >>-i


it

but the occurrence

of the foot

.i^U':-^, if only once in the poem, proves


J

to be

/Lo.
first

Thus the
verse of the

above example might be supposed to belong to J^J-

\ ,

but the
y P
-^

Kasidah

is

O-^^O-'

OXCy^)

X"

X^ --O ^

1^

t^,^ ^

where the foot ^l^U:;^ occurs once in each hemistich.

VAEIATIONS IN J^lLjl^^.

333

OC^O^
JO^

Oi"

--^i"

Of

^^J'

o^

^^ 9

t,

py

o^

.'

o ^

-i

>

i.

^ ^^

334

ARABIC GRAMMAR.

p y^<^/.

EXAMPLES OF ^ji^\

335

i^
O

>^1^%

<3

i
1

^
^

Q
o
03

_j.\

s^

\
^j

^3

l-i^
\

ill
1^

-^

J-

, .

336
?o^

ARABIC GRAMMAR.

fJcJ

and

sJs^ are

allowed in this metre.

XX
where
2.
all

but the ^^^^^ and

tl^

suffer ^Ijl.

cJ::

i^

XX
i^

^^

O9

^^

^^
X

where
rox

all

but the
*
'

cl/^I^

suffer lJb^.

Jox

(V^j j^j
1.
(^^r^
:

^^^ V^ and

-^

X-p^ (*j^ also occur.

Ji

i"

o-o

XX

f f

xxo-o

-ix

Here the
and the
^.
j

first

foot suffers

X,X

^'i^^cll^
,

becoming

^,l^xl^

in J,lc is doubled

by

poetical license,^iijT ijjji

I^^>-M)

OXO

*'tS

XX

>

^xcxx'gi

Here the
first ;t

first foot

becomes J^\i

dropping by j:^ the

and

fifth
*

of i.L^ll^

X X

3.

Here
J-ill,

in the first foot J,lf/

is

of the measure
first

^pSt

for

formed by dropping the

and seventh of

"^^sSsC*.

VARIATIONS
4. (.j^

EST

^J-^l^pT.

Q 37

Where
verse,

the word '3H\ occurs at the boginning of the


is

and

over and above the ordinary

number

of feet

by the

licence called

^^,
*

see p.

305 (and Errata).


o>
.

Instances of

<._

22

OOO

OQ

AEAEIC GRAMMAR

i""!)

-(J

73

d
c;4

CO

r3
ID

> O

o
\3
^J

<

o
<\

V)

.-^^
1-1

1)

l^

C3

^^
^

f'<St<

EXAMPLES

O'E

y:^)\

^",9 OOt

ta

^y

-S.-^
\

1^

>

VARIATIONS IN j^) j^^.

111

The

first

and second CSjs of the

first

^^ may be used
;

alternately in a

poem composed

in the rejez metre

but

as the verses consist of a series of


distich is

rhyming

couplets, each

an instance of

f-;.^" (see p. 317),

and the

,^^yi

and L_^ of the same verse should therefore alwa5^s agree


thus in the opening verses of the Kitab
es

Sddih

tv^cl

Bd^im'.^

*'

<5

O ^

^UaJl^P

C-O^
^

-^

y 9

4 Wj
o

u.^^
.

J -^-^^
x-

4^ J

^^^^
\

cr^l^

^^-^

J-^

^ ^o-o^

-'O-'O

-^<^*

>* -^

J^l^^_^iill^yl
i^

J^l;

-Jl

tl/^J-X^

;__J^^XJ

Jj^J'*

_J

(J/J^S^j
o ?
t,^

a.

'-

where the tl^


,2;^,

is

sometimes

,J.^:liLJ,

with or without
^J^*-'?!*,

^,

or

JIX

(see table, p.
.

310), sometimes

and sometimes
such a licence
*

(J^.jJ

Eejez

is

the only metre in which

is

allowed.

series of

Fables and Aphorisms in verse, by Ibn

el

Uibblriyeh,

342

AEABIC GRAMMAR.

EXAMPLES OF

J<^51

43

U ^
S
-,

r>
</3

^
J

x^
X

>

\^.

^-^

-/

..^

M
P4
-ej X X :=^

1-,

I^^J

X_J

XJ

-^J

Ix-

T
a ?
^1^
X

O
M

O
(.1

3-

Mi
Of
1
^ p
ifo

ARABIC GRAMMAR.
^

the
^^

i-Jl:>-jj

,2r^> <^j

^^^

J^

occur.

"T

y'

'TO''

In the

j^-aL* c_->H.^.

u
In the

c:;^%^

c;^%^

cJ^^

c;i%li

,:r^%li

O^ ^

iT

o^

-^AW^ C_^-^.

51

''

.^

.f

c ^

i,

9 ^

2.

^:
>*

x>'

^
-;

UUi

l^

%^

'i^

[^'

^i-^li

c:.^^li

c^'^li

o.

lSw<j

c^

^5

o >?^

^Lii

cLLi

^%u

^ ^

-3

-o

VAEIATIOXS IN

J^J\^^.

345

And

5-C

of the <U-, ^Ip-

may

le

employed.

^li

^%li

^%li

J^li

^^li ^iLli

346

ARABIC GRAMMAR.

H
(<

^\

O s

"i"^;

-S'i^

?""-'

o J

-I

!l<!
^

->

\1D

Oi
r;i

^
o>

H H O H <
^'

"J

-J

348

ARABIC GEAMMAE.

The

o ^

S^

licences allowed are

1^^

j^, and jl>>.

-"

OP

-'p

c^

t/j"

--

op

^9

op

^^

In the 3rd ^If-,


O^O ^o
.

o-*

^OP

O^'O-'O-'

(j

f-'

opo^op

oPO^oP

In the 4 th j^^.
^

c^ o I

Oi'P-'

0P0--0^

OP

^y

>'.'

-'

^ ox

'-

oS^"

OP^x

PO--OP

OP

^P

2.^:
o ^
-^

^.^

C5

O-'

^XO*'

^y

^ ^

53-0

VAEIATIONS IN

^^\j=^,'

349

TO

.'
*

3.

J-^
_

oy y y

s^ ^

''

s
-'

py^ y
...

y^ y
I

J^jiT^.
^icli

.^
^-Axi

>=r.

^y
c;^^

-'-

t>^^

d^ d^

350

ARABIC GRAMMAR.

EXAMPLES OF

Lj^S
-I

351

-I

CO

'^*^

.V3

'1

a.
o
GO

^'l ^^J

^:1
">

^^=

-N

?^

-6%
:-.
\3

U
^

;l
n

o.\
'^'J-

r<

852

ARABIC GRAMMAR.

The

licences whicli occur are "^^^ ,

and J^i. but


,

^
_

cannot be used in the second and third


in the
first.

^'yf-^

and ^CX

must not be employed

Si.-'

1.

^j^

X i?

X ^

"

^^jyjcl^

LiSiy6

J^^

J^^

(-::j^_j*i

j^Ia^

In 2nd

X 9^ ^^/i.
O
>

^^t/o

^^

In 3rd

ij^^^^

VAEIxiTIONS IN

j^^\

j=s^..

oDd

z.lU.
O^^
y''

y^-' ^

jLai^

C;^J.Jti

^^^^

,.I.riu..w<

Cl^^iUi

^jJ^

23

354

ARABIC GRAMMAR.

EXAMPLES OF

1,

u_a-.;;Ls:'

355

3.56

ARABIC GEAililAR.
JO
-'

Licences: ^^<^,
1.

(^, and

JsLi.

1^^

is

allowed in the Jots. and

tl^,

as well as in

the body of the verse, as


,'C/x

Oi'^-'

O?

^y

r^9 ^ ^

y^

X-y^O

-^

^(Jtj^^i^c; ^^-^^
c?^
CJ^*
o^
-^^

O^^
11'

-^

J,t^

In second
9 ^

tl^

of the first J^^j^u)

^ O ^

''

4.''

^o^

*y

^ ^o-o

^
OC^
i^Lts

L5="J^
o'^
i^'Lcli

^^JJ
O?^ ^ j^^^li

^Ij:?^^
O?

V.^^J
OC-

O-'O^ O? jJ _i:i^.

CO^
_i::>A<*^

^jj^rli

l*^

-'

o^

-i

o5

sM
^

y cr?
-'Isli

9^9 ^'lij"
P

Pl^

"

L
^

>-/.i I)

O^O

C^ O

J_ix,,*

CJlcli

3.

/iLi:
^

oy ^

1^9

"

''

'

CxO

ylcli

J?-U^

^jJ'Lr'i

;!.

VARIATIONS IN
o

t-iJ^irl

,:sr

357

<7

f^-.x*lj

also occurs in the first lIj^J:

^j\j^\ L-J

\j^\

^j,^

L'^

U^

*i:>-J^j<_>

l_Jlijj

^jirr.

^;.'IcIj

becoming

^^ij^i-^

in the

cl^.

353

AEABIC GEAMMAR.

VAEIATIONS IN

cjLi^l^^.
o y
I-'
''

OOU

In

this

metre the

^_s

and

of the foot ^^-fl^* cannot


is

both be retained at once.

This rule

called ^j^^*.

In the verse given as an example above, the


pressed
;

is is

sup-

an instance of the suppression of the


^ -o p

o5^ c ^ X

where the

ji.;^

suffers

i-Icf

jki)

and

C^

occur.

sU^

*Lj

i^LuJt_^A

ill

jj~o

the (t;Lcll^ of the

first foot

becoming ^^U.

^^^

i^9

^y

L,9

9*^-^

3G0

ARABIC GRAMMAR.

YARIATIONS IN

^:x^^T .:^

301

In this metre the


"be

i_J

and

tlio

of

c:^*i'.ti.

cannot both

retained toofethcr.

In the example the

has hcen suppressed by

"'^Ir

The following
the

is

an instance of the

dropping

of

They

are only very rarely

retained

togc.'tiiei-,

as in

the verse:

l.''^
j\x:Ji^

^ 9U

<-

^<^

<^

d^j*xLi
^
-'

^^xx:,^.^

Cl^ift.^>^

''

P O -^

V C-

'(_

c A^i-iJ^

and ^.^^-i^l are of very rare occurrence

in

classical poetry.

362

ARABIC GEAMMAR.

N <1
4

.q^
\
1.1

'

JL)

H
ft

NJD
<

-\

o
ft

1^

W H

L'-b

li

o
\

J.

y i^pu^

EXAMPLES OF

3G3

n O

D
>^,

"^3

V.

11
o

^^

-^

U
^_5
o
-.A

."^

^
^
V

t"^
P4

i1-

'1

-:?'

J
X-

-i

364
This metre
the
first is

ARABIC GEAMMAR.

very rarely used in

its full

form as in
?

example.
licences are allowed

The following

^^,

k-ai,

and

-'

e;r^

^^'Lxi

;^?^

j^^'ljLJ

jjS ?;^-^*

2.

^i^:

3.

jil^

in the first

and third

foot

^L^\^
^^%lj

?JU^^

^^J^^
^3%li

C<iJ^l

J^U^

J^li,,

also occur?,

but

if the C-jJi suffer ij^^'tlj, it

may

not suffer ,2r^

also.

An

example of

this licence is
Ci-O'
-^

5^

--

^^

VAEIATIONS IN

^^'

where the cl^

is

sometimes |[^%li and sometimes

|^Jj*I*

I (

3G6

ARABIC GRAMMAR.

^^.
ns-

^"^.
a

.-\..

^^1

<

r^
I

Ph 1^
I

H w H

"3

;:

^
3
o
J

K1

^1
--,

,2^

r^

^3,

pa

u H
O a

'3

T.

S <
it;

EXAMPLES OF

367

'?

"J

v^

']

v.:^s
\

"0

-J
<;

o
CO

^3

'>^

W
&^

"J

'J

"b

;3

n o
la

H'^

:.

^-s,

y-

W
^')

oil

:>
C-)

111
->

>

"

08

AEAETC GRAMMAR.
5 c is t_J;i.sr*
'.

When

the

cl^

the

^j^^y^

may

also

suffer

the same modification, so that there

is

an alternation

between ^^xi and

^
K,

thus

O/'^

i^f?^

^99'

1^

9 9

i,9

9^

99^
J_ji

i^

j*i

^^x^

J^.O

J_j.o

J^

J^'e

J^

C/^''

L,

''

1^9 9

^99-'

C^-*

\^9 9

O/C^
^^!_jxi

99^
J_j

J*-*

j^!_ye

J_j.o

J^.O

Jxj

Jj*i

4_J^'

occurs as a variation in the metre.

J^li
OP^^

jU^
9 9:^

4^^ji

jl'j
P ^

J^
9

w>l-u*i

jl^:*

jlsl

9^

99^
J^xi

99^

9 9 y

J^*i

J_jxi

Jj.<e

J^.o

J^

J^

Jjxi

SC'^

iTc^

J.J

and <y may

also

be used.

1.

^
<^9

o C

py

9^

1^9

9'

oy

9-'

i.

9y

9^

09 9^

O / o^

<Jy^

Jy^ Jy^

J^:'
fii'st

Jy^
foot is

Jy^'

J^^i Jl>6

where the

"^J^.

VArjATIONS IN t__JjlO]^^.

SG9

2.

f):

Jy^

J)^

Ji'^

J^^

'-^

J>^
Jjo
.

J^

J*^

wlicre the first foot

is

24

370

ARABIC GEAMMAR.

EXAMPLES OF

CJ.1.>^^1

o^l Oi

372
There
foot
is

ARABIC GRAMMAR.
a modification of this metre, in which every
c

becomes

^-1^

the effect of this

is to
it

make
is

the verso

consist entirely of long syllables,

and

then called

i^\j^\

J^

drops from the


naktis.''^^

spout,

or

^^iv^\ ^^-J

"striking the

The following
C'v. t

is

an example

A wooden board suspended by

chains and beaten, to serve instead of bells, in

Chri&tian churches in the East

bells

having formerly been prohibited.

373

SECTION II.THE EIIYME.


DIFFERENT KINDS OF RHYME.

(203).
last

The

Lili, or

Ehyme,

is

comprised between the

'

two quiescent
five

letters of a verse.

There are

kinds of Lili, distinguished by the

number
last

of vowelled letters

which intervene between

the'

two quiescent
Name of Rhyme.

letters, viz.

371
U,
s

ARABIC GRAMMAR.
(pronouns), unless preceded

by a long vowel,

as

11^ and --j^.


If the
as long,
lli'i

end in a vowel,
it

this is

always considered
;

whether

be written so or not

when

it

i^fethah,

the the

is

usually written, but with kesrah and

dhammah

and

are not often expressed.


.

This additional

letter of prolongation is called iJ^


t_5

may

take

s"

after

it
^

for its

^, as ^lL

for

^y^^vowel

AVhen the pronoun

following the Cs^j

has

its

so pronounced, the letter understood is called '^ij^


t^ij; is a letter of

prolongation coming before the


?

^^,

as the

\ ,

and
\

^
it

in the words 111

j^^'

>

jrr-f"

-1^

U"

is

an of prolongation coming before the ^^j but


,

separated from

by a consonant, which is called J-^- J


.

as in

the words Jw^l, JjI^

The

J-ri- j

may

differ in

every verse.

(205).

VOWELS OF THE

Lilj

J"^
oll3 is

is

the vowel of the Jc.j, which becomes long


.

by

the addition of the il^

the vowel between the letter

of the pronoun

when

it

occurs as <LLp and the ^tr^is

1^ J

the vowel immediately preceding the ^^j, as

the kesrah

t_f j^--j

cClns

the vowel of the J.-^^

when

the Ls}^

is

^^*,
and

as the kesrah in jijIj, ^l-^.


^'i^ is the

vowel of the

letter

preceding the
the fethah^

lIjJ;,

made long by the dhammah preceding


words
^i-o, j-^i",

latter,

as

kesrah,

and

the letter of prolongation in the

and^,-^.

'

POETICAL LICENCE.

375

In the ridf
the word S-^

and

may

interchange; for instance,

is

considered as rhyming with j^^s, and


.

c^U*
\

with ^-k
,

A similar interchange may take place


in the l^r^y are invariable.

in the 1^^^"

q-v.

as a j_5j,

and

fctliaJi

The ^ilj

is

called

dJilk*

when

it

ends in a vowel. ends in a consonant.


has a
(_Jjj. s t^ ^j-*--- 'u.

Ix^^ when
Iji^j^

it it
.

when

?'**
JLu-jy

when when

it

has a

i'j^-*

it

has neither.

lS^
(206).

faulty eiitme.
is

Any

departure from the preceding rules

called

ZJ^ "a
jlL;

fault."

The Arab

writers on Prosody

enume-

rate the following

making an improper interchange


j-.5>-^
,

of vowels in the

fV~'') or j_v^ yq-v.).


o^-?^*

^\^\

changing the

H^\ substituting a cognate consonant for the JfjJ.


*TLj1

repeating the same word as a


of a

rhyme

in the course

poem

unless at least seven verses intervene.

1^
c^-'^^

so connecting a verse

with one that follows that


not complete until the

^ ''\^\
y

the meaning of the

first is

second be heard or read.

Every verse should

contain a distinct and intelligible proposition.


i

-.3

fy'

? ^

j^\
(207).

'ij^ja

POETICAL LICENCE.

The only
is

poetical licence

which

is

considered not

to be a blemish

that of

making an imperfectly declined

376

ARABIC GRAMMAR.
declinable, as in the
this is

'

noun

example on
is,

p.

103.

The reason

why
it is

approved of

the Arab doctors say, that


to its original state.

only restoring the noun

The Arab
in order to

poets do, however, as

may

be expected,

take frequent liberties with

grammar and orthography The meet the exigences of their metres.


liemzet el-katd into

following are the principal of these licences

Changing a

a hemzet el-wasl (see


ij
;

p. 13), as ^J'^y.

JU

for

^J'^^ Jit

j^\l

]^ 'ji^ f^

Throwing back the vowel of the hemzet el-lmtd when


so

changed on

to the preceding consonant, if that

be a

quiescent letter, as

^!^

for

1j^

y
;

Changing a hemzet el-lmtd


of prolongation, as
[Ji^\j

into the corresponding letter


t_^.<^ for

for ^j^\j

u^^,

etc.

Dropping the hemzet

el-Jcatd altogether,

as IkJ\ for

Vice versa., changing a hemzet el-ivasl into a hemzet


laitd. as

cl-

^r^\
of C<
,

for

^^
.

..

The

when

interrogative,

is

frequently omitted,

as M ^j,^ lor

U .^:^

Other and more violent licences, such as the lengthening a short vowel, or vice versa
;

the improper use of the

tenwm and

teshdid ; the suppression or insertion of vowels,

and the abbreviation of syllables, need not occupy the


student's attention, as they occur comparatively seldom,

and are nearly always noticed in the commentaries upon


the poems in which they are found.

APPEN^DIX.

GLOSSAEY OF TECHNICAL TEEMS USED IN


AEABIC GEAMMAE.
A:>-{i\

accordinc: a full licence.

Jlr^l units.
9

^ o i

''

^\s^]
j^UjJ^

inchoative, subject.

<JLi\ S:~ t

anything that has hap-

Jk^J

commencement

pened.

of a certain period of time.


iXrsri

jL^ll
t_$-A!

enunciative.

alphabet (arranged in nu-

b 5^cA!1 j^jL:>^1!1 expressthe quality of a thing

merical order).
(J
llo.'!

mg

by

causing a grammatical action

means of the conjunctive adjfctive o'^-^^

to cease to take effect.


y'^

^i O-O/'' 0'

i;^L^\aLij\ forms implj'ing


tensity.
5, 'if,
. .

in-

d.5:ull
i.e.

d.-^^

the

.?.s^<?r

of fethah,
\

the homologous letter

CU.M apposition, sequence.

U^'
J..sr*^^

\ ownership, speciality.

cLji apposition according to


* ^ t

\j^
^_^ui>-l

4_>

the last letter in

the context.

the alphabet.
especial.

Jl^l
cJ-

relation of connexion.
in

~\A^\ <LI>-1

answer

to

^IS i.::j1^1 the verbs mentioned on p. 2 12.


>lii-\
occultation
;

tentative question. ^ o i
^-.i:?-i

a dull pro-

extraneous

anj' part of a

nunciation of the j^.


{,^jx::ii
\

])roposition

beside the antece'ii\S\

dent (subject or agent), the com-

the article, particles,

plement of a verb or an adverb


of condition.
_5:5-l
I

etc.,
^1 ""-I A.\.y\
,

which render a noun definite.


. .
.

insertion, assimilation of two

hollow.

* letters.

378

AEABIC GHAMMAE.
?

^ o o

^i

Xllj^

insertion

with nasal

A\3j^\
XJlkiL^'l

expressing disdain.
extension.

sound; suppression of the (j before J, t^, or ^, which are then doubled, but a slight nasal

ij\xx^\ metaphor.
^_fj\jc^\ metaphorical.

sound
iiP

is still

heard.

i ^ o

^xc ^J /liJ^ suppression of the


before ^ and
loss. O ^
,

^
Lj lxx-;\ indicating the employment
of means, instrument, etc.
^litj.-;].

J which are then doubled to compensate for the


-'

^o-o

S "^
as-

elevation.
aid.

similation of the last quiescent consonant of a word with a

aJ \jc.J\ calling for


i^

homogeneous letter commencing


the following word.

jCm-:].

being absolute and com-

plete (a negation, etc.).

^-h^\ L5^^^
letter

j^lijWssimilaeluding
all

tion of the last quiescent consonant of a word with the same

the individuals of a

species, in a natural sense.

beginning the next word.


\\\s.^

ij^\
all

^\.^=>'

o'j^\

similation of the last letter, even

including

the properties of a

when not quiescent, withahomogeiicousletterbegiuningthenext

species, in a metaphorical sense.


Jljcj-j).

depression.
interrogation.

woid.
^Li:;--:],

^J^:^ Jtji:4
\

(li^i-^J^

assimilation
JUii.^-^], future.
t_jlli:j-jj.

of the last letter, even when not quiescent, with the same letter

beginning the next word.


i'lrs-U^
\

introducing a

new

pro-

position independent of the pre-

\^\ the word L^Uignify-

ceding.
<L-Lj\ (consonants)

ing something unexpected. ^\,-y\ _>

formed with the

J\

the four increments,


\,

tip of the tongue.

^J and ^, used in forming the inflexions


the letters
,
,

CU

S o,

*^\ noun or pronoun.


i'

of the aorist.
Jliia-:]. difficulty of pronunciation.

iLi

w], demonstrative pronoun.

dj

><-;],

noun

of instrument.

A..

)\

exception.
tj^ -:].

the nominative of the parj_m'


.

<jj\.ja-j|.

serving

to

retain

or

ticle

correct

what has been previously


>*U

enunciated.

A^\ perfect noun.

GLOSSARY
c-Si

0"F

GEAMITATICAL TEEilS.
J
*~:'

379
nominative of

"^

*"

jJ-.ii_:Jl

A-j].

comparative or su-

L:;^iib

<
,;

<J ^

"

perlative.
<)il?-

of a verb in the category of


(see p. 246). -o ^ o o
-C;
(

^h

-J],

concrete noun.

^^
CPlJ
(Loxs)

mJ\ collective noun.


*-;].

j,y^
\

.!.

noun of time and place.

real or concrete noun.

t^Axl

Ji numeral. '
1

*-j\

noun of
(*-^i

species.

real or e;:^^ (*-=! a Ox 0-0 > o

concrete noun.

"yt^:5-

t^=r

collective ge-

<L-wjL-XJ1 .-jI ' " r .

abstract

noun of

neric noun.

quality.
'X X ^
f

(^ICJ J ^;;^j-i^ X and place. '-So, i


\

'*--l
t

noun of time

<^k.]\^ *-cl

noun of exaggeration,

x-

intensity or excess.

^-.is

Jt^\

a real noun.

^^^

wl. a vague or indetermi-

k_^/j.jJl

^)x. w]_ possessive noun

nate noun, such as those on p.

or epithet.
xO.<3
P

285 (183).
j,\<z^
<-],

verbal noun, quasi-in-

J.liJ
_

-jj. agent.

finitive.
o c. -o Co. ^jjtij \ ^^J\

noun of

action,

-,<ii

^ 9

-So,

Jk.^.-*

^o^o-o

^\
i O

diminutive noun.

i X O

S^iiU

j^\

noun of abundance.
of unity (of time).
--^

I implied or understood.

^-'Oo c o

^\^1

>*-ji

noun

noun, pronoun
-5

=j*a^
5-

o x ^ O

jju^\
r
>>

*;1.

c o. S o or jXji^Ij, j^J\ quasi-

i^t^
O
''

^y
X

ideal or abstract noun.

0-3

00

x/iO
and

infinitive noun. io jS s
.

j.- *-j\ an expression equivalent


to a noun. o P O/O-O
i*

noun opposed
particle.

to the verb

J^jtA/*]

^\ patient, passive par-

iJo-Ji
X X 0-*3
i'

-.'

noun
the

of unity.

X O

ticiple.
t_-J-u:.^^
o-ci

.Ijij^l

*l/-j\

demonstrative

-^^ (

noun

of relation.

pronouns.
Jljti^\ ^U.-;^ adverbs which per-

o>> o.

4:j1

w], noun of unity (of spe-

cies).

form

the

functions

of

verbs.

j!

w], noun denoting the vessel


is

in

which a thing
noun of

contained.
i.

^JiJS^~ Jl

accident,

q.

J Ju^/.

JjoJ\ *U.-.l

numerals.

S8U
0>
ijJ-J
X**
-^

ARABIC GRAMMAR.
-<^^o ^
^

ft..

Ls}^

^J^li

JL-A^ j^ ill nouns derived from numCT?

^"^

a construction

as

cpi

i.J

bers on the measure of the agent.


ttcjjju^

^ the Eiver Euphrates.

^
two

'U-jI imperfect nouns.

^}^\

proper

name formed

of

nouns in a
OU-sl^ relation of the subject to the

state of constniction.

attribute.
4_jJuj1^ a

iruJl^ fixing,?.^, giving letters their

proper vowels. proper name, consisting


i.e.

of a complete proposition, a subject and predicate.


5

of

jU^i
s
iilJ:>]

implying.
general.

J^l. being
see

U-i| in poetry, using a long for a short vowel (see also p. 374). a yo-'c^^ ^ ^c-o S ^ C
expressing the idea of agent and patient at the same time.

aJLL^

(J^^\ being absolute.

jl^l^ clear pronunciation. u_jy:| declension of nouns ing vowel points.


;

J 'v<e-l}
its

distracted or diverted from

add-

original object.

jU;i-i} enunciating an idea compiised in an antecedent proposition.

^|^|1 urging or exciting to the performance of an action.

'^r* J'^^
l*l.Kil^

inchoative verbs.

insinuating (the sound of a


t-r^-s''^!
is

vowel which

JlxJl

verbs signifying

not written).

wonder.
;j^i^
1

As>\\^\ technical or conventional


term.

jUii

Verbs

of sense

or

s
\lk^l technical,

feeling.

f
J-tfi root

V^
'

JUil
J

inchoative verbs.

(vrr^'y

C^^Il Jlxil

verbs im-

iX^'^ radical,
t^-^Lsl radicals.

plying doubt or certainty.


(.-^LLI!

JUil

verbs denoting a
o'<

Jj-tfl roots, principles.

mental process.

^y

surd verb

= j_CL doubled.
state

StS '"'

J OS

oS

JUil,

.^ t-JJiJl JL-oi.

i.ZJ\ya\ interjections.

j*jjlj

^^1 JUil

verbs of praise

^"^\

connexion,

and blame.
of con-

struction of

two nouns.

^j^U^n JUil approximate

verbs.

GLOSSARY OF GRAMMATICAL TERMS.


s^
^
r

381

^<-5

9<i-0

'L^\j

^^\!t^\

incomplete verbs,

%.q^.

J-,.ciiJl

^x:\ the form

^^\ when

signifying

comparative or su-

perlative (as distinguished from

the same form in the sense of colour or deformity).


9 iXj-rO

-'OS

see c ^A.^
f'-'i-

c_i..,^^l.J\

c^al^^

a formula em-

ployed to express an unusual concordance between the verb

and the agent when the former agrees in number with the latter, in violation of the rules given on
p.

180 (101).
i,j>~\

A abbreviation for
etc.

^\

/i^-^\ adhesion, propinquity.

^\x^\ depriving
its

(a verb, etc.)

of

grammatical influence.
(_ii\

Lx^]

the

added

to a

word

to express grief, complaint, etc.

i'J-i.^

<._

^j^

isolated

///",

t.^'.

if,4-.2Ji-

IaJ^ short

?/,

the ter-

mination

^,

see p. 74.

itJJjJv^K^ t-jjJl

long
.

?/,

the ter-

mination

*|

882
)

ARABIC GRAMMAR.
y

?0**0
\

o^o-o
^

^^

JilJ

^^ i^V^ J^'
Jja

substitution

<UxiJ dual.

of part for the whole.

LUi\

substitution

correcting

Jj>sr constant renewal. Si ^^

despoiling

a word of

its

a former statement.

i ^\
substitution

grammatical influence on

i^\

jj -sT /

what

follows.

cKJ^ Jj^

enunciating the same idea from


a different point of view.
^JJ^

^Lw^vrsT'

being homogeneous,

allit-

eration, a pun.

uJl^^ ^^

J'^J

substitu-

^^Ja^sr a gentle request


vitation.

or in-

tion of the article to express the

idea of the second of two nouns in a state of construction.


_) Jd a rhetorical figure.

j^^sP

to express disdain.

'i'j^\ ^-A2sC"
full value.

giving the hemzeh

its

_jjj\ *Lc rhetoric.

*UJ indeclinability.
j^Lj explanatory adverbial complement.
CLi

t-jLi.^ making

light,

writing a

single for a doubled letter.

(_iJiJ a

series of distinct

words

indicating one and the same object from the same point of

S^

9
.

<y

" j\j

view
the termination Cl^.
*^-J-'

synonyms.

}V

,,,

compassion.
hope.

^jij^

^\j

the termination

iJ.
,3

^u

J^-''

appositive.

/r

o'

**rJ-

J cutting
word,

off the last syllable

ju^\j corroboration, emphasizing,

of a

as

Jti*

,j].

for

making

energetic.
tl,<}C. 'Ji\:

See p. 200 (114).


letter, etc.) first.

X^lj perfect or attributive verbs.


.'Jkij

putting (a

iJ:^
Lj-J

\j

feminine.
j*r{/ / writing

the numerical

(a

negation)

completely

^
s

effacing the idea of the existence

cyphers in ordinary use.


.
.

>'-

of the thing denied.

i_^-S J composition, arrangement.


^^"^
*j
5-

^JJuxJ expressing a portion of a


whole.

J chaunting, intoning.
<-

^.

^^

distinguishing, explaining.

^..^"^ rhythmical prose.

i^-_W) making a letter quiescent.

GLOSSARY OF GRAMMATICAL TERMS.

383

|uj

J-f>MJ dropping or soften-

y.^
tive.
X xo-<3

spocificative or discrimina-

ing the hemzeh.

S9

^^

jjJk>U

adding

the

double a
itself.

letter.

mark -^ The mark

to
Jl.

J^\
"

imlijj^ inflexion, changing from

fluence of various antecedents upon their complements in one sentence; see p. 264 (1G6).

^l:J grammatical

in-

one form to another,

^1,^1:^ harmony.

^-x^" diminutive.
v_ ^ =^ admiration.
,

J,-liJ" making
[^jjxf
is

indefinite.

doubling a final vowel, which

2uXxj rendering

transitive.

then pronounced with a nasul


;

sound

see p. 6 (4).

jSxj impossibility.
_.''

appositives.

j\sxj numeration.

S ^ox j*-Sy corroborative.

f^jXj

hinting, innuendo, being

ambiguous.
(j-JjO leaving in suspense.
^_pt
*'t

S^ X LLij (a letter) having tesM'id.


S
x^

making

definite.

lySxj expressing the cause of an


event.

^^j

triliteral.

XX

-SJ

X
'

Lj abbreviation
lated to us."

for

Lj

Jjs-

he

re-

j^ki change.
S
~j^^ii^

_xi'

exposition (especially of the

^-sUj

biliteral.

Koran).
l:_

{JuJCi dilatation.

5"

-^

^
U)JJiJ" virtually.

abbreviation for

it-^:=^

plunil,

ox
virtual.

and in the Koran


lawful pause.
jl:?- preposition.

for

J-i\=^

3y. J^"

scansion.
xO-<3 ^ X o X

J^W XX
jjS^

LjAJ'

strengthening the in-

J. i^

J^ ^ preposition with

its

noun.

fluence of the antecedent.


repetition.

^*^^
jjl^
'^

primitive (noun)
permissible.
O *
P

O X

ijAJ hoping.

,^

abbreviation for

",jCij confii-ming.

plural of a plural.

384
iXstT denial, negation.
*\j!>-

ARABIC GEAMiTAR.
iiji^^y^ lUIJcLLk:?- proposition
of two phases.

compensation.

/^>- writing the


a letter to
quiescent.
<^J:>-

mark

that

above
it is

^-b^
tion.

<lL.^ conditional proposi-

signify

^Ji:

a_L4.:s-

adverbial sentence, or

the

mark

(see

^S^).

one expressing time or place.


<L-ixi
iLLt>:>-

y>- attraction, genitive case.


S
(^

verbal sentence or

j_/^
^-Au.CJ
O

plural.
fi

c^ o
!

-^

proposition. S ^ ^O S^ O P
"

J-'*^
,?

broken plural.
plural of a plural.

'*>-'

'^"if-^ 'U.->:s-

inchoative proposi-

^0*i^3
\

tion.

^-^s:
jJU:

^'^
f-'**=r
/

'U-i^l

^^>^

H'^ IL^^r

sound

or

regular

sentence

which" follows

the

^^-*

^--^J^

'

plural.

analogy of the adverbial sentence.

^^^\sr

Is. *_/>:?" plural

formed
letters

by the addition of two


(regular plural).
,j^*^^

^j-x^ i\u^^

incidental proposi-

tion, parenthesis.
wuA*

^-^s^ regular plural,


plural.

^j

^f--^*sj

SjujS^ <U./^ pro

position interpreting the pronoun

y^S^ f-'*^ broken


^_LaJ
1

which stands
act predicated.
J-fi

for the thing or

^.^*^ plural of paucity.


being simultaneous (the

O''

S
**

<^
I

<L*_c.^^
<L-.^^?-

<u_^*j-

qualificative pre-

position.
..0

actions of several verbs).

,,'99

^Jj F^J'*^ plurals of paucity.

<LL^^ sentence, clause, proposition.

..''"-^

9^9

ij^ ? ^'^ plurals of abundance.

L:j[^\ <lL^
position.

enunciative pro^u*:5>-

gender.
response, apodosis.

t_-?^jj>-

X.-.^-j\

^lL*^ nominal
^Sas>-

proposition.

^^\
&^)\JLj\

c-J^.:>-

apodosis of a com-

productive

pro-

mand.
>-uJiJ
1

position; one expressing volition,

or originating something.
<L.Jl*- <LLir>- proposition express-

c->l^:?- apodosis of

an oath.

^ylJ s-J
\

\^ apodosis of a condition

ing a state or condition.

or hypothesis.

GLOSSARY OF GRAMMATICAL TEEMS*


f

kJOO

H y 'C-O
\

y 1^%

s\jeM)\ jU:>- tte liberty of cmi^loy-

n.xi^

^\\s\ accusative, express-

ing
*;!=-

^\jii\

qv.

ing a state conceived of as being


present at a future time.
^C
c^<3

words which require the


a verb to be in the

<^

aorist of

future particle.
'

apocopated mood.

^j^\

<

J/=^ the particle Jj when


y

9 ^

j^

pronouncing clearly.

no opposition between the two propositions which it


tliere is

unites.
y o 1^.0
9
(

t^

^\-^V\
y y
<i-M^ls,

O"o
1

ijs- initiative particle. f L, y

pl.

i^r*'^ margin,
state,

gloss.

^jIL|x^-|

(__ip~ letter of prolonga9


(

JU-

circumstance,
;

or ad-

tion.
.'

verbial condition

present tense.
'

o o c-o

(j

/^jb.^-|l
tide.

j^5^ interrogative

par-

adverb explanatory
'

S y

or
f

'i-

-^

of condition.

t=_il:s-c.^-|

'^y=^
ij

particle

intro-

/
9

JS y

S^

ducing a fresh proposition.


o;;j-.o

-it's-

?
(

ifJ>^--

J^s^ adverb corroborative

*^-'^-."J^

J^
(

particle of removal. particle

of condition.
i_i-tf^J

o;*J-<?

? ^ y

k-_.--.J^\

5^5^

of

se-

^iLl*::^M

Jlr^ adverb

quence or gradation ('^).


particle enunciating

of the condition of that

which

is

accessory to the thing qualified.

a cause.
L_j*s-*.n

Jl^>-

condition of the

<-C)

-.3

thing qualified.
<Ljys>- accident. S 9 9 C_?j A;^ coming into existence (an
act).

j^sc^X I!/>w ^tJ-*^


P
^-f

expgetlcal or ex-

planatory particle.
y

Ictter of dilatation.

.i^-A\
-"J-

>-

particle of proxi-

''ii^s>-

apocopation.

mity.
O'Cj-^

tf

'jL^r.].

^A:>-

violent suppres-

yj:^\

^J-

Ictter

of repetition
t

sion.

{j rd).
particle, letter.

iip^
5 \-Jx:^\

-7-

particle of hope,

(_J^ particle of exception.

...II

Vj^Ai^!^ J^-s^ accusative, expressing a state present at a past time.

particle of warning,

or calling the attention.

j=^

ij=>-

preposition.

25

3SG

AEAEIC GRAMMAR.
expressing

^^^jTuJ^

particle

'"^"^^J^
i\3ll^^ >tr^
ST)s

^o^^tive particle,
]
)

esnectation. hone hope or expectation.

interjection.
J;- particle of

^^

iiy>- particle of restriction

(^^j>-

response and retribution.

L-J^
tide.

compeUative par-

J.^

v>- disjunctive

particle.

z.d\\ iij^>- particle of repulsion

lSjZ>- vowel.

J^ t_J 5^ particle of reprimand


(__jj?- conjunction.

<LJl:j

dJ^

vowel of indeclina-

bility.
(__;..- letters, particles,

l?-*]^

'Lr="

conditional particle.

XjU!^^
tion,
^

Ji.- particles of
.e.

annexa-

prepositions.
9 9 9

^^^^

uJf-

soft letter.

^ -O

i^\,=s:rV\ i_J.rS-

letters

of

de-

^Jd^ 't;^

particle of complaint.
flection

(J andj).
P 9 9

<U^ uJp-particle of comparison.


Loj-J^ 'ir"
pai'ticles of respite

^o o-O
,lio1\

'-^Jy=^

particles of disap-

probation.
jl:sr^^ ^

(uJj-o and (j^).

<

j..=*!

affirmative par-

tides.
ditional,

partitive,

and corro-

0>'C'-^

P
I

9 9
j,

borative particle.
y_
n

J_\J^ U y^y
^
in>

=
o

perrautative letters.
sjj

-o

>

u-

j;- conjunction.

particles
'

^j

!:X

uJ^^

particles

which

of inciting or invitation.

fluence the sense.

^JLs^j\

i_J;=^ particles express-

f^,Ji^ i^js- particles which put

ing conviction.
.S's^\

^words in the accusative.

^^j=^
-o
I

particles expressing

STlijf

li'p(

the

two

initiative

the act of recalling to mind.


o-5i

particles

Jj and ^^-)-

;.'

A^J\
OtS -0

J./5- particles exnress-

C)\j>^^ ^/=^ the two corrective


^

ing assent.
9 9 9

particles (JJ

and

^^)

J-^LciH k-Jj5/=^ causal particles.


k_i/=- prepositions.
9

jU^|\
'

J ^=ry-^^

^^^

the two

j^^
J,

particles of "hope and apprehension.

9 9<Y ^>.s:\ (_Jj-s'\ prepositions.

^^o-O

GLOSSARY OF GEAiliTATICAL TERMS.


^jks\ t_J.^ prepositions,
cles
C-Ji

387

parti-

(-^L^-JbJl

^i-^>.

real feminine.

which put nouns in the


9 9

genitive. -O 9

lx:>- direct narration.

(J^-^\

iJ*j=>-

letters articulated

^uJu Jlsw <L;LC:N-nan'ating apast


circumstance as though
present
^^V-t j^\
;

with the extremity of the tongue and lips.


o ^ 0-0
f P 9
(

it

were

historical present.

(J^^
Jo
^

Jj .-

guttural letters.
servile letters or in-

olxs-

direct narration

of a past imperative.
.

'J

i__J r=^

cL-.iJ.:>.

crements.
'*J

guttural.

^ O

>'

L .-iJl <**P^
i

conditional particles.

t'u^sa*- guttural.

-O

99

-.i-^Jl J^

4_5^^r- sibilant letters.


9 9 9
s-

^^-o- predicate, attribute.

conjunctions,
> w\Ji/*Jl

-.iM the predicate placed

weak
9 9 9

letters.
first.
J'
>

O y'O-O Px ^ o -^
^

short letters.

__?.^:.^S

-^^

the predicate in

the accusative.
dliiljij
1

or d-iliil^

i^jZ^

trembl-

So'
Jji>- genitive or

ing or clacking
o^
-<:>

dependent

case.

letters.
Ii2,ht

9 9

^^-111

t_i.y>- soft letters.

without

tesM'ul.

\J^
<A^
1

U.^

quinquelitcral.

t_Jj->- letters of prolongation.


letters

^J/

used in

the formation of the aorist.


.^/J
\

J abbreviation for Jkb name of town" (in Geographical works).

i^tjS- the alphabet


'

(ar-

_J J

continuation of the discourse,

' ranged in the Arabic order), rang(

the opposite of w_iJ

0-0

9 9

the alphabet,
s
9 9

UJ

precative.
*J,^J principal forms.

'-

s-

conjunctions,
short letters.

c_J^.jiIl

gi^\

i. j>- -a

^ ^Uaji

deprecative.

9 9

i\^\
jJs^js^

JJ'^jJ the Indian cyphers, the


numerical cyphers in ordinary use, the Turkish handwriting (also abbreviations of the Arabic names of the numerals employt'd by Indian and Persian merchants

'i'j^ vocative particles.


*-_;l.uA=.-

reckoning by the
letters.

numerical value of the


)ass^

memory,

i.q^.

1^^^

analogy.

and accountants.)

3S8

ARABIC GRAMMAR.

L.iJi (letters) formed by movement of the lips.


S
'

a raDid

abbreviation for J^jsT* a tolerated

pause (in the Koran).


i^Jo^j pleonastic, servile (letter).

/j

blame.

Ax.

J\j3
ji

quadriliteral (vcrb^.
triliteral (verb).

(^Uj

tense, time.

Xj^iill

X-JLSj J liquids (letters).

"^
I

quiescent

(letter)..

J
*jL: sound.
iLk)^^

bond

(a conjunction).

c^lS
gib J
quadriliteral.
as

cause

the

noun serving
to

complement

the

adjec-

tive in such a construction as


^lr>-^ feebleness (in

tbc pronunciaisS>-^\
u;-"-"^^

tion of a letter).

^y^J

'

jji^
_.j

'I:^ decidedly feeble letter.


for
<)iS^

~,_ relating
:

to the cause.

<;

-'

abbreviation

''^'^^

j-^-' rhythm.
i2,C: the

"may God
him

have mercy upon

mark

showing that a

!" used in speakiojj of those

letter is

quiescent

who

are dead.
i.q.

quiescence

^\Ji\

'^y^

of a letter (see ^'f^')'


q-v.

t_^J.j

a privative sense.
irregularity,

r^\

>-ji

punctuating

and
cIjLj

absence

of

vocalizing the Koran.


f

analogy.
-^

o ^ ^X-*o /
oJJ
1

<!L5j

abbreviation for ^Ui

"May God
him!"

be satisfied

^^^j with

,~_::U-j irregular.

dSJl^

(j--j!

pronouncing the

CJ

^1

as (jw.

nominative or subjective case,

indicative mood.

J^ju>^

pJ

the ordinary numerical

-J
,

jli) pi. <i^yi>


^ji-lij

rare,

uncommon.

cyphers.
that which distracts or di-

AjM

insinuating the sound of a


in pronunciation
little

verts a

word from

its

original

vowel
is

which

grammatical influence.

not written; fa
|Ui)l ).

stronger

than

C Uj

state, accident, i.q. ^Usi.

GLOSSARY OF GEAIilMATICAL TERilS.


ijxlj]

SSO

ti-wi)

assimilated to (analogue

of) the verb.

iL_^^

a^-w)

analogue of the plural.

S'

-3

<"

abbreviation

for

^ja^j.%,

"^Ujt5<-j]. tLwi)
1

analogy in use.
analogy in having

pause that is allowed if necessary


(in the
'O-^O
9

' ^.

5<^

J^jUbij.

cU^

Koran\
-^

need of a proposition to complete


the sense.
"Jl,4^i (Lwl analogy of omission.
Csy^x^'*

<^^ analogy
JO
iLjj

in sense.

o^

"xJj

analogy in primitive

formr

jS^
S
<i

the point where the

two max-

illaries

meet.

y y
(letters)

<^'-i,jsr'

formed

m the upper
the

cavity of the

mouth between
,

tongue and the palate.


J
O X

{^'^SL'^

person.

i:i^ strong pronunciation.


o ^

i^j^^

'^l ':?"-'

decidedly strong pro-

nunciation. S o^ -i commentary.

^j^ conaiuon,

390
j>

ARAETC GRAMMAR.
x^o
?

co-o
\

S
plurals of
i.e.

c ^/.^J

yi:^^ '^-*r?^

--_o P .^JLU^

<^^y

.^^

detached pro-

the last form of i)lural,"

of
?

noun representing the nominative case.


,''

the form "(4)

X3)f (2)^(1).

p<^

j^^^-*

t'^^.a:^

jr^^

detacht-d

U^
?-s '
>-tf

pronoun representing the accusative case.

writing the vowel

^J the
,

^o

jj-iii^^.

detached pronoun.

vowel
c
^
rr-;>*

itself.
1.

pronoun.

J^C ^
j_^l>^Sl^-4>tf

pronoun of the thing

L)

abbreviation for

^IL^

an abso-

or idea (the s added to ^\).

lute pause (in the Korliu).


^_^^I!^

expressing desire.
expression of desire.

.jlsM
first

-j^

affixed

pronoun of the
-> 9

'L.-Ji?

or second person.
t-'ii

^\^\j0^
t^'-^rPP

i.q.

^\J!l^\j^^.
-fc'Ar

apparent (pronoun), pro-

J..J=AJ

,-^

the pronoun of sepa-

nounced.
I

ration.
j .1?

adverb.

^>^iJ

.-.4-J i^'.

j^LiJ\^*.^ (the
i^UjJ^ ^ ^l.C*J^ u-Jyl? adverb of
^^\
).

pronoun
jj\i j.;^

added to

time and place.


,^tJ
(

an expressed pronoun.

J^

adverb of time."
adverbial predicate in

J^i?j^n

jel'

k^ju: y--4-^ the pro-

noun that
tive noun.
;:x:Uu^

refers to the conjunc-

.xj

u_j^ an

a proposition
\

when the substan-

^^

pronoun hidden, or
innate
verb).
(in

tive verb i& is expressed.

S y

^ P

So^

s\i.,J^^
^izj.M^ j.^;^
Q..^-*
r,

the

Jb*u.^

adverbial predicate *tr' ^" in a proposition where the word


is is

jK^
.'

attached pronoun.
.-.4>i

understood.
of place.

O^ f

UPS
attached pro-

^\^t k_ji? adverb


^S
0-'

noun representing the nominative case.


7-'j'.2;>^

J^
aL^^

adverbial.

^wi:;^^ _.4^ attached pro-

indicating

adverbial

con-

noun represcntiug the accusative case.

dition of place.
i>J^ adverbs.

GLOSSARY OF GEAMMAIICAL TERIIS


p 9 O-^
<

391

O ^

>^j^\ Iaii apposition formed

t
((

by
-SJ

-o

particles. 7 o ^

c abbreviation for

-^y*

'

name
tion.
t>iii

contextual apposi-

of a place" (in Geographical

works).
ji\s. preterite.

the tens from 20 to 90.


cause,

iSs.

motive

in Prosody

^jc^iz accidental.

" defect."
grammatical

i^c

^ 1-

in a state of

dJ

.xi-J

^3 ^^ the connexion be1

conjunction.
jj.^l.

governing word.

tween a verb and complement.

its

objective

J^JbiJ J^\s.

grammatical regent.
contained in a

iLi-ill c:-;Llc signs of the inflexions

OjIc the pronoun

indicative

of

genders

qualificative sentence

the ante-

and numbers.
jX^ proper name.
^^AS. governance, regime.

cedent.
.- preterite.

,' . t'kv*^^

^z the quality

of being a foreign

il^
^_^IJ

the quality of being a pro-

noun.

per name.
foreign in origin.

jj\
_i,t

j-^

^
^'

irregular,

not

Lst^"^
*

OwJ -^O

"following the analogy of other


^ proper

-cJl

K^^^

name

of

words.

foreign origin.

jj^ui governing words.


5-31
--

d^s. number.
jjlj: deviation (formed

cLxU~o J-^

irregular governing

by

altera-

words.

tion from another measure).

'LJ^i

J-^^^-c

regular governing

JLas-

jAi

real deviation.
fictitious or con-

words.

Ji^jj~- -.r.

J A;:

iJiiJ J,1 grammatical regents.


<^..>^*^ J-:?^^ logical regents.

ventional deviation.

j2y:

offering, invitation.

* abbreviation
'*

for

/jLJI

aJji

LLJi\jtKS- tons.

Peace be upon him !"


recollection, calling to

t_ g'^

^-

apposition.'

ju^

mind.

j^l-J

i-_aLi explanatory apposi-

^?-,Ish\
cence.

Jk^'J^

external reminis-

tiuu.

392
/U^jjl J>^\

ARABIC GRAMMAR.
or ,^^J^\jJ\ Jv*^^

mental reminiscence. atal reminiscence,


the second letter of a
literal root,
tri^ \i

the first letter of a triliteral foot.

substance

Jc:ls agent.
a><>Lc.'j

the quality of agent.

^J
jIc aorist or future.
')\.

writing the vowel

^:s:\J the

vowel

the third person.

Jj
h\s. term, limit, extremity.

unit.

aL-^ i inflexions signifying genders

jUi. name of a particular form of


cypher.

and numbers.
J.xi verb.

j^

future.

~ .. .. ^ "^. i-_fi,-ib>--i

~^*
conventional, fictitious.

J'tj or

^^ J*i

indeclinable

verb.

;yi
tional feminine.

conven-

c-.yt^ Jji declinable verb.


I

.s.^^

jL.tJ

verb of wonder.

Jlj

.-i.

imperfect,

weak

verb.

b^l
^,ji!

Jjo

conditional verb.

-^

not neuter.
<*lj'

Jje

perfect verb.

SfC^-t

j^

intransitive.
J-ciJ separation,

^,x^l ^jj^C*:;,^ _x not susceptible


S-^iii

sentence, paragraph.
.

of variations and not very sus-

t-

ceptible.

^ then, at that time."


the j^ of the energetic

abbreviation for

and

^l-^^-i.

mood

of verbs

when an
it

alif
ri

intervenes between
last radical.

and the

abbreviation for J-j

contested

pause (in the Koran). s


s
^ *du*J
-jj
-r.

j-_^o-^ _*i not compound.


i J^

oath,

not derived

cUii relation, adventure, accident.


5 o
-;

2i^

-i indeclinable.

isjj

shortness.

^"j^i

intransitive or neuter.

abbreviation for

.V^ -J^

*i

?>

GLOSSARY OF GRAMMATICAL TERMS.


a pause, according to tlie authorities of the Kufic school (in the

o'Jo

Koran).
tLi-i

^ no pause (in the Koran).


'ij^^_,

abbreviation for

<^*

<kj\\.s:^

the negative particle

slight pause,

according to the

authorities of the Kufic school


(in the Koran).

when

it

has a second predicate


first

connected with the


v_ ^1j conversion, inversion, sup,

by a

disjunctive particle, such as

^.)

pressing a vowel.
-

or Jj.
O

C-O
1

Cv

^ o ^
(j.w.ijs'

^lIaJj clacking, trembling.

,<i:J ^ the absolute nega-

"

j^Ui

tive, see p.

254 (157).
td

analogy.
(^\j.'i\

^.^Li analogous, regular (form).


JuJ restriction. Interposing an isolated pronoun between the at-

^^

(J.^'^^

occupying

no place in the
analysis. i'jjl^ 1 expletive
i?

graaimatical

tached and corroborative pro(y

il.

p.

f 'L.^ o yoS

oyo

noun, as jwaJl *uj) *:i-^.


neuter, necessary,
^j2)

IS
iyS

writing the vowel


the vowel

~.

A^ the third letter of a


root.
5| j^|;j^l
^il

triliteral

the inchoative J,

*S

phrase, part of speech,

^^
i'ljls"^! *ii hypothetical expressions.

^^ the imperative
\

j.^
-o
;>

^ the J
the the

of the attribute. of corroboration. of denial.

P 0''c-<3 y o

-^

o ^

<?

''

--

jk^^.uSl 1*^ o

words resembling the relative


adjective.
_:s-j
.

J*^-?^

1*^

.js*'^^ culi'

an expression

*il

the

of the particle

see p. 172.

of reproof or anguish.
ttJJjliJl

c:jljl:.^metonyms, seep. 285 (183).

^\
.

the separating

J.

^o-o /

tLU^ metonym,
A^'i
soln'qicot,

*/.JiJ\
''

z*^

the

introducing the

subject of an oath.

nickname, familiar
-u^LJJ tLirj^n j*^l the
""

name.
<L-i_-i

inlro-

quality.

ducing a condition attached to the subject of the oath.

304
(_fljjcJl /*i
-

AEABIC GRAMMAR.
the definite article.
P

-'O-O
\

'^

"

*JLS
^

t_-'U=f-

z*^

the

J introducing

S 9^
At

'

abbreviation for i^j^j^y, well

the subject of the oath after a


conditional clause.

known.
^^/j jj\ U the t* of duration.

LJ_j

)!

<>^.rj-

(!'

the

J
^

responding

to the conjunctions "if,"

and "if

iUlj t* the l^ having a complete


signification.
#

not."
i^^
f'-S
j^
j! J)

abbreviation for iii^


is

there

"Li

;U-^

see Z' ;ls-^

no pause" (in the Koran).


Lsl:>- t special L
.

iL) i]

formed by pressing the

tip of

the tongue against the cheek.

iAjU t* expletive t.
d.*lx L* general t*.

JLjUJ

linguals.

'Lxj adverbial accusatives in

a pro-

^l^

t the t* which hinders

{i.e.

position or phrase

essential to the discourse,

which are not and

the t
,1
,

after such particles

as

which hinders

their action

may

be removed without de-

on succeeding nouns).
Airli -oJ

stroying the sense.


llii!

U* of which the agent

grammatically, literally.

or nominative is not named.

JiiJ verbal, grammatical.


Jl,'*

'i^jS.^y t* the t performing the


functions of a
(Lsi'u ti the
I.*

Ifi*iJ complicated, but with


i.e.

noun of

action.

an interval; imperfect with a strong radical

verbs doubly

having an incom-

plete signification.
^ufc-j
5-*/*J

between the two weak


j^..ii.

letters.

t the L in the sense

*i..4-^
;

contiguously coma doubly imperfect

of

[j>*-^, i.e.

denying a quality

plicated

i.e.

verb in which the two weak


letters

of the subject.
^^,.gj.js:
\

come together.
see p.

^_^aJ t*

denying the

v!Jl5
'iXJij

title,

221

(132).'

existence of the species.

clacking.

^J^y
j*i)Jb
''

preterite.

X -o y o'

LLA\

indicating a predomi-

\\\

^^"'

j^,
p^-'i'

U \t^iat ^ion
i"
1

nant quality.
'Li

^c

^^jJiij t*

kind of relabetween two nounsinconstruction which im^r-*

A (letters) formed in the uvula.


plies

"belonging to," or
of."

iL^

soft (letters).

"made

GLOSSARY OF GRAM^MATTCAL TERMS.


^

395

wS:;^ inchoative, subject.

Cl-^Ul^u^ dependent, subordinate


(nouns, words, etc.).
i^j\iz.y approximate.

<U^ ^J,^.^\ antecedent of the pers mutative ((J-y


).

s>

..M)'.-^

the

^ of the energetic mood


when
it

^jXiz^t two homogeneous letters.


S~^ y
9

of verbs

immediately

follows the last radical.

*ix:;^ the first person.


P
y'^'i.

-^

'^ 9

ijjw* converted.
5 O^

(^^)

^^/fu.^ susceptible of varia-

tions.

^^"-^ indeclinable.
tLix-.-,^

explanatory.

^y^-:^'0 not susceptible ^J>^\ of variations.

j^

*^-^ vague.
<t.,j-^

JV:.^ primitive form of a verbal


root. r^^o p
triliteral.

vague and indeterminate

nouns.
c yc.-^ antecedent of

an appositive.

ctj-ij^ having tesMid.

y y

^^j IsO^ analogous, homogeneous.


S .^ y
P

^\^^ ^^ Aii^
two

(a letter)

with

ajuL::,* obscure.

dots underneath.

ij^^:::-^

attached (pronoun,
i\,ai:L^

etc.).

\^i'' cT?
^
gj ^

^^-^ (a letter) with two


^
.li,

dots above.

J Ui ^

Ij

noun derived from

<>

yi

verbs and containing the signification of the same.

tCliLl^ the particles

j^t^

^j^,

when they
f-

preserve the

teshd'id.

y9

L-ijS^

^iL
\

dual.

(^^^'*

<^_j'

(^_;^Jj;.^

comJlsr" metaphor, hypothesis, conventionality.

pound proper names of which


the
first

portion

is

equivalent to
a

a preposition.

' y p

iUW*

compensation.
ijrjljsr*

i^

t^js.*^-^! the subject of ad-

miration.
iSjc^ transitive.

S^i^^
ft

metaphorical, or

conventional feminine.

S~y 9
^JXx:^* dependent.
<U

.y p \*\s^^ transitive.

is^y y p

^^W*
it.

being

transitive,

act

of

(JLx:^\ having an adverbial

passing

awuy

from.

term dependent on

J^"*

primitive.

SOG
S
9
ij ''

ARABIC GRAMMAR.
S
9
1^

., _sr^

noun governed by a prepo-

J i^.s'*
if
1
,

(in logic) the attribute.

sition.

< ^

ii_^l.s^ the second person.


virtually in the geni-

ts^ j^jS^
tive case.

^jJlj

i:^z

j^'*^\ the thing of


is

which the quality


virtually in the genitive, as form-

predicated

by the word i_^AJ U


ing the complement of a grammatical relation
^^;*I:isr^

smuggled,

(vowels

not

between two
I,
.

written but just slightly pro-

nouns
;

(state of construction).
-

' o ^
;jsr*

CV'

having the mark

nounced). s ^ ^>

quies-

C^=^

particularized.
o 'O-o

cent (a letter).
J.^.jsr*

'CJ-'O s-

jjl

complex.
openly pronounced.

J*
"^

_j^

J/J b

j^^^os'* the special

object of praise or blame.

ij.ijs'*
S.
9
i^

i.jiijs'* losing its teshdid.

jj.^^* passive.
S <>.9

JwiJL4.Sl

1^

t-jijlsT*^

losing

its

\ys^ tolerated. S 9 ^
{^

tesM'id.
. .

(j^Jk^r^ definite, limited,

'^

<Lai.s^ lightened, losing

its tesM'id.

i_J.jk.s'* apocopated.

^jc^LsT* in the genitive ease.


^
^
^

^oS-o
;l^-'^l
,

y o

i^^s:^ (nouns) of which

U.s'* ^_^i.sr^ virtually in the genitive.


5-a
--

y ...
<^

the latter portion has been apocopated.

X*

the sign

n
it.

written over an

iSjS^ moved, having


S
J

a vowel
,

the

to lengthen
Jk.

opposite of "quiescent."
9
<^

writing such sign.


lie Jk^ accidental

i*..::^^ restricted.
9

^ ^
i.q.

\:^s.^

^y

^
,

meddah,

q.vl

y S y

At'^

Jl^ necessary meddah.


'^

fS-s.-^ clear, plain,

obvious.

>

J^^' (X^'*
\

a proper

name

J-s^i'jL^

Jk-^

meddah preceded by a

coni'

sisting of

an entire sentence and


S S
y^
-,

',.^

in the

same word.
S
'(^9

not declined.
^oo-o ^
c_jLc^!
\

9^
6^

^9 Sy UH'-^i x*
over an
1

i ^

or J-^i&i.^ Jk^ meddah


at the beginning of a

^^

J^"^

having

place in the grammatical analysis.


<-^ ^

word when the preceding word


ends with a long vowel.
s
<-

Lsr* virtually, in consequence of


its position.

_.J^ panegyric, eulogium.

GLOSSARY OF GRAMMATICAL TERMS.


o^
dJ.]
-i

397

?o

-"O^

y ^

yc^^W
-'

the person appealed

to.

^^'f

inseparably compounded.

-ii

^jk^ masculine.

a-J jkjj.*

augmented

(verb).

S^

(^

dJi]s^ pronounced
motion of the
(_jJ^'^X

^vith a quick

L_^-.*u^ actuated

by an extraneous

lips or tongue.

"^

)
\

^^^

^^^^ ^^^ second words of the series


called u-J^UJ'
q^.v.

an adjective which, while seeming to refer to a preceding


cause
;

noun, really refers to one follow^

(_Jjy

O^ CO

y'

^.K^,-*

the cause

which

A^j^ numerical
tens,
jj.isry

progression, units,

and

so on.

enables the noun qualified to be


so qualified

= ^_^^-wJ.

improvised (primitive prox^,w^

per names).
to
;

hidden, understood (opposed,


,b).

^.a^y*
<~^^

lawful, allowed.
ic^i:iA./J
'

z ti^t put in the nominative case


.

the thing excepted.


^^xiiiAM^^ anterior

mood, having vowel JL or or indicative


.

tlie
/kXi/*.!
I

^L2-;>/J

'

conjoined exception.
iLsrr*

c ji..*

virtually in the nomi-

native.
/JJ1
.^

^wWlj

?.i,'

put in the

i^i:^^

posterior conjoined ex-

ception placed after a negative

nominative to express praise or


blame.
\^^j^-* composed, compound.

proposition.

c--^'^^l
j_jv>l:^l ^.^^iyt

posterior

compound

proper names con-

exception placed after an affirmative proposition.


1:;.>**^1

sisting of a complete proposition,

as ^, ^

ij-, S"

thethingfrora v^hich

\5^>'

exception

is

made.

i^LjI^ I^o^'* a proper


sisting of

name

contikji-^x^^n

two nouns

in a state

augmented (noun).

of construction. S i-'^ S ^^ 9
^e^-2J' -r^^7^

4lJjO/ju, elevated (letters).


c.i_;li:x*^^l

compound expresthe one called in for aid.


^J~>-i

sion containing an ellipse of a

preposition, conjunction, etc.

^j-*

t-ljUu^^'l the person

yi^j-^

k^i^

against
a proper

name

whom

aid

is

sought.

con<0 C_;l.^*u.4>n
is

sisting of

two words inseparably

person for

whom

aid

compounded.

demanded.

I
398
2Ss:xm^ depressed
i,

ARABIC GRAMMAR.
<Li^-^^ solid (letters), opposed to S ''y o P

(letters).

(^

^Ciau^ hidden.
^^.^My*
^..s^*^^

common
rhymed

gender.

t!
(

A-^

aorist.

y fC-SP

jLi]l c

^Ld^

relation analogous

prose.
to that of the antecedent of

two

IxLw*^ referred to the subject; attri-

nouns in a state of construction.


Ajlsr* c iwi^ apocopated aorist.

buted.
<lJ1 JkX-^ that to

which an

attri-

bute
i;.l^.u^

is

given.

Iff*
tSS-o

Pt^y s *i,^ ^ ,Ui^ aorist indicative

'o-o ^

*>

softened

by the suppression

J^^l ^-'V^^ mT? fj''^^


the first class. sy y P t-jir\J^ doubled. S y P }l<^ the antecedent
. (

aorist of

of the hemzeh.
S'- " ^ P

dSXfLy* participation.
"i

^^ p

of

two

Ci;^.^
,-535

derivative.
!>

C\

A;

3 M'* J^
tive, or

^^^ a verbal adjec-

S^

nouns in a
tUJl t_"'l.^<

state of construction.

(.

the

complement of

^^

what may be considered

such noun.

as equivalent to one.

^/^ pronominal agent; implied,


understood.
^\J:}\

l^^Ly% having
p '^y P
<"

teshcl'd.

o ^o-'

icz J^AA^ll the object from which


a thing is diverted or distracted. y y S f o y djUL) ,]iA, antecedent of two

..^

j'*^^* containing

the idea of the pronoun which expresses an event.


"^

.J ^^i. the

pronoun contained in

nouns in a
-=-

state of construction.

a verb and consisting of a single


quiescent letter, as the
JL-';^^ ""-^-J^
\

L_J .sT

J*AA^

the intermedi-

in irjb.

ate
.-^^

member
^ /

of a proposition.

attached pronominal
c

agent.
,o
/>

^L:>-L2-* concomitance.

5-^

C'

jA^

infinitive or verbal noun.

^/.^i^ J.^!:^*'J agent.


y^/O^O<i

detached pronominal

^ P

"^-v^ ..^ jJu^ the verbal noun not commencing with >

'ij^\ ^J^^^ having the value of


the interrogative
\.

^^

jjwi^ the verbal noun comj*

Sy
S^

-"

L^y^^
-^

pointed with dliammah.

mencing with

^lla, corresponding.
Z\ ,s.^2^ the quality of

being a noun
X-Ajlk.* concordance.

of action.

GLOSSAEY OF GRAMMATICAL TERMS.


7 ',yi^-0 '
cij-^o 9>'^

399
'''-'

y 9

c:^^fC^

l:Ua*J^

iji;ll:,

concord-

JU:^

i_c

jk^'ix.*
is

preceded
modified

ance of the adjective and substantive.

by the noun which

by the agent
the functions

itself

performing

of an adverbial

.lia-^

dominant (verb).

accusative of state or condition.

c .lia^ a verb submitting to the influence of the dominant verb.

Lks^ dotted (letter)


critical points.
t__j..^

having dia-

^.Ik^
i"

submission.
(letters)

declined.

/ ^o

cULia^ arched

^ ^
,

k__jyt,*

determinate, definite.

,)s

and bS^^
9

^Llb (_jjc^ determined by the


^
article.

uVL^
^dla^
\

universal.
absolute, general.
^

determined

by the
.,.

article.

ilk

"whatever the

first

or second radical

di

a determinate noun,

may
Si
9

be."

S-a 9

aJ..v isolated determinate

i.q.

i:S/%>

noun.
i

;^o 9

>^
J::jt^

special noun.

!tj, active.

<-^

weak

(verb).
j.^

(_ila."t^

in apposition

word or

proposition joined to another.

*Lia-j^l iiJl
"

i.v.t:x.r,-

pre-

ceded by an interrogative particle.

d-is uJ^-i-tV;! word to wliicli the


(

'h.x,^

refers or is ioiued.

^^oo-^!

^^ S

yL,9

JO

^T^-:*^^

^^

wW;>.t,

preceded by
it

jt.,*

active voice

the inchoative of which


as enunciative.
?*?.,]

serves

^ ^

j^jt^ the tribute


;

complement
governed.

of the at-

jX;

4>.4::j-*

preceded by
qualified

JsxiJ

J^'*>*'

with the govern-

the noun which

is

by

ment
^ o ^

of a verb.

the agent itself. ^^ S "^9 / O^O-O


^\ *s^l
\

^:j- logical,

^s.

i^^':.x,t

preceded by
J^,x^n previously mentioned.
cLJU. superiority. S ^ 91^^ 'ks>-y'>^ having the vowel

the conjunctive adjective.

Jj\ 'L;^ ij^' wV^.-X'* preceded ' by a negative particle.

400
i'l:>-li^

ARABIC GRA^JilAE,
suddenness

^^
s
I

-^

J^xji.* real patient

cji^t singular.

'^ " ^t ^ H ' j4u: ij^xs.^

general complement.

^ Jjxi^
yjJu* explained.
^-Ic (_>.is^i the inferior of two
'^

complement of a verb

expressingtimeorplace of action.

J*^< adverb expressing the


motive of the action.

terms of comparison.
(jyts^ passive participle, patient,
objective comi^lement.

^^^

(iT^

Jj^'* adverb expressing

the motive of the action.


9^ y S.
9

L,y

U3 ^

J^'^'*^ the first patient or accusative of a verb which has


'

^^^ Uf^-* adverb expressing the


person

who
1

participates in an
l::..^*:,^

several complements.

action, as

j^uJt J^L*!1 the second patient


or accusative of a verb

what jjJ j hast thou done with Zeid ?"


G
-'

which

^(^s^ shortened.
Ji'* resrular.

has several complements.

S~y
JxliJl |*U^

^UJl

J..d^^ the

L^

plural

object of the action performing

the functions of the agent.


i^Lcli ^2-*^.^

ijy*S^^ having the vowel 7"-

^^'^ J_j*iJl

the

,c-x^ metonym.
S yy
y 9

object of an action of

which the
jja*-:d,*

^ f

subject S^O 9 i?
iJ^-'-*
i.e.

is
C

not expressed.
-'

J_^-

" absolute patient,"


used adA:i)
.

ambiguous, identical.

the verbal noun


b^.-s-

verbially, as
<^:'

in

b^

^j:^^* adopted; the verbs mentioned on p. 45.

Jj^

the

patient or passive

J^yU
p. 45.

c:;liLs^ adopted;

the

participle,

the complement or

quadriliteral verbs described on

object of a verb.

fv**

(jy^^

the real objective

L_5J^
c^:.^,

possession.

complement.

deprived (of variations), im-

jK/^v^

''^

Jv^*

the fictitious

perfectly declined

complement.

J-^*
J.-.^
<i.j

specifying.
specified,

jj^*^ J^*^^* special complement.

f'^j^j^ Jj*^*

fictitious patient.

U^/t specificative.

GLOSSARY OF GEAMITATICAL TERMS.


o

401
S^ CO y

-a

j^^JuJ* person called upon.

<^A-

(^j's:*Jl

person really ad-

l/lj 1

a proposition which has

dressed in the vocative.


\aLs>. t_^jli^l person supposed to

passed from the enunciative to


the productive form.
S-ii

-9

be present and addressed in the


vocative.

jXX^

indefinite.

'^^

-^

"

t^y^* having tenwin.


Cj-^uS^l

(..5^*-^ plurals of the form

/^*
S^
9

implied.

'

'(4).(3)f(2)V).
O^

*? >'

<Ui.giv t<

depressed letter.
of.

^^ ^
--

aflirmative.

OP (a letter).

_^;X;^! the thing complained


s;

i'j^^ having one dot


5-^ Sp

^c

variable.
s-

<Uu)^^ fundamental, modified.

y o.

Cj^^^i:.^

in the objective or accusaor

' '*^T*
j__c^

<l"alified, i.q.

ClJyc^^

tive

case,

the

subjunctive

u_j^-tfj^

grammatically
adjective.

mood.
^

y ^ oo
^

o -'

qualified

by an

JsS'*^

c_>>yai^

virtually in

the

o^:-^*

iy^y* logically qualified


adjective.

accusative.

by an
virtually in the ac-

\s^ <-_;^:^
cusative.

uT^y

conjunctive noun.

A JJijl A/*J ^\^ i^^'^u^


^

L5^' Jj^^'*
]

conjunctive noun,

in the

jj^l
I*

^aJJ

i^y^
^-?^^i^
)

J^-^j^ conjunctive particle.


S ^
P o ^

adver-

S^ ^
Ltflri.

bial accusative to express praise

(.iJiy^y^ particular conjunce.^-,

or blame.
c:j^*i.^ qualified

tives,
S-' y
>^

^^
^

g-.y.

pi^^

by an

adjective.

iSjuiLy CJii^Y* general (com-

<il^i-^ open letters.

mon)
J
P

conjunctives.
^

o^
#

y_<^

^J^aii^ detached.
^kii:^* separated.

'ry^y

(in logic) the subject.


o
^ o-o - p p
r

^
to

oX

i>^2^1^,-^M

y^J

^^-^y* em-

j^yc^ defective (noun).

ployed to express the proximate


occurrence of the action predi-

^Jyu^ a word which has come


be used as a proper name.

cated which one has already set


about.

26

402
L.i2r>-

AEABIC GRAMMAE.

-^

J jj

^Y*

employed
speedy

\j

putting a noun in the ac-

cusative case, or a verb in the

to

express simply the

subjunctive mood.

occurrence of the thing predicated.

uJU
\

denying, of negation.
defective.
of.

Ij>-

j^sL-

y iXJ

yy% cmployed

j_^U

to express the

speedy occurrence

t_^n3 occupying the place


^JjiUJl ^r.
or

of the predicate as something

t_^U

occupying
the place

hoped
S<i

for.

i^'^y* corroborated.

u'

\^<::.Z^^
-

of the agent.

S^/y* corroborative.

:sr
*

grammar, syntax.

''Y*

feminine.

Ju vocative case.

^Jl^^

s <> f iJi^^yt real feminine.

tUu*3 relation, the relative

pronoun.

^L^
*"

r^ LL^^y* conventional

^*JjCwuJ the Persian style of writing, which bears the to

or fictitious feminine.

same relation

je^LsJ iJi^'^y* grammatical femi-

the

e-s:***^

or Arabic

hand

nine.
Ci

which the
9

iYa?/c

does to the ordi-

i_$yjt^ iJ:^J^y* logical or natural

nary English printing.

feminine.

S^

O 9

g^^
diacritical
w X

the Arabic hand-writing.

<LL>f^

having no dots or

points.
<s_L*^*

j_^j

words susceptible of only one

application.

having no dots or
?'"'''

diacritical

4_-v^ accusative
J^-xk)

or objective case.

points.

^ ^

j^-^^ having iUJ6.


l^ys-t^ pronounced with a scarcely
perceptible articulation.

letters

formed by pressing

the tip of the tongue against the


anterior part of the palate.
adjective, epithets

IL* hundreds.
^. u>:?

measure.

^A-x-

t::..-s*j

a real epithet.

D
U
abbreviation
for

9^'-a
\

o^

Ur>^i

he

Jj^o^
^,-jtJl

^/**a5

the

first

person,

informed us."

J-C::^! jj*aJ

the

first

jJu

rare.

person plural.

GLOSSAUY OF GRAMMATICAL TERMS.


,Ju negation.
i>*i.js)
\

403

J^
in

or i-_c-J

all

above the tens

^j

absolute negation of

numerals composed of tens


units, after twenty-one.

and
negation synon^JM.J

the existence of the subject.

ju*J

itf^*^ L5*J

ymous with the verb

s abbreviation for

i.'-\ij

name

of

J l^

^Jij negation of the present.

a small town" (in Geographical


works).

J Uii^

Jj negation of the future.

tdaiij diacritical point.

silent ^a.

fjjij

conversion

removing a vowel
<-_iijJl

from one consonant to another

^U

the

M in pause.
orthography.

which precedes
$

it.
5"

o o^

& o ^ o-o ^

o ''
*^*^^"

sLs.-^ spelling,
-?.'<- -'

^-.^ ^

i<

'

f'^rr^**

^^

t-ry

tJ^

version of an adjective into a

^j'O) the letter or sign J_.

so ^
J'*^
writing such sign.
the
hemzefi

noun.
'i.Cj

indeterminate noun.

^j) iy^
O XC-.0 ?^o X

used

in

JO-'

^eiJ prohibition.

forming the imperative.


^Liij!
J^s^^jJ
ij^jS)

^^y
\

expressions which abrogate.


particles

see pp. 9

and 12, and 11.


the

o xc-*o y ^ o ^

Sx:j

f^^^'j

which

desin-

ij^i> see pp. 9

troy the influence of the


choative.

^J^^Jb
in

mumbling (compressing

^^^^\y words which put nouns


subjunctive.

lips in mastication).

the accusative, and verbs in the

iy

species.

(.--nJ^^j obligatory, necessary.

Jk-^^1 (j^3 the emphatic

added

j_Jlj actual, transitive (verb).

to the aorist and imperative of


verbs.

|Jcj|i
o-o

,'j

initiative

J.

JU^J

^y

the

which

dis

t:'*'^

JJ' 3 expressing concom-

tinguishcs the af' ' fixed pronoun of the ] JTI" \T ^ accusative or first person used with verbs from the afiixed pronoun of the same person used with nouns.
or
>

itance.

H^y U^
'

JlsrJljl^ the conjunction^


it

when

introduces an adverbial propo.

sition, the initiative

404
CXH -<3

ARABIC GRAMilAP^
7,^
,

Jt

S^] j\^

the conjunction

_j

in

jcLsl

? O y <_jLtf^

a natural adjective or

such expressions as

qualifying teim.
<Ll<jj^

the sign of elision

implying

simultaneous

action^

and putting the verb in the


Bubjunctive.

jj^j writing such sign.


_a5j fashion, usage,

axiom.

-^

Jlo-Ui^wTj^j,

of concomitance,
,

.Jt-ii

external.

<_^ jlj

see p. 198.

UJj

in accordance

with the primi-

tive usage of the language.

j^Jj

measure of a word.

^srLiJ

^Lij

the

homologue

of

feihah,

i.e. a?//".

^JxaJ^
verb.
uji-tf.

uJj
the

^^ measure of the
4__cjj period, full stop,

pause.

quality

of

being

an

^tfi^
,

*"^^J ^ pause according to

adjectiye.

the Kufic school (in the Koran).

INDEX.

Alfiyeh of Ibn Malik, q[Uotation

A.
Abstract noun, 147.

from the, 76.


Alif, pronunciation of, 197, note.

verbs, 242, 243.

Alphabet,
C1 279.

1.

Action, cause or effect of, 191.


,,

-words specifying the, 189.

Alternative expressions, 279.


\l. 267.

Adjectives, gender
,.,l^c:jl.r^l 242.

of,

207.

y ^ use

171, 172, 173, 187, 225.


of,

250.

Admiration, 277.
Adverbs, 166, 233.

Antecedent, 256.
Aorist, 27, 171, 178.

,,

compound, 284.
verbs used
as,

of defective verbs
(final

193.

J ),

78.

governing like verbs, 232.


(final t_f ),

80

of time and place, 2 8 0,286.


of derived conjugations,39

Adverbial expressions,
193.

19),

192,
of hollow verbs

'^~^\ 275.
Agent, 46, 178, 183, 225.
,,

(medial j), 71. (medial ^), 72.


131,
,,

broken plurals
132, 133.

of,

(medial

\),

74.

subjunctive, always refers

,,

intensive, 52.

to future time, 261, note.

,,

position

of,

263.

Apposition, 267.
,,

^^
J.r.3]
J

275.
128,

of corroboration, 268, 273,

274.
simple, 268, 271.
,,

^! 278.
changes of
vowels,
etc.,

of

verb with

Affixed pronouns,

noun, 271,272, 274.

before the, 152.

of description, 268.

406

AKABIC GRAMMAR.

Apposition, explanatory, 276.

of substitution, 268, 276.


particles

employed

in

Caliph, story of

a,

170, note. 178, 236,

forming, 272.
,,

Cases, subjective, 177,

of vocatives, 277.

288.

Approximate verbs, 244.

objective, 177, 188,

189,

Arab

tribes,

names

of,

182, 184.

190, 191, 192, 193, 194,

199, 288, 289,


Ai-ticle, the,

157, 256.
,,

dependent, 177, 195.

used with the aorist of a


Case endings, 171, n.
verb, 256.

Cardinal numbers, 158.

use

of,

with numerals, 215

Chronograms,
,,

5.

mS 88.
'

Moorish, 5.

Assimilated verbs, 66.


Assimilation, 23.
Attribute, 234.
c/\ 157.

Circles, the, 295.

Clause, the, 234.

Clauses used as adjectives without a conjunction, 234, 235.


Collective nouns, 183, 208, 213.

1.^-x 375
,
,

plural from relative adj ec-

tives, 139.

B.
Colour,

noun

of,

128.

El Beha Zoheir, verses ftom,


165, 169, 332.

16,

form of words signifying,


90.

Benu Hudheil (idiom


Benu Temim (idiom
Broken

,,

of), 108.

Common

gender, 96.
of,

of), 109.

Comparative, plural

128.

plurals, 110, 182.

Comparison, 196, 227, 228.

of agent, 131, 132, 133.

Compound

expressions, 284.

anomalous forms
note
;

of,

130, 137.

Conditional sentences, 261.


protasis

135, note;
of,

and apodosis

of,

,, ,,

declension

102.

262.
Conjunctions, 166, 256, 257, 258.

forms

of.

111.

,,

of feminine nouns,

Copula, the logical, 288.

feminine

plurals

used
D.
Dates, 217, 218, 219.

with, 208.
,,

gender

of,

111.

,,

of quadriliteral and quinqueliteral nouns,

Declension of nouns, 97.


,,
,,

134-138

ancient, 6, 98.

,,

tables

of,

113,
of,

of nouns with

weak

final

general table

139.

radical, 99.

INDEX.
Defective verbs, 74, 76.

407

tenses

of,

77.

E
Feet, 292.

Demonstrative pronouns, 154.

Dependent

case, 195.

, ,

normal, 294.
tables of variatio n i n , 3 7,

Derived conjugations, tables of


(active), 43.

308,309,310,311,312.

(passive), 44.
J>

elements of which feet are

composed, 292, 294.


of assimilated verbs, 68.
,,

variations

of,

93. 93.

of defective verbs, 77. of doubled verbs, 59.


>>

Feminine, formation

of,

grammatical, 183.

of hemzated verbs
(initial), 63.

Flight, form of words signifying,9 1.

Fractions, 164.

(medial), 64.
(final), 65.
>>
>> it

G.
jr^ 266.
Genders, 91.

of hollow verbs, 70.

32-39.
tenses
of,

39.
,,

common,

96,'

Descriptive, nature

of,

269.
as,

Genitive case, 195.


of,

,,

sentence used

269,

and noun, concordance

270.

E,
lil^
267.
374.

Diminutive noun, 148.

Doubled

verbs,

derived conjuga-

jS^

tions of, 59.

Doubly imperfect
Dual, 104.

verbs, 84j

^^:^-,

change
of,

in the tenth conju-

gation
is

85.

t3-.^J 374.

note on, 97.

Jjb 89.

E.
^js^-

J-4, signification

of,

89.

Epithets, concordance of nouns and,

Hamasah,
Uemzeh,
,,

verses from the, quoted,

208.

9.

feminine pluralsuscd with

combination

of,

with other

broken plurals of nouns


208.

weak
Hemzet
Remzet

letters in verbal roots, 85.


el kata' , 13.

gender

of,

207.
as an, 208.

el toasl, 11, 14.

noun of action

pointing a quiescent letter

Exception,

how

expressed, 265.

before, 85.

408
Hemzated verbs
,,
,,

ARABIC GEAMMAE.
62.

(initial),

i^'

and

loss of the final

in

(medial), 63.
(final), 65.
of,

these

particles

and
252

their compounds,

Hollow verb, the nature


plained, 69.

ex-

Indeclinable verbs, 88.


,,

nouns, 103. words, 279, 283.

inflected as strong verbs, 8 7

tenses

of,

71.

Indicative mood, 171.


Inflexions of nouns and verbs, 171,
note.

Cl\

cL-ii
*

374.

Intensive agent, 52, 225.


Interrogative pronouns, 156.

266.

lUSl 302, 304, 305, 306, 307.

particles, 379.

Interjections, 167.

jAi:M
Ji^y^\
Imaleh,

*Lc 291.

Involved forms of expression, 264,


2G5.
Irregular plurals, 139.

J^
9,

291.

197, note.

Irregular verbs, formation of nouns


from, 86.

Imperative, 29, 174.


,, ,,

of derived conjugations, 41

" Is,"
^\

how

expressed, 288.

of defective verbs
(final ^), 80, 84.
(final

153.

^),

80, 84.

J.

,,

of hollow verbs
Jezmeli or sulcun, 10.

(medial^), 72.
Jussive, 176.

(medial ^j), 73.

(medial

\),

72.

K.
Kitab es Sadih

(the form Jl), 233.


,,

wa

'Baghim, 341.

nouns used

as,

231, 232,

233.

iX ^
.

267.

Imperfectly declined nouns, 100.

,^

374.

Imru

'al

Kais,

poem of,

quoted, 204

Lili 373, 374.


^\^ 174, negative, 253.
,.,iii

275.

*
1

249, 289.

289.
275.

^
1j\

position of, in the sentence, 250.

j>

and ^\, cases where either may


be used, 251.

l^ll^

285.

INDEX.

409
circle,

Koran,

ii.

126, p. 177;

ii.

30,

Metres, 4th

299.

I77;ii. 139,p. 177;i.7,p. 187


ix. 18, p.

5th

300. 296,
314, 315,

169;
;

ix. 44, pp.


1,

173

184, 185

XXX.

xxxvii. 147

^\i^\

p. 164; xlvii. 17, p. 202; Ixvi


5, p.

316, 317.

202;

cii.

6-8, p. 177.

Jo J.2i 296,318,319,320,

321.

L.

L.uJ[
325.

296, 322, 323,324,

279, 289.

C^-jS 267.
Letters, correspondence

with the

j^l\
329.

298, 326, 327, 328,

Hebrew, Phoenician, and


Greek, 4.

JU'wtM298,330,331,332,
333.

which cannot exist side by


side in the

i-JJ^^i 300,
356, 357.

354, 355,

same

root, 19.

,,

numeral value
written,

of, 3.

,,

but

not

pro-

'p!^\
c^Li2i

299, 350, 351,

nounced, 15.

352, 353.
300, 358, 359. 300, 360, 36 J.

^
\j^'.

"solar and lunar," 11.


88.
,

^
M.

^'lC^\
ijL..c^^\

300, 362, 363,

175, 197, 225, 249, 253, 267;


(relative), 258.

364, 365

l^Jf
"^337.

298, 334, 335, 336,

U 278. "^^ U negative,


JxJl

253, 254.

'^y^
341.

299, 338, 339, 340,

J^^

374.

Measures of words, 19.


Meddah,
9.

l\.tj\ 299, 342, 343,

344,

345.

Metonyms, 285.
Metre, 291.
Metres, the, 313.

t^^-^^

299,

340,

347,

348, 319.

,,

iLi/Z\
369.

366, 367, 368,

1st circle, 295.

2nd
3rd

297.
298.

c!^/s:2\ 370, 371, 372.

410
Moods
,,

ARABIC GRAMMAR.
of verbs, 171, 173.

Noun

of excess, 52.
of instrument, 50.

apocopated, 173.

of defective verb
(final j), 78.
(final

of relation, 144.
of quality, 51.

^),

81.

expressing inherent qualities,

(final ^), 83.

228, 229, 230, 231

energetic, 176.


'
,,

of species, 46.
ofsuperiority,51, 226,227.

,,

imperative, 177
indicative, 171.

of superiority, pi.
of time

of,

128.

91.

subjunctive, 171.

and

place, 48.

Motion, form, of words signifying,

of unity, 46.
of,

Nouns, cases

177.

El Mutanebbi, verses from, 17.

imperfectly declined, 100.

Nouns* in construction, 184, 201,

K,
C '"' ^jjd 275.
Karnes of Arab
182, 184.
tribes,

202,203,206,207,215,
216, 287.

gender

of,

ellipse of the first of two,

206.

Negation, 253.
,,

gender of a word qualifying, 207.

of several nouns, 255.


,,

Negative, absolute, 254, 255.


jlij 374.

separation of two, 201.

use of article with the


first

of two, 215, 216.

Nominative pendent, 236.


Nouns, used adverbially, 167, 190,

Noun,

tbe, 89.
abstract, 147.

191.

Nouns, Primitive, 89.


,

of action, 31.
,

formation of from irregular


verbs, 86.

Nouns

of action of derived con-

jugations, 42.
,, ,,

declension

of,

97, 140.

of bellow verbs, 70.


,

examples of the declension


of,

.,,

in wkm, 47.

140-144

used as a verb, 222,


,,

indeclinable, 103.

223, 224.
,,

defining or determining,

Noun, Agent

,,

46.

287.

collective, 183, 208.

definite

and

indefinite,

of colour or defect, 51.

201, 288.
,,'

derived from verbs, 90.


of colour, 128.

and epithets, concordance


of,

208.
of,

diminutive, 148.

,,

genders

91.

INDEX.
Nouns, numbers

411

of,

103.

Object of the action, 179.

>
ft

relation between, 204.

Object of a verb, 188.


Object, position
of,

derived from verbs, 46.


,, ,,

263, 264.

plurals

of,

122.

(not derived from verbs),


144.

wbich govern
223.

like verbs,

Pain, form of

word

signifying, 90.

Parenthetical sentences, 189.


Particles, 165, 171, 172, 173, 174,

Number, 103.
Numbers, approximate, 164.

279.


Numerals,

cardinal, 158.
ordinal, 161, 216.
6,

employed
sition,

in

formingappo-

272.

158, 209, 210, 211,

initiative, 279.

212.

interrogative, 279, 280.

adjectival, 163.

)}
>)

negative, 174, 253.


pleonastic, 283.

n
j>

adverbial, 163.

compound, 284.
distributive, 163.

which
248.

resemble

verbs,

fractions, 164.

Passive Participle, 47, 225, 226.


Passive of verbs which govern more

multiplicative, 163.

recurring, 164.
ft

than one object, 185, 186.


Passive verb, subject
of,

gender

of,

213, 214.
186.

184, 185,

agreement in gender of

numeral

and

Patient, 47, 225, 226.

thin?
Pause, the, 14.

numbered, 213.
if

Pendent nominative, 236.

government of, 158, 159,


160.

Permutation, 22, 74.


Pluperfect, 170.
Plurals, 105.
,;

use of article with, 215.

with collective nouns,


213.

different

pi.

to

express

different meanings, 138.

JVun, assimilation

of,

in

certain
>)

note on the formation


113.

of,

words, 15.

^b^l^jj

151.

ft )'

broken, 110, 182.


of multitude. 111.

0.
Objective case, 188, 189, 190, 191,
102, 193, 199, 288, 289.

Plural of Paucity, 110, 116, 117,


118, 123, 124, 125.

diminutives

of,

160.

Plurals of Plurals, 139.

412

AEABIC GEAMMAE.
Pronouns referring to tbe antecedent in relative sentences, 256, 260.

Plural Ecgular, (masculine), 106.

,,

of,

(feminine), 108.

irregular, 139.

Poem, parts

292.
of,

292.

omission

of,

260.

structure

Proper names, 201, 219, 220, 221.


,,

Poetical licence, 375, 376.

Portions of a thing, form of words


signifying, 91.

constituent 221.

portions

of,

declension

of,

101.
of,

Precative expressions, 232, 238.


Predicate, 234, 23fi, 237.
,,

Proposition, arrangement

263.

Prosody, 261.
,,

omission

of,

239.

nomenclature
293.

of,

291,292,

Prepositions, 165, 195, 196, 197,

Protasis and Apodosis, 262.

198, 233.

,,

nouns used
omission
of,

as,

197.

187.

Q.
Quadriliteral verbs, 44.
Quadriliterals,

Preterite, 26, 169, 170.

of defective verb
(final j), 77, 82. (final

plurals

of,

112,

127.
Qualificatives, 256.

^),

80.

of derived
39.
>}

conjugations,

Quantity, 293.
,,

anomalies

in,

293.
of,

of

Hollow verbs
(medial ,^), 72.

QuinqueHterals, plurals

112.

(medial (medial
Probibitive, 174.

\),

73. 71.

E.
Regular Plural, 106.
Eelatives, 256, 257, 258.
:

.),

Pronouns, 151.

,,

nature

of,

259.

,,

demonstrative, 154.
affixed, 151.

Relative noun, 144.


,,

Pronouns, 156.
sentences, 256.
the, 373, 374, 375.
of,

expressing
tive, 151.

the

nomina-

,,

Rhyme,

j>

oblique and objective, 151.


interrogative, 156.

Roots, nature
,,

19.

containing semivowels, 20.


197, 198.

Personal, 151.
Pelative, 156.
separate, 151.

iljj

u^iJj 374.
153.
Cs^j 373, 374.>

government

of,

INDEX.
T.

413

S-

s ^^
293.
Scansion, 301.
Self, selves, etc.,

i^^^\j 374.
Tables of correspondence of forms

how

expressed,
,,

derived from verbs, 56.


of derived conjugations, 43. of Irregular verbs, 59.

274, 275.

Semivowels,

8.

,,

Sentence, the, 234.

Tenses, of defective verbs, 77.

analysis

of,

287, 288.

,,

of doubled verbs, 61-62. of

Sentences, conditional, 260, 2G1

Hemzated

verb, 66.

>>

nominal, 234.
relative, 256.

of hollow verbs, 71.

imperative, 174.
prohibitive, 174.

verbal, 234.

'^-^\
>>

i^

111.
of

,,

of simple verbs, 26-29.


6,

Temvin,

178, 201, 288.

as

the

complements

Teshd'ul, 11.
_j..2J'

prepositions, 198.

Simple Yerb, 30.


Sounds, imitative, 168.

317. 374.

l^y

form of words signifying,


90.

Trades, form of words signifying,


90.
Tribes,

State or condition, 192, 242, 289.


Subject, 234, 236, 237.

names

of,

182, 184.

Triliteral

nouns,
of,

broken plurals

of a passive verb,

178,

114.

184, 185, 186.

omission

of,

241.

V.
Verbal noun, 25.
Verbal nouns, plurals
of.

Subjective case, 236, 288.

Subject and predicate, 288.


>>

concordance
235, 239.

of,

122.

Verb, the, 24, 169.

>>

inversion of,240.

agent of

a,

178, 179.
of,

words

affecting,

and agent, concordance

241.

180,181,182,183,265.
,,

Subjunctive mood, 171.


Substantive verb, omission
Superlative, pi.
of,

,,

position of, 180.

of,

237.

and noun, inversion of, 263,


264.

128.

i^y^ 266.
Syntax, summary
of,

in apposition with

an agent and
287.
article,

257.

tLa

374.

omission

of,

189, 190.

4U
Yerb, omission
of,

AEABIC GRAMMAR.
in ejaculatory

Verbs parts

of,

25.

sentences, 188, 189.


>>

Passive, 178,184,185,186.

object

of,

179, 188.
to,

passive

of,

186, 187.
of,

>>
>>

words cognate

231.

six classes

30.

note on tbe signification of


the inflexions
of,

Tenses

of,

26, 169.

154.

which govern more than


one object, 185, 186.
Verse, structure
of,

f>

subject of a passive, 178.

Verbs, abstract, 242, 243.


>>

292.

approximate, 244.
assimilated, 58, 66.

parts

of,

291.

Vocative, 199, 200.

>>

defective, 74, 76.

apocopation

of

the

last

>>

denoting a mental process,


246, 265.
different Jiinds of, 24.

syllable of, 200.

apposition
6.

of,

277,

Vowels,

>>
>>

doubled, 58, 59.

nasal, 6.

doubly transitive, 224.


forms
of,

the characteristic parts ot

30.

a form, 21. correspondence semivowels,


8.

governing by means of a
preposition, 186, 187.

with

the

governing two accusative


pronouns, 153.
)t >>
>>

as signs of inflexion, 9.

W.
Words
indeclinable, 279, 283.

having two

objects, 188.

Hemzated, 58.
Hollow, 69.
Indeclinable, 88.

Juj 295.
*

>>

(initialj), 67.
(initial

J
<". -'

^),
of,

68.

i f jU-jJl 302.

>>

Irregular, 58.

Moods
>>

27, 171.

J/1^1 ujUJJl
^,j-K*:\

302.
304.

of praise and blame, 247.

ujUJJl

THE END,

0A|

Tl

REC^

IB URL

jm
JUl

'^1 158 00563 7078


TTATTttTTrnX'S f^ATCPn-RTT AlUT) ^

VV

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6693204

WILLIAMS' ENGLISH AND SANSCEIT DICTIONARY.

SANSCRIT

GRAMMAR

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