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·

t·.

Courses in the descriptive phonetics of English constitute an integral pan of rhe curricula in Eug:lisll dej}ar'tmerns at the university and college. -k:vd in Poland. _~,\:l_"",h~oryalone cannot be rruly internalized wtthouc sufficient practice. we-are offerring here ,a collcctiou of over 30Q exercises meant 'as a teaching aid arid a complement '~O·the commonly employed courscbooks (such as, fer example. Gimson and.
C nnte nden ] 994) .

The present book contains systematically graded problems in English (and, to a. smaller extent. Polish) pllOnelk$~ as well as a-number of contrastive Polish-English exercises, Its main ~im is [Q provide tbe necessary practice in mastering the .knowlcdge of English descripuve phonetics. This is reflected in the type and orderingof [he problems. the .f[T~lQunt of detail and the emphasis on a crmrrastlve approach. While there are no production exercises in the proper sense; most of the problems ....... faster some ora! practice ill on (be part of rhe students . . \ I.hough the a ut nors have decided nor £0 t nclude (he key to the exercises (believi rig ulal ieac her tt guldance and supervision. C2IImJOI be dispensed with while using the book). the majority of them contain examples of proper solutions tp tilt: problems, which should f~H:ilit::lllethe studcrus work, A~ most of the exercises are (.}~$jgIledto check the students" knowledge or phonerics, (hey presuppose a prior acquaintance with -sorne of the. sources listed ~['!the bibliography, it is therefore' crucial for the. teacher , 10 make sure tll;!l:L (he- studentsare familiar with :a, sp·e.cLftc issue before they are asked to do a ' partie ular set 0 f exc rcise s . The focus of the book is on Received Pronunciarion (usually [aught in Poland). Some- attenrion is paid, however. to the major fcarures of General American English, Other accents of English· are nor covered by {hLs book. h snould BJ~obe-added [hat emphasis i-s laid on: scgrnenral phonetics of careful and casual speech while supTasegme~lt~11$,~uf:·saretreated mere cursorily. As casual speech phenomena display a considerable amount of dialectal and indi vidual variation, [he forms prnvided in chapter 7 might nm be acceptable W allspeakers of RP. T!1Q'$C who will follow rhe exercises one by one will find in each chapter: first a general iruroducnon, then problems on particular sounds or precesses. and. finally. S(~"~H: xercises on corresponding phonetic e phenomena in Polish, followed by ·the comparison of specific issues: inboth languages, The colleciion can ;lISt) he u,:sed fOi' reference, on an ad-hoc basis, when some additional practice L'lnecessary on one particular aspect.of Engllsh phonetics. Care should then be- taken, however, asa certain amount of cmss-refercncing and overlap wasunavcidahle (desirable, in.fact), and not all exercises are completely s..;:·lf-(':'ul1t<1ilJt'tL ln this connection It is felt that rhe book is best used under rather strict reacher control as the discrepancies between the assumed and the actual students' blOw!~dg·e can then be taken I.:3"Tt of and levelled out. It should also be nOled thar [he exercises in. the section on casual speech differ in Iorm Irorn the remaining ones ·irTl '[hat [hey involve a problem-solving merhod, The student L·S presented with language data lUlli expected to arrive at some generalizations. It is hoped that this method wU1 encourage the user
of theworkbook in his/her own analytic activity.

the Workbook is concluded with review exercises 'which summarize and integrate the material of !11e. previous chapters, Thanks ClH': dueat [his point to people who provided helpfu; (j f [L[ times critical) connnenu ....after r~adlng the manuscript in particular 10 prof'. heck Fisiak and prof, Katarzyna Dziubalska-Kolaczyk.
I

W'loaz.il1uerr. Sobko"'.Iia/r; Ioiauta Szyyta-Ku.z/owska

10

The fQ.95 edhinu of our W'Otkhook was exhaus ted a few years .agp. which, resulted in' rl1<U1Y" appeals for-a [c[J'rint or new t:di~inn.We Opl00. for lhe: latter: mim,lrl~TTot.[ and 1mperfy,cti OHS- ere retrJ.Bv~d,.i.nt:SweT w ·sp:.~cewas enlarged ruriun*§( of exercises Weft: added 6nostl::y in the area of g.I·<ipl1o'.phl)Ileuiic.~). a'nd rhe bibliogra.p·hy was updated. \"t hat!"lons; been wondering whc:[her or not [0 equip the Wbrl;ooDk with a.key, l,!;,"hkh\~.OllM. have ~n.Hlde"it easierto take advantage of the resource for the sel.f-taU'ght learners. Pinally WI: dec,id.ed ag.. ains; lt, k'n:QWlng thar the bock is malr!!)! ~sed in the comext af :teache·t~(t{lndu'-=1ed c6Lltse~ ri1iPf#ttlCa~ or 4e-s:cripttv.~phcnencs oJ Et):gU~h, fn thl$ .shu~t~n addinga ke;y wonld have made it impos1)-ibLt muse-theW.tlrkbook as a source of hOI'll$wol'k t~sks, Ln. whiehtnnclion it. ['s most .often employed, The.eraerla of twalu.~ri.or~of tJ~e·s,o! ed exercises thus remaln entirely inthe b~fJ.df'Oflhe cQ:mpetent te;ichet (wl:lb,,·af~er .v all, does not need the keJi). lJ sLn:g"'[)lis occasion We would_ ti'k1e"to:li:lafl~LaHthose who made {hi s.~.e.cofui~diti.annecessary; ie.'lC... , , 1tH students ami p'UpUs~au those: WhGi. J.~ed Ure Workbo6k to teach alJd learn.about the phonetics of Bnglisll 1 in ',UI anernpttc m~ It easier for Polish le:amers to communicate. in Engiish througj] speech, the. mO.Sl natural-medium ¢F human communication.
I. J
'I _ _ __ _ _ :~ ~ .~ .: ::.: ;o'~_ ... _ _ _ __ _ • " _, _ •

:sYMBOLS FOR ENGl~ISH:, SOUN])S~

as lil see
hi
I . ~

!p.i /b/
{t!

.as in pen
,as in bad
.::1.$

a'S ill si:


as in U!'I:1 as
]11

·tn'{2a

,'0(:1

hot ('~s'~:~I /)

/d;
;11.1

as in ,rita.

as.m arm
as in got ted
tv)

as in cat

igf ini
f.q:;f.

JrJtanJ~' St.p}'m -Koz.hpw sklj

Vr1iJJt_imi en. SiJJ):lt(h'~iak


·f

i.!:l .saw .as;...in pur


~"S

.as in get .~ in ch.in


as in JUI'Jf:
-, ,<il:s. " .If,;1.i..~ in fI~I'~

/u~t

a~ in.pqq
as 'riu::-up ('wedge' f\\le(~/)
as in.fd,f (,long'

Ht
!v!
IH/
/61

a~ in vQi~e
as. in t/;f:n

:sc.il:wa·' ) JW:;L~/)

t, [hem'

tebe;)))

asf.n··§gl? ('schwa')

.as III
a'S in

.lhen

(dh' ie61-)

ls.' !z)

so

as ~n z(JtJ

t_" !
a-g. !I1.p.agt! ,1J

as-ln she. ('esb' leI

,~:s t n

vil.il)Jl (~YOg,h~ /tLY9./)

l:;::,.u/
hlUi

as t.n hOlne

Ihl

as i.nJ'iMe
loil

m1i
In! IJ}l

as-ln. how asi n piah as in no


'as in s{ng {'erJg: /~rJ/}

as. in now as injoin


as-in near

r!l
IT! /wl

.as-in }eg a!)~tn·red

.as in MiT
8.s..mpN.re.

-as in yes eyod' ~:od)"}


.asin wet

S~OLS

FOR S()I\1:E lMPORTANT

VARlANTS

OF E~GLISH SOWD~.:.

r~J
I

v oieeless palat~1 fr1ca~'~y~,as.in pian 0: l' p-q:(:elJ~U] FO$i"l,lv~o"lfir ~a:t as in. Heiu"j L

i,

[ll;]

rh~nriJ

[~11 [r]

lahio-J.er1tal nasal ~as i.np:a:mphlet [~p~n:lbt]


·,,~oiGed..tiJv',@"olal" tap, :a.s,in Amerlc'.1n Er:g:lish~ /?ig:hry [~·eti.iJ

~Ql

[jaJf~opeol1 back vowel.zs if! American EngJish atuNe ['oml]

r
-

12

SYI\':iBOLS FOR POLISH

SOUNDS:

I.Introductloln.

/t,

I/

pest-alveolar affricateS,

HS

in .c:;::{q', dt.ltlJm

let dz/

ts,
in; ; xl

dentalaffricates, as in f,afy., wiedza prepalatal fricarivesvas prepalatal


in ~.i, !!JZ~dl

1. FlU In the gaps: PhOJ.le.tlCS. is the study of respect" to. their ; _ . ,. . ;


.. • I ~ • I • • .~

16, dil

at'frk~.~es, as In·frna, fltgac prepatara: nasal, as in to!l_ voiceless velar fricative. as in !J..wiba

.!f!&~
n • ,
I , ,

J&tVUll.
, • • , • •

The sounds of a language can be studied witb


• • , • • • I • • • • , • • • • , • • • • , , • , ' , ,

,..

"

~ ... •

...

II

••

..

II

..

DIACRITICS:
I ~ II
I .,. ..

. and ~ ~,_,
i !

... '"

..

Ii.

..

,.

'"

"

Mil.

••••

The branch of phonetics known as , ...


, , ! , .• , •• , i •••• , , •• , , • , •

V:
V

long (terllie) vowel

••

••

•••••

is concerned witb the


1 ••• ~• ,
i ' , , • ' • , • , ,

nasallzed vowel
velanzed vowel labialized (rounded) consonant palatalized consonant lateral plosion

articulatory movements required


• , • • .• • • • • _ , • • • ; • • , •

to
T

produce sounds. Another branch, Le'


• • • • • • , • , • • • -. ,. , • , • ,

VJ

deals wi rh
,,

C"""

disturbances in the air in the form of sound waves, Finally, .. , .


.. ... • • ~ • • • ! I .. _.

••

••••

.. •

iii

'!'

._

•••

••••

C! C~ en

studies the mannerin

which

the speech sounds strike our ears.

nasal. plosion
aspiration

2. Explain the meanlng of the following statements:


a) The analysis of the spoken. and not the written, form of language is of primary concern
10

U:'nexp;todt:d ,lOP
devoicen consonant syllabic conscnant denial(izcd) consonant

a linguist.
(..._J

~~_;.;f-

.fl.r.{)iw:trp, /cJ.
~·tt¥Tl.,j.

r'~l-"'t'(i~.

..Jf:iJz-o.1·tca./lY....

b~?,£ap,g:f

&:.r8

_4j..-<;-(. fft.!.()-J:;yz.

t:M.d

t..-fe,t{;

·0·"ll'H"PR··· S'VlI"'lo·O· ILS' " ... : .llY tl ..


< .' .'" -.:......, ;,.

d!:-.o,'et~ /PfY..-.'tVi,/I

<,·z:t,,..c eve .11U«:1/' lb-rp(/4F..1 tL..f.::c.-f tl..p~~/wl M¥"'i/._!lYb at £If?

<

b) To describe speech sounds we cannot al ways. depend on the way they are spelt.
! ~ I • • .. • I Ii ., • • • i
OJ ... • ..

alteruar ive P ronuac iation

J...

'I

"I ]
[]
l

ill-formed string

.......

II.

....

allophcnic transcription phonemic rranscription

()

/'1
'r'
I
I

optional element, e.g, :([11) - optional aspiration primary stress, e.g, ago 1~".g::ll,Ji sec 0 ndary stress: eg, gazetleer /,gteZ'~'tiJl ietters. letter combinations

'I.!IIIT-"'~

••

II."

1f

....

I~I~11

c) Any spoken utterance is a continuum of sounds, and theboundaries not easily identifiable.
• • • • • ~ .. I I
I ..

between them, are

I I

<: >

,,

...

..

.1

i-

il

II

i.

"I'

•••

.. ,

I
14

13

d) Acoustic phonetics provides more objective information about sounds than arrieulatory descriptions.
.. .. .. .' ,. to' If I •. ... II ~ ,. .. .. I

.. ,

I,

..

..

..

.,

II.

III

'.

11

I'

Ii

ofij

'.

r.

...

If'

.,

;0

"

..

I!

..

P!

IIITI

...

llpill~

••

""'.~~

••••••

",~'1".'."

•••

'.'-4'11I

.lilll

....

r.n

.....

·....

"

~·--·!~""~~d!!

,-.

I,

••

,!!

••

,1".'1""

~.'"

.. ,

..

..

'!!

"

if

Ir

...

...

!I

II

"

II

'"

II

,.

,;

.I

-"

iI

"

..

..

"

!I'

,..

r. '" .. .. .. .. • ... _
.II ..

II!

..

Ii

ii

'"

I..?

II

II

..,

..

If

III

..

;;;

_,

'"'

..

It

ill

"

'I.

II

jj;_

.II

..

..

..

Ii

..

..

.II

j) The sounds otsgiven

..

..

..

..

..

...

..

..

"

If!

..

riI

"

..

..

.,

..

..

.,

..

..

'"

language have features 'U1at are Jinguistically significant and feateres which are not Iingnisticalty significan; .
• • , I

"

'"

..

II!

.,

'.

..

,I

.'

..

[II

..

..

..

..

oJ .... I I II I

"

...

~I

'11

!Il

Ii

"

..

..

.•

II.

ill..

"

.,

..

..

"

.,

..

e)

.FDf

practical reasons, emphasis

is often Ia:ld. on articulatory phoneties.

.,

...

..

•.

,.

..

III

iI

'"

ii

...

I'

.,

"

'F

PI

..

'"

.. '

..

"

;,

.If

io

!'

...

"II

""

'ti

,.

...

"

"

..

;_111.,.,

••

~'.

'I

II

&!

II

~··I.

III

..

hi

,.

f<l"

••

..

,11,

'!!!

ii'l!

..

Ii

,.

.1

..

;0

;i

..

"

ii'

'I

'"

;r

•••

II

a;

..............

II

...

It

..

II

...

..

Ii

••

I!

..

..

..

..

.--

II

..

..

..

..

..

""

"

,.

..

_.

"

ofij.

••

••

;1_.

•. ~ • • • ,. ._

If

I!

II'

..

-t'

..

..

..

..

..

"

II

..

iI.

..

..

..

..

II

..

.'

..

..

.'

..

......

..

'!i

..

'I

........

.,

..

..

I.

..

..

"

..

!'

..

II

.,

.•

:t
," ..

,h

..

~,

..

..

..

..

.,

f) The description of (he sounds of a. language JS done in a way that Is independent of any

¥thlch t-yple of seund descriptlon (arti(ul.ato(y~ aeoLLStie,~auditot'y) preferable inthe foUowing, applications;
a) telephone, radio" TV engineering:
'0) teac'hing. the deaf to speak:
a,tJ,t.lu..Jt[~ tl#.~J!

would be

particular speaker of that ianguage.,

......•.. ,

,,

, ,. ,,

, ;
•• , < ••••

••

"

"

••••

II

II

.'

,.

/I

II

II

II

,j

"

,;

II

;;,

II

.,

/I

'!

~r

"

..

Lit

"

/I

/I

c) phoniatrics:
" ". I I .~ of I

"",.,

, ,,
, " , ,

"

..

/I'

It"

"

..

II

..

~.

,i.

.,

II

..

Ii

iI

'II'

".

'i

if

...

'"

d) research in language perception. and. acquisiticn.. , e) impersonation training: ._ ....


+ ' , •• ...... -

•• " , •

~.

..

"

LI I

i·.".~

!!.I

.••••

~~rl,

•••

""I"';''''~~~II,I~

II

.'

..

II

II

..

i!

!!.

..

"

ii

"

Ii-

II

."

I'

....

I.

'"

..

/I

"

II

III

io

;,

P'

"

of"

'I

i_

g) In teaching practice one varie~y of English (for instance RP) Is chosen as a model for language learners.
'!' •••••• II '" 10
-i •

t) foreign language reaching: ; , .. . . . . .. . , .. , ; . , . .

<-

••

g) exchange of ideas between phone ticians:


b) acrors' training.. . . . , . . . " . . . . . . . , , . , .,
io

, , '. " , , , , ,
I " • , , .,

, .. - , " , , , , . , ,. . . . .
, •• ; ,
I • • • • ••

oj

.;.

,••

.........

....

,.,

"

..

I'

II

I.

Ii;

•••••

II

....

II

,.

...

'

......

i'

..

..

..

II'

'I

..

"

..

I.

..

..

..

II

..

.,

oj

.,

..

..

..

...

..

io

..

..

..

..

..

Ii

1) design of speech synthesizers:


• i
oJ! .' • .. !! ~ ,., ~

"

..

..

..

'.

..

,..

!;

'.

...

!'

..

I.

.'

••

II'

[,

"

"

"r

r.

Po

I!

..

_ij

;,

...

..

..

..

..

••

r. .. .' ~
..

jjvocal communication with computers.. .. ; . ,

-,

'

",

..

..

..

..

..

,..

,Ir

.,.

"

..

II.

I. .. , " ..
II ~

/I

'"

"

"

;;

'.

,i,

.11

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

"

II

..,

..

,..

..

ii

4" Engli,;h is spoken as 3: native language in many different parts of the world, \Vhere?
a) g?J.t;.tU ~?(.a.Vt b) c) . ~
.!

'"

II

Ii

it

;I,

..

;,

...

.,.

.,

..

"

••

;0

!'

,.

h) Some knowledgeof phonetics is necessary in pboniatrlcs, sound engineering, foreign language reaching and .other fields.
I ... ~

,
"
H .. I'

,
••• ~ ". "

,
II

.'

••

., •••

'!

.'

"

I.

,.

'.,

..

Ii

r.

""

...

!t,

"

;0

...

"

"

II

Ii

..

"

"

,.

"'I

"

'.

.,

"

,.

,I,

d:.N
}

'I

"

...

1-'

II

II

.J

II'

..

..

""

'"

..

..

I[

..

...

Ii

!'

..

II.

..

..

,,,

•.

..

..

'.

,,
.. " ....... III .... "

e) ..
! i • I
I. '. ,~ ..

...

"

"

...

'F

f)

"!I

.,

II.

'i

II.

.,

i) Sounds. like other linguistic units, are defined by [heir compositon (structure}, disrribu-

ti on and fu netion . .
.
III • .. • • .. • II " " • • .. , I· • • • ~ ~ •. • I ...
ft

I,

II

I!

'I!!

,.

~.

.,

"

'.

'.

..

"

I-

~.

17

5. English d:haled:s often, diffe:rcons'i,derablyfro.m

tion.Pmvide RP (R;gcdved PronundatiOtl) forms of'the foUowing rand0ml'yc~,osen examples. Discuss; the diffcreIm:Ces:. safer Cockney Engl!:sh: ['sai7J]

each other

:tlt)

'terms

OfprOll'Uncia-

RP: ['seih] .
;~L

fire - Welsh English:

r~'f;}U~l

DP,"" RP;

i!

skin ~ Scocfish. English: [skirt]

nine> Irish Enghsh: [11'811'1]


l'iaiJ - American EngHsll: [ha::f]

RP: RP:
RP:'
l!rJir;)l]

,,

,~

..

L!

wrUer- Canadian En.gH.sh:

nothing - SJ.ack English: rl1;lr~n]

RP';

_jatl'~er~ Caribbean EngUsh,:: ['fa~:da]

RP:
RP:
RP: RP'
I' "

face. ~. Atl5tniJiaR -En,gli.sb.: [f 1\ Is]


dry- New Zealand English: T 'sJti:]

8. Hew would you cha:racter.ize in general ternlS' themajor simllarltles and. dUf'efiellCoffi between Englisb and Polish sounds?'
ii

time - South AfrfCl1l] English: [taim]


gOal

-Tndian EEl.glish: [go:t]:

RP:

I,
1
[I ~' ~

7. Char.aeterizebrie.lly
a) phoneries

the:~-'On0wing:branches of' Ungu.istics.:

b) phoIlrnogy
• 1

.,
~ ., L. 'Il. •• n i ,"' ',," • I' I~ ~

'!

Ii

'"

Ii

-,

I
2,. Pllo,netic transcriptton

.'
19

4. All orthographic systems s:Y1!l1boHzc only some of the important. . spece{:b. Discuss this statement with reference to the' functions :S:('Tlption. Exempllfy your discussion.
~ ~ .. .. .. ~ .. j .. " ... ,r ~ .. .. .. • •. • •

Hf phonetic tran-

sig.Jlals carried in

1. Study the examples given below:


i • II II ; .. " • .. .. • • .. • I ~

II

"

Ii

rfi

..

..

"

"

II

I.

..

"

"

,mgny
hate ...
'J"la't'e""
'l"iI'~ ... r,.;; .. "

what

hare- last ,_ ~

••

..

..

••

II

"

'II

,..

••

II

,I:

"

....

"

..

..

...

"

II

.,

..

..

'"

...

..

..

LI

...

"

..

..

••

...

"

...

a) "lhat is the phonetic value of rhe tetter 'a' In these words?

...

"'

II

..

..

..

Ii.

..

..

Ii"

"

<II

..

..

..

..

ii,

..

II.

-..

lei! , . , , man .. " . ' , • mans ... ._....


~ " "

, ..•
" •

what ., , I '.
r ••

'"

'r

II

'.

ir

..

II'

..

...

..

.'

II

...

...

....

...

,.

II

._

..

-I!

..

"

iI

II

..

..

..

"

"

..

..

"

Or

"

OG(;IQ'I!1' .• ~I ~ ~~"'.~

II

.,

'J!

hare ".f~~'I~

'r

'!o

tas: " ,.!£.~l.

!I

..

IIJ

"

II

I'

"

..

Ii

"

..

..

II

"

"

..

..

"

"

'"

...

b) Give examples of other words in which one-letter is pronounced in several different ways:
~ II " oF.. y
po

..

Of

..

"

II

"

II

""

..

....

,',

tAo

i.

"

II

i'

..

II

..

,~

..

..

~,

••

,,,

fI"""",

to

II.

it.

it!!'.

I!>

'.

P"

I'

II

I.

I:)

••

'"

••

-';;"

I"

_i

c) How can this orthographic discrepancy be overcome?


• .' ~, Ii '" • • ..

r. '. •

10

~'

.,

"

••

"

'.'

IJ

II

J.

..

Ii

"

I'

"

0;

"

!'

II"iitl~.'~I"."'I

••

"11'"

nlll

no!ii_

.....

_'~

•.•

'~·~.IiII'

...

II.".··III.,

.. 41','.,.~

__

III1.

5. Fill in the blanks using the expressions given below:


" .i. .. _" '. ,~, •
I, n ~ '!, "

!'

.~

I.

'.

iii

'"

"

J. .

I,

II

Ii

.11

11

!'

..

',,,-~.n.} Z' 'S' ....

l. d'" t,de, ..• nles grve . :.~- e ow" exampres ais a'r-\ 'b'" I',' . ,'"

Various types of transcripuon have. been devised. The main difference is between /~ltc
clue

il/ldT

and , . . . , , . . . . , , . , , . . , ,. . - . . . " . . . . . . . . . . . " . _ _ . , . , . . . . .

to

too

tlVO

threw

-~a.1 , , . , . . - , , . . . , ., . . • ,. • ., , ,

, . , , . , , , .. ·.,

, ..

, transcnpnon. ,.,

The former !",c;prese:nt:seach sound with a number of ,,. ' _ , .. , " , . ,,, " _ , . , ,. . . , .. transcription, where each sound IS. pictured ,,;.....,..,

a} 'What do the underlined seqeences of letters have in common?

symbols. The latter is further divided into " ., .. , . , , . , . , with a non-arbitrary symbol, and . , . " " , · .. , .. , .are arbitrary. The
'" 11 ~ .' r. ~ •

.3Zejl t.Lr,g /,,i'Wl.(Jd.ntC~:d


,.. to " " .. ,. • ,. II I • • d.

(;-l-

;;.t;;, jt:P"~ «~?-",t.:iJ.

bJ Give ex amp les of other sounds which can.be written by means-of different letters:
i! • • ~ .. ..
11 " .., !OJ ~ • ~ I I • " i ... ,.. • II ...

, , , , transcription. most in use today, in which the signs


mOSI
~ .,
Iii

"

"

iii

...

'"

...

.,

"

'0

c) How can this .onhographicdiscrepancy


• II ~ .. ,I. II .,.. , "'

be overcome?
~

commonty used. type of transcription


• " " 1 ~ 'II ~ Ii • ., " ~ Ii • • .. ir ;t " ,. • " ..

its.:that proposed by the, " ..


.., _ .. '. ~ _

if!

.~-

LI

II

,!

't

...

II

io

I. ~ " ...
• • • •

Ii

Ii

I.

.,

.'

"

"

II

I"

..

"

Ii

..

ii

••

"

Il

..

...

"

..

which stands for International


• • .. • II • • L I " ~

"
CaIl
, • ,

,,, ," "" ,

,•'"

,,. ,

...

...

of,

!!'

II

if

"

If

...

I.

..

.j.

,.

..

"

I.

.'

"

In terms of differenrfunctions, rranscription


•, ••• , " ••••••• ••• ; , ••••• ,

he divided into .. ' .. , , . "


! ••• " • " , , • , ,

, ...

,.

3., Fill in the blanks:


Phonetic transcription is necessary since in many languages, such as one-to-one correspondence between, ~ ~ .. and

(also called impressionistic, _


D1D;)rj),'
• " • _.

g:_~p;d.'jlf • there is.no


,,
I I i I ~ " ~ ~ .. II ~ " _ '" II

or allophonic) and .. , . _ " , , · " .. , .....


., • • " 1 'I' oj

_ ; , .. , , ~ ., . used.for , , . __
'" ~ " • " _ " "'

, , , ' , .. - (or systematic, phonemic). The former is


! • •

, . " . , " . , , .. , , , . , .. , .. ,
I .. II

'"

.'

.,

_,

Ji

'"'

..

,I

"

....

..

'I

"

'to

Ii

II

;;.

' I' an d "[h,e :L.aHer lor ~ , " .. " , , .. , . " . ;, .. _ ...


;1:"'

, ...

" " ., . , .... them is that

, _, ,
SysIC111a[ic

. , . , , , ... " .. " ' , , . , represented in spelling by


"""li~I,,,~I"'';;;~

, . , ...

, _ " , .. , ,.

. Thus, sometimes

one

sound is
,",.

· .... " ,....

, . , .. "

. The main differencebetween

transcriprion

" ..'. ' .. - ~ . " .. , , , , , , -

' " .. , . ,

aSSU:r11es til at _ , , , _ . , , , , . . . . . • . " , ' , , , " " . . , , , . " . . , ; , • . • , , . . , , , • . , ..

, ., . . " • . l.ll other cases" one letter represents " ,


.!i!~'.I.I'!~!r'!""""'"''_.'.·'I'.'~.'''

· . , , - .. ~ .. , .. , , is known.
type makesno

and therefore predictable detailmay be left o~u, The other _ . , , .. , .. " , " . _ ,

such assumption and shows alI . ,.. , '

,.
,

~,
I

l'

.20

21
I • • • " .. _

'I

II

"

.,

..

"

..

"

"

oj

...

'

..

II

II

;e;

,II

."

TI-;.·l~ J.~ ...


j

~{' ~'.JI

us'uallv done bv means'J U. .\po':.


" ILI: ..
il'· .
~t{~

'O'~ _
III
!II

"

..

..

'"

II

..

"

..

.i

I!

"

..

"

"

"

.'

I'

"

!!

additional signs or., . , " . . . '. " . • . . ., , . ., . • . . . . . , , . • . . . . . . '. .. . . . . . " . . . . . , " ." . _ . , .. _ . , .... which modify bask symbols, The two types of transcription u:s;e. , , .. , . , ,
II II .. ,

"

..

,II

II

..

.'

'.

"

..

,_

..

'!'

I!

different brackets to enclose tne symbols in: " . , , , ' , ,


I ,II • ~ ... ~ I i I

,
II • .. ~ , I II T •

..

III

II'

!It

...

It

••

iii

..

..

!'

"

11

..

!o

II

.iI

t.

..

.;

3-

•.

..

~.

4.

"

oi,

01

II

'!!'

.'

"

and
" II II

II

a;

~.

••

...

iI II

_.

"

t.
-

'II

.t ;
I@I A;

II

11

"

.•

11'

'"

"

..

..

..

II

...

..

...

II

II

"

..

...

II

_"

II

II

if

..

..

'"

to

.,

"

If

II

'"

..

11

..

~.

ill

"

/..l

l., ,,], a(c..4'ahiir;;

&'Ptui

r.!tt:/.o"ilif;J.

t-r.-o/U4

J~

/UI/l'iOJ".t.,

I'~/I£.lic..

,,~fi.cl'ic

II

to

••

.!'

"

"

I!

~.

11

iii

It'

",

..

II

I,

,..

..

.,

"

oj

]I

'"'

,II

"

II

"

II

..

I'

..

.s§jj{i-;C;t~M/(}/'t, .J{}-t{,'"~y.i t"CU'?a4"#4


... , I .,!!.,II~-II!iL'!; ••••• ,

,,'p

",.1

~".!I.,

~I.

6:, Explain the differences between the two (IPA) transcrtptin us of the fonow'tug strings:
phonemic

'"

Ii

Ii

"'.

to

"

'II

II

...

iI

..

iI

'!!

I. • .. '" • . .,..

II

;.

...

I. , ~ .. • '"

II

••

'"

'"

...

..

I'

allophonic 1['" '81 •••• ']1:1: "'


I'

. 9./Find errors ill the transcriptlon of the following English words: .


~.--'..-'"

, .

north

fno:81
/SUOUQ;;:Jr/
,

, - ••

,.••.

-.

scaeen .Ise;{ '['1:11/:


I, '"

i"

iks' ' .. . . • j !!il csn:n J' , ; " " , .

length. .lleLlg8l:

."

....
.~
+

""."
•••••••• , • ,

stronger
cloak fold

r~q"'DUg;J'J, , . . . .- ,. , " , , - . . . . . . . - ... [~k~d@k]. , , . , " , " . - , . _ . , " , , , . " , , ..


c

, OJ ·cry /crat/:

, .. ' .. . . . ., , , . . , '. . . " . , .. .

ashamed /a'shelrnd/:

/klouk/
/fould/ IJtemptl

contain lk on-~ tern! :


t·1:i·, tH"-/" ~ "~i.S .._,. L~'"
..,..."........,..
_J

knives /naivs,':
_. .
_ • • " • .. , .. • " • •

['f~ti)ldl -

,,

allow f311au/:

"'"

attempt

-" • " ava" 'd f C~• v OH..L / r.

.,...

umbreUa /umibreh~/~

" ,.,

, , .. , ,
I •• ,

simple'i'si:mpl!: human

7. Explain the meaning -of the following terms;


a) dtgraph:
b) ligature:
tl.-

r hu.rnan/:

playful. /'pleyfu!/:

. _ .. '

, ..

(f'OHl£i/)-tatioa

¥/~/:f()-dta.!"aole<f"J r:/tiM an4

/r),Y eZr.l...llp1t:
• ., ~ L I

/~£l

10. 'Study the text transcribed below and:


a) write .it trr traditional orthography ~
..

. , ' . . . ., ' ... , . . " , , ...

_.. . . , , .. - . . . .. . . . . .. . . ' .. " " , - ., , .... ,


• • ~ .. • • • "' " • "

c) rilda:

''' ....
"

'" .. ,.''",

...

- , ".

d) ash: , , , . " , '. ' . , , . . " " . . . . - . , , e) diacritic: , . , , ". , . -". , . , . --"

b) read it as many times as necessary to ensure fluent reading.


!~'Il0!e

P'

..

- " ., . " , "

"

" ..

windend

Itj;;:i sxn w;; dispil!~ti'D


, , • ,.

w~1f- w~z
" • ,.

0;) st"r3UgJ wen

ua:vl~ keim
".•.•••
i " • •

Y& 1'~,.du;·r:tu<''(7/'.td'&tc Juri; u;'1i're'

, . " • " " , • • • , . .,

8. Different systems o'ftrauscription make d~fferent assumptions about the structure 'Of English sounds, ~Vhat assumptions can yon decipher from. the rollowing examples?

-dbg rrept in. ~ WO:m klauk ocl dgrt.:d bdl. 6;;; WAll hu: [;}:st ssksudtd in rneikin 6~

VO"VElS AS IN beos
.I

wosnsbite
OJ

"

!'

'I

,_

!,

"

IIJ

III

"

;,

i"

"

I;

III

"

.,

.~

..

In,

.,

"

••

..

Ii

..

bit.
I

d'S
.. ~

ha:d
.. .. ..

';}z

i kud bot OJ mo: hi blu: 6~ mo: klousll did 0;) tra-vla [duld his kLn.Jk
.. i .. , !I' ~ , • • .. • .. ,. • .' i .. ~ ~ .. •• ,. .. .. ,. • ~ ,. iii" £ .... .. .. " • , .. • • _ ~ , If .. _ • "

Kenyon and Knott


'Trager and Smith

..

.t ..

-araund him end


fit ., or '" • ~ ~ 11 • II • ..

JC
, ..

Ia.st O;}no:8 wind g.eiv


• III ill I

t'\P
" ~. •

Oi cternpr
~ I ~ .. • " •

j,y

'OY
'I '"
I ~ .. ~ ~ • • ., , ..

oeno~ SAn
• '" • • •

Jon uut woanlt


<II •• • • • .. .. .. • .. p

iii

Jones
I

i:

ci
1

Vlebsler

.e

,22

23

.,

.,

Ii

..

..

'I

.1

..

III

it

!Iii

"

"

P<

.•

"

I. -

, 13..)Is]IY :EngU&l~words
.i; L , •

Or

..

"'"

;j

..

'"

'"

'"

!'

'"

t. .

;their ortbog;raplrlc a)
VI;ct'UClZ'

in a way w.hich. departs ,co:osi,il<e'rably from 'fil')l'm~ Tr'~al5·ttj,bethe exam:pl~, given below': n) ghoul - . , .. _ . . . . .. . .. ' , . . , , .. ,
0

are proaounced

11..Trans.tribe

the .following

P'O-ClU"

N;odce the incQtl$istencies of speUiu:g.


, , .' ... _

lvitll

. . . . , .. , . ; ; " .- . I • ,. • ...

l take itytJu already know . , ...... fat reik it ju Jl'rcdi nau/ _ ~ . " . ' .......
Of lilall{!l.l and boug' hand tmH'1'}1 and dolt~k ?" ••• _ ~ ~ . e
OtnUj' i'1'my

b} seismi c. • • . ., ~ • • .. • • , .. . , c) guinea" , . , . , ,
d) indi a .. .. .. , . . , .. . . .
e)
I

1 rneU!o r

, , . , . , , . .., . ; . , . . . . _. . .

- , " .. .. • • , , .....

, .•

' ; , . , • " .. , .
r _ • •
T • , .. ,

,
• , , " .. •

"
..,

p) viscount. , . _ , ..
r)

.'

•••••

••

••

JtlJ.rn11ttc,~ bur not

jotL . . . , . . , , " , .. ., , , ' . , ; , _ . . . _ . .

q) ho ljpienny. .. . . . . . . . . . . , . " , , .. , ' ;


I

Ou 1'1iccrnctgn,. th:Cffougl!. rough and through

, , .. , "

corps

...

'I

..

,..

~,

iii'.

•.

...

I.

mauve .. _ , .....

,. " . , .....

; .. , , ...

••

••

••••••

WeLldone! And nOlw youw~~h. perhaps, .. , ., . , , • ; To learn.-ofless familiar traps], .... . . ... . . , , ., ' , •
That lo()ks like··beard and sounds likt-blrd, . ,
;bt,d dead: it's said fike. bed, not bead

, ., - .. _ .... , _ .. , . , , ,
T , • .. • •••••

f} plaid , . . . . . . . . .. ._...
! •

, " .. . .... ,

'S.) iufrt)ine .. . . " , ., . " ,. , . . . . . . , . , . _ .


t) heiJ~r , . . , . . ; ; . . .. , ' , .. , , . ,
! • _,

g)
!' ••• ' , ., ., ,. ,. .,

le;opard . ., . .. . , ' . , ; _ , . . , . . . . .
, . . . . - . . _ . .. . . . . ,
" , •• • • •• • , , ., " •• .. _ _ •

Beware Qf neatd, a dr-eadftl word, . . . _ . .' , ,., , , , , ., , , . . . . . . . .. . , , . . , , • . _ " , ' .. - .. ,


T •••••••

0) bn:;(}c/z ,,-. i.) ehJ"~e


T • ..

u).Go.nstabJe. , , . _ .. , , , .. _ .•...•
v)

, ._,
• • , • • ,

geyser; ., . , , .. ,

.•

..

" .. , , .. ,

- _ ....

, ,.....

, , , , .. ,

J.'J

'...~

ta nt· .•.. • r
, ;. .' I~ •
,'< :

~ '"' ~.

..

..

.,

ii

'I

IJ

iI

w}borough
x)

For geodness s,aKe don': c:a;lUt 'deed' i., (Uz,ey rh:ynui with

" , , .-_ - . . . . ... ". . . . . , . _. . ... ..


! • !' •••• , " , ••••••• , , ' , ,

' k)ju Ch~iJ;a .. _.


,f.

••

til

••

!'

11

•••

II

r;,

II I.

cord un! . . .. " . , . . , , , , " . . . , . , . _ .


to
II ~ • • • • I

""lcuchaaifor meecand great and threat, . , ; . , ... " ;


A ,mothis notas 'moth '.in mother, _ . , .

1) 09"""""" I.
o.,t·V:':;,..)I",

••

..

It

.~

.;0

I[

II

"

"

!!

'\f~;J.,""'5'" J: J L!'u J •

I.

...

:II

,.

,l¥ile and' .straight and deb.!)~:. . . . . . . .


I , •• "",

. . .. . .. . . . . . . .. . ., _ . . . .
,........ ••••••• ! T !, !

m)

twopence ...

. . . . , ... . , ., , , . _

z)

compas.s , . . , , . . . . " . , . . . " • _ . , .

14. The prenuneiatioa

Not l)orh in bother, broth in brotner . And here is not a mtUcliJbf there. . , . ,_, , .•..
,,

, .. ,
, , . ' ...

-., ,. ,'
_ .. , . " . , ..... ,

-.
,

rn a. dl:etron.ary:.
;a) ThtI1JU
b) Seen:
S

of [uany ,Englisb plaee names and personal names Is often ~di()sy~lc:ati.c·. Transcribe the fhUnwing words checking ... irst their pronunciation. f
/temz.' , .. , . . ., , . , , . . . . .
+ • • • • • , • , , ;

Nor dear and fear/or bear and pear . .. . . . .. - ., .. _ . " . . , , .' ..... .And then tnere 's .dose and rose and lose -, , ; , , " " ' .. Just .tool;: _thtlse up - and goose-and choose -,"
! • , .... " ••••• '.

". , . , . -- ;
• , • , , , .••

f.I} SQuthw'a~rk. . , . , . , ., "' 0)

. " ; , , , , , . , ..

, , . . ._.., . ...
• ._ i •
Ii
I ...
U •

Madeira " , . " , , " . . ,... , _ ...

" .. , ;.

' . . . . . ' .. ,

,._

'"" \ .lJrir' IJ.,.r f''t_, v:} .D· '"I.~ 'tl .'.

.,..

,..

..

r. , ,
" ••

p) YeatS . . . .. . .. . . , . . , , ; . , . , , , .. .
'I) .A rkansas . • . . . , , -. . . , ; • . • . • , , , r) Crtdson $) Ydwghan
t) Combe, , .. . , . . . . . . . ; , . . . . . . . . .
u)

Andcork: and work, and (XtrJ '(]nr;i»-:ard,. , , . . . , . , ,. ,. , ,. .. " . .. . , , , , .. " . , . , , . . .

d) It-itul,gh(uJ'l. ,.•.
e) Pepys ., ,
"0)' S'P'V'I'"',""; v .0:' - ~... r-·.... J'
~~.·l~

•••

•••

..

A'~dfonr andfron:t and ward' ami sw'Ord, _ . . , , . . . . .. . . . . . "


And dv and ga, turd thwart(Jnil cart,.. , ' ,
I •• , ., , , •. ,. , , •• ,. , " ••••

" . , .. , - ...
'. , ••• -

, .", ,

, .. "

."

.L

II

to

.,

f) V·e.rby _ _ , .. " . . . . . . , . " " , . • • . "


!
[II ••

Come. come, I've hardlY made a starr!"

" .-

"

••

,.

'I

••

"

.•

,.

'I!

..

A drea4ft4i lrmguage? Man alb.,le, • . , , , ,., " . . , . , , ' . , , . . . , , , . . . . . . . , • . . .

ra mtlsteredU»!ne'll

h)L' .' ::: . eicester . . , ... ; , . _ . " .... , .... i) Sf.llislJilry

Sh,ea.. .. . . . , , . . , , . .. . . .

.,

wos five! . ,

, , . " . . . . . . , " . " , .. ,

'

. .. . . , .. _ • , " , -, . , . . ..

v)

Gtoucester . . . . . . . . , , ' . , .. .. .. , _ . ;
! •• • , • , • , •

12. III the worel" ~giveobelow i.Il.tUcate-t.hose consanantletters


noancedr

''rlrbJcb are not pro-

j) Grosvenor .. ,
k) 11oro.y ....•
.l.J

; .. , .... _ . , , , , ,
" , . .. . , . . .
'! ~ ... ,

w) Tucson. . .. , , . . . .. , .. , .
x)

,
• JO • ;to

He.rtJdrd ....

, " , ......

' , .. , .. _ ..
>. • ., • • • • •

'T~ " ,J. rial

II

If.

.,

...

"

"

..

iii

y) Reading. , , . .. , . . . . " , -;

dmrilj, shephf.:nl, JOlk..,. solemnly, Connecticut, Holme«, vehicle, psalm; Campbeilt daubrfui, drachm. design, singing. kn)ght, ptero:d{1.ct:yl

rn) cGa?'![g~:;s.. . . " , . . , ; , . , . . . .

z) Greemv!ch . . , . . , , .. . . , . . , , . . . , ,

..

24 IS'.,English contains manyborrewlngs from other languages. Transcribe the following: items. Nute that in several cases different pronunciartous are possible. Try to' identify the languages from which thesewords have been borrowed.
k) ragout. " , . , . . . . . . , . . . . . . . ,. . . . h) furore e)
I" I II
i .Ii .. ~ n '" ••

25

..Ii

iii

"

,.

,.

'n

Ii

;;,

til

••

..

,;

Ii

'h

,i

"

I) ..
g.) h)
I

I~'

11.

~ti

••

I.

i.

Ii

~!!:

.'-

...

t.

f!'

~"'II""!

.'

••

il,

••

"IJ""

.'.,,,

••

~,~

1'1

II

If!

fI

II

"'"

,.

III

Po

II

i!

..

..

,.

;;

~.

I.

'I

;;

" , , . _. ,

l)

concerto. , , . , . , " , . , . , . . . . . . . . .
.. . .. ,.,. . . ., '" . . , ,
I • • " • • • • ••••••

i). . j).
.Ii

il

...

!'

II

"

..

...

III

,i

.,,'

"

I-

I-

II

If'

.t

of,

It

!.

.'

III

"

..

,I

Ii

c) chandelier .. " d) toreador .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....

rn) l,~.mgna n) felafe! ...

..

I'

ii

I.

'"

.•

"

'"

Ii

'"

'1

..

..

"

-I!

or

•.

~.

•..,

I.

of

..

'I

1,8.What is the relatlou between sounds and. leiters in Polish '!


.

'D) RhQ'Sludgr f)UcmJairpwll ,g} bhagwan . . .'


."..,.......... b.r~_ t'.J;~":i-' tumara

" .' ., , " "

p) Llewelyn . . . . " , . . . , " , ,. , " , . . . .


n\ -"1i
..,. ~
'! ~ -

a) Give examples. of words in w'hkh the s-ame' sound is represented by different Ieuers:
niciie.on" .... ,. . .. , • . . • " • . " . . . . • . . , • . . ., .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . , , . b) Give examples of words ill which the same letters are pronounced in a. different
,p. ••••••• ,. "",iTJ

"

II'

,h) borscht " .' " . . " . , .. . , " , . . ., . . . i) bala laika ,. . . . . . . . . . . . " ,. . . . . .

r) s 11muct: , . . , . . . . . . , , , , . • .. , . " . ,
.:Ii

way:
nl."'~

,,),. ·'»1 ioi'+''r

/)'J",,"'II.!'

sch.
.:

n''''''''ifli

....

~._"

....

'"".I"'~II

•••••

,.~

''''

r·lI

...

..

..

"

~•

II

'"'

III

._.

..

"

j) macho , . . . . . . . . " . . . • -, . . • . . ,

:[)ravioli ., . '. " . " . . . _ . . . . .. '. ...,'

c) Compare Polish and English with respect to the letter-sound .relarion.


... ! • • • • ., •

\ ._.."'ay
&if

'" 16 . .E)ngfisbcontains many hcmophones, tie. 'words whicharepronounced lnthe same but which. mean diffe.rent thingsand are often written in different ways. Provide as luany orthographic ffJflnS of the foUo\~·iu:gwords as possible:
,-\ j,V,'l: "

iJ

.1

;I

l'

""

"',

...

,;

..

II

..

..

"

II

"

._

"

..

...

"

,I

••

...

iLI~

~:"'!!

••••

"''11

......

,11

....

'"

I.'

iil~-'~

.....

~II_'I

~.'''

....

L.!~

..

..

"

II

"

"

;i

'I'

II

..

~.

it

;t

..

..

"

"

II

<II

"

It

..

jill

'r

..

'k ,rI t/H::e-li; w-&tl;/tj,: _,jl.. £

, .•...••••••

f) lhju:/ g) !s;;m/
'n.) lreBI
i Iii Ii 1 .. n 'I I' 1 11 " III • " nil. "
It ••

..

II

"I

'!

'II

b) lbi:r/
'. I

c) I~()::dl d) Iraitl
II I ~

it

..

..

"

..

II

II

II

II

II

II

II

II

Ii

..

iJiblu:J
j) I"ml:tl
'1·11·~·T"'.5··~!,· ...
i~~I·~"""

19.Wbicb. sounds of Polish cannot be transcribed by means of the phonetle alphabct adopted for English?

II

e) Isell!

o!

:&1

!'

II

II

••

IP'

II

'II

Ii

..

..

..

II

Now provlde a few e'xa:mples. elf yourown:


'lil'r",~!: .•

h)" U

.·""

..

h~I~~!!

.,.

••••••

111

•••••

,••

'

•••

~~i.~.ii-

•.

-,

..

JJ~

•••

••

L.I.~"~,,

c) ..
,!!" •• ' ••

!o~~.'

•••

,.i.-ofll'I

..

-i'l_~

II!''''.'''!

••••••

·."

'''

1'

"IIi~

,i.·i",·i,

~!N

~II'I

~"!""

••

''''

"",

••

I~"'+~

••

"

•••••

'"

d.)
I.

OJ.""

11.,

.",'II

••

~~!"

••••

,•••

i"

••••

.,

...

,i

...

·-

..

~I-!'~.~.,~.~

,~,

It

.,

"

..

II

..

II

'"

"

..

'I'

..

I'

"

II

II

"

J.

..

III

'"

II

I.

IIi"

III

..

..

,II

..

::

iI

_.

II

II

II

"

20. How are the following Polish words pronounced


'\ U ',.. r 3y .Qrz.f'l.WSK[ •

by English speakers?
..,......,

••

••••

IIlIlI'

••

_~

..

~,.

"II~III

."'

~.~~I!j._.J

'"'1

•••

,,,"'~

17. :Vlan-y words of English eanhe.proneunced examples of this. type.


a) tissue l' rl] u:i - l'ri fjud b:) absurd idb~::;~!d/c) .. _
d) ,

in 111rOn~ ays than one, Provide some w

,.

fb .,T2I'

~" k'! 31U8X

....

, ..

d) Pr(_(fwals:ki
e) Zdanowic:

b) Gdansk.
c}

. .... .. . . . . , . . . . . . . . . .

, . . . .' ., . . . " ,

"

t tlsjrr:i'
L ... .. • •

Kosciu5Ziw

".."..............

f) Pulawski . . . . . . .~. ... " , . . ,. . . , . ,

!<1b'::;:~;d/
I ,.. .., ~, ~ III

,
,

2LTrans~ribe-a few-lines of a Polisapoem which you know by heart (use the symbols listed in SYi\tBOLS Ai'ID DIACRITICS on page-9).
i .' ,
.&. '"' "

,I

~ ...

..

.1

"

,.

.i.

..

••

,"I

27
"b' ',', , ,'"',, ", " , chani , 0 Sp"; I: 3 ., 'T",- ,e o,rgansan",' d mec ,ar-mes ",f ','"e':'ech" ' A~ the base of the tongue is the " ,. ., .. " , . " "
tel

" (6). Thanks

[0

it,me food

passes; to the. " . '. , .. . " . " . . . . . . . , , " .. . (2) and, not
, .' . . .. (3). A ( tile top of the: 'throat, there is a,foddng

the . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

of the air p'JSS age: the air c an. P.a-s~HWU t

ilira.l],gb the . . " • . ., " . . . " . '. , . ; . . . . . " . . . . '" " . " . • . . . " . . . ., , . . _ ('[ 1.,) or

1" Name the organs of speech and other anatomleal details presented in the drawing below. Discuss their function. in tbeprodnctilon. of speech,

through the . ' " . . , . . " . ., _, . " . . . . .. . .,,, (2m. This depends on the position of the.' " ' , " . " . (10), also ealled.rhe ,
to

., " ..

I,

••

.,

••••

•••

\Vhen. it is raised, rue way

the ...•

, " ..••..

, ."

, . , , (11) is blocked and the


" " , " .. : .

air escapes through the . . . " . . .. . . , " . . " . . . . _ " .. . . , . . " . . . , , . . . . ., . .' . ..
(20). When it is lowered, the air may go out through the" " "
, • , " & • •• • , •• • •• • • ,.

(II). In the former case, ,. . ' . ' , . , '. ,. . . . . . , , _ , . ,

sounds are: produced


end of the" ., "

in the latter, ' , . , , .... + ••••••• " , ••

, ...

, .....

r-

s,l)uflds" itt. the lower [hat is,

(.[0) there is a small movable-appendage

known as the , " . . • • " " . . . . . " , , . , . , . . (9)" Both the .. . . . • . . , . . , . . ' .. . . . . .
-I-_"___

~~;J--~-3
1---~--I---~-

,9 7
,5

· . (10) and the . . , . . .. . . . " .. ' . , .. _ . . . . ., (9) 'ar:e,parts of the"; alsocalled


of tlle~outh,
·.,'

the ro.of , .. " . , (1],).

At the front of tbe lncHuh the bony structure forms the

" , ., .. , ' .

(12)" In the foremost part of it, just behind the upper

, " , .,

OJ), there' is a prominent ridge known as the. . ' "

, " ., "

Tl1e major speech ·organ inthe mouth is the


speaking, its, surface is usually divided imo the" ·,. ,," 5 '::-,' ---\---k:::"
-g,"__--+--\--

, .. ,. ; . " . ,
,, :

, " "" .Phcneucalty _ (16). the

,.,

, .. , , . (17), the ....

, " ., . . .. . . . . . . . (18) and the

· ... " . ,
Of the'

,,

- .. (19), FinaUy speech sounds may be modified by the shape


j

4--

, ..•.....

'.. (14).

3. Try to repeat the content of exercise' 2. Iookmg at thedrawing in exercise 1-. 2. SURp,f}T'fh~.;mjssiri'g words orphrases; the numbers gt¥en in parentheses to the org,ans ofspeech In the drawing of exercise 1.
In the
COIlt''Se

correspond
A. All ordinary sounds of English are produced with: @the outgoing stream of air. b) the ingo ing stream of air. c) both the out- and ingcing stream of air.

.of sound production, the


, . "'
'01 • • • • • • ••

stream

ofair produced by the .. , .!!UfP4 "' ' . goes


, ., .. , ., ,.
i •• ., •

into the
.. , . , , ., ....

(1). at the top of which the ,"


I "' , •••

(3) (5) "

is situated. Inside the , " ' ., ., "' (4),

,'

(3), whose protmding front is 'known as the


" •••• , • '•• , •• " ••• "' • "' , ' ••••

me ,. ,. "
,,

B. If-the lungs are the source of energy that sets the air' stream in motion, the sounds are

are' found. y\!'h.en they vibrate, sounds which are produced are- . . . . , . . . , "
between the , '" .. ., , . " " " (5) is Galled Ehe " , .. , . '" '. " " .. , . " .. , .. ,

known'as:
a) diaphragmatic,
b} pulmonic, c) gloualic.

Whe rrthe 'J are . . . . . " . . "' " . , . . . , . , ., . ., t'he' sounds are \' eiceless, The ape'fli.ng
'" , . , (3). it, enters

\Alben the stream ofair has passed through the

the cavity' formed between the' , , , ., . . . . " .. " . ., . . , , , .' (8) of the tongue and rhe "back 'wall of the throat. This caviry is known as the, , " " - , .. , " " , " .... , . , , . (7).

C" Fortis sounds are best described as those: a) which are perceived as louder h;v the hearer,

,,

:s

r
Zg
b) wh.ich require more muscular energy tD their production, c:) which arc produced when the soft palate ~s raised.
D. Ifthe stream a/air ls-initiated in the moufh ca.lJify' (he sounds are called: .• a) pru1monic, b) laryngeal, 29

5', '\iVbicb of the statements given below are true and which are false? In the case of

falSie sentences,

point out: the source o.f their lncerrectness.

a) The opening between [he -vocal cord'S is called the- epiglottis.


",7

oc ~

m::ftt. - NU,j 'o/l,.e/.wP? t:J ca-CCeu tite


(.t.J.~/l-

.».

.,

.£#' /.f

_pti4tt:J ,

<'.7:

"

JIZ<'l

(fl,_

o/t~(J-tt/J

Y'

..;;,

cr:t<.1&JtiM

~;..

&/U.l'(J/w6

to tk

tnzcka

jNHZ/t;;WV<#.

cJ

velaric.

b) The soft palate and. velum are equivalent terms.

E, The pilCh of a sound depends on:


a) the size of (he pharynx,

c) During the articulation of sounds the air from the lungs goes from the larynxinto windpipe,
~!"
I 1IJIIl'r." 1.r.,,~".~,iIIIIN •• Li ••• "

:rhe

h) the number of vibrations of the vocal cords, c)

me position

of the epiglouis.

."!!!.'iI~iI

••••

111,.'

•••

••

~i

I.

r.

F.~'he:n the vocal cords are apan: a) the sound known as the glottal stop is produced, 'b) the sound like lhl is produced, 'c) a palatal sound is produced. G" W71enthe soft palate is raised:, the air:

d) The Adam's apple is: an important organof speech ·in whicn the- vocal cords are' situated,

e) The pharynx. is the part of the vocal tract between the larynx and the uvula.
• • • • _ ~ • • • • ~ • • • .. • , • ~ I I II II I II
!I ~ " " , , ~ " " " ~ ;! ,.. ..

I'

III

II

..

.'

.'

.,

..

III

,.

f) The trachea and 'the food passage are the same thing,
" , , ~ ~. ~ ~ ~ + ~ "" '
I " " ~ • • • '• .,.. , ,n I, " i H H _. ~ !' .. I .. • • , nih ~ .". ." _ I ~ ,~ ~ , , I , " " ••

a) can escape

only through the mouth,

til can escape

through the mouth and the' nose,

g) The part of [he tongue. lying behind the lower teeth is called the rip of thetongue,
.. , , • 'II • ,.

c) cannot escape' at art


H. The degree to which the-.La.ws are open determines:
a) the shape of the lips, b) t.h.e.pesition of the soft palate
I~

to

Ii

..

"

.,

...

Ii

..

II

.,.

_.

"

"

..

Ii

"

'I

II

..

..

'"

"

..

'

h) The root of [he tongue is opposite (he back wail of the pharynx.
•• " ..... ~ ".~ i ~. ",,' •• ,IIl',."
oi

.,11

.,

...

,."

II

.,

....

...

"'

...

-+

~)The shape of the


., • • • " ... ~ .. ~ " 'l'!

1.][,):3
• •

crucially deter-mines, 'the qnatity of all speech sounds ..


• , , n ,_ ,
I

c) [he vibrations of the-vocal cords.


1.

II

II

"

"

"

I'

'

II

,I

The- term ilenis' denotes sounds which are:


a) produced in the ora] cavity
b) nasalized,
1

j) The alveolar ridgeand


.,~" •• g" ••
lIi.ill~~,

the teeth ridge are the same thing.


•••

io·"~oi·,i~~io~a."

••

1I

6. Explain the difference between the fioHuw.illg terms:

e) weak.
J. The position of the Ups is patficult.Jrly important for the qlUlli'ty of: a, the glottal stop
-I]) nasal consrrnants,

a) oral/ nasa]

&;a~M-lflldj

(.}.J?!t/I»Jdu£'~~dNHdtAe F'll-iJt:'4 (N;t:gyp,R:a:Ja/jd-J{/;/ldi ((f(7;{ ~

IJ.wt:JptJtl t)t}k71~,

b) pulmonlc/non-pulmonic
•• " •• _ '" ii ~ .. " • " •

.,,
M .. , •• , ,
n " " ~ " .oj •

'

••

..

..

II

"

"

10

'I

••••

"

II

...

"

c) vowels.

c) egressive/ingresslve

. ", ". ,

'

.,

'

III

""

~"~,r~~"

".~

...

"

... "~~i~'

II'!

Hi;

L.

r.,

.. ~.

_ .•

11'1'''.''

~".

,."

•.

.,

Ii

'!:

~!

30 . . d) JJrtlS/'1ems . , , • . • . . . . " " , , . " . . . . • • . . . . _ . . . " . . . . . ' " . ' . • ,. . , ' . • . '. . f
'! .. .. I! •

c)

me longue
• 1 •
;! • .. ..

. , ',' •. " .. , •..


'. " • • "

",
.' ., ., • • •

,'
• • .. • n ; i

,
., '" " .. ill

, ..• , , .. ,
" Ii 'I !I • ..... ~ •• " ..

, ,",
'" 1 I .... ~ II' I •

.

..

II

I;

...

..

"

,.

III

..

-II

II

II.

..

II

-t

_.

II

'.

'P

..

'!!!

I.

'"

e). veicedrvoiccless

"

"

••

"

••

"

••.••••

••.••

d} the teeth . . .' . . , , . .. " , . " , , , , . , , , ,

.'

'.

..

"

f) rounded/urnounded
_ • • • I I .. '"' .' • • II ...

'"
.. • .11

, ...
II • II II

, . , .. ~ .... '
II ., II I I .. ..

'

..

••••

"

"

"

e) [he lungs
Ii

,,
~ ~ , M • ~
!ii' iii'

'"
• • • .' .. ... • • • • ~

, .. "
~ !!! ~ ••• ~. ., • • •

'
• ~, • •

,
• • • ...

, .. '" , '
Iii H .1. if' ,.. .• ., .,

,
•. ., • ~ ~ ""

,
~

Ii

,L

'"

II

,.

"

II'

II

...

_.

..

"

..

I'

"

II

II

II

3!

II

..

'"

'"

II

to

g) glottisrepiglottis
•• II II II " .. II " II II II

. , . " . . , .•
!! _ " 'II

'

••

'

"

"

"

,.,'

.,

"

"

f) the

oral cavity
...

."....",..."........".,.",....,........",,;1'
n.·.";.I,rl·'UI""';I' •• I"'~""IIII· !"'I •••• ~~ .. h ... "1""I1~

•.

II

II

II

II

.,.

Ii

iI

..

..

..

..

..

II

,.

II

.i

II!

II

II

II

..

...

In"

II

,.

II

..

'"

II

II

II

II

I1U"illfI~

h) trachea/windpipe ~J! . n.
Ji.. Ji-io
'!,':,'
i ,;;; II ii .. II II i io '!!

\.or

II

II

..

II.

II.

II

II

II

"

II

..

,.

II

!I

,II

II

.,

II

II!

,II.

II

'"

;Ii

II

II

II

.....

II

II

II

II

II

II

II

g) the epiglottis
'" • • • I ~
"Ii. ! .,.

......,
• • •

....,
I 'II .. .• • 1 • •

..

..

'.

'.

"

"

,.

..

.,

..

..

II

II

II

..

'"'

Ii

"

!'

"

II

II

II

II

...

II

"

II

II

II

II

'"

'"'

II

JI

,.

II

II

I.

...

II.

II

..

ii

,"

['J"

••

"

..

.,

II

~.

••

..

,.

jJ

Adam's apple/larynx
II II 'II

.
I II

••

,.

"

••••

.,

••

•••••

>

•••

h) the diaphragm,
• •

. . ' . , . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " . ~ . . . .. .. . . .. . ._ . .. , ' . . . . .


.. ~ •
'!' •• iI ii ...

!:

f'

II

II

II

..

"

'I

II

II

II

to

...

...

'II

..

I.

I.

"

"

II

II

..

F.

..

..

Ii

II

jj

..

'I

,"

"

..

..

"

."

••

LI

..

Li

,..

..

..

'I

~,

"

ill

'"

'1

..

II

..

..

J) el u m/u: 'I" •. ' uvu a


''L, "~v ,,"
.1 r
p "

"

"

••

"

,_,

••

"

••••

'••••

'.

"

"

••••••••

"

' ••

"

i) the' uvula
•• • • • • •

. . . " . . ... , ....... " " " .. " .. '.,. ' .. " . " " . , . , ...
., II II • • • • .' • ., ., .~ B
i ~

, . .. . . , .. " ... '" ..


• 1 1 1 r
iI •• • .;t.

!I

..

II

III

"

II

!!

"

"

."

Ii

••

"

,.

"

..

.•

"

..

I'

!!

'Ii

t;

I.

...

..

""

iii

.,.

f'

"

..

f'

..

.t;

7. Assoeia,te appropriate pairs: ·of phonetic terms in the list~ below:


a) knar1.
b) jgzyCl., e k
c) naglosr:ia -d) przepona e) lchawica 1) gtmu

j) the soft palate . . ., . . . . "


., M.·'IIIIO!;·~.~ ••• ,.iiil MI~"I'!!'.'."~"'''~.~

, . '. . . .

" .. . . . .' . , , . . . . .
'+'~ •• ,' ""'.ft.~""'''~''~'

, . ".

. " .a-,5"

",

1) epiglottis J) trachea
'4) velum
'! _ •

9. Provide the' English equivalents for the Polish terms ill the f()UQlwing drawing:

iii"

II

1" jarna nosowa 1.. zeby g6rne- ...

/l.ada/'caoi{f

5) laryn.x 6) usula 7} diaphragm

2,. warga gorna . " ,

," ,
, .. '. , ,

.
.

t) zwar{ll
g)

krtanlowy.

4-. dzi;Uio. . . . . .. . . . " . . . . , , , . , .


.. 'f'

.h) podniebienie miekkle 1) dziqsia

8) stop
9) glottal 10) glauis

i.

"

"

.;

....

5. podniebienie . . . . , " . . . . .. . . .. . . Sa" - rwarde. , . . , . . , . . . . . . . . . . .


'-b :! ". .' kki . . . . .. . . . . . ,_ . . . .. . . m.u~ 'r,Je

};J grosnia.

,R., 'hat is tile function in speech productton ,of: "


a) the. vocal cords ~~ :JkUb
jO~

'6. jezyczek, . . " . . . . , , . . ~ . . , , ...

o/tk' ~/
tZ.f'& ~da{:

{lOrd;cU/eI'n;A7.t!J lite· ~r)'~CtFijJ N~d8


mkA', l,,",p a:.nstf&t(j tlYUVt.. J&u.tuPJ~

o/a

7. jamausma
J&lHU"4'

, .. ' .. , . _ , ,. , , .. ..
, ,. ,.. , " , , .
" •••••••••••

8. warga dolna 9, zeby dolne .. , .. "

tllMn o%jflJ>d-'aI,g

[}o@t&.'k}"

b) the' lips . . , . . , • " , . " . . . . . . " • . " , " . '. " " " .. . . . . . . " " -, ," , " . . . . .

10'1 j~zyk",

r
t

I,

32.

czesci J~zyka: lOa. cznbek jf;ZY ka lOb, przedniaczesc jezyka .. , _. ,


, " ., . " " , ,

4.. Consonan'ts
,,
, '" .. " ...

" . " " " .. '., .. , , ,


, ' , , .. ,.. " . , . ,

IDe .. srodkowa cz,~!s:6j~zyka , . , lOd. -tylna CZ~S,C jezyka ' ,


j • •

4.1.. THE CLASS-WI-CATION

OE CONSONANTS

,'
.. • • • • • •

,'
• • • • •

_ .. , . " . ,
• • , • '. , • • • • • • •

_.,.,.
• • • • .,

lOd. tylna cz~s·c.j~zyka '. . . . . . .


12. jarnagarstowa ,"
r , ..

1.1. szczeka dolna • . . . . , , ., ., . . , • . . . , . . . . . . .' _ . . ' , . . . . . ,


,.,
• , • • , • '

..

1. A descriptioa of 'E ng;Jisband Pollshconsoeents must takeInto account the following aspects of their articulation. \\rhat do these terms mean? What distinctions, between consonants do ,they introduee?
a) the force of articulation ,
... I' ~
-!!! •• ! ~ i ! ..
ft ;" ~ ..

,,,
• ., ' , • •

"",,
, , • , _. • , '

, , , ' .. ' . " _ ,


, " , , _ • , • , • ,. ,

13. n;a_glo§nia. . .' " . . .. . • . .. .

_, ,
r. ~ 'I' .. !II I'fI

'.,
I' ~ • • • ... ..
!' • ! •

.
~ i • .'"

14. krtari , . . . , . . . , , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . • ' , . . . . . , . . , , . . . . , . . . . . ..

.,

,.

~I

I'

5.

'I

1.5" wi,a;zadr:l glosowe . . . . .. . . . . . . . " .. . .. . . . . . . . ; " . . , , ' . . . . , . . . . . . ._. 16,-tcba\vi-{;:.l"


"".~. l\.., 17 prze1y 'f~
• " M I, ~ •
I!

~.,~

••.

~'

•••

'I

•••

,.

~~

••••••••

"'~I.ft

••

".i

...

".~,;

.....

,;.~~.

r.;'r

..

r.n_

'."
~. '" .~ • ., ~

' " .,
i. • Ii • ., ~

", "
• ~ •
& •

, .. "
!!!. • • • • • • • • .~ ~ .j I'
l~ & • • ••• ..

,.
~ • ~

_
• • -,

,
Ii ~
I.

..

..

!'

,or

"

"

,"'

..

"

"

!!'

"

"

.'

..

'.

,.

"

"

"

.,

"

,.

"

iI

.,

b) rhe.action ofthe vocal cords


'1 i !' .. " "' • • •
n • • •
lit • • • ., • •• • • ~ • • ~ •

,
til • ,. • "

" .. ,_." ,
,.

, .. ' , . , " .. , '


i, .., • '. • • • ., " ., ., • ,. • ,. • " ..

10. l\1:any languages of the world employ sounds which are 'Very different from tbo\S~ found in EngUsh 0[" Polish.
A. U S1 fig, the table ,given tiel 0 w cha racterize the 'four groups of sounds.
B, Occasionally Implosives, ejectives and 'Clicks are used by English and Polish speakers.

iii

I,

.'

.,

~~

~~~!

••

••

,.'

•••

II

••••••

!U'".'

••••

~,

••

, ~ ••
a

" ••••
+ • • • •

IIl

••

••••••

".

c) the posirion of the soft palate ...


1 .. ~LII,oIiH·Il~ ... ·• ... "' ...

, ....
••
II·~,..·

'. . . . . , . , , . ,
•••• Mu"" •• 'I'I'.~'~[

,.

••

••

Give examples of situations in which these sounds can be: employed, implOSIver;
, ..

'!!'··O!!··~·

••

, .....

"

••••••

".

.•

"

'"

"

'.

,;

ii

I'

,I;

.~

,I

ill

't'

iii

"

"

'II

"'

-!

e:j:1ec ti :lv'e·

cncx l"k

plesive
I,
I' .. .. ~ ~

...

L.!

..

••

...

"

...

..

••

'"

""

"""

LII

II

,.

• .,...

-seuree .of" airstream velarie

+,ingressiv'e'
I

+
II

'il + +

' . 1! • .d) tJ, e p:_ace 0 f" arucuianon ..' "h_ 1


I " '11 " II '. ~ • i' " .' • •
'!!' • • ., • • ~ •

,.,
" _ ,. ... • • • • " • ,

, .. ,,,
-.. ••

",. _
., I • • • ., ~ • • ", • • • • • •
'!

.

I'

...

..

I I d' "" t' '0 f lree Ion

+, +

.1

.,

r. '. r. ., ~. • • " ".

iI

.,

!i

"

Ii

.,

'.

L.

ii

i'

"

~I

..

,~

10

..

Ii

'II;

.f.

"

'.

air stream

egressivc

e) the manner of articulation


~ ~ ~'Io ~ I! II ..,., t· '" u .. ,•• " or.,.,~!!,! ~ iI"'~.!I.!! .'!! .,'

",,,
....
i •• "

'
.''!J~
""I!!!' •• ' ••

.
".!I'.
II .1 " ill f

;
T

"

I;

"

...

"

ii

ii

if

If

II

I!

••

II

"

..

II

"

"

"

iI

ii,

iI

;0;

II

..

of

I;

I;

II!

II

iI

II!

If!

,Ii

II!

ill

"

;1 I

[.

"

"

••

••

II

~.

iI

-:

&

'.

".

"

,!II

_ .•

'I

10

...

!!o

'I'

'.

,•.•

I'
L;

2. \Vldc]1_place:s of articulation are defhied

below?"
,j , ••

a) the lower .lip articulates with the upper 'teeth .. '. tlt:1~-d'F..n,.ta/ b) the back of the tongue articulates-with the soft palate "

'"

r
34 c) the ~~:P the tougue is curled. back to artk:ublle with the hard palate Df' e) (he lip of the tongue artlculateswith the rear part of the alveolar ridge , ,.

35 e) A sound produced
\\I]t113

partial closure a.t some ~poj;ntin

[lIe

rnmnh is caned .. " ...

d) the front of the [o'ngue articulates withthe bard palate," . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . , .•.. .", •.. , .. , .,.
f) A sound produced with a complete closure in the mouth with the lowered soft. palate is

f) the lower lip articulates with lhe upper lip


g)

"

"" "
".,

"." "
"

. .
, . " .. , "

called. ....

,. . .. . . , . . " , ".

"

II

...

~I

'.

'!'

III

r.

oil,

.•.

the back o'E the tongue articulates with tne 'Uvula

g) A sound produced by a single lap of a flexibleorgan


If. •
'II • .. ~

on a firmer surface is called ...


I • , .. .'

b) ~h.etip of th~ mngwe articulates with the upper teeth raised cowards the hard palate ....

'I

I.

II

"

"

!I'

..

iii

"

II

III

""

i) the blade of the tongue articulates with the alveolar ridge, the from part of the tongue is.
I, ., •••• ' ••••• 1 •• , , • , •••••••••••••• ,

11)A sound producedwith


1 •• II
j

a narrowing
• f' •••• " • or
OJ

om without
I ...

friction is caned
II I •••••• " •
J ••

" ....
" • " •

" .....

,,,"

II

to

II!

'!

...

=,

j) the dp' ori~.nd the 'blade ofthe tongue articulates witti

me. alveolar

ridge " . " . '" .

i) A soundproduced from
3:

with

the t.on,gue moving rapidly in a gliding Iashion toward or away

neighbouring

vowel is called

"

"

II

"

r.

r.

..

3. In the 'words givenbelow indicate bilabial sounds:

j) The following groups of sounds are produced with a complete c1nsurt::.


• 'I' " "
r "!'

,."
r. " • _, _ _ _ L

.
..

(!fit'll!.e. aradigm. singing, Connecticut, hierarchy. p

(£astle, ringing, thumbnai), Christmn.o;,.bh:t0kboard. psalm.


Chicago, cehic,

5. In 'the wordsgiven below indicate dental sounds:

10. In the words given below Indicate fricatives: {ittl,. examination, honorer», dm~ght" pha mo h, tnousas«, philasophy.

r'iJjin., number, something, Thames, rhythm.

weather, Amhony.

6. In the words gh'en below lndicate alveolar sounds: lj,ack,..thy/ne" courageous, ii.iphlh:()ng~ condemn, Faulkner, sotemni».

11. In the: words given below Indicate nasals: @ost" darling, column. pneumatic, hcmdker:cfrtej, commemoraie, asthma. 12. In the wordsgiven below indicate sernl-vowels:
c.;:. h acquamt, s@lHoquy,.answer" ferksnire. wriukle, vesterda». . ~u.,

r-:::.. • .I t sean, auusion. if' IE_'1tmpun;;ee, arc h anget, spinae ·h stomacn, S


I

8. Fill in the gaps:


~) A sound produced with a seriesofintermittent closuresis called , ..
/'fJ-tY tV

13~In the words giyenbclo",{ indicate affricates: ~in, cello, succession, Chicago, badge, adjust, duchess,

tPit?'. ..
<

b) A sound produced with a complete closure which is slowly released. is called .....
I .. I .. "
j

f 14 ". '\,...);Descrn)~ the consonant soun~~ in ~he middle of the words given below. Employ '.' three factors: theplace of artieulatiort, the' manner of articulation" ,,-oic.iI.lg.
<,

II

.,

"

II

,,.

.'

..

"

ii

"

..

.,

I'

fI

"

I'

c) A sound produced with the articulating organs. forming a narrowing causing friction is

called . . " " . . . . " ...., . . . . '" . . , .. ,. , . . . " . . , . . . . " , . ' . . _. " . . . . . . .. ,. , , "
d)A. sound produced with a complete closure which is released explosively is called ....
••• ~ ..... "." •• ~ II. B ...... ~ •• ~.~ .. i

6) pz.,Jn·><·"
. . It;,~.;)

T',d I--$l' I:::-

...

I.

11

.,

c')~ sorry, 'v

.11_~iil!'~~"

.....

!'

••

.i;;

......

"

ct.) level . . . . . , . . e) mother.

••

,,~

..

.'.

Ii

••••

....

~+

"L~!

!"''''

ft.-'"

•.•

'1'

36 'f) .&ichel ~" " b) Ijl as in the! word yes,


LI~II""IIII."f''''''''!I_··.'''''~~if···_.,",'.N[I'~I'~ ..,

_· 3.f
i • ...
I I
IJ

II'

..

...

'...

..

.'

..II!

!!'

.,

•.

ri

,.,

Ii.

.'!'

Iii

.... oeh.Ji,ld E!)


i)

"

:L

LI!

II;

"

'M

"J

I;

"!

I.

·iI

I.

'"

...

..

.,

..

i!

._,

II

..

0'

!I

..

II

b) s.r;lling. .. . " . .. , . . ,. . . . . . . . .. . " . . . , . ... .. . . ._ _ . . .. , . _ .. ~ , . . , .. ,," , .. . ,

"

Ii,

til"

<II

'II

II

'.

..

[.

Mill

..;;

,.

"

II

..,

"h

...

;i,

.11

I.

.,

"'

II

comment, . . . . . . . ... .' . . , , , , . . . " , , . " , ,


0 •••••••• _ • •• • • •

'I'

..

.•

.•

I.

,.

II

..

.11

II

II

..

if

..

Ii

II

II

'!

..

..

..

"

oj.

I,

II

'"

II

,.

..

II

II

II

II

II

...

-I

Hi!..

I!

II

II

..

II

II

'II.

II

II

ill

"

_. j) breosing: . , " .. . ; , ... _ ..


,
. _/

••••

••
I

!'

•.

c) Ik! as in me: word carry


'fI '!! Ii • • '! .. •• ,. ~ " Ii,

15. )vhat are tile:pbonetic synlboIs for the foLlowing sounds?


"

if

..

..

"

'.

"

ii

_.

...

II

II

til

ft

,..

"

II

'I

..

..

-.II

iI

"

"

"

"

II

II

Ii

..

..

II

II

'.

I,

'I

..

II

.~

II

.,

a) ,a voiceless deuraI tricatlve: ...


b} a voiced palate-alveolar c) a voiced bilabial plcstve:
d) a frictionless C01~t~nuant e) a labic-veiar semi-vowel: ,g) 'l!In alveolar lateral: . . ~ ....

'II

...

.11

II

II

'l

..

!'

.,

I!

....

...

II

II

.i

"

"

..

II

II

II

II

II

.,

..-

...

II

..

'!'

,.

leI. "
II ~

II

I.

'II

..

"'I'

II

.IIO

._,

II'

'II

III

,I

II

.,

II

..

"

II

II

"

II'

"

,.

II

II

II

II

,.,

II

II

,..

II

!!!

o!

II

II

"

,..

..

..

,affrk.a:te:. . .. " , , ;
'0 ••• , •••• 0

"

••

,•••••••

" ,

II,

Ii

II

II

'..

..

'I

it

"

II

Il

II

..

·i·

II

..

II

..

..

II

II

II

II

11

'"

II

lit

"

"

it

ill

i!

I.

II

"

II

...

II

"

I.

II

II

III

II

II

"

"I

"

,;

••••••

, . " ......

,,,,.

,.j

!'!~r~!

1 .•.•.•

M.,.~;tI,._,~

•••

,,~.,

•••

.io

.~

'111

••••••

'f'~I

••

,.

J) .~ voiceless gloual fricative: . . ~. .. '. .. ; . . . . . , , . . . .

" .......

,•••••

i_~.

··'''';~Lf'!''~.'''i'I'''I!~.ii,;'

••••.

~_.!,,,!

••

,.~

I'II'I'

..

.L~.

I,

..

, . " " .. , . , . , • . . . ,. . .. , , , , .. " . . ; .. .

e) If.! as- in {he word falk


• • II ,I

h) 'avoiced labio-deIltal fricative:

'!

"

,i

.+

!Ii

'!

Iii

,~

'.

.,

..

'.

Mil"

'I

II

II

I!

..

'"

,.

...

Ill!!,

"

i} at voiceless palato-alveelar frkati:ve::' " .. '" . " , .. ,

j) avoiced velar nasal . .. . . , .. " . . . , . . . ....

;0<

;, ..

,Ii,

II

,.

II

II

II

..

If

II

'"

I'

!'

...

.'

Ii

,.

...

'oj

iii

..

!I

..

.It

Ii

II

!!l

16~·Which.sounds can be describedln


I
I

the fuUowing way?

Ii ,Ii

,/'

a) The vocal curds vlorare. The soft pala.te is raised ..A. n:arro:wrng is formed between the (ip and the blade of the lO.lIgu.e·and lhe.a.Iveoiar ridge', Frictioa occurs,

Y-:1A *1dcyfat:'8(J.t:..,.;;.~cdt'tM

/z/

b) The voealeords 'do [lot vibrate. The S:dftpalate is raised. A complcte:closuJ€

is made

between the :blaue of the-tongue and the mveola:r ridge. The front of the tongu:e'i~,raiscd towards,lrl1ie hard palate, The closure is released sJowIy" as a result of which frietien occurs
•• ~ ,", II!

jl

II

!'

I!, I:

'1 I'

!'

.,

!!;

"

III

!I

II

III

•.

I:

..

"

....

!!!

I:

...

'!!

.,

't;

II

'!

...

..

.1,

01;

OJ

t) The vocal cords vibrate. The

soft palate

is lowered. A cmnplere closure 'is made by th~

(a) /g!

Up~ ..The closure is releasedabruptly,

(c)

,.

a) /ll as in-the won! Bi11y,

.~ waz:l'fj~
• i; •

(H~ak,
• ~ ~ •

~
i, _, !i •

:1C;t.f://.tl;t~te·ij. .FWed
.. II .• ..'
! • •

YA;e >¢d'~ 00/~


!

ft?1'J:7J.#J
,I ., ~ I ! II , r. ~ ,. •

,II

11

OJ

II

i'

iii

Ii

'.

II

OJ

"

••

,.

rII

'"

,I

J,

"

...

itJ

..

.,

..

••

'!!

II

,.

"

"

"

,:

II,

't

"

"

"

"

"

"

II!

t.

"

"

Ii

....

!I

"

.'

.•

..

'.

iii

II

(d) .. ""....

, .. " .

("e'l,J"

.-.

"I'

(0

6.

38
I

., a) bilabial plosives, b) velarploslves,


e) alveolar

nasals,

c1) labio~dema[fr lcatives,


e) palaro-atvenlar friestives,

t) the r-sonad ,
g) vet;all' step s, in) the pal~atal semi-vowel,

n the

:g1"oua] fricative, frictltives ..

j)alveolar

2ft. Describe in det~!l 'the aedens .of tIte ar.t.icuJ;atorswhenp.re.uouncing the underlined coosonan.tclrurteT"s··ul the fonow~g WOl"fis: . scratch

~. ~dr~dJ,db de

l"u4tJ/t?ak. ~.

Jq,i1;uz:dj,.u; ii n:v;;,fJdsf~h:ZF;;POt/jLNtq· tJ/wHtedi

kltt1CC1'l

t.yz· ~~

,tf~

OJ/tie tC'/lijl#£

/UZqtNiflap:

ao/,d;&u;tw/l-; kz.lk Y

tY/4 tJ1.a.&tJtlIW ra.Jye. i'ar1o/tde :-o~~for?l.j.a

~.a-.:/

_fl4JJwt/J/..:o;c'WA!tJc .ctb;JU.:l'W t£Aid t,4} Jo;t;lt.<.l£a;/:;&

sixth

!..

. .. , .

21. Choose the correct answer:

.. .
1
I
~.

A.By cnafrging the position .of the veium :we can:'


(~) produce both lu} and ld/w]lh rhe same tongue position, b) prevent the passing. of food into thelungs, c) change fbl into /pf wirbout modifying the Up position ..
,,

B. T-fw Iron,!',oJ the tongue is. the parr ¥f.41ich, wh en the tongue is at rest:
a) lies below the hard palate.')

Q)lies hehind· the lower teerh,

l
l

r
40 41

c) lies above the velum, C. During .the prod~K'ti:(m, ojthe glorE,al stop:
3.} the vocal cords -SWp b) the glottiscloses
11101fiugand 5tJy

g) tbe· post-alveolar fricrionless cenrinuant:


h) the labio-vclar semi-vowel: i) IDe al veolar nasa]: .. , ,.. " , - . -"
< ._. "

.... , ..
• , • .,

I,

open,

- .. ,.'. , , •

••

the food passage,


to

j) the voicedalveolar

plosive:

-.

•••

c) the vocal cords are held together D. IN.!Jle production of a lateratsoand: aJ the stde.s of ;the tongue vibrate,

be separated abruptly"

24. 'Ybich o:f the P'olisll]_consonants uaderltued in the words below have no close

e1qui:valents in Englisll?

b) the air passes down the centre-of the tongue, c) the tongue does 110t fu'1tystOp the airflow [~rO:ligh[tlf: mourn.
E, To call a sounda }lap J' means that we are talking about:

b) Bafryk '

I'

"'....

".'1

I'~'"

-oii

~.~.~

\!

.,

..

~,,,,

~LI,

II

I.'

••••

!"

!'

Ii

........

t~,.

!''I'

21) itsplace of articulation, 0) [he position of the velum,

c)
0)

,£ma ..
rollak .. ,
t',~ ;;". '! ... ~ "'_ ~,. ~ oI'~ !I'~,.i,. '"
~,,!,

L•••••

"

."'!'.

i.

~,.,

>Ii,.

'I

c) its manner .of articulatlen.


22" lVhlc.h pairs of words given below a:resynony:nl~?
a) f6cativelspirunt"
',j04 .. ,.

e) lU)I-z,e.rl , f)

~twf ..
,
,

g) kotlf h) J:;;a!y

;h)mll/tdU:

" ....

'... .

, , " , .. , ... ,

i) kaJJ!.ie, . ., j)

c) spirant! sib ilanr: ., ., d) semi-vowel/glide: e} plesive/stcp.. , ....


f) post-alveolar/pslaro-alveolar: g) resonant/sonoraat: ....
h) Uquid! giide': , . , , ..
,-

fllJif.l0r

" .,

""

••

',"

'I

...

Iil~

.'.IIi

.. ". ~,,, .. ,,, ~

:I'~

.'r'."~'"

- ""

~""'."."""'''

'••

'Il

ill

25~How can the initial consonants hI the words below be described? (The place and the manner.ef artleulatlon, volcing.) .
, .. ,
- b)

,,' . . '" , " "' " " .


, ", ",
I' ~ ._. ,~ ~

masio , ,','

'm

.'

..

"

"!'

Li

ii,

~,

iJ

~'

"

rii

"

"

I,

,.

"

,~

.,

'!'

'.

..

"

rii

'r

,.

,~

-e)
d}

'.j f" "... "] L torns/votcetess:


,.. ... ~. . ,-:. ,',

zeora$. .
rower '"

,,~.,ii"

.....

1'

..

.. ,;i.~

...

~ ....

~'!I.''''

I,

~!

lOll

~,."

I'!.

!!,,~.,

,.,.1.

I,

'. -,,' ... i· .

' ....

L~

••

""

LI

LI

.,

..

-!

,~

••

II

iii

L!

j) palato-al veolar /alveolo-palarak

e) daleko .

23. Whkhof
~oUsb1
:I

the Euglishconsenents

e:u.umenlted below haveclose equivalents ill

1) ly,ikn , . , "
g) g(Jl";fJ.:i,
h) czasem

!'

.....

"'''.i;

II

...

~,,",~

..

!,~

~,

...

....

'!

.~

...

'

.....

.. ,~

L!

I'

......

"".,

....

!.I

....

~.~~

•••

J.'!!!'.

II'tLlI_

....

II~III.j.~

....

'~

••'tl~1-

a) tbe voiceless velar plosive: "'" ".jI&'J


b) Hle voiceless dental fricative: . " , "
c

"

'"

,".J

Il

ILl.

'"

'"

.,

'"

'"

I...

1M.

"

P.'

..

.,

III

,ii

...

IJ

LI

" ...

,,'

r)jut.ro j)

,,

\ ·1 Cj tne.1l..'" ibi ta~ nasa·:'1 - ... ,. . . , " . - , .. ,.. , . . . ., .. , u.ha '11

slimak ,

Ii

[I

,_

..

Ii

••

26. \\1bkh of theJoH.owing-'state:tllllents are true and which ~lfe.false?


a) 'The Inhial consonant in this is a fricative. '" ,5{'UC , , _

:e) [he voiceless gloHa1 fricative: Q [he alveolar lateral:


,

.. , ...
0 0' " " ••• " , , •••• -

b) The final consonant in milk is oral, . . ,

42
I
"

c) Themedial

censonant in

measure

is fortis.

. ,. ,. . , ,

0'

"

,.

••

,.

4.2. P:LQS·JVES

d) In the production ticnlation, ..,......

of' trnf~, .as ir'll mot1Ulr" the vocal cordsde not vlbrste, ", .. , ....
.. " ... " ... , '. . . . . . . . . . , .. " . " ... ",

e) 'The main difference between the initial CDmH.J!11ants ill this and :sin is in the force of atii, ' • , •••

1. FiJI .in the ga:ps':


pros~ves;, also ealled, and a-_,
T •
I~ • • • .. I I

.flqIU ,., . "be~on"~I together with -,


'" ,. • 'IJ ~
I • I. • '.' • ~

. ) TheoJiV,eolar ridgeis f
g) The consonarss

involved in the anicu!wdooC!fm:e' fitialco~~[I:Mt

in u:{ble. • .. ,
mouth.

,I,

l'!iJJ

""

,i

"",. ~

.J ., ~

~I

OJ

' .~."'" a ,(lrouF"i, f o 'b~t, 0 '1,""

••

CCI'ISDHQIJ[S ,. . -,

:injudge are produced with a oornp.1t:te clcsu re ih

me

ill the production of w;hioh a totalobseuetlcn


llmreare
." •• ,

ttl jhe air stream is, made in the vocal tract.

h) The inItial consonantsin

Englis:h water and in Polish lytktl are ~eL1l1-v()we~'s"


I, , ."

three stages in O'l.epredncrionof

plosives: me .. , .

,••

'

•••••••

"

•••••••

i) The fricatives, in tire words tOO,chine ,and..maszynQ are iUe'Jlttcnl. "., .. , ...
j) Eng!ish bas no palatal affricates,

, ., .. . " srage, during which the anku lati Ilg organs, . . ., . '. .. . . . . . . . . " . " , .. , .
.. " ._... ; the .. , .
,0, • I" ••••••• " ., , • '••••• ' , , • "

'I

. .. . . . . ,

stage •. l,;IuflUg

~..

h' h w; ,'1(~'''.
0 •

.'

•••••

OJ.

'

.1

,.

••

'.

'.

,. ., ,0 • • • • " , • • • • ". • ••• ••• • • • • •

and nl:e , ' .. " . . .. ,. . . . . , • . . " " . . .. .


o· •••
I ••• I ••••

.,

"Stage..

durmg whiCh. tbeank.yaating

{l;rg;anLg, •.. , " •.•...•


• • •• • , • , • • " •• ' , •

.••••

~asan;suk

of whk:h. , .. . . " . . .

0,

_,

OCC11J:S,

2.. Below se'Vemlways of:relcasin.lg, .plosi¥es in EngliSh are given. Explain wb~,t they mean .• Which ·of tlrem are 'optio.nal and wh:k'h obligat[)ry?
a) no audible pios-ion 111 flnal positions,

qtLuw:a/
I

,J3;./~wjlti&aJ

tie re&rz&, /¥~ddu/ed

rlWjl

~dcdr1ied a.-:vltleT~1

.vuu«UIl:~
b}g,[oual reinforcement
•.•• ~ I ~
I I ~ I

of final /p, tjki ~


•••• J.t'\!'! ~
II! ••• ~,~ ••• , ••

o!'

'"

'PI

.'I!'~".

Ii.

iI"~,·-!J···

.....

'I'!

I••

lJ'r

r.~~'

~.

.j....

,.,~

•••

'.'11,..

...

••••

,~

I':!'!'~"

",I

~I"'IJ

i,"

.,..~I

..'
LI •••

....

~!'

•.•••

'••

!.""

........

.1;,

••

i!l'~

•.•••

Ii'

••

~".,!

••••

,.,Ii

'!

........

, ...

""'i

'I!

~.

...

,Ii

n~

'Il'.-·

"'LilLi

,!.~

~.

LI.

';".~".J

!'''''

....

rI'"

I.'.

'I',

flo,.

...

LIlLI

I.

r.

ii,rI

..

"',

"'~I

•••

,~

.....

-c) 'nasal.release •
• ,. <i
,,! ... ~

I.

~",

.....

~.!

I.

~.

~ '"

'.0

g,

.'~".!

"!JI!!

......

'.

'I'

'"

•••

,,,,""'

••

,.,.'h,,""

iI-!,

;,'''',.,

••

iI'~'

••

'!

•••••

~,~

~"IJ
,.!

Ii'

IJ

r..
;i.

~L~'!,

••

.,,~..,"'~

........

••••

'11-""·'··'

:i,!!'

••

-.1

••

'

i,

Ii

••

"J~.

~,

~.,

~,.,.

L••

;0,.

IJ.

LI

~,.

".,

1J1~"'rI'lJl.",,,~

••

,,~"~.L

••

"'~

i.~,,'1''1

LI

~III'IJ~

II~~I.

...

'!

..

·JIIIJ

••

·..

·!·J···,ill

d) no audible plosion in stop clusters,


~,,, ••• ,,,~ ~ .,~ I! •. i .•• I ~,rLI''1!"' •••• '' II oiIJ~

!!'~-+~

••

'.

II

.·i~. i·· ... .;-.; .....


"uti
i .... ,•• 11.,,,",1.1 IIL~ !'IIII

Ij.

""i'

••

,,"',"

.,.

i,~

."~LiI'P'"

~.IJ

.11111'

.. ,.~.

~,,-

..

"

.L~'.

:0

•••

'1

Ijl

",.

II

•• '-"

II

;;,

,.

'1':0

••

!I'

••••

II

'!'

••••

!II

L ••

~'r

"

••••••

~.!,i,'

~~,~~

IJLr

.•••

••••

IJ

..

..,~~'IiIIJIII.II.~

..

IL

••

,11

~II

••

·.l'i

11Ii···IIIIL.I!'+~"·

'1

44
e) lateral release,
~ Ill •• ,." ~ ~._ ..... ~~ ... ,1 ""' •• " • 'I t' II II ! ~,

45

!t

r;;

if

1'1

"

.,

"

..

..

iI

"

....

L'

..

1_

..'

"

"

..

"

.,

.....

,.'

••••

~"'~!!~

I.·~

.......

,.,

•••

H~

...

~hll.'.hio.'"

1.~,I!·.I

.....

,i~_;;

.•.

"

g)
I ., " II .... " • • '"' .... I ! .. " II ... '...... I ••

W11CU two (or more) plosives occur next fol1o'\vi ng \li,;fay:. .••...•

to

each other, the first of them behaves in (he


.. ..,.,•."., ,".... for example in such words

" " . . . _ . .. .. • . .. . " , " , . . . ..


• • • • • • • ., , • , , , , .' •• , , , • ••••

"

.,

..

I'"

.,

."

-I;

••

••

.'

"

"

"
• , , T , , • " , • • .. •

"

II

"

"

'r.

"II

!!

II

, •••

"

..

"

aB'

••

~'''J.LI

~·~·I

".iii·~

'·'''''I'1.~I'~''i

r'

!~,.II"!!'~."'.""'LI!~!

f) atfrication of plosives.
• I
IJ

h) When a plosive in English is followed by


• L. I I I • "

a nasal

consonant, then the former

I.

.,

r.

'r

+.

...

"!I

...

r'

"

"

II,

'II

..,

f.

I'

..

"

..

..

'II

..

..

..

'II

"

..

"'.

r..

••••••••
I • .. ~ _ • .. .. 'II .. ., •

••••••

'

•••••

which means that .. ,

"

"

..

..

..

..

..

..

"

..

..

..

,.

..

..

..

"

"

..

..

..

..

..

...

'"

II

..

."

..

..

II'

'"

..

,..

"

II'

••

"

n The loss otvoicing


between ... ,~.
roo ••••••

in English Ib, d, gi does nor meal) that theybecome , , , , .. " . . . ..


••• ".· ,1
i

identical with /p,

3. Complete the following sentences:


a) A£prr·Ottion. in English stops may be treated as. a- period of voicelessness
I"t!&a,jtf! ". ,

. ies-diff . r, .K.t • Tl:!I:E two series-t lue.r m . . . .


N.' ••• N

.
'" ~

.
In .. 'III

·~ii,,·

..

i.

"'~"'+~"''''.r.

of .

.tk

otbJcve

....

and .... d.e t)/M~t

• ; ,.of"

- ,(!(ltai)'p , . _The- longe

II'

.'

..

"

L.

"

,.

..

"

II

.1

...

..

,.

,.

II

II

"

II

..

'I

...

..

'I

"

"

"

"

"

..

..

,.

..

II

II

ii

...

..

this period is. [he' ....


· ..
" ~ I! ~.

4p.k/-' ,., .

the amount of aspiratien,

j) Tbe exact. place of articulation


!..
ii

of velar plosives depends. on "


_

,
! ..

,
I.... "" .......

b):English Fortis plosives are fully aspirated when


.,,'
.... " ~

"

-. ,.

'i

'I

"'

"

III

"

"

,;

.....

i!

I!

'I!

II

••••

:;

"

"

,.

....

"

•••••

,.

.....

, ....•
~ .. • .. • ..

'".",
.. ". II .. II II 'r II II II! .. .. ....

,
~.,..

" ,The.y are weakly aspirated when .,


'" d

" , " ..

Tiley are mostadvanced

when . " ., " . ,. ,

"

" .,.

...

. .. " . . . " .. . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . _ " andmost retracted when , , . , . .

-+

;.

..

••

!-

.,

"

••

"

They are unaspirated when


ii " " I

,
.. _
!!

, . - .. - . - .. - In .
I!

· , . , ..
1 •
if!

. , ,. ,
,. ~ I _ ",;;.;

,
" •• ,. , , II • 'e' • I .' m ; • Ii • Ii • oi oi I
'I

II'

"

•••••

III

""

••

"

..

-I'

"

II

..

"

'1

.~,

..

..

I,

OJ

, " , " as pu.:auon, :is uptHJnal.


• " " , 11

~ Choose the correct answer:


". ", , ". • , .

c) Two (or more) consonants are homorganic when- ., .,

· . ..
• • .. • •

.. , ....
• i " "

, .. , ., ., ,.....
!o
ii. •• • .. ." I. .. • " I. •

, ......
• G I. ~

, ., ...
• • • • •

, ... , for example III such. words as,


.' '" • ,. • .. " _ • .. • ~

.,.
• ., ( ;

A.ln the word topmas,[, Ipl


a) has lateral release, b) isaffrica ted,

..

...

Ii

'"

..

..

..

d) English lenis plosives are fully voiced wheo_ " .. , ...


",_,. "'_ "'~ ••

.. , . , . , ·

,,

, .. , ...
'•••• ,' I!! ~

, .' " , .....


Ii ~ _,I. ••• ~ I ~ ..

, , , '"
_. ~."..,

,. They are partially voiced when - ..


••• , .. ~ .. ~ J _'"

© is bornorganic
b) advanced. ... tabic c}' .sy ll ~. .

with tbe following eonsonam, /g/.is

B, In the w'Crd' eagle,


"

.Ii

.....

'"

•••

,,-

•••

,••••••

"

, ...

.,

......

a) partially devoiced,
1 " • r.

..

..

"

'"

.,

"~

•••

.1."'lllJ

••

",,,~I.~."_Ii~".IJ~.~"

Ii

"

!!'

c) English plosives can he affected by the following consonants


.. ~ ! ... ~", ••••• ,.•••
ft •••••••

'i1"l
Ii, ~

several ways such. as


_ .. ~,., •• ,ii·n

i.'!!

I!!

.....

·"Ii.,

.Ii'
Ii • " • -

C. In th e word rides, /d/ is


-a) aspirated, b)t1eleaserl inaudib1 y,
c} fu n y voiced. .

!!

'I!'

!i

!I

;;

!!

,.

..

,_

,_

III

"

"

,_

..

"

...

..

-:

..

'r.

"

10

I!

~.

!!

'r.

III"

_.

..

..

'"

I!

II"

"

..

.'

r.

...

..

..

..

ill

••

..

ii

"

f) English plosives have' the following effects upon the adjacent sounds:
• ,~n
i

, ..

'

1'1~~~m~~i

r.",.~~~

•••

"'li'

~ .....

"Il~"""

46 I. D. In the word ptostve, Ipl is a) retracted b) affricated,


1

a.In the words and. phrases given 'below indicate plosives u"U.hno audible plosien,

c) !~!ueraHyreleased,
E, in the. word obvious,

Ib! is

9. III the words given below indicate plosfves released in a different followed ·by a vowel. Name the type of the release. a) /)rJ?:tbug , . .
b) blow'. . " .
<

way than when

a) aspirated,
bJ partially devoiced,
t'.~)

IU1IMiaaJga
• • " , • ' "

..j

,,
• , '" " • ., " • " , " ,
I, ~ _ I I I I II III • I ., II ~ , .. .. ~ !!I _ I. • • II ~ .. " I

c) Iabio-demal.

\, __.gi[yen below~

5. -be fine the major differeucJe in the' pronunciatton


L

of plosives in the pairs of words,

c) rub 11,[Y hack . , , " . . . , '. . .. , " , , . . . . " . . . . . . '. , , " _ " .. . . . . , , . ., , , . , . . ,

d) footbdll and basketball


.'tt:)

.. , .....

, , ...

, " , .. ' , ' , .. , ....

"

'''" .. ,'"

..

t1·vinkle , . . ,. "

, , - . . . " , , , , , • , " . , , " " . , " , . , . . " " . " . . . .. . . . . . . • . ,

a)gry- ['Y' t~(J'h:cI("crJaJ (.f;CfiC'.et%jj


'1::1)

Qane --id.1:aue-, .. " .•..


II' 'OJ II II II ~ ., • I t; ,. • • I '" ..

,,
"

'
i' ... ,. " •
It I

'
it t .. •
or t; I. II " " .. " .... •

'
• .,; II I • •

, " .. , '.,.. ' , ..


• • • • ~ ~ • •

HI. In the .words given below indicate those ploslves \l'.hidl may be:
a) released inaudibly:

iI

sot@ ignore, teacher, uncle, cUmb, tenderly, baobab.

c) rackI p"r.

rag" . '. , , " . .. . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " . . . , . . .. , . . . . , . . ' " " , . , . . .


'
•••• ~ ~ ...... I .... ~., I

b) reinforced by the gloual stop: soap; ignore, teacher, uncle, climb, tenderty, baobab .. c) affricared: soap, ignore, teacher, uncle', ctimb, lender~y. baobab ..

"~!l'

.. ,.i

.. , ...

~·-,· ....

~I!

..

1t.~.,.IIl

..

i~_"'

•••

d) ca[!_, _' cat '

' . . . . .' ,. , .. , . .

, , " , " . . . , .• ' • ' . . .. , " '" " . - , . " .. , , .,

11. In. the words given below indicate tnoseplesives whose place of articulation
bilabial.
~ dlil,lious ptunub· sober, soupfor er,
1

Is not

e) bouom - bogie " . . . . .. . .' . . . . . , . '

0,

.'

'.

"

"

'.

Pamela, sob

very

sadly.

6., In the words given bcl'ow 'indicate stronglyaspirated II


I"

plosives.

12..In the-words glven below indicate those plosives which are not alveolar, State fhelr 'exact point of articulation. a) traditional- ... ./M'J'/-a:.t1/6t&/ ...

fJjftf.e.speaker, burglar,

Thamas, d{l.rify~ compare, tune, steward .• Poland .. together.

7. Inthe wordsgiven below indicate unaspirated plosives. State the reasons why these sounds cannct be aspirated.

b} eight thousand t} louery ...


d) bod'

.. , , , . , . . . . . . . . . . . . ...

" . . , .....

,,,.

•••••

"

" . . , " " . . . , " , .. ' , " , , , '.. , . ' . " " , .' . , " . . . . . . . . . . . . _ . . .

road . " . . . " . . .' , . . . " " , , . . . . '. . . . . .. , . . " . . . . '. ., . . .. . . , ' , , " " . .
i••

J'

~I

e) do« ',f ' d() it , . , . " , " , . " , . . . .. . . . . . , " .. . . . . , , . . " . ; . , . " , .' . , . . , . "
I ! IN" IJ ._. ....

.J • ,~ ~

'h

...

I!!

-Ii

I.

c.}

cuuure. . , " . . . " " , . " " . , , , . . " . . , . . ,. . . " . . . . . . . , " " . . . . , . . . . ,. . . .
,, ;,.' , , " .. ' ,., ,,, -, ' .. , , - ,. , " . " .. ' .. , .. , -

13..In. the words given below indicate the advanced variants JJf' the velar plosives,

d) travel . . . . , . . . . . '". " , .' , . . . . . , " . , , , , . , . , " , . . . . . , ,. " , . " . " " " , '
e) stelv ..

r.f?nada. girl, sugar, tiger. acknowiedge, wnisk», gangster, 14. In 'the words given below Indicate those sounds which are shortened adjacent plosrves. gOOd-dj__i!Jl. belt, border. cotton, compose, bank, soldier. by the

.c":::!

f) cornp uter . . ' " . . , " " . . . . . , . . .' , '. . . , , , , . , " , . , " . . . . . " , " " . - , , , . . .
g) ctoak-roam

-Ii

II

48 15. III the words given. below indicate fully voiced ploslves.

49
r

..

..

••

.~.

III

lb.

,j

I,

,..

III

'!I

"

..

..

!=

iI

',"

II

....

..,

til

,~

l'

Ii'''

'!I

II

II

'.

..

11 n

"

...

'"

'I

..

II

;,

II

..

Ill...

..

'.

!!

.,

!I

!!

cotr/&ne. persuade. grammar,


16.D:eseribe

big

town, la:nguage, bringing.


,. • I; ~ • • ,. • • .. I ., ... ~ " I

,_

..

II<

"'

..

0;

.",

'"

,.

.'

"!'.

..

..

the values of the sound It I in the sentence below (aspiration" articulation, type ofrelease) !,

place

or

........

-"'~'1

••

II"

••••••

"

••

nn

.....

•••

~I

..·i~.~;.i

••

l.r

••

....

.I'.il

..

-li

That this tittte fat man who sat down on the table "~~a'STracy's' step-father astonished us,

II

..

..

II

.,

"

"

"

Iii

Ii

"

i.

..

...

"

'"

"I'

Ii!

..

til

"

tJ..m./,...,k.('Me. . . v: ,little. . . . , " . . , . .. . . . " . . , ' . , . . . '. ,. , , , , , , ., . . ,. ,. . , , . . . '. . . . . . . . . . . .


t.:Ula.,$Nk'alev/.

l1u;U " . ,

cu/dat
'I!! • •
Ii

p ,,1-.,;1', 19.'r:OVl/"de tnree woros

(;I

f'

E ng;l'IS~l '. W 1 . h' 1 lU. UC

'11'

Iosrses: .

fa~t' " ... sat ....


•f
I

'I

.1

,.

'I'

.~

••

I. • " ...
.....

"

..

..

.~

II

...

iI

~,

,.,

II

'"

II

.'

a) are stwngI y aspirated '. . .o/:rwa? , , , b) an;:


not

!I,

.....

:I

..

"

••

,"'

I,

~"

••

i·l.

...

"

....

·oj!!!

,..,

••••

'.

,I

Ir

II

~,f;;,

'",,,

•••••

aspirated . . , . .
o.

",,... ,
0 • , •••••••••

,"
, " •• , •••

" , . , .. , .. . __ '
, ,••••••• , •••••

tabl''€) ~

ooj

..

OJ

.'

'!Ii

I.

L.

Ii

..

II

~.

'I

'.

Ii

..

II

.'

.,

.,

'I

"

..

..

....

'!

"

c) are optionally aspirated .. , .. d) have no audiiJ1e release " e) have a nasal release .. "' , . ,

Tracy

'J . ,. . . , " • • " , '. .

"

'.

•.

'

'

"

," ' . , , " , , .. ,

II

"

..

.;

,.

.'

It

.•

..

""

II

j1
.j
i
I'

11

sr-ep=ja(her .' ,

, .•.

, " .. ,';,, .. , , .. , . ,.,.. "


,r • • • • • • " , • , " • • • • • •

" , ,...•....
, • • • • • " , • ,

, .. ' .• ,
• " , " •

,
I

astonished . . . _ . . . " .. . . . . . . . . •

n have a lateral. release.

. . " . ,. , ; . , . , . • . .' . . , . . .. , . , , . . . " . , " " .. , . , ..


," .
0 •••••• " .,' , ;

17. In what cantexts can the glottal stop appear in E:ngUsh?Give examples.
a) word-illllla'ity, ".
It& .••

g) can be reinforced by the glottal. Stop" . , " .. , . " •.. h) are partially voiced ,," ,. , , , , , ; " , ,

,,,.,

'b) lvO'rd~fin(lI~)1. • . " . . . .' . . . . . . • " . . . . . . . . . . . , , ' . , . . . , . " , . , . . . . ., , .


c)

j} are fun), yoked . . ; " . . . . . . . ,. . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . , , .. , . . .


a . . .J") h,ave . labio-de '_nral vari ants
IL . d.~1'

.
.. ~ • •• •

prevocali catl»: . ., . " " . . . " , • , . . . . , , . , . ., . . • . . . . . . . , " . . . . . . . .' . ,. . "

L::i

<I'

••

..

!I

oj

'I

"

101

.,

.,

,I

..,

...

..

_,

d) in: ervocaii

caliy , , . ' . . . .. . " . . . . . . . . . , , " , . ,.. . . , " , . . . . . , . , , . ' , . '.


, .. , " " . , " '" ,,', , ..
in tile daiL

k) have dental variants .. , .• , _

" , .. , .. , , .. , " ,

, , .,

'f:) preconsonamalty

1)have post-alveolar variants . , ,


m) have

, '" , .. , , .. , , , , . , " '


" , • , ,,' , . , ' . , , ,

, . '. , . " ..
". ,, ,. ".' .

advanced.

variants

,.,,..

1.8~ Formulate ..

UU?;:fule(:s:) responsible

for the distribution

below:
"'\:,;,1:. .,

of It! variants

n) shorten the: preceding vowels , ,.. ' . , , , . , . ; " , , . " , . , , " ,


0) shorten the preceding cousonams

, ". ,
",,.,

,,,
'. " ,

,II

. " . , ,. , , , ' '.. _

"

stop eighth

[stop]

tha: shoe hot time:

[o;:e~ in] ~ [o~? J u:] J


[IDt-: taim] - [h'Jlraim]
r'rf<£t" pin] - rhrelpLn]

[et:t8]
[S(Wu:p] [trsep] , Lthi:]
['phAtnnU

stoop trap
tea

luupln
football

20. In American Engllsh in certain positions it! and ldl are replaced \ViOl the voiced 'alveolar nap [fl. Formulate the rule responsible for the 'distribution of this sound in the da fa below.

rfut' bo:l] .....[' fu?bodJ


[r!JI,ols], - I[n::ltohs] [g)~ri~lmcedl - [g:ilrial-m<.ed]
if&t{I~}]

-not tnls
gat real mati
fa!

Putney
L

write nesting
.lighfning

(mit]

r nestln 1
,['Ianni 0]

boule tul-ip

['b~t11] [~tj1..t:lip] [pri~tltend]


,['bAtrtn]

'I'

I'

q,

,I

sweaty
retain
that luck tall

rswi:t!til - ["swi:'ln] [ri ~thein]


[OEet1tAk} [[hod]

writing
rider bottle

I' ralflO., 1 ,;
rra~n:]
['burl]

pretend
buuon

lightest actors wruer sights -1Fvrite of sighted


data

elairist]
['(ekGHZ] ["rain]

[saizs] ~
I'....
4.. .....

['rairav]
[":-!"Htl .d] ' [Id~~r~]

'I' II;
I.:!

r'l 1! I"

k : h!
, 'I
~~~,

It '

between

[bi'~ tw\vi:n]

nightly

[~naitlU

.~\.,..

-,
50

51

pretend
tidy reduce

[prt'tend] rt2l1ri] [ri\bll"s]


['1£11rn]

feeder lightness hunting

[~fi;nJ

rekord
h '" ..

II...

..

..

Ii

..

..

:-

..

..

..

,.

..

..

..

..

.'

'r

'.

..

to

P'

II

.j

..

!'

..

..

..

,II

..

rlaitnis]

etvill, r i1)1
!['mJllid]
[ri'tein] (raid]

;1

~-;

,!!

,,11

",~'

.. "

"

lighrer..

malt,ed
retain

winter
kind ,of
.. I' • • • it

[·winrr] 1[' kainrav]


• ~ III i

d) por#ait
.. .. " I • " " i " !I .. U .. ,..

portret
.. ,t, ;, Ii ..

...

..

"

!II

"

,I

..

r. "

..

..

"

..

II'

iI

..

..

.'

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

"

II

,..

...

..

~.

..

..

..

ride
L • _. I • • .. "" •

..

..

..

..

..

...

II

..

"!!'

..

..

..

..

l!!

II.

"

..

..

,..

..

.'

..

II

It

II

I'

..

II

..

..

II'

II

II.

I'!,

II'!,

r.

\!

"

••

,~

Ii

F'·

~,.,

•••

III

••••

II'~

y,

••.

iI

r..r

..

It

I"

•••

,.,

•••

I,~

II

l!!

"

..

II

'"

rh

"

'.

'=

..

..

'~

ii

to·

'II

,i

"

.,

,
,

eo) gallop
• .~ j, .... ~ ••

gatop . . , ,
r.I n Ii iI' !II ~ ,. • • III I ... ! ... •

iI

"'

I!

..

II

..

I'

..

"

"

I!

Ii

"

'II'

II

0;

'.

"

iI

.•

II

,
• _ • • • .. ,~ ~ • Ii ,r II' ~ • • •
11 .. .. ~ I Ii • Il • I.

'I'

.,

."

II

II

.i

Po

I' I"

'

~ :~ ~ •

..

'"

'I

..

"ii

't

...

...

OIl

'"

"

"

"

"

'II

....

"

II

•• ,

OIl

,.

'"

!'

"

"!

..

.,

•.

..

"

"

'I

"

..

..

.•

r'

"

..

y,

21. Complete the Iollowing table. M-ark the positive answer with a plus -,and th~ il.e-g,aUveanswer with a-nO),jnus;-

f) kit
.. ~ y ~ • i iii iii

kit ..
II " • • II
i

".

..

I'

OIl

..

..

'I,

"'

!!

...

II

II'

..

,I

...

'.

II

..

..

..

..

OIl

••

.,

'i

..

~,

"

;,

to

...

~.

II

..

ii

LII

I,

..

..

..

rtf

..,

'"

..

.,

ii,

!h

II

.;;

..J

CONCERNS_PL,OSJVES[I'~: g) gibbon.
;;.~" ~ •• +04' I, .L.'I!! r...

II

,r'

ii

'i

'!!

..

!!!

'fi

'I

,Ii

...

"

L.

iLl

"

II

•••

LI

'M

'i TY,P'E OF PHENOMENON


As.piradoll :Partial devotclnz
I

-gIbbon _. . . . " . . . . . . . , .' . . _ . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . _ . . . . ..


i ~ ~,. OIL. " .. , I'+~~'I!"" ••• ,. ~ .• ~ ",,,.'.,.".
iI

ii."

.' ••

"

(jj,1

1".1'

of!

po

.1,

"

..

..

.,

I'

..

..

..

..

'"

II

ii

..

;;,

..

I'

,.

..

II

rio

II

"

..

..

,.

,II

II

I,

]I

..~.,... i·· ..'


I Palatalization

•.

"'

•••

"

••

iI

.'

•••

111

!'".

'"''

orN"

.,

••••

Ii

......

1."

•••••

.,

••

~'!

II

h)pkk
oil • .. ~
iI. ,.

'k .Pl...
II • • ••.

••

.,

Ii

II

.'

••

II

..

"

...

,.

II

110

.......

,.,

, ....

' ....

II

"

oj'

'"

••

>jj

'!!

,"

..

II'

.,

••

.'

,.

,.

..

'"

••

,.

_.

.Ii

."

'"

'"

HI!.

I!!

..

,..

I'

iii

,..

..

,II

,~

..

..

, Nasal release
I

..

..

..

..

..

'"'

.,

"

'",

II

...

..

.i

..

II

••

••

ri

,.

"

!'

I.

..

..

".

rio

,!!

Ii

'!!

...

!o

.,

'"

II

Ii

..

I!

~~'

"'",,

II'

1,1,.1'

••••••••

,.

ii,

~"

•.

II

·1

t)
'I

Mecca.
• • • " .~ ..,
II' • • • .~ II' •

lY.H:;Ma
"

:lJI.,rA~·

• ,. , . "' ,
• • • • ~
lo I,

Ii

I'

'!

LII

'.

.,

',"

;II

II

..

'"

~,

!I'

I'

Ii

.'

I!!

.,

Ii

oj.

oj

'I

..

;I,

~,

...

"

"

;,

Ii

Ii

,.

,I

Lateralrelease
• ~ • '", '. I'

..

,iI

iI

II

'.

'"

iI

Ii

Ii

,.

to

Ii

..

,I

Ii

II

II

I,

'Ii

ill

II

'.

II

Ii

••

ii

.'

II

'II

"

"

...

I'

"

ii

it

01

..

"

'.

ii

'I

.,

,;,

'f

11'

••

,I

"

ilt

22. Compare the plosives in the words below. ,Pfliut.out sunilaritics and dmffe.rences:
-Englii_h
a)
~ •

j) drain
• .110 ." .. ~ I

oren. ,;,,. '"',.


iii •••
II , .' i ~ ,I ~ " •• ,

!o

..

~,

ill

I,

'1

..

,i

"

..

.~

II

"

~,

I'

.•

I'

'.

'"

Ii

.•

..

..

,.

'!

••

01

110

..,

"I

'I'

•••

'••

II

II

I!

II

Polish doktor Eldi -PlJiced'dtJeo-!Q..p/dbJiC:1t , .Pldl -f/-oiced'


! II II

..

·Ii

••••

I'

~."

~'

••

[I

~"

••••

!!!

.,.

,I

riI~

illjj

I'

••

..

Ii

~'I!'

••

..,."

,;i.

"'."

"'.

doctor
II m .. ~

denlat;,tlbdt~1t
.. .. .. ..
II ~ .. II " M

'"

II

'!

"

II

10

.~

"

II,

t;

I[

,II

II

.,

"

...

..

II

I'

to

..

'II

ii

iI

II

'I

'F.

II

!'

.11

'"

.,

"

"

.!

II

.,

!!

!!

II

II

II

II

..

II

!'

..

If'

In..

..

'"

II

"

'!O

.23.,. he :maJodty or P·olish consonants have T


lzed, Stud)' the drawings below and:

[7lVO

variants: unpalatalized .and palatal-

~,I

....

i~~

"'

••

~III

•••

~.!.,
+. ..

... ~
I, Ii..

~MII

"i

''!''.!

•••

•••

!I.'

~~

•••

"·F~~II;'F~.·

bY cowboy
IlOIlO ...... ! .'" .'. ;I.....

,,k" k"O",1ll..I0J

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

II

"

~,

III

..

...'

'0

'II

'I'

..

..

..

..

...

"

,.

..

Ii~'

!!.~

II

....

II

.,Ii

.. "

~,"

....

••

'

..

~!OJ!"

iiI"!O-~

,.,,,,,

I'

.,.t'

A. identify the place-of anicutanon of-fhe plosives, R identify


the palatalized and. the unpalatalized variants.

....

.,

I.

..

'I'

!;

..

..

"

-+

..

;,

II

'I

..

..

II

..

_:

;.

..

'"

..

II

...

II

..

iI

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

'ii

..

..

...

"

'.

Ii

..

53

{a)

M"&v#k.ec/ J21!uJ;oZ ;t.t&j?Ye /.t/

(b) .. , , , , , " , " .. , "' .,

{c) , , , ....
ii • II _ " ••
It

,,,,
'I :r 'I

••

••

;,

...

Ii

...

...

...

II

OJ

.,

...

?~t
••••••

(d) , .....

, , ' , ; ..

".

(e). , ., . , , , , , ' , , . . . .

CD

" , , ..•.•.

,(c) " .. ', .•

" " . ' ...

" . " " " ....

(d) . " " . " . ' ...

" , " . , ' " , ,',..

25. Belew we present the most common ways-of s,peni~Eng1is:h 'plosiv!es~ Add three examples to each list ..
IPI

24., 'VItal sounds do the (olIo\ving drawingsrepresent?

Which 'Of tben] are found:


' , ;, . " ., ...

<,p >, 114FJt; ",""


<,'pp:>

...

-,,,.",' "

"

"

••••••

'

•••••

..

"

A, only in English? , .. , .. , , " , . ; '. '" , . " , , , , " , , . , .. , , ....

'~P/(";)~

."."....,.

,.. . . . . , .. " • " ,. " . . . . , , .. , . . . , " '". , . . ,

fbi B, onry in Polisrr? . , . . , ....


I
I .. " ii ~ " I 'R " '" • • LI I " • .. .. '"" .~ '. • • .' II' ~ • • ., ~ I ~. • • • • • • "" I .. I • • • • • • ;. • _, I

" , , , , , , , '. ' .. " , , , ; . , , " " • . . '. . , ' . . , , , , ., , .


". ,
~' ,. n '"

< b. >i;.4$;.o TJ " ...~ v.~ < bb> lP&k;-X,t~

II

••

-'

I'

"

..

~!

!II

.~

IJ

"

1,

.J

...

IJ

...

..

.,

.1

IJ

, , ",
,, •.

" .. ' , " .

'0

•••

'

••••••

•••

••

I
I

C. 'both in Polish and English? /;,/.


" I ~ • PI ~ • .. ~ ~ ~ .. I 11 ~ • • • • • !!.

'"

•••

,;

'

..

••

"

'"

, •••

'

"

"

"

oj

...

..

..

~.

'"

ji,

'I'

.'

..

< t>, V./'tJ .,'"""' •• < rt> &t~ ."...."

0'

..

""

..

•••

"

.....

'

"

...

.. "', ... ".', ..

'

..

"

"

••

•••••

"

••

I
1

54

55
<ed>
<: dol> Jdl

j
,1
1

~.&i
9.7'LYlt'fJ"
L

I. . . '. . . ., ~ .. .
~ ... .. ~

Ii

..

.,

..

..

;,

.'"

'.'

'"

iI

...

..

.'

•.

ii

4.3. AFFRlCA.TES At-v.D FRICATIVES 1. FUl in the.gaps:

!II

II

'1

..

...

II

.'

..

..'

.,

,II

·of

..

"!: '

<d>

ti:p~ '.,,, ..,,,.,"""",,

,,.,, .. ,.,,. - -

< dd > 17Uata~ <. ed > &;!7?ec.i


lkl

Plosjves, affricates and fricatives belong to the group of consonants known as obstrucnts

since [hey share several features:


~ ., ., r • "' '., ~ " ._ .. • • • • !II .,
po .. .. • • • -

'I,

"

II

..

,.

..,

,.

,.

,.

,.

!III

,.

1'1) b)

!!'

....

!'

,.

II

'!!

II

....

II

it

.,..

"

II.

of

••

'!

II

"

..

!'

••

'1

...

:r

<C>
<, c:c >,

t:£t£''''/at

" •......

, " . - , .•

",

, " , " .. " ••

, . , , , ..

'
+ • •

" ..
• • •

acc.~.rtl~ti!... .....,.",.................
1 • .. " • • •

- - . .. . ,. • .. . . . . , , .
, • " • • • .. , • • ", .. • .. •

c) .".,."
d}
.. _~ .• L ••••

'"

'.

II

"

"

"

!!!

< k > ky;;-, -,. . . . . .' . , , . . . . .. . . , ,


~ 04' '" ,. .. I ...
n ,. ,. • '. ,. _ ~ 'I •. .. ,. ,.

'II!'

....

;;ii"'".II

••••

I ......

FI

I·I"."!.'.~_I

..

"

Affricates resemble, plosives in that in the first stage' oftheit production " ....
.. • ... • I ~' • ,.
!;

<

•••

."

,.

._

I!

,.

,.

,.

"'

•.

..

"

..

..

,.

-!

,_,

..

,.

II;

,.

" I, II " I. • n

hi'

"

II

.'

..

.• ,

,II

.'

••

''''

,I

of

"

.,

i'

.~

..

IS

< q_, "» -ceh >


"

. .' rnaOif!" -Th·,ey


, ..,

O{.:1#1~~,e', 7' .. :;,..o"~~""').'

",.

..

,.

II

.",~"

"',1'"1,

'rr'l

II."

.... ,~

iI.,n,

jo

...

,.

.,.

",~

••

.,

"''"'T

"

....

differ from plos! \i'es. however. in


,; , .. ~ , . ' - . ,. " .. "

'[Jla!l . .. . • . . . • ....••...

, . . . . • . • • ~ ..•.

;,

,.

,.

,.

,.

,.

"

,.

!Ii

I. ,. ."

.•

.,

"

"

II

,.

,.

..

,.

!!

!o

'

, . so that friction occurs.rf hus me)' can be


'0_ • • , • • • • • • , • • • • • _

10'1 ;:.'

regarded as a combination of . . _ " . " . . . . . " . ,- ... '" . . .


01 ,. ,. ... ' II '!! ,. ,. ., '. II! II of .. ~ I. ,. ;, 'r i ~ " ,. ,. n "
'I "

<' g '> .Ptu~


< gg > ~~.v;

"

. .,

if

t:

,.

II

Ii

it

'01

,.

..

II

..

,.

"

..

II

..

..

.;0

.,

....

..

and. _
" .. ••

'!!

I'

!'

..

..

""

IS

...

'!!

II

"'

II

II

II

II'

...

,.....,.".

- ...

" - .....

, • , " ...
,. "

, .. . . ...
I • , • • • •

" . . . . . - " " ..


, • • t " • • • • • •

"

I'

•••••

'

....

"

••••••

••

Fricatives." ,~lso caned. , .. , _ . _ ...


" , .. , ' . . " , . . . ,_ " . . . differ both

"

< ._:.-' zh >,

"'~:Jt. y,u., .;, ,.........."'..".,';"".",...".

· '.... , . . . . . , . , . . . , . . , . '...
· "
• 'II " ... Ii! II • ,L • •

, . . . . . ...
,.. " .,

26. In the words given below indicate silent

<p>.
receipt. promptly, psychology

from plosives and affricates in that no . '" .. , . ; . " '" .. '"" .. _


,,."
t. ~.
! I II II '.. II • II II '" _

_ .. , ..
.
" II • "

. Instead, the articulating organs form"


• II II II '" ~ ..

@:sa.lm, abrupt, raspberry" pneumatic, emprj. pneumatic,


27. In the. words given below indicate silent <b>-.

'!!

II

'!I

II

11

I.

II

iI

..

II.

,_

II

AI

IiI

through which the air passes with. _ " . , .. , .. , . , " " . , , ..• ' . , ..•..
~ • ,. I II II _

, .. , .' ~ . , '"

II

,I

II

II

I'

'..

"

"

II

LI

I'

I..

..

hon@ bombastic. debt, CampIJell, subtly. doubtjut,tomb.u.mbrclla,

rumble

28. In thewords given below ind:icate sdent

<t>.,

2. "Yfhith of the factors used to deseri be' plosivcs. are.appllea ble in the- c ase-of :affricates .' __ d !J" anllflcahves',;'?
,3.) aspiration , . .' Et£}, b) different type's of release ." .. _
<
Iii'" II II II II • II !

.u~'JI1. Nestle,

constable, Christmas, ballet, moist, castle, nesting, apostle

29. In the words 'given below indicate silent

< d, > .

,.,

'" , .. _ . "

",

c)raUbj devoieing . . . , .
d) the fortis/lenis distinction

Wtfi!zesday, adjust, scoundrel, sandwich, ll>lindsor, windy, handsome, hilw:lke.rchiej


L'

30., In the words gJven below indicate silent

<e>

and

< k> .

e) the. shortening of certain. preceding sounds,

1. Ch'(}os:e the eorreetanswer: A, Frlauives .share with plosives thefaa thor they may:
@be partially voiced, b) be aspirated,
J

@now muscle>
J,

If!11S

(mar, knee;« d?ww ledge. ob rc ene, Coonn:ecricut, -disciple, mi racl e

31. In the wordsgiven below Indicate silent

<s>.

-'

brir:@ foreign. gang.net, singer, younger, strongly._stfongest; sign signature

c) be affricared,

56

B.. Fortis jrk;(uives! asd tzJfrlcate::shave the loJJm1i.h:rgeffect on the pr.e-red}ngvotvelJ·,~ they:
a) retract them,
I:

1. In the words below' hldi,cate thosevnwels


oonsonants::

wbich. are shortened by the foHowin,g

0) shorten them, e) round. them,

pare;;hrase, pronundatio«,

species, my tholo gy, seven t eends ..

e. Fricatives differ from both plosiv(lso,nd affricates. in that:


a:) tlJ~y Me forn1ied. by means of a narrowing,
b) they canner bereinforced D. Affricate& resemble nasals by the glottal stop, a) fricatives are fullyveiced production:
.:/'/(.e ... .a;Jty...

ns

t) they Dever lose their voicing,

b) fricatives are partially voiced:.

, .. , _ .... . _ . " ._ .. .
" _ , . , " ... ,.

in .[hat in the course ofthsir

c) affricates .a.re fully voiced: . . .. . . , dI)l1ffrJcates are partially voiced: ej fricatives sborren the precediugvowets:
g) de[ltM fricanves occur: " ......•..
h} gtottai fncstives occur:, i) alveolar frlcatlves occur:
OCCur:

a) the soft: palate is lowered,


b)
I

me vocal

eordsvibrare,

c) atotal closure is made.


il

_ . _" __ . .
.,,

" "_, .
, .

15. Affr[cates{1J:w fricatives f.n_EngU~h arejuUy voiced:

[) affricates suorten the preceding conscnants: . . .. - - - .. , ... , .,'


'" . , .. , "
, • , , ..
£I.

a) word=ivAlia] ry~
b) wQrd-fina11y·. c) between voiced sounds.

, . ""
,
_ ,._

, . - - , - - - .. - .. , . ,
,.
,

.
__ "

"
••••..

'" " .. ,
_, • , ,

4~'Vba:.t is the n13jor difference 10 the p.ronul1H~:iadon. of atfrieates

the pairs of words given belo~?


;1) seot .- zeai. . "tH)U:..tA,P b) pass <oath. . . .. . , " . .
~ _. .lL

and/or fricatives

j) palate-alveolar 9. Complete
..
,"_

affricates

thefol1o\.viug table .. Indicate :lll:l1lwerr witha minus • - .... .

positive answerwlth

a plus and a n.eg::lJtive

OCCORS IN:
" !

I"'J. ·~IIr4"" r iL"'~ "-?,,

shame _. pn>1<'e·-. !i_·.t.I,n: ..


,,,)

...

,~

d) cl1ip - ship, e)

' .. ,

,.,

'fYl~EOF- SOUND

both Er~A sh I.i


and Poi is-h
.1

En gUsh ' on;]y

PoHsh onl'y

. neither Engi ['sl1 nor Poligh

vine> fin.e ,.,


Il

, '. , ,. .
r , •

..., , .,.. "


, •• , .,.. " •. , '

f) thin ,_ sin
g) gin - chin

,veieed labio-denta I fricative.'


... • •

~'

..'

'~

.i;

'I!'

,~

,.

,i;

ri

I.

;,

..

.~

.~

b) heat - 5'#1(. . .. .. .. . ,. . , . .. . . . .

. . . . . .. ..

" , . . . . .. ..

.r,

••

i) beige -bathe .. , j) cheap- jeep .. "

,,, , . , , , ' . "'" ',.·

. .

voiced dental affricate


iI i " I oil , I

voiceless palato-alveolar affricate:


1

5. In thewords given below indicate .full), vtricced afIdcates~:

I 'v'Diced
1

nlottal fricative
,.;;:" --

l.

I.

l~t(djbrtef judge ,~

Greenwi en Obs£rvam.ry~ ginger,. sandwiches"

l,.,,,,,· les milaca a f""'" ""tee ess I rncate


!~ 1·

6. In thewords given below indkate fuUy voi.ced fricati"fes.:

I
10..ldentify the fricatives
A. .appear
'CH1 lyin

r r

ilT' th.e'

dr~",~IDgs below. ''\r11fih o[ tbem:

.EngJish? . ., , ., .. . . . . . . .. ... - ." .. . . .. .. • . , , . .. ... . , , .. . .


- .. , " ,.,, ,.. ,- - " " , .

8.. appear only in Polish?


.1

C, appear both in Englishand

Polish?

;fzj

I,

(a)M& I¥&ial.l.jj

/I~ -

(b) . . . . .. ...
• ~'~'a'-'" ~,.
I

, .. " . . ....
I

(c) . . ... , .. .. . . ,.. - , . .


I iii

/U'fiitJ;#~

tel

~_!

"',.~

L!

;"1Ii

~!-'!'

•••

(a)

de .90UWtJ....1j ,~ia--dr.!/l;.t:.l/
/'it-,oCdid05;fP'

(b) ,

..

••

••

..

••

(c) ,
• • •

,
• • • • •

"
, • •

.!

•• •

"

(d) .. , , ,

II

'~

LI

II

..

(Ie) .....

, .....

, .- .

(0 ..
•. • •

'I

-I

or

IJ

!.

'.

,iI

,iI

.J ,;;

••

iI

(d) .....
I. I I
IJ

, .. ,
ill ••• 11 "

Ii

Ii'

Iii

'i

(e) ..... , ....


.i.
L~ ,.

, .....
i' i'
I ~ I "

, ..
~' ~

(f)
••

Sl.Kola ~
T • ,. ,. , .j • • • " .•••.•.•

sk(}ia~,

czy.sty ~

cysty

rleka ~ zeka, diem 4 (J;zem.

,Ii

' ....

-I'

'I

'I

••

Ii

Ii

"I'

,II

LlJ

IJ

._

.. '

...

11. Identifv u."';~:a'rfricates in tbe drawings below, Which: of them:


"
A .J""c.

What group of sounds:

app·ear
. ,. .

,_.".. I.fi.

E"ll',5h",:U •.. .rr1;.,t...'1

a) undergoes replacement:
- .• • • • .• .• •. .. • .. • .•••

, ". ,
• iT. .' -: ~ ..

,
!

·

Ii I

,.,
~, I ! ,. L~ ~ • i .' ~ '!I •

•"
I

_. • • • .•••.

-"•

... • ., ••
'i;,'

,. .. • ....

,
'I

...

., •

" .. -

b)'..'

,!PIL 'C''''n

LQ..,...il

~. :Il i,iU 1;;. ".,...~.- --'·s:, substitutes:


.;]i'!.).j, ,',

r.]i

L!

I'

II

IJ

'r.

I.

r.

'il

-!-

.,

~11

I~'

Ii

~,

••

,ill'-'

~"'

••.

~"".~

••

.''''LI

oj"'.

",I·

6.0

61

13. Compare the pronunciation 'Of affricates in the 'words below:


English
a) check

.'

.,

"

.
..

...

.. ..

"

.Il

.,

11) caviar
• I .. I II , II ~

.kawior
r _;,
:L ~I • • .. II ..." ~ ..

.j!

,
.. i <i

.
Ii

..
" ·r
.p ~ II' .. I. .. .., _ '" ••
.iI ., • II! '.

Polisb

.••••

to-

••

.,

.•

"

czek. HI (/-

i.0t(w&lJ-_,fl(ck.d&

·-~/;(/~.&.r .#ri."4 k.;_

IIIIe f - twitw,:/.1tJ.1 /J:O.1X.-Cl,/;~t7 k,. ql1-wJ.6da


h) jazz
! I "
I '"

lS."'lllcb

Polish sounds usually replace IS! or fotin the foUcn\'il1g, words and w,by?

a.) Thatcher.
I 'I

"A/

O?

.4'/
..

.!

••

II

••

'I'

..

""

..

iI

Ibl, M"ac-beJ h ." " .


.

c) bridge

brvd';, " . .<;.


'i ; t ~ i •
II'

c) Smith , . " " .


d) -Galsr.·'orthy ..
i
I••

,"'

..

j.

..

'"

II

,&

ill"

tz:yn .
• il

.
I

..
I "' .

e) Thackeray
f) Thoreau I I ..

Ii

.,.

II

II

..

!'

"

'",

"

e)', ";_.'p . tee»


1

·diip

g) Roth. " .
n

to-

It'

'i

'\

i) pitCh
.. I! I • • " II

16.,Below' we present themosecommon examples to' eaeh list.


i
III n .. '" II II ~ • • II I'

ways o;fspeUingEnglish fricatlves. Add three

,I

L1r)'}'ell .'::'.

dzie!
!P

{U
!

.,

.... . <'t"> .erf>


< ph-> lv-l

/ftUt.-"

.ff. "~

'
~ I. ..

,
I

14, Compare the prommciatlon of fricatives In the words below:


'EnglishPolish

)h$~/utft;j",

!'

,I
,i
i

Il

-< gh >- (fu:~'


f.J(V~&jiJ

".
.........".,,,

a) sir

ser Efs/ hi~ft .

a&c&h;r ,Pi(';at(.4;c;,

P!'$.1-· t,'t)it'!8~:1.J jl<./6t-(k/l/(d;J..ka.ti{H~

<~v>
/91

/.J{.4e.-

_to

....

..

-!.""'!.~"

,~

"ill

I.

If

...

I.

...

II

'I

<·th> t4-t.I;
II 'f~ " I II ._. ..

_. , .. " .. ~, . , " " " . " , , , . " , , ,

" .. " . "


r. • .. •

c)

champagne

stampaa ,
wodJ;_a" . , .

/a/
"

< th;:. ,a"".n;


lsi
,,

.,

.,

"

Ii

'"

OJ

!'

..

..

II

..

..

II

..

'.

III

II

d} vcdka
l; I ... II ..

...

;II

..

'"

.
., ,
,
I ; ....

<S >;

,1)/,i£4
!
II ~

e) z-ero
I • •. • •

z.ero . - , . , ,
i ~ .. • .. " ., •

..
i

..

..

. ,.
. ..

<x»

,I'AZ;
a. , , '" •• II "

'••

f) measure
I ... , .. ! !

mieru:
• ;;,
i' .. I

<;c > ad}, ..


jz/

!I

.•

"

.'

,.
I

<. Sf: >- J.tJ:J/...hYJi€. • '. • • • • •

"

...

"

.i

ii,

ft

..

...

,.

.j

"

,I. I

;,

II

'I'

III

I'

<z,»

'~''('-0'

••

"

••

"

_. ~

•.•

"

"

"

•••

"

••••

"

"

"

••

62

63

-czz > <5>

tl~#.£'_::"'r.lfi. .P~~ e:z:.tl',/:?l~ "...,

... ,.

...

iii

'i

..

!'

...

"

'"

..

..

!o

..

'I

•.

i.

,~

I'

'II

..

,10

iii

..

!I

"

..

II

.,.,

..

"

it

"

..

..

II

.,

II'

'I

,i

"

..

.,

"

..

21);;Below we present themost COmnIDn 'WQJ's,ofspleUing EU,glish afftk,ates. Add three examples to, each Jist. iii
..(ch >
~d); ...,.."......;....,...........,...........;."........,..,...

<X> <: :ss >


iJ
1 '/

• - • , , • " • • • • • ; , • - " " • , ' • •. • • • .• , " • ,. , • • • " • " • .•. • • , • • . " •

f1.o.Jj,{.?j.1~

, ' . • . • . . . .. . ' , • , . . • ' . " ." . ' . . " ' , , • . . • ' • • . . , • . . . . , •

.< sh > J&Y4 ..."......."......"',..,.....,.,.,,,......."'..........,


<ci

< tu>
<ri>

CZ.c./tk"'(·....,..................................

,. . . " " .. . . . . ,. .
If l' ' ,.
I r.

~t~
c~

.,
.......

.,

.,

il

iI'

"

,.

,.

"

'"

~,

"

.a.

;.

.,

.,

,.

,~

>

:yte(}()z..{
,fl8//.:JU:.¥I;.
" " • I .. • " " • I
,I; • • • .' •

<c>
le13/
I "
II "

..

••

If

'.

!Ii

I.

"

II

,..

..

.,

"

..

"

"

..

..

if

..

..

"

< si > < ti. :> <S > <g>


13/

'I

"

..

.'

""

"

"

"

"

.'

..

iI

'!!!

<g>
<: j >

.Pte'~

..,

,
a , • •

,.,
• • • • • •. • • • • • ; • .•

;;
• .. , • • • .. r •

,
• • • •

.

P~-/Uo/!,~

."

......

,~

...

"

..

...

•••

••••

••

r.=.''''i

..

rl.'

.....

~'

"1",,,

ft&l~. ~. . "... , . , .. ...., .


,
'r •••• ,.....,..........

dU;!1a;o;.
t't.t:l¥f,r'.JA

..

;0

II.

..

..

0;

..

..

..

..

iI.

"

II

..

..

"

"

..

"

"'

II

..

II

..

II

"

fo

~.

II

..

-!

...

<dg

>, i:t-t':tjt4. .

;
••

" , , .. , , . ; ;
,.......'....."....,........

,.,

"

"

."

<t

.,

"

.~

..

II

II

,.

,~

..

.•

I!'

._

..

< di> )~~

..,.II!.

II

,_,

...

~!

, ••

'.'

Mil

.•

..

~!II

••

",,,!;.5

...

''1'

•••

"

~"'-

It

I,

II

"

"

..

'f

..

"

.,.

"

'i

Ii

;,

II

II

II;

..

"..

.1

..

..

L,

..

... "

<si >
fhl

~.

I.

I'

II

,.

'.

..

"

"

II

..

"

.,

..

..

..

ii'

'.

.'

"

.,

"

r'

..

..

17. ]11 the words given below mlCUcate those instances of < th > which are proIlowlceO as:
a) the voiceless dental fricative
h) the voiced derital fricative

tnerap», Iireame, healthi therefore, bath. baths. bathe, wreath. youth. youths, tl tundel. loathe, south; southern, domes, smooth, anthem, rhythm,}t'Orrh, worthy

18. In the words given below Indicate those instances of


<110';;;-"

-.

< s > whleh are pronounce

all the voiceless alveolar fricative


b) the voiced .alveolat fricative phitos()phy, .absokue. absolve, accun~.abuse, goose, cats, dogs, tables. chairs, diagllO'siJ

because; basic, basts, Japanese, btouse, analY's~:s~fantasy. consists

homble, pharadfiJ heir; vehicle, hie~archY> honest, exhaust, annihilate, shepherd

84

65
>' /

4.4.

NASALS

4" Illtbe

wQrdsgiven

below describe! the exactp]ace.: ofa:rticulafiJOu

ofuasal

1. Fill.in the gaps:


Nasa] 'coos.onants resemble ora] plesives m that . ,,'
/l?#t:zd

CQJ[so.nan ts:

a &t;Vli/u!JteC'&;u/;.Pfi if qM~

,wl' t4

'b) triumph.,
c) 110nSel1Sie

.. .. . ' " ., .. . . . .. . . . . . . ...

,,

m!& , , ' " ..... '.. '. _,, - " . ,. " . '" " ' " . · . " ... " " , ". , . , ...... , .... " . "" . , . .. , , . " _ , ., .'" . The former di.ffe r from the latter ,1,10wev er " in lhat " . -, .. , . • . " . ,
~ i

~J.
"'!, .'

~
-

eI) autumn '

i,

.io

.J

Ii

"

i,

L!

;;

'r

I'

,.

n'

"

,ill

'I'

.'.

L.

LI,~

••

Ii'

[I

'"

1'~".!I;o,.

~.

",

••

!r

OJ,!,

••

••

"."."

~.,

I",'

LI

IJ

.',

!,
i
~ ... ~ ., ! "'
~ I •• i ~ .. ~ _.~ .• ~ ~, ••••• ,,~ '.

~'="

~!''"

.J.'~'-

~~

e) lE1J:anlry ,

I.

I,.~,~

••

",.J

•••

"I

2. Choose the correct answer:


i

n length

'!I

II!'

..

~I

..

..

.,

.J •

• • ,.

11

.'

.'

'.

"

+.

r.'

ii,

·1

,~

'.

,.,

...

.,

~,

..

..

._

"

'.

g) Ben Richards
'1-1-'0 ":rj

, .. .. . . .. . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . ....

.. . "' ' ., .. , ,."

. " , . . . . -. "

I ,
)

A, The nasal consoaan: in the a} aspirated, b) released }TIaudibly.


I,r-::"'<~'"\j ') C' \,_.:_,/~;r,

bottom is:
a) i:he most retracted variantof Weve]ar nasal,
bunker, uncie, singing ..

rrabic . ,"

b) ilJJ;~m.oslarrv;allced.~variant of the velar -nasal,

B. Tee nasoicansoneat in ,t1u'! word snai! is:


a) rounded,
(~ U1;",;b) devo "':I,'P, 'U,.::'!.;::.qL • ..,.. ......

m(Jn!~anxious, t,ango.

Im7lnx,concrete,

6. Study the examples .give.l'1. below:

c) labio-dental. G" Theftrs'! nasal consonant in the word sing ing is:
a) adVmlC)f~d~

sand).-}'ich, bacon, tone, fence, sitting, bo.ttom,compale. visions, prism; sent, cotton, encroach; nothing, rh:ythm, film, reason, burn, nasion.
a) Which nasals are .s'yJ~ab.ic?
b) Fo.rmu[utc the rule for nasal s,yHabidty,
II. II. ~ ••• ~ ~
i

mOl her,

b) devoiced.,
c) s)'Ua.bic!

.,!I

••

~'"

~.'.

Ii.

Ii

.,~,.

~,~

Ii

.....

,'"

i!

~;!,~

~,~

II

I'.''''!

I.

III!

~!II

!.!!

!'I!!~

D. ~H~e nasal cossosau in the


a) alveolar, b) pest-alveolar;
,
,

word Conrad is:

"
j'

c) denIal ..

'1.",

••

1l

'" _..

Ill.

~';p'I'

1Ii';o,~

~.

~.

i;;"

.,.,

&

~,~

~,~,~

",1-'"

"1Ii'

..

"'

..

".~I",

•••

..

E. The place ofeniauation


a) affricates,
b) fricatives,

of Ell1Jl.ish nasal

con.rOii!GntS

corresponds to thm of:

7, Formulate the rulets) responsible for the' dlstrihuuon data below:


pmuphlet
[ ~. prellJf-~ t I

of the nasal variants in the

c) plcsives.

Henry belewlndlcate t'bose nasal consonants ' ... ·hlch are not. finny v(')~ced: natio«: pneun:uJt[c, think. topmos:
BOItOfL tettt}l

['.henri]'
[tep,8]

intransitive inorganic
sneuk smack

[ifL' tree nzr ti v] [ina: g t:e ruk]


L

3 .Jn thewords
v

g~V~lli

[sni:k];
0; -

button
iirlpki'Bg,YWH!ffMY,

fbAn~]
[n1Wu~tl [i fL"
,tBi\:5'[

moot
I:rquS:tice

is]

nymph

[nimfJ

.renew lunch in the

[s.rp.c.ek] [d "r~Ji1Jd
[li\nrl] n!10~]
,...."
'

66
in rage [11\ ~reid;] '[oi&na~r]
Ii ••

B7

Pam Ford been ~ lIOU


••
I • II @ " .. .. II _ II " .lI II II II II

[p;;eruf o.d] tbinjju]


II II II io ~ .. II .,

10. Howwo,uld KilgUsb speakers prcnounee


aS~:.Allna} seJUly'~ wanna,
i i

this night
II I I ••••

Emma garmna? 'Vby:?

thenasal

C8'11.s011mlts;

in sueh Pnllsh words,

ill'"

II

II

of

II

..

II

II

II

,~

"

II

"

..

..

'!

I,.

,,-

::

"'.

II

."

"

II

II

"

,..

"

.,

II

.,

II

II

II

II

II

II

:t

,.

of

'!

'!

..

I II ., ~ i • " " • II .. II

II

II

..

I,

II

II

"

II

II

S. A bad cnldalfects a person's pronunciarioe of nasals in a characterlsticwaj, Explain the nature of the changes mvolved. 'ViH the foUowing ccntrasta disappear
completely?

I.

IJI

II

..

..

..

II

I.

...

,.

..

,.'

"

..

..

..

..

"

..

"

..

.'

...

..

...

...

..

.,

..

..

II

II

..

"

'.

'"

nice - dice
slam. - slab

..

..

..

Ii

'.'

..

..

"

••

:r

..,

.'t

,.

"

..

"

..

..

"

"

II

..

..

ii

..

..

..

..

..

..

"

..

..

..

..

.,

..

II

IP

~!j

.•

II

II

II

II

,!

...

'.

II

'r

II

or

,.

..

;0

II

..

..

..

J'

!to

..

II

II

II'

.,

'"

....

II

II

II

'I

"

"

bane - bag
II
I

, , , , ' " " " " ,. ,.

1-1.Explain why Poles pronounce the nasal 1~:ew,Nieholes ail' Int.


I, .• • • " • • • •. ". .•. • • • • • • " _. , • , • " •. • • " • • • • • • ..

CQ11.60liant

in words such-as: Nixon, need,

mob - boo. . . , ' .. . . , , . . . . .... . .. " ,..., . " , ,.. . . . . . . . , " . , . . . ;.. , " " , , , . .
I .. .. ~ •• ii, ~ .. I • .' .. ~ .. II ii II .. .. 'I .. II II .. .. .. II I .r _. ii .. .. .. .. .. • II II iI ~ .. '"

ban ._ bad .. . . . . , ,. .
I

"

"

."

"

"

"

"

,.

II'

I'

ii

..

II

.,

'"

ill"

_.

II

'"

"

..

II

..

..

;I

"

..

..

"

II

'!I

..

,.

,ii.

..

ii

'"

"

II

"

II

..

..

''I

..

".

..

i'

.1

9. Give examples of three English words in \'Vh.kb: a) the nasal eonsonanr is devo iced:
.. 'II ~ •.
'I '.

"

II

"

..

..

"

II

I!

..

Ii

I,

..

..

..

.,

"

II

..

.'

to:l

it........
i 1,.,1111 ~"'II

ii

..

..

ii

..

,..

..

..

..

..

..

i~.'

•.

••

r..."

..

_I

•••••••••

IILII

••

,...·

..

r""·'-

I~~.

1.'11".

.. i .. ~ ~ ~

..

..

..

..

..

..

!"

.,

.11

..

II

r.

..

..

..

..

..

::

iI

..

"'!

....

..

..

..

II

..

..

...

."

._

.,

..

..

..

..

r. •

'r

'"

Ii

..

..

..

..

Ii

.;

.,

..

..

..

..

..

b) me nasal consonant is syllabic:


•• '. .. • .. It " .. or .. ..

..

'"

ii

..

..

..

..

iii

..

..

..

..

,.

..

'"

..

..

til

..

..

.,

..

..

..

_.

II!

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

"

"

'I

at

"

'.

II

"

.'

'.

If

..

..

..

..

..

!'

"

..

..

"

12.ldeniifY' the nasal consonants


t, • ii, .. • " .. .. .. .. ~ Ow Ii .. II • ..

:in the drawings given below. '·Vhlch of them:

c) the nasal consonant is shortened:

A. appear only in l:!ngllsbi' .. , .. ,. . . ,


B. sppe.a[ only:.iILPaUsh?· {a);..

_ .....

,
• • • .. • • ., 'r ~
ii ... • ,. I • .. • • • • i

C...appear 'both in English and in. Po] ish?'


;1 ,; " .. .. • .. ~ ~ .. .. .. .. 001, .. I. .. .. H Ii ,.
Ii .. .. •• .. .. .. jo .. ~ ~ .. .. , _. ~ .. .. ..

I'

.'

,j!

"".

••

..

..

"

'I

.•

..

e) the nasal consonant hasa dental variant:


rB=I' .. • ' " •••• '~I ~.~ •• ~ •••
-I-

,p"~11

."

..

..

..

..

..

..

Ii

f) the nasal consonant


II _ " i I
I

has
I

.2.
..

post-al vee tar variant:


.. • .. ~ •
III I .. I .. ~ " ! ~ " II ..
i

._

..

..

...

..

g) [he nasal. consonant has an advanced variant:


.. " II ,.. 'I _ • • • .. _ ... ..

..

Ii

..

..

..

..

..

..

"

"

'!!

II,

..

i..

~"Ii

I,

II

..

..

.,

..

(a)
I

t;,.t . P' .. e: /'i'i ',.6/t.r.~.i;JZo..uz,tculla.:ftU ,n,


... I

(b).,,,.,,

.....

(c) ...

" , " .. , .. , , ,

(I'

,.

.~

•.

I,

68

e) mammoth

..

II

II

r.
;,

,.

"

'.'

..

.p.

Po

...

Ii

!!

..

Po

I!

I!

...

!'

'"

II

"

,.

II

,I,

't

,I,

"

"

.,

,.

I!!

'

.~

II

'"

"

,~

Iii'

...

...

o comic
" • I • • I' ~ Ii ~ ~ • ~ .~ .•

komik .. , ...
" • •

,
" " ,~ I' !, • • • • • " ~ • • ;, M ," , i ~

!'

"

tI

.r.

"

.,

nit. , ... , . "


••• , n
",'.!'I ~!I II ~

.'.'I!

Po

""

,~

!!,!!'.,~,L

~!

••

,Ii

~,!

Ill.

"'."

!'''

••

'

11) gamma

ganwu2 . . . . . , . . . ,. . . . . . . . . . . . " . . . . . ,
""';~"I"r;;;~·r.~ ... II'H~-' •••

"""'-!

••••

L •••••

LI'LlIII"'

••

~.!

••

(d)

' .. , .. ,

(e) , .....

" .. " , , , ,

\"0'

'

., .. . . ,
• I I I ••••

i) Anna
, , ,
~ <II , il~· <11 ••••• ~

Afltw.. ., .' .iII"'~


II ....

,or

'"

"'

.,

.,

i.

..

!It

!t

lit

"

'1

"

"

..

",'

"

..,.

Ii

_!I

oj.!!

-,

~'Ii

..

,,!!

"·.·Ii.!

..

_.!I.!!

••

I"'''

.,_

.,

13. Complete the foHo,whl!g:table, Mark the positive answer negative answer with a minus.

''\ " j/ pnsm

with a plus and th~,


y • ;tI ~ " • ., ., ., ••• ~

P"'iz,n . ., . . . . , . .. . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . ., , , , , , . . . .. . ,
rt

...

..

Ii

..

I!

II

"

"

"

iI

_.

..

!!

'"

...

..

,,", _

ii

.II

CONCERNS NASALS It'!":

1.5,Below we present the C1I.11JmpJes .to each list.


Iml

IDOlSit

common ways of spelllng EngJish nasals. Add three

Enslish on~y
,syUabic

both Enzlish and Polish

+
I

<m>

":Il.&,&";:;'

",

..•.•.

,'"

',

.,

paJata~
:'bilabial velar
!

,< mm>
In)

JtI/?vJt'cr;

......,.,

_,"' _.

" • . . . • . .,

, . . • • ., . . , , . • . . . . . .,

.,,

<n>
<rm>

never;
11/VMIj.

.,......,.,
I I' " ~ .II ~ ~

'. " , " " . . . . . . " ., . ., . ,


;. , 'I ~ .. II. ii .. I" ~ ... '" " ~ " Y

It

.'

If

"'

Ii

II

,~

t.

!!

"

,.

..

...

t.

"

dental

'I

.,

"

'"

~I

.,

'II

Ln

• __

"'t~<?f.I;" .".".......,"

, • • , . . • " ", • .. , • "

14. 10{he words given belew compare the pronunciation


English a) knock-out
• • " •

of nasal censonants:

/IJ/

<nk> '&:/l.£.
Polish

'.

.1

"

~J

I!J

M,

IJ

.J '"

I,

II

'I

II

,OJ

..

II

"

I!J

Mil'.

<ng>

,&-mp,

,~

'.

.,

..

III

.'

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

'"

.'

•.,

"

"

iI

Ii

ill

,",

Ii

iI

nokau: Elnl-~'
• '!! ..

&e&/a.lfr.!..o4a,.( 'Pin} -tile tfrnh..flnLti(l/


~ • • • • • • ., ~ IJ I' !' " I " .. .. .. II' , ..
i. .. .. .. " .. '

16',In the words given below indic-ate instances of silent


~ .... r .• " ~

< n >.

,I

"

I,

"

b) compromise
~ I' ! .. ., .. n I • .. • ~ Ii •

1'0 1\-. "~'(¥'l""0'/"':" ,_r'~.J..


!! " I .. .. .. .. ,.

"'Yl

r.
..

I.

Ii

Ii

'i

....

,Ii

Ii

""

"

'I

......

..MI'". uu~

/<

damnati demnati I r " ..wnnatwn, cotumns, conaemnauon, soumnty, autumn, autumna 1 sotemnuy ',. l

..

..

..

..

..

..

"

..

..

..

..

..

!!

..

..

..

..

..

c.) Konso ,. .IS .

Kongf) . . . . . . . . . . . . . ._ . . . , ,

d)
•••

bancrupt
,.,,1 i'r~_'''~''~'

bankrut . ...
~, •• '" '""'''

",

.'

"

II

III

..

"

"

~"

.. .. .. .. .. "

lot-"

..

..

"

LI

"

"

"

••

IIrrl'~I"!

I.II~H~~-.'-',II~II~"Y"

i'll·

••••

·~-

i
f

70
4. In the. words gi1'en below indica1e those laterals which are not :rul1y voiced:

71

r, Fill In 'the g.aps,:


The sound III belongs
to

tflar~ teaer, subtle" Gulls, slime. bottle, Sally. plural.


the group of .. ~~ as ill. the. coarse of its prodUC[lOfl "'...
" .••

5. In the 'words given below describe the exact place of articulation of the lateral
COl~ouanl:

the closure between (be articuleting organs is net . ,


•••• , • _ .• , . . ., . . . . . . • ...• _ • ' . " " •. , ....••

" . "' .. " .. , . ' , " , .. , the air can escape

bl"ib

' . _ 8·0 that

I'M ~t&n~l"#ckv.i;·.t:·tJ. a-tfMoIb?

(Nul tf8&.r

at

M:e .1ct,.r,rM IijJ?~

-....-....,",

l
I

either on one or both , .. " 2. Choose the correct answer: A-. Tbe dark and
a) voicing,
cleur IU differ

' ......•.

, " ; ....•

- . "'

" .. " .. ; . . . . . .. . . .

JlU returned.

• . . " " .. . .. . ., " ; . , - - . . . . . . .. . " , . . . " . , , , . . . . . " , · . , . . • . .

laboratory . .. . .. . . . " . . , . . . .. . , , . . . . . , " " . - . . ; . . . . . . . . " - - . . . , , - . , .


\vealthy. . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . - . . . . . . ' , , , ' . . . " . - . . , " . " " - . . . , . '

H
,tl ,1 ,
I
I

I'

in:

ballroom , . . .. . . .. .. - - . . . ,. . , . .. , . , . . . .. .. . , . . - ; . - . . " . , , . . .. . . . . , , ; " ,

.1" r.,
it:

I'

tulip.

iO,

II

'i

'"'

...

I..

..

_.

II

!'

"

'.

'r

II

..

.'

..

....

''i!~..

II'

'"

...

,.

'"

b) the positron of the tip of the tongue, ~}lme pcsition of the back of the.tongue. B..The dark If} is often called veiarized. because:

6. Stud}' the examples given below:


d()~ble!,milk .. letter, lip, realm, S(11m()n~bluff, :syllable, rolls, muscle, sample. soldier, boule, fotfil. exceilem, melt, film,. liule, palma!, camel, lollipop at) W]Iich laterals llLLQ;CSe words are. syllabic? ~~ b) Formulate [he rule f~)rlateral syHabi.c:]ly . .. , ....
~ ~ ~ • " " " "' • ., I .. ~ • • • ~

}II ~!.

a) it is foHowed by velar consonants. b) tlle back of the tongue is raised towards the velum.
c)

". ,

the velum is raised ,

, . - . . . . , • ' , . , .. - . . .. . ; ..
" ~ t i
III " • • • i • • • I I r " I 'I ! • III • •

C. :111£ nglish lateral is alwQ:Y$: E

.J

II

..

i,

III

..

.!

.a} voiced."
b) syUabic,
•• "r'Ii ••• " " •••• ~ ~.""il·I'~'''~IIl''·rli~'' ••• ~~'· ••

;;!I'''"'

,."

••

'•••••

~liI

'cl. sonorous.
D. The La!era! in the word -ba.Uroc;nt is:
.:a) post-alveolar, b) devoiced.

LI

!I

.,

'!

.,

II

••

.,

..

..

...

..

.,

II

II

"

'I'

'"

..

.,

,.'

..

...,

c) Compare the rules fer lateral and l1as21 .syllabicity (exercise 6 in section 4)"
!'I' ~ • iI ~ •

.i ., ~ .. • .....•

IJ

Ih

F.

"'

I.

••

Il

~.

.,

.,

'"

'"

..

'IJ

II!

'r.

Po

II

II

.Il

oj.

LI

'

ri

I_I

II

Ii

&

I,.

1'1.'

;f.

"

"

,••

'

,.

'"

••

ill.

iI

II

"

..

r.

'I

e) degeminated.
•• B.B ••••• ~ ,., ••

iI'~

'!'

11

••

.,,,,,,,

...

I,

••••

io

.....

"'~

...

L,IIl

••

••

E. The lateral in the word double is:

L. ~ .....
.~ • , • , , ,

'~ ~
, ..

a} bHabJaI,

ii

'OJ

...

...

••

••

.,

••

"

..

"

;,

.'

i,

Il

'I.

til, ~:yUablc,
x:.) devotee d. 3. In the words given below indicate instances of' the -dark [1]:

.'.l1Iii'I

••

iliI-!'

••

"~!

~.'."I'"

'''II''~r.~'i~

•••

~.~I

•••

11

..

••••

n!!·_~

•••

,.~

LI

"

Ii

I'

II'

"

•.

..

...

'I,

..

"

"

"

II

"

"

Ii

.',

OJ

.[.r."

•••

~~

,.~

•.

l.niil·~I.'.,

,i

••••

•••

"'

••

'.'!

".,_

..

~!I.,

...

·i·._;!1

...

,.

,.~."

,.

".~'1.'~II'~fi"

,.,

....

-!~

•••

,.

,"'"

1J~

••

!,IiIl'

....

,,"'1"

;,.~~"

"!

I,

syUaW), complain,
y

Bill is, place, will yuu-laugh, soldier.

.I

72

73
'I'

'7. $,tudy the influence of da.rk [1J on the pre'c:eding vocaU~e,lements,.\:Vba,t is __-,Iartien1ato~rYll1.QUv~tian behind thlsproeess? Formulate the necessary ruje, feed abide boy
lake

the~
\'
"

9.. Gjvetbr~;e: examples of English ,votcis hlWbicb:


a) the dear tV
OCi2,UIS:

.
t

[fi:d]

fee!
SfniJe boil

,[fi:~t]

[dtbaid]
[bei]

[smai~r]

&t~
,;;,~ i ill L.,!J ••

, .. '.. " '.'.'


"'L. it •• ~ 'I L~I.,itLl!

'."
~,,,, •••••••

, ""
>II.L •••

'.'.. ',- .., .. '••• L~ ...... " ..

"
,.,!tt! _ '" ~ ",~
'I ",~.

li.eikl
[fu:dJ
[fitl
r tj ~pm{
Ii ~,nl~ ••• ~

JaU
fool
fill

[bol~±J [fe+'4]
[fu:H [Hi)i

b) the:dark /1/ occurs:

food
fit

c) the lateral is sy11abic;'


•• ~ rill

I'~

,,'~"li

tl

!.~

LI

I'

IJLI,

•••

'~

••

L.'

•••••

.L.

I.

IJ

••••

'"

••

"

",'_.

-port
~

bcdl
", ••
J"i'iI·.'~'.'~ ~ _ "" •••

[bodj
• ~ !I'~'~I',"~.~,!",!!'~ '!'

.o!,!,~,~

,I'''.''

,-,·;··

~.~

OJ!

1'

•••••

"'II!~

- ~.•.

,,, ...

r.'n

.'.

r.

.1"".".

h,t

,,,.~

.'

••

.'.!'

•••••

"

ii

"~,r.

~"III"J~~';~L

••

~'iI'ii~,t."·········II"

II~."!·'·"·'····'
~ ~,~ _,_ ~ .. I I.' I

, .. , .....
I"'~'~'.
I I 1

e) the lateral is shortened:


II ... ~ •• '.,.

••

,.

"",

.o;'

••

'LI

••••

~~

....

!~'r.a;11

"-";I+~~lIlili

II~I'

•••••

•••

'••

~.,","I

.,

••

r.

..

r.

I'~

.;;'.!!'

••

'''''''~

.,~

ri

ri

..

rI'

II

•••

,.~

f)
• ~

the ]atenll bssa dent:11variant:


_~~.~.,~~ ~~"!'~'~··~'~"I'~iIl~rI~'", •• h,,~ ,.,." l'I ..J.·ILlLlI 1' ••••• ,"~I •• ,

'"

"

..

'Il

..

.'

~,

,~J

,~

"

"

'I.

,.,

Ii

..

t.

..

.'.

.,

.'

...

,i

..

~I

i!o

~,

~'f'~'"

~,

'.

'~

,,",

,!,

'"

'"

LI

',"

I,

II

"

.:

iJ

iI

ill

I'

IJ

,~

!i

"

LI

i,

Lli

II

"

"

.,

...

..,

,.

g) [he hlEeral is post-alveolar:


'r. •. ~'. I I ~

".

.'

.,

~.

.1,

'"

"

II

II

II

Li

..

'"

I,

t!

"

,.

LI

..

r'

""r

r.

1Il'~

i'~

"'il.'

•••

,.

l'tI

•••

1'1".".

LI

~.•

J.

IILlJ

•••

LI

~'.a;

I,~

~~..,.~

Ii

..

LI

"

.,

'"

ill

I'"

h) ~he lateral retracts the preceding vowels:


",! ~
~I"" _~,! ~," II ••• I '. ~

~'III~'1Il

~,!,.

!,

•••••

•••

~'n'~"~

-!,

••

I.

'r

•••••.•.

nLl

·it,.",.~,,,,,,,,!,~.,,,,,,,.,
r.'~""I'''~ ~!J •• LI" •• J~ I' ii .• , •••••• , •••• " ... ".'~

~'."'.·

•••

IlII

••••

LlLI

••••

"

••••

~LlI

~!!'.'_'~

••

,'!!.;;

..........

'I,::,!".

•••

J"

I!

,.'I!

'"

.'''!.

~,!

~!,

••

••

,.".,.

it

j;1~'!

.....

,••

i';;;'i'iII'~'EI"";!O~'~'''''

,I,Ll

!!,J"

I'"

~.~"

;;;.~

'"'!

~LI'.

"'.

oj

".~,.~

~.~~

10. Complete the folkrwmg:: drawings by marking the shape of the tongue in the
artlculadon of~,

:8. Consider the precess diseussedin 1. by stndying the data. below. Do you have to, re'f:t)r-omn\ale YOlU-'fule?Wbkh diphthrongs arenot affected -by the rule? Wby? '

A. dear rt]

coat .shaw
hose
ShaM!
•••• " .,

rkdut]
lJdU] [h3HZ,]

({Jal shoal

[koull
[JOl_'lT] [hourz]

B. dark ,n]

hotes Jm.d

[faut]
•• 'I II

[(auJ]
II!' I

r.

••

~o!'

•••••

Iii

••

,~.!.;;

tlJ

•••

,.

ii''''

••••

,~

~!~

••

B";"'

•••

,.,,!J

..

'"

~.

..

'.

..

iI

ii,

'~

~.

LI

II

!I'

II

"

II

..

..

...

'I

..

EI

~I

~.

~.

......

,._~

"

..

...

•••

!';ri""'iI'.'1~rI

'"

~"LI

i'I.'

•••

''''

~~

•••

'li"'!~J~''''!'·

~.I",.,

.. ,

•.•

••

'.'EI';+"'.II

!.,

II'''!

I,"

n!!,.n~~I.LI';'i''',,,,,,,,

"~II."'';'!

IIIIII""I'I'-~

"~tI

••

'R

••

,I,'!

.....

~.'IIIi,!IIII,.nlllllJ"L

••

h'~~I

••••

'"~

i,i'

....

'.,.

..

'""'

....

~'

.•

"

~!'

I'll

••

'.J

I'

~.~

.•

,••

,!

.'.'~

...

·iI.

iii.".

~ •••

,,1,.1

!"

••.

-.;;

'1'''.

~,

••

;,

.,!~"

.,

,"!!J

IJ""

Iii

"J'~'~"~'~'I

••

,••

'",

••••••

',.,.;;!

•••

'.'

Ii

MI.

~.

I'"''''

,I

.L

•••••

,.!tt!

.,LI

(a)

, ." ..

"' " " "

,. , ., .

(~b)'" . . .. .

!!'

II

,!.

I,

Ii

".

"",""

""

...

LlJ'"

."i

'I'

h"!

Ii!

•••

!tt!,.,

gJ.

...

I.

r.!

Ii

••

'I

."

..

,~.Ii

••

•••

i'l!·

t ,

74
;j.6 ..'itHOT'ICS
Engllsli.

PQDsh

1. ':Fin in the g:a.ps: The u.laJ'orvariant of the h/ sound in English is ,a . , pitJt@r.l!Y4


tn
, ", , ' -'I

a:)

gel!
II

golf Ell! - dark. alveolar and velar: PI.U - clear aJveo'lar Iareral
larwa " , . , . . . . . . . . ....
r.

0J't'di/UiCVM ...

articulated
I~

I
,

I,
,
,

b) larva
=
II' ..

,.....
11 .. ~ ~ ~ ! II

-.. , ,, .". . .. ,. ' ,. ..


III M .., ~ .. .. .,

..

",'."

'!I

ii

"

III

"

'"

II

I~

III

'I

;i

,.

~,

..

..

..

'"

the - . . . . - , . . " ' . . , . . . - - • . •. -. . - . . . . . . - - .. . .. , . , , . - • . " , . , , . , , . , ; ... " . _ . regien. Vlh,e.~qJreceded by li}; Ir/ becomes a .... -:>--:::-. t:-:-:'"7-.. ~' ~.~ . :-;-'. ,,'/(1
.... , 1J • '" -.
••• _, • , • , .. , •" • '-: "I. , ' ••• •

'\ -",

- 'I

c) arm'
.. .. 'r ~ .. • .. '"
01
..

dryl
'" ,. i! I • ..

[II

..

...

Ii,

,.'

""

~.

'f!

..

,"

i: ' •

I'

P" l' f
'

t8:05
"

..

.,,'. '1;:' •

1 ,-"

.~.

i" i..: • " , ".

")

In me intervoca ic
~ ~ '['

....

!Ii

..

..

..

..

II

II

If'

II

II

II

,I

I'

..

Ii

"

II

..

.'

..

"

.'

tI

••

'"

..

position, and .after The denml Jri catives, hi can be' pronounced
'II I

list: .. .. _
II ,f. ,I ., .. '" .. '" .. ~. I
I II II ,.' " ,

_10-

.,.

:-r
I, ~ ....
IJ "

)
~

a .. " . '.':' .. - >:


• I.' ., " .'.. !

?~.....
, ..
••••

J

':"
I " '\

)'

'i,

"i
'I'
II' .. ~ I ,.

,r J'
I. •

1
0; ~ ~

,"' ~•• ,

..

;-

+-

to

I.

.oj

..

'i

!r

Ii

'Ii

..

..

..

..

..

II

..

..

I.

II.

I,

..

'!

..

!'

..

••

..

..

II

"

!I

In RP there are serious restrictieason


.. ~

,i.

'"

..

'..

"

iI

'"

.,

"

..

..

'"

.,

..

!I

'"

iI

it;""

'"

'"

..

II

j
io.
il

,
I II'"

I'}', -,/
~

nlC
f
i

occurrence of 11'/; it appears only before.


'
II •• ' •
II!

e) Isabella
I

11.Q',ue Ittl. . . . . . . , " , . • . , " " , . , " " ,


iI. " '" '" I I'

i'l

...

oi<,

II"

....

'"

j,

'I!

dI

..

"

II

ii,""

'"

.,'.

Ii

'''!Ii

If'

"

••

. U . t.;;. C', .... b·'1 De.'ver' bef (,r'l...


c

,I

[II

[il

'"

,II

II

II

,.,

II

11

II

II

II

II

'il

II

..

"

;,

iI

"!!

II

II

'"

II

II

"

..

..

"

II

' • " ., . J . . • • , , '" , , I• . I" . .. • . • . '. • " • • " j II • ,- , ~r. 'J < ti ,I i"" " ... O~ to
I " '~ .. I

-_l

-; ~

I.

,..

._

!'

II

""'

._

..

I.....

,
'"

it

HI

I.

iI

"

.,

...

i!

'I

.. • • " .t ~ • .' • '" .. •.

.•

..

12. Below we present the.w,ays each list.


II!

of spelling

the En.glish. Iareral, Add three examples to

,.. " . ' .. " •. , •.... , . , _ , .. _ ..This is not true ofall varieties of EIlyT1Sh. In General

Arnedcan English" for example. The sound ltt is pronounced whenever


l
• ~ ~

~",
~. •• ,. II • •

, .'
_

I~
• ..

_-

'I'

II

........

, I)'

f"

","

t /()'
• '..

j
• Ii

iI

'. /
-.

,'"
~

'Ir
'. •

'


..
L.

...
iI I ~. ,

:"?,_ .
.I,
J; I

•, I ,
I •

I. l

r.

l'

'II

..

II

..

'"

'.

<1'>, krftiJ'.

Z. EugJisb. tr! is often described as a retroflex sound. Does the term refer to:
0, ••• " " r • , .•••.•••• '" ••••• " •.••• ' ••••• ' , •• ", ~ •• " " " •••• ' • ,

<11> j,t..t!Ji.~ .. " .. ,

". ""."

.".,,'"

" .""

'".,

.. ,,'

'a) (he place of articulation, b) Lim manner of articulation,

11. In the words giv'ell below indicate instances of silent -c I > ,.

·:c:;, the shaae of the \ i_' 1;""

[rOUOUt' ~,

tdl},:; tollipo{Jj' salmon, almond, Belgium,. yolk, half, Htiimes. colonel; Malcolm
';J

d) the feature of voie]I1~

e) the.shape of the lips?

-I

J.l'n the wMri""rs-ghren, belo,,'-fud:icUtte thoser-setmds


~. h [(Jl"1C:..,

·\ifhkLare not fumIy voieed:

\ /' .... . k. . .' n-ve,,~ brea«, sorrQw~ coiuroi, I' oppreciete, COB!J.'lpuon, ,
I

4. In the sentences given below indicate the places in which the Iinking 1r1 should

occur:
a)

My

TJ1olhecr_and father _arrived in thei.r_ oid car -"",about

JI'UlOl1;.

b) there's _ll nice barin our area not faT away from here.
, , ,I

c) As far as Peter and Victor tire concerned" .rIu.,.are at cur-aunt's.

r- "

5. Inthe sentences ;gi~'cn-ln:low rlldicatre HlP. places ia which the hLirusive.lrl can.oceuri
a) Bitt» and ldartha again visited China and Japan,
_.. ._ _ J

1,

77
,'-

'0)' We drew a piClUf'e and saw U was l~erj odd. c) Canada


."l J

(}tUi Cuba are

.AmitlriC{J.rt tou,'Xtries.
h

bar ()01.mtry
Marlon

tbad
j'kAntrV
f ;.1•.... '" .. i

1\ tl.,ntTI,

6., Formulate

q'

<below:
-very
raise

the rul~,(sl)['esponsi;bl.e '.for the dtistribntion of the [r] variants in the, data
:r:lr"'tYl"t,",R·u'lJ.' .l~~.litL,
·iL:"_',.·

!~rna:!~n!
!""ival

i'ma~tI~n/
/'riv:;u/

rl~er refrain
.J •
Ii ~. ~ ;I,

lri·treh1.!
~ .. !_ ~ '!-

Irt ~f rein!
I I. • • ~ • • • • • •• • • • • II ., • • • • " • I • I • ~ • LI • I

I['\f'eri]

comrol
barrel

.. ,

.J ..

.J

II

"

[relz]
[~C:D_ tri]

[k dI 'r;}u'3;) n] rbref;}l]
.. • ~ • • ., • to I • ~ ~ LI i·

entry
Henry

r.

~,

oj>

r.,

'.

'i'

.'

'.'

~.

~.

_ ...

~ .•.

'"

.,.

...

..

"

....

••

'I

·to

~.

ebenrir],
t',.."., ~1 [ I M1!tJ

barren
,:9hrimp

f 'b'-'Cf

;}TI]

,~,

~'

;ii

"'

.~

LI

..

"

...

"'

...

..

""

"'

"

..

..

LI

LI

"

LI

I.

IJ

fry pride

[jrrmp] [tJ~[AnJ rhot'rrek]


'I~ •••••• L. iI •• 1i I-i" ••••• ~l~ Ii "'.LiI~

~~

••

'

•••

'"

•••

~il

••

~.'

••••••

••

••

'

•••

I1.~~

.•

~.I".,~

~II~

!""~.'.,

[prlk] ~
[kruid]
'

crude
.'."ii'~' ••

to run
fwr rad:
'! ~ 1 ~ ~ •••• L.," ~. ~ ••

,.~.,~

II

ii

ii

I....

~,,~

-!

"'.

~.I

'!!

......

!I!,~ii

~,

•••

,.""."'"'

••

,",",

~.!

.....

g,.~

...

",

••

1_

",.I.,~

7. Give three e-xamp].e.S of Englblh words nrphrases a) lrl can be pronounced as a. rap:
1

in which:

iJ~

~'';;J~'LI

••

IJ~

t.

r'~'~

'!

Ii

Lii,

•••

J.

~';;'';

,!,i

~,

••

'!'_

Poli

_.;;

:Z:,jI

~,+~.~

1.li"ii'.'~

.!..+-\!

..

••

;;;'L!

'~L

•••

'~

.ILiiJ

••

•••••

,.,

•••

'••

i.
:!._,'~

I.!

••

LI

••

••

LI

•••

...

J.J

••

I)

)/
r."' ••

~
"I' ~ 'I'

i.... j r
",I • ~ •

t "'~
!

f
!

/
.. ~, ~ !J ~

''''''LI,'. '!
!! ~J ~ L! ... ,~ ~ ~

",'1'.,

,r

r.

Ii

~'~

,"","'_

'"

='_.

.. ,~

••

I,

~._

..

=,_,~

I'~

'''J'''~

-~,

••.••

oil

..

LII

L.

,•••••

"

'•••

r.

j.

....

L.

'"

'1],) lr f canbe-pronoenced as a fricative:


.,.,.' ••••• Lil. ~,,;.~
~J ~!

9·.Identify English and Polish lr] -sounds in the drawings 'below:


I"~ ~ ~
~'!'~'!!

.,~,!!

.,,,,~

~'~'~'~"''''!

ilL

......

J~'

~L.

•.

~.;;.&

••

....

,•••••

,.

~J

••

,.,

...

,~

,!!;

,I

,~

'I',

ill

'I'

...

'.

I'

II

'I'

...

,t

!i

ill

t.

!!

!!

.,

!!'

••

I.

liil

.......

d_l.li:nkmg Itl can .oecur:


F . .,,_...;

,I

,e) intrusive If! caneccur:

8" What are the dlfferenees the distribution of Irn'


'British.

between Bdtilsb and American

Eng,Ushwitb

respect to

American /rc·d"l

red
barK.

Iredl ib~:k! /gr~:nl /'veril /homL

rbEl.,:IkL
(grlm! jjverii

(a) " . , .

'i

'

••••••.

,•••••••

"

••••

"

(b). . . , . . . - . -- " . , ,. . . . , , ~ , -

green
very

1 r

born
.1

Ibo.:rn/

..

78
If), Complete the riOl1owhtg, table. Mark the positive answer with a plus and t~he nega:tiYe answer with a minus. CONCERNS R~SOUNDS IN: TERMS Eng] i:sh only Polish onlv
I

t2. BeImv we
Irf

ex:amples to each list ..

IJresent the

most common ways of s,pelling English Ir! .. Add, three

both En:g}jsh and Polish

<r> .(rr>

rtjr.£t;. "...,..,.........,
j'(),j'PI:t;...."..........""...."..... ,,?"
I

+
roll
I

'. • • • " . . . , • , • . . . .. • • . •

,;

"

!!'

",

'II

'.

..

..

,I

,.

"

"

!I

..

,.

Iii

"

...

III

II

..

]I,

"

II

"

to

..

..

II

..

"

-cwr>
l

'Ii

..

.,

"

,"'

•.

!!

..

"

..

.,

~,

..

.,

..

,.,

II

,i

oj

..

"

,...

..

"

II

..

..

.1

l post-alveolar

'I
,
, I ,

i alveolar

I ,

11., Compare the pronunciation of ther-sounds in the words given below:


EngHsh
a) r.aver

Pollsh.
towe«
c"; ,r;:.,'fl ...I' ,YlC/Ul;_;

t" -a.r.{ft,~(),C(l...rI;YtC.~ltJ/·t,rr;.jj £W'i(..i/U«l'??t-y # " If· /,-, ff f·, ,··r

. (/{

,...-;0:6A '~'ll,n),

R<Jtp,YZ.d ~
I

fA !.It& vutia/~:HtU?fb!' Pi rl -~.

t-'J;.&e&-lfp>, /"'.. -4,;;;

I'
I

1'.n?:nd-tu'<J6!d kd ithJ~d-vu'tia!pa/ldftUl;tf#
b) cry

,I
II

kraj,

r.

I'

II<

••

"

'I

'I

,I,

!I

"

"

11

.,

I!

.,

II'

'"

;0

"'

I.

"

II

c)
• •

radar
.. 'r ~

radar. ,.'. '. . " , , , ... . . .., . . , . , . ... . " . . ... . . . " . . " . . .
I, .~ • • • ,I
I' • n n

,t

"

."

II

'.

I,

..

"

;;

..

It

,.,

"

II

..

J.

..

"

...

•.•••

1.•

"

Ii

••

~,

...

;;

•••

n'

,I

..

.,

.-

....

-II

II'

••

ii

•••

&

...

..

'•••

r.

r.

"

d) erosion
'I'

erC1ZJa
" • i • !I II'
II • • •

". ,'
.. ~ .. '. .. •

". ,
• II II '" ,. II • ..,

". ,
ti •

",
• ~ I' ~, , .. • '" • " , H

'
~ I' ,

" .,
,
,I.

e) train.
... ... '" IlL .. _ • • ~ " .. • ., ..

tren .. .
!' • ,. •• iI

&

!-

,II

iI

,~

II

,.

r.

Ii

"

'!

i'

II'

II

."

...

..

"

IJ

..

..

i,

tI

II

.,

=.

i!

..

..

II

,,"

"

"

iI

....

'

...

"

II'

Ii

...

~".

u"".

It

II

....

+,.,,.,

..

II.""

••

ro· ..

5-'1.

II

...

'.

II

•••

...

f
"

f) corrida

corrida

, . " . , " ..

..

I!

..

..

"

..

"

..

.,

"

I'

It

'I

""

..

..

'II

"'

"

..

'!

..

'g) marihuana
I' I

marihuana ..
• ,.. • " , , " it

I,

....

,••

oil

II;

II

II

!'

..

!'

I!

..

II

'.

I!

..

..

II

"

"

"

..

III

II

..

'

'!

..

..

..

..

..

..

,..

f'

..

II

..

;0;

,_

..

••

'I'

..

"

"

11

L.
I'

I I

so
4.7+ SE~n~VO\VE,LS 1. FiU In the gaps:
Semi-vowels. also called,
~ • • ~ • • • I ,II! ~ ~ .. .., • ~ ~ ~ ~

8I

virtue
value

['V'.iJi

tcu: J

plano

I'PCi:Cn;;m]
[ri I'n.ju,:]

[~v.:eljL~] [rl'dlu.sl

renew
tulip

reduce
.
'!"

[ qru:llPl

-plldttd , ..
,
I. OJ ~

are sounds which resemble both .... , , ... ,


I I •• •• ., • " .'

" , ,.
, • .N , .11 I • P' III I .. • N • • , • • ~ • R " • '" .. , ~ ..

~-

II

I'

'I

••

II

..

and .'
....

"

..

I:

~.

'".

Ioiflol

••

I.'"

1.1

.,

•••

,."-

~.m~

,I"

WI".

1>,

••••

~~.

•••

u."

'..

i"·'!

They
"

aI'e like .. . . . . . . , . . . . , . , , . . . . . . ., . . , . , ' .. · _. . . .. . . . , .. " . . " . .. , . . . . , .. because of their . . . . - . . . . , , , , , .. , ' . . . ., . ~ . . . . .. '


, .... '. .. . . . .. • ' " , • and like . . ' .. " , .' " - - ., .•.
• 'II iI "

I'

"

of

•.

'I

io

" .. ,. . . " ., . . . ". " ..


• 'I I ~ •

·
IlFII.''' •• ~'.''

'
•• ~'II!

" , , .. ,
••
~';n ;.',m_&

,
••• n

""
••• ·""'

, . , because of taeir
..
&" .. , ""'~

..

..

..

"'

....

'"

.~

.~.,

"

....

"

"

"

"

"

"

OJ

,~

, ••

"

..

...

I'

!-~,,,.,,,.

,
..... _ •• J .... , ••

In English there are two major, semi-vowels: lw] and /j/. The former is called , . - ., '.. , ,

~.~I~

...

'.~

,."'!,,

~"',,!,i

"

..

.,

"

"

..,

'I'

"

'"

..

'"

..

'!'

"

.,

'

...

01

_.

...

· . " . . " " " . . " " , " . . " , . , . . • . . .. . , . . . . . . . . , . . , . , . " . . . . , , . . . . . cecause it is formed at two plaees: .. " , " , , " -., '" - . - . , , " ' - . , , ,,
" IL • • u " , r ~ .. jo • ., ," •
ii,

II

'I

..

"

..

..

""

.,

.. ,

"

..

II

II

,I

"

"

and

4. In

,I

..

t'

.•

..

!II

"

.,.

...

••

"

"

...

.,.

"

~,

..

II

,.

-"

· for
,I
J

" , .•.

,," of

, ' , ..

't , Th lfihla" 1positron _,e 't'


o
0

Irt f ,~, O£ ble organs o~ SpeelC"hi

dialects uf English the labio-velar semi-vowel- ls -prononnced as voiceless in certain contexts. Study the examples below and determine the princlples 'governing the distribution ['li'Y] and [hw] (the voiceless variant]. '
SODle

or

me semi-vowel ij/ ,~ that


" ., ' .. ' ,

" ,. " . " .. , ; • -

,--

" , . ,.:,

.,

, . , . Then g]]'d~ngtakes place in the direction 'Of the . ' ,.


....
1

wmer
when

{"wo:t;Jl [hwen]

what

[hwor]
[v;cel~tJ: [h:vJi'~'J
["v.'UlT'lJn]

waJ:te
which

Semi-vowels belong to the group of consonants known as senorants together with. ....
i
••••• Ii ~ II! •• ," .... III L •• " ••••••

witch
wheat wood

[\vifl
[hWi:l:]

of

,.....

;J""

it."',.

••

,,·.

to"'···,

~ ••

"' ~

W9man
l~,!hlsi._'Y

it·;o

....

II'

....

,I

OJ

..

..

and . . ~ ~,. ~ . . ,. . " , ,. ..

[wud]
, ... I; .1 " i. •
g

['fl vi,iskU,
.. .. • • i I 1 ~ 'i , ~ ... .. ~ .m .il •. .. .. ..' • • ~ •
!; ~ ... ~ ..

II

"'

,.

,.

"

..

IJ

,.

••

..

"

Ii

· • , " . . ..
a) ,~.
II •• '••

. They share 'the Jollowaig features;


~

'!

"

,.

"

"

.,

Ii

••

tI'
,

J'

II

L.

II

'"

HI'"
'I ••

~.

,, ,:
,

b) c)
I ..... " ,. ... i • " ..... ,. • ~. ~ , ,

•.

, .•

'

I
• M • I. • • "

Ii

Ii

.,

if;

••

it

"

..

..

i!!

••

..

[II

..

...

III

II

..

i!

,II

...

;;

"

,.

II

... ,

"

..

•••

Ii

..

I'

"

"

II

..

ti

"

,.

..

..

"

"

.,

.,

Iii

II

I!

II

..

".

..

II

2. In the words given below indicate those semi-vowels which are not fully yoked:

.
-~ . '.

"

3. Formulate below: cebuke pure


music

the r:U]le{s) responsible for the disrrlburlon

of

U] variants in tbe

dat~,
, I , " , II .. I , , i " I .. n " I • , ! !I I • .. ,., ... ... " ~ •

r -i'bju:k]
[pcuo]

~revi(!w

[ri ''''''jl.:l

fmile
J,'

['fju:taJ_r . 'I~
[sju ~] [i;3~]

,.,

"

."

"

..

.•

..

..

I-

,",

..

.•

...

..

"

"

i.

"

r-'k1 ;.z l_ raju

sue
year

- , ,,
I

accuse-

La~k~u!z]

j1

f
J

82 5. Indentify tbe two semi-vowels in the drawings belew, 1. Compare the pronunciation -of ·tbe tmderlinedelementsin the words beJlow. Can you make a generalization about the context where British and .AmeIicau verslons diffe'l.-·?
American. British r'ditI:tiJ ["hju~m~n] [tju:]

l
1
f,

d.uty
human

["du:ti] rhju::m2m]
,. ,:ll. ,

Jew
you
./ ,I

f~J

Lit£]
[k '-, s:... n,.j J .on
,I
11' aw ,

nu:l!
,[k~1l'sjll:m] [yju:]
!11'U~
f • ]

consume view n.ew


pure rebuke argue'

>'

,[

.~~
t.« 'I
~/'" i " "I

I . '\'
•...

[vj~I.:]

[nu:]
[pjUlJl]

II

!'

II

II

II

....

..

.,

"'

••

"

••

~,

'b'~
• ...

rp~Ud] [ri' bju:kJ, ["a.:QfU:l_ ![kjn:,]

'~I,~."r""_.'~'~'''~IL···1

I,

~,

oJ

"

I!

II

..

"

".

oj

..

I.

'.

,_,

..,

"

i!!

~I

..

!II

LP.

.,

II'

..

"

Ii

[rl bjlu~k] ra:rgju:J

I'
I l~

6."At ncerraia ageEngllshchlldren are Hkely to pronounce Ixls as tw/s, for example: Roger I'WOcrs3/" rabbit I'vlcebir!, prince lpwlns!, from /fw 0111 I" Wbat mightbe the phonetic, causes (),[ thiS'phen.aulenou'? ls there a similar situat.i'ou ,:l1fuongPolish children?' W"hat are the differences?

cue
use
L

L!$iuj]
'LruV]
: ~'.-

1lli!!.Z]
fri.'zju:niJ

resume
.Mathew
rumor

[ri'll:1:m) rma-.8jg;]
['rti·:ma,rJ

I:
.. " " I ~ II " _

[ m~lu:J
['orj'n: rn a] [liu;)!]

'!

II

.. '

.~

"

.,

.,

,I'

"

"

II

"

••

I!

I!

"

..

,.

"

!I'

Jure

l11!_,." ..:1 "". J

!"

ol,

"

"

,.,

II

It

..

"

II

"

II'

"

..

..

..

II

'i

..

..

;r

I!

'.

Ii.

II

I.

II

•.

..

.,

••

J
~

music

rmju:zik]

_['mju;;zik]

"

Ii

'!!

•••

~,

••••

In

..

,••

,I

"

"

"-I

••

••

ft

iii'll"

•••

"

..

"

LI

"

iii

"

I.

,.

r.

iii

••

••

"

.,

~'

..

",

I'

'I

"

...

.'

'.

-,

Il

r. . " . '," ,;; • .. . . . . .


• ;, ~ '!~ ~ • •
PI' .,

!P"

=.

iI!

!!

...

...

..

••

Ii,

I'

'iii

..

..

'"

II

<II

"

"

!I

.'

,"

iI

.'

•.

'1

...

,..

.1

"

•• ,

..

"

I,

II

,II

II

II

"

ii

\!

"

rio

'I

't.

."

.'

!!

L.

r. r. "
• • •

L. ,.

[.,

"

"

iii

III

!to

~J

I!!

'"

",

..

...

Ii

iii

;;

..

,,~

.'

;;

~I

II<

..

'.

...

"

I!'

.~

...

II

"'

.~

!l

II!

I'

.1

"

"

..

"

....

..

!I'

"'

II

••

'I'

...

'!

.,

.J •

• .'

.,

iii

...

"

"'

I!<

II

.J •. ,.

ill

,.

..

,"

..

II

II

..

II

..

II

"

"

"

"

"

".

..

"

,Ii

II

,.

Ii

..

"'.

!'

••

II

..

LII

"

"

'"

"

..

,.

~,

"

..

""

II

I.

Ii

..

..

~,

'.

"

"

"

'"

"

,,..

.j

..

II

I'

..

a,

"

II

"

,I

'"

"

"'

iI

..

..

"

"

!I

'!I'

Ir

"'

...

''',,_

••••

r_ii~.,

••

~~IIIIIII

Mhl'

•••

,1

~'"

."

'

"'LI

rl

th+,"'• if i. .. • " ~ " fo _

I.

"

II

"

"

"

'"

ill

..

..

..

...

ii

'"

••

,I

N!I~'!'.'."

r"''''~.r.ii~~1l11

~tlrF·

••••

~,!-···"·~h"'

••

"~n'.r..r.'."'''=

••

'"

Ii

oil

... '

10,

II

HI.

'C!!'

.,

..

II

'"

'"

r.

"

II

"

..

II

..

...

.,

5,. Vow'els
Polish I. Otthe fa:etorstls.ed to describe eonsenants whim, ones .are Important descripHOlli of vowels? a) the .source of el1cygy , ,

~I

II'

,~

II!

I.

.0;

'~I

_.....

r'

iii.

II'

""

IJ

.1

.~

I. ,. ,. ~ '"

Ii

II

IJ

,~

.'

,!,

,I,

"

••

!!!

~.

iii

..

iI

In the

b) yogha,Ut:!
".".''I''!',
II " ••

}ogun . , " '" . " '. - . '. . • . ., . . ..., - , . . , . " . _. .' , ., "
!
~",.,II. I ~,~ .... ~., ••

" ""

~,_.~J"'I',"

..

tI

I~'.

~+~

••

"LI

.....

lll.~-'.",

c) week-en.dweek~end
,,,,,"~ •• llii" •• ~~ ~ ••• ,·I~'''!'

, , ' ", , ,
.r..,~-"'
.... Ih~~ ••

' . ". · "" , ,


'.~~~····-~
..... II.LI

,,

"'

-r= . ".
, ' , .. ,' .

b1 the

direction of the air stre am, . . . .,

•••
,.''''i~-!.,~_.,I

~~L.~""IJL!~"m'~.,

c) the force of artlculatlon ...


.. III·~'r~·II·i·

ct) Yalta,
LI

Iaha.
•.•
,11 "..:L ~". II.'.!' I,

1I.,I_

••••

d) the action of the vocal cords, e) the position of the soft palate

~J~'i'~'j,

••

'.'!"

....

"IJ'L"

illl"!

LI

IJ"

'!'!

I.

~.. ''''''''''';;'''.

il II
I,

e) stoW'
il.' II II,'.

-stoi: . '" . . . , , , " " -, . . - ,. .. . , " . " . . ,


r.
r,1 II •• "! h'~ •• ,. LI I, I. IJ'P '" ",.",,~.

0, the ma:n.nCT of ,a;nicu]a(jon ....


., •••
I 'I ~,-! ,,, ... I "."

"" ,
-.

~J"

LI

'I

~,~

.•

~''!

~"",

..

"

\ 1,.] g,l h.!e p'ac.e

Cir

!j:"

1. artEt;tl'3tlOf:I .. ,

9. Below wepresent tile Hl0St common ways of spelling ,Euglish. semi-vowels, three cxanlples to' each list.
lwf

Add

2. Wbat other factors are inl])odant ill the deserlptton ,a) de Jffo/l0J qI'!&

o:.fvnu'els?

/ftJ
,'
L.'~, ••••• 1111.

<w>

M;ra/e;::,

, . .' " • '. . . " . ,_ • '

b)
I" ••

" .' , .' , ,


, ", - - ,
• '... ,. o! '~
•.

or"","

".~~J"LI

,"'!

,!

.,~

LI

""

L.fI!

.....

~.,

••.•

ii,L

'.i~,,!~

•••

~~~~"IJ'",.!l1

••

'''·~-_'·'~·'·

<, wh >,
<u>
lj/

',(J,;{~"

" ,. " . . '"

c) .. " ..
'0 , " , " • • " • • • • • • ., • • • • • • • ' , " , • • '.' .,,' " • • ., • " "

ill.,r.~JI~~~~_,~!,

•••••

fi

.•

~,;.-!'~

!,""

.••

II,,~i'''''~

111'''.

~-aap:.ej

"',

""

'. " " " " . " " " , , " , " . " .. - .. , , " " . " " ' , . '.

d) e)'

'"

.,

;,

!'

...

'I

'1_

"

~.

~,

II

;II

!!,

oil

..

~,

..

_,

..

'I

"

Ii

i'

mI.'

"

II

I.

iii

.!'

II

.'1

"

"

..,

!,

'I

••

..

"

.'

'.

._

'""

..

.J ,. "

III

'i

'i

II

LI

LI

'I'

i"

Ii

"

'I

'.'

..

~'

II

"

._

II

I~

;,

II!

.,

~'

,..

,.,

"

3.Vv'hich of the drawings

given below represents:

<u > /",l~


<i>

"', .... ..•

~ , _... ', •••

· . " · , ' , " , '" . , -.,, , . , , ,~" .. - , . " , .. ~ . , '.. " ,',." , ... ,." ••.. ", .. ".",.'
! I il '~ ~ • ! • • • • ,. ~J

Ri:£,;t!!0;fJ,,,, "."

10. In the words gi"fen below indicate :i,nst~nces 'of silent


j

<w>"

@tite" t/J!U'wer winter, ll1'rlnk1e. sword, f(1rewell~ Norwich; wrong ,t1ve:ruy trvo
,

-1
(
(b)
rf"
','

!.'.A.'.'i. "
.

\\'\

\-, ~
'

(a)

i.

i I

86
~

,5. E)ip~a.blthe: differersee between the fono~\'ing terms used. to describe vowcls:
a) monophthongs/ d ipbtho ngs ,~/':/U)aq;z.f!J!4:IlfT"j
d.tCa4jt.

~;

&ie. paaA"tpo/l.ie

tJ.tt.w&i'i:J petal£t,,et?

j!rJt
<I, •

aAatIf&
]I •

~cY/~')td j&{X.Yid

t"td m./'.I"aLio./lj" Rl tlbNm.. t.

dyd.il!&/"1j13 ddrtped t:£VlJtckJt""ufp ?'ela;se&t& it

b) Irnnt/back , , ' .. . . . . . . , . . . . . .. . , , . . . . .. , . . , . . . . '" .


II

If

..

..

..

..

..

"

..

"

-;

"

..

I'

.I'

..

.,

..

"

"

"

I!

I!

,",

"!I

,01

"

Ii

;,

"

I;

,.

..

_.

..

I,

..

,..

I;

..

.r

!!'

"

II

"

""

"

II

If'

'.

II

Ii

..

"

"

.,

'I

'!

11

,I

"

c) short/long (c) A, a from ctosevowel? (b) (d)


I

,"
.~.I •• '."' .. II~!.' ''' ..... ~IJI~'''!'N

, ., . , '" . ,
11II"1"oJ

••••••

;,

..

.,.u
• • _.

... ~.,
'" • " ... n

!11,

......

..

"."

••••

",

..

IfI

"

III

"

..

!II

iI

LI

'.

,.

..

'!

"

.,.

.I;

"

,.

"

'I

"

"

"

Ii

,-..

..

0) dose/open (highnow)
• • "' ;; • • •• _. , ~ u • ,. •
oi ;t II "

"
" ,. LI

<

<

••••••

•••••

"

R.-a front open vowel?

I'

f'

IF

..

"

p.

fit

"

I'

II

[..

"

!i

!!!

..

iii

"

;0<

..

Ii

,",

'

,.

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

"

11

"

... .. ...

C. a. back. close vowel?


... y v·o·' 'fo1'l D·'.',.a. back 1\. on.:.eo·.·_ ··,··;·'el,?·

""'IIJ~~IIJ

••

iI ...

..

"j

I'"

I'"~~'''I'''

.~

....

-.

••

,.5·".~1I~

e) tense/tax
j

"

iI

;,

il

..

I.

N'

iI

IIJ

.,

'I'

..

II,

..

,j

"!'

l'

'

... •

.'

...

0;

..

"'

iI

"

",

••

,~~

••

~.~'

•••

~ii

.....

!!!l

••

_ .••

ill;.~·."·"·~iI''''''~~~5

r.

...

f'I

h,l.

~.

r,,,

ri

[••

,."

'"

.,

•.

•••.

'ii.;;,,,

....

III

.....

iI

illY

••

II'~

_~

.,

...

4. Explain tn,e' meaning nf' the. following terms:


• '.

"'

"

II

"

"

'"

"'"

'110

'"

;!

..

"I

~.

(I

..

••

oj

"

".

..

...

of!

"

"

,.

"

II

f) rounded/unround U.
U;_ '. IL.. .. :,:L.II'

_.

'.'

ed
• •

•••

..,

to

,..

;;

"

,II.

'I"

II

••

II.

..

If

"

'.

,.

a) cardinal vowels

,t.i.t!Jilzed:atfjpw,ct.;uW'tt::J

aWY4'/n:JC,rfd{4p
> , " , • , ,,'

.de t><,&/.tkJ.t't«kM
•••• , • , •. , ••••••••

II

ii

"

II

"

..

..

..

"

..

If

••

..

"

..

..

;;!

!!

b) secondary cardinal vowels .. , " , . , ' "', , , " . ,


• II ~ ~ • • ,; •• •• ..

"

.,

"

IJ

Ii

..

..

II

"'

.~

II

"

,.

"

r.

"

",.

..

"

.,

.,

r'

..

...

..

g) oral/nasal,
of I. • ", ~ • Ii' • • • •
iI " • ., • 'I ~. • '" ~ .. , • ~ ;! • III ij " • •

,
'p " • • • ~

il'

~.

.~

..

..

..

"

..

IP

'i

'I'

II

,.

I'

'"

..

'I

.•

II

.'

._

,II

"

"

III

..

.L.

II

III

'"

!I

II

..

"

It

II'

.iI

••• _ ~ .. .. • • ;;; ! ,I, • " " ~ ~ • • • II ' !' , " '" ! "
;to ... , .. j i Ii ~

,.

..

,I

_.

'11

-"

i.

c) vowel diagram
I .a. • ,. ~

, ",
ii •• '" ! ••

, """'
~ .".• ,

" , .. ~
~ ••• ,.. .~ , ~ ~. T •

, , ",
Ii' '" , .. ~ ~ • i,
i

,
~ ~ ........

, .. 6. Discuss the "following issues with regard to English-vowels:


~

Ii

II.

I,

II

'!

"

~,

II

••

"

II

!.

"

,.

"

"

'il

ii

"

'"

.,

ri,

oil

a) simpleversus
j,. .11
t! ~ • • " • •

complex. vocalic. nuclei,


" •

d) lip spreading
" f' • •
Ii • •

,'.,
io ". • • • • _

, .', " '"" "


..i • ., i ~ .. • ~ •• L

"'
, ~

' ., "
II • , '" • • • " •• ... .. ~

'
i ! ~ ~. • , '

.
..

II

11

..

!!

lit

'.

'"

;;;.

...

(I

..

I'

..

1II

"

'"

of

••

"

!II

....

II

...

.11

"'

It

.,

!Ii

II

"

]I

II

jj

'I

II

'"

..

oil

,.

!I

!!

"

III

II

'"

..

II

..

..

"

III

"

••

!t'

,.

'"

II

.. ,

'"

..

...

II

"

..

"

,.

!
• .,,, •• ~.~ •• " r. ~"., •• ii ••• ' ,•• ri ~ '" ~ .... ,., ... ~ =-1

"'"ii

If

••

Ill'

OJ

1'"".

.,

.....

""

,e) Iip roundi ng , , . .. . . '" . , . . . . . • . . . . " • " . ., , , . ., . . " . . '" . . ' . . . " ._, . . . .. .
~ •• " i ._ • '. " ..... ~ " " " • " '"

b) vowel length,
i

"

iii

"

,i

••

"

,.

I'

....

11 •

!'

,I.

•••

....

,~

....

I;.

I"

••

II'

,R

l.iI

r!o."

io

•••••

~.

ii

i"

,.

_!"

,j

Ii>

Ii·"

II,,,,.

II'"

I·'

f'

...

iI

"

io

••

of

..

",

.,

"

JI

..

..

"

!'

'!'

"

..

!!

'.

of"

•••

II

'!-

••

t;

IJ

Ii'~

~_ ..

'"

..

"

ri'

••

"

11'11

....

"

i"

iI'

"

.....

"

'"

II

II

If

~.,.

J:

••

88

c) tenseness ~

fI
I " .. iI " ,~ ~ .. ... I, ;II " I II " I

..

..

.,

i'

!I

'I

..

,II

.,

..

..

..

..

!!

III

of!

I.

..

-I

II

'II

..

to

""

"

1 t

g) rounding , , .. . , . . . . .. , .. . ; , , , . _
h) nasalization

, .. . . ., . . ; . . ...
,

--.
,

i) timbre , . . . . . . . . . . , , . . . . , " , ,

oIJ

III

..

iii'

..

..

..

..

.,

..

..

it

..

..

..

..

••

ill"

..

Ii

,.

..

..

..

itO"

..

,.

...

ft

"

..

-I.

,~

,,.

.,

..

...

..

IIJ

..

.,

.I

..

'!'

..

'!!

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

'i'

..

..

"

...

..

,..

..

..

..

iI

..

I. .

j) speaker's attitude . ,

i.

...

r.

,I

~,

II

nil"

..

..

..

..

"

.•

..

..

..

!!!

..

'"

..

d) the position of the soft palate,


It' ,.

;i

...

..

..

'..

..

r.

..

..

"

...

..

..

..

..

!i

_,

..

..

.9,.\¥hic'h of the- featuresgiven below serve to distinguish the pairs of' vowels in: diJlineldiv!l1ity1 serg_n:efserg_nity, sclwollschQlar:
.Ii .. .. 'r. .. ..

"

"

..

,I

"

"

.'

II

..

..

.'

.'

...

III

..

..

I.

..

..

..

,_, ..

..

..

!t

!II

..

..

II

..

01

II

,..

.. ,. .. ~ •

.. ..

"

a) stress
c) lengfh . . . . . , . "

"

"

·h) tenseness , . . . . '. . . ., '. . . " . . .. . .


~ I

..

'.

t'

..

..

II'

..

II

!I

ir

..

II

'"

II

..

Ii"

..

..

..

..

II

,.

!!

[II

..

...

OJ

..

II

Ii

..

II

...

e) tile relationship between.the fronrness/backness


II ~ .. .,.. i .. .. '"

of vowels and lip-rounding,


..

, , .. . . - . . . . .
.,....,"'"''

If

..

..

II

"

..

III

..

..

I.

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

'II

!!!

..

!,

.~

I,

"

Ii

",

II,

..

..

..

it

..

..

!!!

..

d) rhotacism, t) nasalization,

"

..

..

"

,I,

'"

ii

"

..

...

..

,.

..

..

..

..

..

..

...

II

..

"

..

"

"

"

"

I!

II

'1

II

..

".

..

!t

"

...

..

II

..

I.

....

...

..

ii

e) diphthongization

. ,.,.", , ....

. --,.-,.

I~

1
I II ~ • • II ~ ~ I,. Ii I' ~ ;, ! I ,. ~ 'I I •

'I!

"

..

I!

Ii

"

..

,.

I'

"

I'

.'

"II

, , ...

~,

,.'

,OJ

'~

!IJ

.1'

,.

I!

"

"

'of

II

"

..

II

"

II

..

..

~,

'M

*'

"

'"

...

'I

~,

"

'!

g) quality. _.~ .. . . . .. _.. . , . " , . " . , . , .

f) the effect of consonants upon. adjacent vowels,

,!

,,

:1

II

II.

••

;,

II,

"

!'

.,

.,

III

ii'

.,

I!_

5.

;,

"

..

..

..

'!

"

'I

'i

I
" • • ,. , .., • • !, " ~ • •

I. ,..
• ..

.:z

..

bJ Slress ,. ,. . , . .. , ,
,
~
~. " iii .. I ~ I , , • • ~. T .. II '. • " " " I
I • I

.j

...

"

,~

,.

'"

II!

'I'

'I

"

.,

...

..

..

"

II

!"

..

"

II

'e

'!'

I,

g} the effect of vowels upon adjacent consonants.

'I

"

..

"

'I

"

...

"

'"

,I

..

;;;;

II

"

"

..

I,

IF

...

.,

..
., .. • " ., • i .. , ~ • "

+'

..

£'

..

!"

"

II

,I

~I

••

..

'.

"

Ii

,.

i!!

I'

c)' sy H abh:: ··51 tructu re·" , ' . . .. . . _ . "


III ... .. • IF II • R i ~ • I • • ~ ... • • • .. ..

.....•"
'1 I " Fi " ~ .. ~ ...

. . . . ." . . , . , . -• . ""
IF , • I • • ..

."..._
• • ;;;

,.

..

..

!'

'I

,!

,.

i'

!"

..

'II

"

,.

II

I'

II

••

ii'

'!!. •

"

..

;;;

"

"

..

t-

!-

II

..

"'F

r:
,~ ,•• ~

.1

"

!I

..

..

.,.

ill

II

..

io

eo

II

"'_

..

II

II

'!'

"

....

"

II

....

'"

,I.

"

...

.'

;;

....

...

II

I'

....

of

"

'i

fI

'II

••

.".

~.'"

i·!I

I""

..

L.

.,

Y·.

••

ill

~.,

F!;;

~.,

'"

F.

,ir-.

Ii

-I

'!!.'"

"

i.

....

"

1" Discuss the issues given above wlth regard to Pollsn vowels.
·r

d) rhythrnic structure , in '


.. " • I. • ., • , ,

" .. ,
~ I I' • .. , ,. ~ I I

, " " .. , ".,I " r'


I II " ..

,
... ~ I , o!o • , ',. _, .. • , •

.
III

8. \Vbich of the following, factors can Influence the d,e,gree of vowel reducrien
unaccented syllabl!es: pJ . . ., . , , , ., . . .

..

...

"

.,

..

iii

"

..

i,

..

'"

I,

..

L!

'I

..

..

'"

'oil'

"

iI

,;

FI"

"

..

..

of

"

'"

"").snes ker 's . _~~ l. lJ:' _ • attitu de


",." ,:) - d,N ",'
'u
• _ • .. • I " .. II • '" ~ ~ •

!.

"

..

'..

"

II

"

"

'1

Ii

"

"

"

I,

...

..

..

a) 'secondary accent b) vowel length, ., c) dtphthongizatieu


I

Ii

oj

"

'!

Ir

"

Ii"

..

..

"

"

"

..

"

''II

'"'

".

..

...

'"

"

'I

..

...

..

ii,

'.

Ii

"

,I.

I1. \Vhlcb of the statements glvenbelow

are true'?
.. _

d) rhythm . . . . . . . . . .

:[

1,

id tenseness ....
f) rhoracism . . , .
, f " • ,..
I • " .... !

a) Vewels are produced without impeding the air flow" b) Vowels are articulated with air going conrinnously
"I
t

r=
" . .. . . , - ... , - ...

om 'Of the mouth

c). \r_ -els ..... differ _0\\' ,5 ao 1 ."


\;.u ... _

f'-(-··11· f));.

",,,,

oae-anrnher i tens eneess "..,....., ,.. ~n~i _TI I,.... , .

Ii

90

91

d) Vowels an~oftenaffricated

"

" .. ' , , . ,. " '"

-,

•••

"

Ito

e) The' main difference between monophthongs and diphthongs 'ties in length _, , ,


f) V owelsare produced with the vocal cords vibrating ".,.,. g) Vowels can differ from one another in complexity

".2.1\ION'OPTITIJ:ONGS1. Using the factors below describe the fn110wiug English vowels:
'I

'. . . , . _ . . . , , " , , . " , .... , .... ,,



,

.. , , ...

h) There is a close relation between the beiglH of the tongue and the shape of the lips in the articulation of vowels .. " .' ,
t ••• ' • • , , " •• ,

A .. vowel height, . B" advancement.


C. length, D, lip-rounding.

"'

"'

••••

"

i) Vowels: often carry stress and pitch . '

" . " , , " .. "

,,

, ,'," ,

j) Vowels can differ from one another in the amount of friction that is produced in the COUlse of tbeir' articulation , , , , , " . . ., " , , '" , . , , , , , .' " " . - , . ' . . . ' " , , ' , .

a) /ret as in bad .tla,(!!CYh&l~ ;f'I.?/~ JA'.o,P4


b)

/M{l!ra/

4i--I't'tvk;It;..~

iet ss

in

ten , - - - .

12-. Complete the following table. Mark theposhlve negative answer with a minus.

answer with a plus and the


c) /0:/ as in cord. , . ,
,
I I • • • ~ ~ • • _ _ • 'II •• " I .. • • • " I • • • • .. • • ., " I ... I • I ! _ I. .. ~ I ...

[1

,I
,

,
!

r---------------~--------------~IIF"~~~~~~~~~~------------__1
FEATIJRES I.,engt.h English onlv Polish onlv - both EnIllish and Polish
I

------------------------------------------~~ CONCERNS VO'VELSJN:,I


l
I
~

d) lui as 1.11 took


.. I. .' • • • • • i i • • .... ~ ,.. • • • • • • • • ... • dI

.to

iI

.'

,..

"

.1

!I

!I

.,

'!'

...

~:D~~,a~:s~,.a~li~lv~'~~~--~~------~------~--~-----------i------------------;1 ~

:t

e)

f'r ,,11
I

as.' In bi ,,, ... t,g


• '11 P ~ • .. " i ~ • "

,' , . . . . . . . . _ . . . . , ' , . . . . ' .. , _ . . . . . ,


i............
II , II ... , .. ..

iii
.1

I~~-----~----~~~-----~--------~~
roundness
.1

:f) lJj as in do ck " . . .

..

~-.

II.

"

"

.'

Nil.

~.

~.

,"'

II

"

!!

Ii

II

"

"

"

..

'.

,.

.,

,.

..

"

..

..

l~t~e~ll~si~n~~··.~--------~--------------~~--------------t_----------------_1 I
I· backness

g) 1:a:J as in bird

.. II·······,.···,,~~··

__

···!o-~-~~~~i
I' ,. • , " .. •. .. • .. ~

h) lAI as in
., , • ., .' • •

cut , , _ . .
• II .. '" • • N , .. ~ • " • • • • • _ • • • • '.. ., • • • • " • • ... • • • • • • ~ , " II , " • ! II ~ !' II

i) In:! as in far;
... 'I ... ~ ~ II ~

• _ . , ..
II • • ~ I! "

'r

..

Ii

.. '

Ii

.-

Ii-

il

'"

.J •
_

••
!!!

• .. • "
i .. ..

Ii

r..

,.

.,

"

"

"

&

..

..

.•

~.

_ _..

+.

!!

i"

._

II

"

'\ " I·' Jf 11;: as HI seal" ., " ., , " . " ... ; ; , ..


Iii • '. II ., " " I, ~ •
'I 'I

" ; .....
~ JI I, " • I .,

, , .......
JIll • "

; .•.
II i • • 11 ~ Ii

'" , ...
Ii " • ,i •

, ..
• "

" ......
• " " • ., •

" ...
" • " "

,II

II

II

II

tf

iI

11

k) ,:;)/as in ago
11 " • " • ~ • • " • " E

!!!

•• ,

..

a;.

...

'"

II

;jj

.'

I) lu:1

as in food

2. \Vhich English vowels can, be-described


I

as:

r.

I ". ,.; aJ Close, front, 1.ong ra,

. ,a,J

tot't, d6.e_. 1'(J(ut

'.

. . fI
! ••••
iI ••• ,_" 11 I II II " , .

b}half-open. central, short

c) between half-close and half-upen,

front. ~h<H'[
... , , . ...

,
, .. ,
0 .. , • ,.

" ....
,,,

" .. , .. , .. , .....
0 • • ." " • " • " ". ,

1:0.. The words given below dUrer interms


,a) bead/bed b) sleep/slip,
(WfZJet!

or one

vowel only. Denne UlC~ dIfference:

d) h:alf-c~o&e" back, short .. . . .. . ._ . . . , , ..


e) open, back advanced, long

~.....,..

. " , .. , • " .,

• ' ,,0

.,•.

tf,qdaztt:lktfy...{,t
,,

f) between half-close and close, from-retracted,

$I1Ort ,
,. , " . . . . ••. , .•.

,. , ..•....
"••• .•,

,,
,. , " .

,
.,,

.. ,

~,

:p. ,.

g) close, hac Ie, long

,....,,,.,.,,.,,

0."."

c) said/sad. " .. " d) ten/tan

h) between halt-close and half-open. back, lOlllg ;) between half-close and half-open, central, tong j) halt-open, front, short ,." .. " .,.,
,0

" . " . "'

...

"
"

,. , . , .. "
•••••••.•.

.
,

e) book/bark f) tumuen. .
'r.
'P ,~ '.

~, 'I

!!'

gJ .tln!t,~n.

·tt) hem/bun. . .. . . . "


i} bi rdlb:oam .
I~", u')

,'"l' JI,;' I d'., ".~ 1

tel
I

1;;,;".

,~

l·~".! Oi..d

,J:,
~
'" • Ii 'I .

~. "CUrl/carp"-.. b: '
') I
r

~' '" .. - ~ ...

!;

I.

I'

,i

"

.~

"

IJ

"

OJ

'I'

'I

LI

",'

..

,
•• j

c) .hu'! .Ifl,·Xj I~'J.I I"",·; '.' , ,., hi 1,.( · ,.1 ...


l , ,d). ,2e j' , ,!!A. ,'.

~~ ....
.~.i;."i'i

.
I

.,.~

....
II i

~'--

...

...

'

...

~
•••

.. , ....
!JiI""
III.~.

" ""

f
r

t: "j: I J.f ,.' a",

~I

H~!"

",.~~II,!\.i,'I~,,!II';'"L'~,"

f
l

l1"FiJf in tba.g~p's:
Thevowel

:e)

! !~~//1\ I " . . . . .. . .. .. . . , .. .. . . . . . . , .. . . . .. . . . . . . .. . " ., . . .. . . .. . . . .. , J!~ ~

!OJ! has three major variants differing in height:


and. half-close in.

a) betweenhalf-open

, .. , •. " ., "

,.. " . ,

"

"

••

4. In .[bewordsgi¥cn

below indicate front vowels: consonant.


thirteea. han.dkerchief·

..................... t
I
• " In_'. I .. ~ 'I" ... I •••

positions, forexample
Ii'~, ,.,~
ii !I ~ '" ~ ~ I..IJ

ia words such. as ., , .. ,' , '" . ,


• I •
IJ

!Ii

••

'I

r.

!'

....

btj£rk, border,

bur»,

r. i
~

~~

••

~.~'I"".,,,·,,~O!'I~~.\!!"'.~

••••••

'

s. In the words
6,; Inthe

given below indicate rouaded

vowels:!

b) h.alf-dos,e and.more retracted when .....

, " ., , ....

r
~
I
I

, ._
• • "_~, I,

" .. " as in the foMo).;':Ling words:


Ii .~ Ii ~, • • .!!' •• II • ~ I LI LI •• .' •

"
~
,! ~ !II '!' " • • • •
L. • .~,

••

•••

, •••

,.

d€~v,;hl,er,.bamUr,aniUery, because, armchair. everybod».


'words given bdowindita:te·lo;~g .vo'f\!dls:

oi'

~'

,.

f. • '" •

ii

I,

t
~ ~
l ~

~,

,I

..

LI

LI

••

'il,.

r@m:,. monster, nolar, auack; correspond, uni"ver:sity.

I.

c:)-half-open in ."

...

, . . , . . . . . . ....

, ,". ' . . . .

. , pos.ition.as in .,
"!, .,
IJ LI • ~ T I .~ _ .. ILL! ..... ' LI

,.. , .. ,
I,
L. ~

.
" .. '. "

LI

.'

"

't.

..

••

'!

~,

~.J

..

,'"

!!'

••

I'

,!'

..

"

•••

I'

•••

emplo*~, peasant, treachery, question, sugar, Reading,


8. In the wQrd.s g,[v,el1l bclo,,,-.!ndk:ateretract:ed fvd~u·.iz.ed~vowels:

12. Provide UIPee examples 'Of E.n,gnsh words which contain;


1 ~ L!

r.

Ii.

~"~

.....

,~,.,

•••

~~ "j" nijjl,m:e.as:les! renearsat, century; Sal!;v, umi, I reu.ng ..pCl,l 9.. In the wordsglven ~ belew .indicate shortened vowels:

b-) only back vowels

... ,. . ....

". . . .

c) ml~y roundedvowels d) vowels procouncedwi Lhspread lips.


,,,,_,I~·~I~",!,''!'.~ •• '.''·

-·~I'--~'·

c}.vowels pronounced with neutral-lip reunding . .... -.


f) only central vowels..
i

•••

"

•••

, ,., . , .. , . .. . " . . .. . . . . - . . . ,., ,.. . ...

·.ft.

"1
,

U
.
.:..

l I

G" 0) fl'lUy··l!O'''''O . ,_.'. J ·:JJl.o

vowels~ _' u',...." ~

'l'

',.'

!.

,.

j,.o;

-....

'.

ill

..

IJ

.i

Hi!

Ii

'!'

"

Ii

"

""

I,

ill

'"

~,

~,

i!o

"!,

'!

Ii

argue

["a: rg:ju:]

['a:gju]
[aekt]

h) ,shonen:edf vQ'f.V,eh: , ,.....

,...

,., . ,

, . , ••• ' • , , • , . , "

' ..

, .. , , ..• , . , " ., ..

au
.r .. •
I'

[rekt]
L. '. • • • ~
! .' • _ • •

i) vowels which c:an be djph:Lh.tlfl~jzed

, . , • , •.. , . , , , " ; ...


+ ' •

, ...
,. ., •. ,

, .. " . , , . ,
• ,. " • • , , • ,.

.J

''1

'Ill

L.

.,

.J •

iJ

"

'"

.,

.J

L.J

II

"

rit

'.

'.

I.'

...

...

.,

j) unstressed but unreduced vowels . . . ' ., , , , , ."• ., . , , , , "

.11

r.'~

Ii'.

.L.'.

'"

1i'.J.J.,.

i!',

••

g'.ioL.'"

."

••

"'~;,"

"_H!J

••

••

~.I

I.

~,

••

L.,!"!'

••

LI!.

",Ii

13. Gi'Ve examples of ~El1g1ish_nt:D:rds in whidl unstressed vowels are pirOllouH,ced,a,s s(:hwa:.,Provide them with phon etlctranscripelon. .

~"

••••••••

J.!

'I'

••

'.'.,.'

....

!.,.

fit

•••

L.

Ii.

il.~

ill.Ji

~'I

Pi!

~'"

0;

"'oil,.

iI',I'

~.

II!

..

'"

II;

~·i.

LI

~J.'

.,.

..

;t'~",

••

•••••

!!'

•.

I.",~,.

,,~.

'!'.

~'I

.'!

.,!!

!" •••

~'I

••

!!

L.

i!!

~.ii"'~

I~'iui

ito,,,

.""

••.

~••

d.!.,

Iri'~

••.

;',

,i-i

it.

~.,.

,I."

..

•••••

'

••

rio

"'.'

b':.),

II

'I

'I

LI

'.'

1M.

IJ

..

.J • •
~ '"

• • ,~ •

~"

I.

'!

'.

.,

'.

iI

'~'

n'

:!'

.....

!t

••••.•

IJ.

~J,!"'''

!'~'"

~.~

.....

'••••

•••

~,i

i,

••

"

....

Ii

••

i;

•••••

J~

III

~LIJ~

'"

c) .. " " d)
• • • IJ

.11

I;.

"

"

•••

'i

,r

or.••

'

r'

....

,~

....

'.

'I

.p.

'"

'"

...

•.

,"

"!,

,.

II

IJ

Ii

!!!

,.,

.....

,•••

it

••

,i.iI""'."I

,it

~,

LI.~

."L~"

••

"

i,

~.-i

..

.,

.~.II"

'!'

.,

,iii'

'i'

~,

.r.

,.

..

"

'!'

,.

..

,.

I. • • ,. • .J • ., •
,••• J ~ • 'I ~ ., I

!.

.,

""".

.J • _~ " '. ,~

\!!

,_,

!!!

..

.'

'.

,~

;0

••

,,.

"

••

~J

ill

to.

~.

.~

'I

~,

'ii'

;t

..

to

"

...

11

.1

'".

..

IJ

IJ

••

"

'1

.~.

t;

'I

! .

.e), .,

i'

Ii

,.

..

~,

',"'

,"

,•••

"

,•••••••

'1

..

;t

,~

L ••

'"

"

••

'"

~J

14~ Give, ,eXBcIUpl'l}s-of EugliSb words. 11'1 hich unstressed vowels ate w
.as schwa. Proll1idetbetn
a)
p~.Jj
'I .. ~ ~,

no;t:prnlloull'c

ed

16. Wbat are the differences between Brltlsb and American occurrence :of [")1, [QJ~-[o~]and IA1.is 'Donc~r.ned·?
-American Bdtisb.

English as far as the

¥\'ith phonetic :transcrfptlon,.


, , .... " ., . " , .. ,. , ....
.~

['pr~use;s]
'!' .~,
oi. ~ ••

, .. , ... , ' ...," , ....


,~ • ~ • •

, '" ..
,I • ~ • '''''.

,.••

"

.,

"

,.

God

[gad}

[g:)(1]
["kJoflikt]

b)' " "


,1'11 ~ .J
,.l.~I\ .•. uJ
..!~.~,

'I

.~

;to

LI

!J

.;

.,

'"

'"

'"I

L ....

;.

r'

IJ

III

••

conflict
border

["konfliktJ
[~b:)':JdJr]
["duktdT] [8I\n] [dYJ::] [txt]

'".

!.

"

"

,it

.,

..

...,

~.

'".

I,

!J

"

'!

~l

_.

.'

'it

••

t;

,!

.!

LI

'~

.'

"

l'bo:d~,] rcljktd]
[sAn]

'!'

••

'!'

"

••

.,

'I

.~

.~

!.

.",

,~

L.

L!

••••

.-.

~....

.J ~

'I'

••

,~

,it

i"

.....

'

..

"

doctor
J:un

e)

.'

I.

'm

'.

'.

Il

'Ii

~I

,I

,~

Il

i'

'I

rr

"

"

oj

!I'

II!

.!

'.

.'

,"'

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..

"

.. . '~' m,J:..e~.!I'onl.DriiuSll, ones.•more m t· n' "';1: .1- • - •. - "b .• ....I!.. ..~ termsor-f ·t:u,elr d"Is..tn· ninon bw:n r~ 1'1:' A mencan vowets . ...Ira'f· f' -of quaUty. Explain this-statement after analysing tbe data below:' 1
~

.dmv\!,' ianght

[dro.] [ton]
[~'t'Jp]
[ko:1]

stop
t{llt
dollar

[stop] [k]d] [~dal~i] [b:nJ [kxrs]

AIDe d.c;::m

B:rit:ish [paisr] [kset] [streb]


[plrGlu]

p.ast c:at
stab

[p~sd [kzet] [streb]


[pl~nt]

['dJla] [1D:n]
[kois] rkAntri]

un\c'rn: course
COJU1tt)'

plan.t
pm11 drq/t
back

rkAntriJ
["koman]
II ... • " • .~ ~' ,. • • ! .! L.

[p~8] [dn:fr1 i
I" ~'-' I

[pa~8] [dITt~h]

Cammon
~ " !, .. .~

[,k)mJn]
i • • • -. • • • ,~ • ,. ~ ., ..
I LI L~ '~

Ii

LI

'r

·i

,.,

L.

,"

""

[beek]
[ba:n]

rb~k] 1':0 T3en


[ka
: -•. ~'.~i ~

.......

'~11

..

;'.

iii

~!

•.

",~

.••••

'••

~.,."

.,

••.•

,L!'I''''''''''''!!!'

i,

•••

IJ"!".

!I'~.

~''''

iii.

-I

ban cart
father

]
t]

~'"

~II"~

."

••••

iii.
,.....

'I

~"!'

.,.!

••

!.!

".",

•.

~.~

oj.

r'I''!i'''1

'!.

Lit

••

••

_L

•••••

it

[kart]

~'rlitl.'~

'.,iii"

~ ...

~"

••

it

••

'

•••••

it

•••

..

~,I

•••

"

••

~,~

i!;

II

.,,..~,.

1'1

•••

!!"!

rfa:o~tl

[~fa~.o;Jl

••

re-I'"

LL."

•••

'

iii

~.!

'''

••••

!!I!

! ...

,.

r.,~"

......

,h

I'~

II;

I.!'.

I,~

••

Li

jJ

~L

.....

'

••

..

'I'

r~"

~,.

Ii

....

,.

it.

~;o.

~',""

~',"'

••

r..

i,~

....

.,,,.,;1

~!

~;;'''

••

"".~

.,

•••

'1''''.'.

r
17,...Co",lp,lete.t.be ~iag.rau1lS below marking

Enghsb and Pobsbvowels.

the tongue position in the artkulatI>tI8 of ~

I
I

~.
~ • ... ~ ... .;, ., • ..;, I

A.. English lei! lu} nnd fJfSlre already marked.


B. Polish ll/ and /0/ are' already marke::d..

j)

tore

lOr

•U

k) son
• '" ! 'I'I' .j ,i

",'

"

._

;;;;,

'I'

L!J

;,

'r

'!"

'I'

.,

"

,,-

A. How ape she vowels; in the words below usually distorted? .B.\VhaI factors are at wor~ ~nindividli:al instances'! a) carpet- E/a·;.,l i'J j(dijtit'aledr.6,/M
b) loO'p . . .

El1glLlih a) sick b) lack

Polish

syk !Eli i t.'1


lek

J:~4t

r
.ApA:w.' a,qd/?uJ:~ /"t:t-rtL Hf..a.-IP ,iii
" . " .. ,. to

'Plal uN£at (0·~#'te#a:N/£/n('}re?~'!'u< ,. " "


>. • " , • • '. .• , ,. •

., " , . •

., • - .,

c)

bad ..

'!'

n~

'!l

r't~

~,""

••

,.,;;;,~,

..

'•••

r d) analogy

bale

... ,

~,

_.

,~.

.........
'" ... ~ II

"" f'
;

e) animal f) sort

••

I
• ,_ • .. • • • • • iii

d) peak

pik

t..

~.

..

Ii,

iI

i
r
! r

l
i

g) bird .,
~ .. .. " ~, II! ~I • • ~ • iI • ,. i i '.' ,~,

.!!.

'I!'

II

'"

"

I'

II


~I

"!'

ii,

'.

.-

r.

'.

tal< "' , ... "

,~

"

II

;;;.


I

tt) but. ,-

t
~
(

i) book

buk

l~

,~

..

...

.-.

..

..

l I

~ t ;

l
• ... '. • • I, ~ I ~

J) couon
,.,. n,!, ~,_

hi,.

•.

•.

iI

'".

•••••

i1'~.,

~I

i"

1"1

'I'"

'.

'1J.!

!!',~

••••

so.k.

r
.. a. • " • .... ~

;.,
'i '....

20..HOl\, roig:bt speakers ofJ!;n'giis:h ",'110 are beginning to learn Pnlish mispronounce the vowels. in the words bdow? ~rfrat ,expli:matioo 'can be gi\'en for these mispro-

... :~:: I
I I

l::nmdati'Ol1s?
a) pa nia

-'

,.,• • " ~ ~, I ~ L!' • .. '",' • ~ I ..


IJ •

.'

I
[

P! ai

co'; /yyt/tU'al

wilL 1b.00"...fr «,/,idmofiJr;ff!fiwz(ed

E / 21::: I

b) kunde?
•••• ~

. , ,. . , . . . " '. . . " , . , " " , . .. ,. - . , .. . , ..


J ' ••• J I .,'!!''I'_ ~ -,~,~~,~,., •• i '" i

I'

98

r
,

c) telewi?ja

I.

~"

••

'

I'

.t. ~ .'~'.'
~III".J"

I'

J.

~ "_,,

I'.

i,

~I"

••

i'~

II

,~,.""

ii·~'·

<ea>

.Ii

..

',"'

..

.~

.;;

..

~, ."

..

'"

..

..

oil

'I

II

'!'

"

.n

.,

iI-

o!J

'"

i.

'"

.,

..

<a>
I~l

/cl(O ..... ~"

, .• , • " ,

• .• •

,••,

.,

r'

••

.,

'"

.'

,.

"

••••

'"

'!

,i

"

rr

1I1

....

"!""!

••

~II.,,_~·II"

••

~L"~"'I'-'

••

t'

•••••

"'L

••

I'~'~!

••

'~lIi

gl"

•••

IIJ~'LI

11I

•••

'•••••

·~IIIJ..,.~lILI

iLiliJ

....

,e) bukiet f) petta

<a>
~, ..
'I

'"

...

I'

il

.•

. •.

I!

..

,;,~

......

"

..

IJ.'rilrilllIl

"'IJI.L.'.~I."

•••••

'.,

••

'ifo'~IIIJ!

••

~.'1

!'

..

lu:/

••

,.

II

..

~.r.

~,l'

I'

",~,r.

iii

'1-",'"

.'.

••

,..

"

...

y;

L~

,;;,

<GO>

&i'&c<.d(;
~{/~

hi!

j,

!J

r.

"

II

"

!Ol

'I

LI

'~

.i

"

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i,

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,.

.,

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I,

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10

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...

·iI

Ii

ill

'I

II,

II

,~

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\!'

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0.'

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~,

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i'

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I",

.'iI;o."

11

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.'.J
1_ ~

••

i"
LI I '"

... <11> <o> < ew >- I'&{.f;<~


£'l:W(Jif;

L1,i.i

•••••

J".

1~~~'~Il,,'!01i

.....

I!

~_~"'I

I"'I'I"'.~.".'I

•••

'

••

"'

••

~"'~_~'I'L!'"'I

~.i;.L~

.,

••

'r.II'~

..

II

'n°

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Ll

I'

'I

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II

hI.

'I'

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L.

Lll

•••

io

IJ

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i'~

.,~,.,,,

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h)byk
• .. i

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1,

II,

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...

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< ow:>
<: ue>

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J,

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~LII"'~

1.'''

••••

•••

~'I

II

~I.

~lli

.·,t~

.'~

....

tpv~"
,;&1fu't;.

""'~.'IJLl"

••

JJ

••••••

'r.'~_!~

....

L .....

L.III

.•

·"~

...

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I••

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IiJ

..

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Il

••••

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I.

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.,.

~·~·.·i

_.+~"

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.....

< ui>
I... I .. " "". " .1 I

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i'.i.

IILI

!~'1~".,~

••••

'

•••••

II·.'~"'''.'!'.~'''1

III

'.L

••

,••

i."~ .• •

.•.• , ~ .••
• L~ • "
Ii

~,
...

".·.·.·.·r
... •• • • • •

~ ...
• •

~l

.·~·ii·!

••

~ ••••

"

I.

'r.

iii

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tm'

j) kine

II

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,.

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<u>

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I'

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"

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_,

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21. Wbat is the problem t:hatPolish learners of Englishbave


pronunclation of the underlined vowels,In·the words below?

witll the correct

<vo> < em >/od

LL.I:

••

~'IJ

••

oiJ

•••

i,ill

~'Ii~_llLlIIII,i"ii~·II·!'~~······

I~".".

.tJ&I.dii

~.

II

JJ

.....

".',"

__

p.~+

.L~

.L.'!.;'

JI'.'f

LI

",~,"

••••

'.

•• ,',,1i

h~

~,-,

<-Of.>
I; .. " • • ..

/r?("';J"IfJ,

"

"•

,•

"

"

_. -

••••••

,!

.!'

.,..

~.

'!

....

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ili

.....

!'''

""I

HI

~".

I.

""

i'

••

~.",

r.

...

<OaT> akJ..or»

i"

••

1.1

I~."I"''''~'I'~

..

~,.~.~

I,I.'.~"'~'

.•

!!

"

..

,t

II

,.

"

'I"

L~

OJ;

"

iI

~,

II'

!;

.'

II!

II

"

IJ

I!

LI

"

'.

IJ

Ill

••

JLlII-r.'~

••

'i

"

•.

~.

~.;;

'"

i'''.

i,·","

.,,"

~,I,

iJ.

22. Belovr-we list. the :m.ost comm.on ways of s,el:niu[g Engtish vowels •.Add ,3examp,).'ES ~

to each. list.
11:/

<ar> <a>
ia:/

!!'

I~

IJ

Ii

"

I.

Ii

of!

'I

LI

L"

II

II

'I'

Ii'

••

,I

..

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'I

-;.

"

"

,.

L.

"

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LI'

..

,i,

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<ee >

••

,.;;,

~'"'+

..,.!

'I'

••

,•••

L •••••••

~.'i!!,~

'1·,····

~I'~'

'.,

••

"

<ar> <a> <ll>


<0::>

,O~~

•,

...

LI

,•••

~.'

I'.

'I

....

JJ~,oi

••

_
1I

oil

'!'

JI

••

'II

I.

,~

.;.

tXZ&.?~

••

....

i'l,;.,~~!

!,!,!LI".',~!J"".""

i,,"~'.11

~.!

"i~";;·-~'~'~··"

<ea>
<:ei> <Ie>

j&l~ j~,
.,; ",Ii'~ I! ~

.1".'

•••••

Ii

••

.J~
'!'+_I'~

rI'~'I.

••••

~!ii,

I,''''.

.....

~,.

h~'

.... ~ ~ .I~ _ CC!-7M~~


",I"

,,; ,

rr'.

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L1

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rr

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,'
.. ,_~ ••

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•• "I I I. 1.'lJ~

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i ..... 'I'!!~HI~

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oj

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L!.i;",j

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I,!,!

il!'f'~'.".'~.~

•••

,."

/utU.

..

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Li

~,.

P,I

~,lfj"',

..,..,

,;III.,

Ii

-I

,I

,I'

I'~

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<au> < ir> /i#'Ct; .


II

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...

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••

II~

••

iii

<i>

1,.~",!!+

•••

".h~'!I"-h~+'~."I'

.IJII~I

i~

......

,_".~.,ll

1.11'

JJr'I"

<.y>
<e>
lef

k?/~ ~f',/b4.

.~n(
.Ii .,

••

.'

.•

JJ

',"'

~,

!-

!!'

..

j,

II

'I'

,.

."

oj

I'

,.

IJ

••

'r.

!'

,t

'f

"!I."

.••••

II.

II

.'ri''''·h'~

..,~'

~,~"

"'"'r'I

~."

<ear>
~~ !'I" !' •••• ' .. ,•• ill •• ~~~·'"~~' ... ~

~'

.. ,

'I

II

.,

Ii

Ii

'"

"

"

it

~,

,.

..

..

'I'

'i

II

'I

"

"

,..

I'

" .J

,i

.. '

..,.

'!i

,..

..

..

"

i'

'~

'h

<ur >

!{VI"!>
tb&.J':A;.
I ~ I II 'r. I ~,

I,

LII

JJ

II

.,

.,

Ll

Ii.

Ii

'1

,.

'I

..

••

+,

"

<or>

..

JJ

..

JJ

JI

"

Ll

..

'!!

Ill"

"

,~

II

'I

,'"

I,

'I

100

T01

<,a>' apolo < e > (}~,,;;, , " ., < 0. > jW/tI&;, . . . .


<u >
at6tc('/?I/?"~ ••

, ......•.•...

" ......•..

5,.3. DI_PHTHONGS I. FlU in the gaps:


Diphthongs are vocalic sounds which differ from monophthongs in, the following respects:
t

'

" ."

. . . . . . . . , . .. . . . . . . . , , , " , . . . . ., .. . • .. . . . . . " . , . . " .


T • .. • , , .. • • " • • '" • • • • • '. • • • , " , • • • • • '. , • , • • • • " ,

"",

23,. How can the fnll owing vowel letters be pronounced in English?

a) '~9"aJ1?~

t'¥~ilAtf~#,1 adO/wed
r •

(,/z. de'~,:(ll{""1~ .¥tk-.Jlu'(Mt;'.~b%.~#0


•• ~ •• Ii ~ ,.

b)

II

II

•.•

.r

•••••

II

._..•.

'"

&

••

"

.,

.~

"

'"

Diphthongs are: best described with reference to two factors: <c> ... " . " . ' " .... '.. , ....
• ~

" , . "" .
'Ii ! ••• ~ ~ .~ •.
! •• Ii ... " ,.,

a)
'!
I

oil]

••

"

;0

;i,

..

..

..

,.

"

"

I'

II

..

"

It

..

"

01-

<:u >. " .

..

!I

••••

'

"

"

oi'

~I

nil.

.'

r.

...

"

~••

'b.' J

!'.'.",

~-I,

••

I'n

r~··n"

1·,II'I·

iI

•••••••

-".!.IIIIJ~"r

M~

•••••

191

,<. 0:> "


<i>.,,,

Ii

iO

"

"

..

"

..

"

.,..

In"

"

"

II

..

"

"

j.

II

"

,...

"

...

L.

"

"

...

-II

"

III

"

"

Diphthongs 'behave like pure vowels in-tbar . , " " .....


1

" ...
" h

" .. , . " "' . , . " . , . , "


'I' " ~ • ... " • 1 1 1 1 " .. •• ~ • •

,,
'I .. , I I " • " •••• "

,,.. !!
II • " I 1ft! I 11

,,.,

,·,,,,,.,·,,
Ii
'f -,

.. ,,·····

.. "'· ,
or .. u , ..
h .. ~

<y> ~.

tr

tr

"

II'

••

Ii

II

,_

.....

"

<-on> .. -

"
~
I • I

" ,." .. ,,,. ,


.... ., ~ u " "
Ii It, • • ,I ,.. ~ '" II< " • ,.. I~ -! " r.

,.,.
" ..

-";,,.
Ii
II • •• ~

,.. "" . ,." .. ", .. ,,"


! ~ ..
pE " • II • • • ~

< :e,a. > " . '<:OU> .,.....


!

!!

!'

II

...

-Ii

II.

of!

•••

'

~I

.,

~.

II

11

,.

I.

'.

"

"'"

,It

••

'r

II

I.

;!

II

••

'"

..

..

..

•••

'

'!

••

<ee> <oi>

"

'!!

..

ii

JI

.,

tr

II

"

i!

..

I,
i,

I'

iI

to

"!

II

"

..

..

"

11

ill

,iI

Ii

"

..

,"

ii

I. . "

"

til

With regard

[0

l~ngtlt'j all English diphthongs art like

"

"

2. Describe the diphthongs in the- words below:


a) blow

r.

r.

!!

..

;,

'I'

II

"

JI

...

...

...

.'

24. 'V'hien of the < e > Iettersinthe

~n

words below can be pronounced as both [;;] and


, -b . secret, celerity. '.-I .,, • l' elide, memeruu,I uguness

II
~

j;fr.:t'bJvp

a4'F?Otli

t."o/i'A'd'&tp (//-£.:c_./ Jt'c7.•4.i aJ .. mw 6


lui,
"~r'l!

C8/ZJ)~["t/ t'iJ-W!!!'

Yk tOl:!tptM
..
~I.III.~

bawD in tJ!c ,~ctuVt


b): poor.

0/:J/w.r{

. . , . . . . . ; . ". . . . . . . , . . . . .

~.,.i,,·"!

....

,~".h

c) hair . . .. . _ . . . " , . , . . . " . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . "

. . . , ; " . '" _ . . . . . , , .

;f.i.tngss, ,exam.. careless, ."

OUl lleng e,
l -

25. Below we list several words in which the .underllned vowel letters-are pronounced in an unusual way, Provide these examples with phondic transcription and-explain -their special character.

! I
.

d) ,tear '" ., , . , . , . . '", . . . . .. . . . , "'. . . . " . . . . . , . . . . . .-. . ,_. . , . . " . " " . . .
e)

tigre r .. , ; , .. " . . . " ' . .. . . . , . ; '" . . • , " . ' . . . " , . " . " . . .,
COl''lI'. " . . . • . . ., . . ..
II ~ .. ! • " ~ _ •

."""

'. . . . . . .

f)

. . '" . . . . • • " , • . • , .' .• . . . • • , • .,' . • • " • '" '" . ,. .• . . " . , .

C:Qlone 1 . .. ., ' , " . .- , " .' • " . . • • . " .. ., ., . . , . . • " . . . . , . . '. '. . . • . . . . . . . , , . _. "

I
!

g)1 t~~ . . . h)

1. ~

"II

"

!!!

-"

"

if

I . • • • . • II

!i

..

~,

1 III • .. " .. " ..

~.

'II'

!I

play . '. . . , . . , , . . . . . . . ~ . , " . . . . . . .. .. " . . , . . .. . . . , .. diphthongs hase in common:'

wQlf·- . . . . . . . , . , . . , . " , . . . .. . '. . . . . . . . . . . . . " , .' . . . " , . . . ., . . , . , . . . b M:..FY.


Jt ~ " • • .. 'I> • • ,i " II • I. • • 11 • • II i ~ " ,II " ,I II I! I I .• ~. 4 .. • .. r. "
u •

3. ',",'hat do thefcllowlng

r.

It

p'

.~

coffee , . . . "'. . . '. '"'" "'. ,. ; " . . . . . , . . "'. . . . . . . ." " . , .' . , . " . . . . . . . , . . . .
G£..!!f,re'j"
IC'anlo.e'.

• , , , . . , • "' , . . . . . " " • " , ; , , . . . . . . . . " . . . • . . . . • . " . . . . . , , " .


, . . . " . _ . , . . . . , . "' ...
Ii

j-o:urne"l' .. '. . . . .. , .....


h • .. • LII • • II I I

" ... '. . , , , . ; . . . . . . . . , ..


I •
OJ II Ii• • • ,"' ~ Ill..... T • • • i .. ~ • • '"

~
'I
j

c) .. c. It el.' I, ./." a LJ
") 1-:l;, u. ~ 1t T ,J,.-....,~
.

,..
]I

••
J.

,..;,
...
1 ~ .", ...

'" ••••.
• " • II • _

, . " " . . . , • , • • . • " • '.


I
M M ~ II; • • ~

. • • • , . , " ; " _. . " . • , •


If • '" • ..
1

'I!

"

.!

JJ

!.

lo"ll . ..

leOl .. 1

-IJ

I.

"

"

D:e"b)~

..

"

III

..

..

'"

,..

'I

jo

..

'i

.~

I'

..

II

~.

.,

"

,~

..

.,

••

!I'

SE'an
[Jr'

I'

"

..

..

I;

..

II

...

til

I.

..

.,

i.

hI.

~.

..

...

;,

..

...

••

LI

IJ

.,

1-. {;. ,.'",', .Q,:_:_~.f!,1":0L0.'

"'

.. "

...

'I

..

"

..

"

..

,.,

I'

.1

..

to

'..

nil

"

iI

'"

..

~.

;,

II
i

4. In the words givEn below indicat-e dosing diphfhongs: nil}wr, appreciate,


pronounce, nobody,

towards, tourism.

102

103

5. Inthe

words, given below indicate CERtrifig d~pbtb:ong.s: heroine, imiuuio«, Europe. Riviera, fairness. ,diphthongs:

Number ,4, . '"'~,


"11.. ,NU moera .. .
I

,Ii

..

Ii

Ito

!I

••

-I

..

!'

"

.'

ii

..

,Ii

~l

II

"

!I'

Ii

iI

!I'

iI

t'

iii

,~

'I

"

Ii

..

'I

..

'!

.,

"

,.

"

I. ..

II

III

d,

iii

,..

,.

r. . . .

i'

..

..

l1li

:/ffiOU$,

Number 6 . '. , , . . , ., .. . . . . . . . .. .. .. , .. . '. . , . , " . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . , _ Number 7


1 • , , • • ~ I • Ii .' • • • • • • •• • • .. " .. • • • • .. .. AI • • j .'

,6. In the words given below indicate.shnrtened

Ii

iI

I:

!"

,.

..

'"

.,

iii

;j

'"

Namber 8

r. " •
• '....

..

"!

.,

!II

...

••

•••••

i.

.'

"

iii"

..

!II

"

'

II

.,

"

rrli}t.t. stereo, operate, jO},/u1. narrow, failure" Yeats, devotion,


'7...Describe the vocalic sounds in thefuHo .... ,.'in.gwords. What are the possible variant pronunciations of thewords "! a) tower laudl - la.'a!
b) slower, ,

Number '51
" . -

.,

"

11

iii

1i

....

I!

I'

If>

••

...

r..

'I

I,

r"

'"

r•••

III

iii

II

,.

"

it

..

I'

Number

lQ ".,

"

,•,,

, ....•

13..:1

' .. _ .....•• , " .. "

, , -

,•, , . . . . .. .,.

HJ. Be}{TW we list possible pronunciations . f elf or"t' b ' in thel nograpr hief remrms. a} [f-;la] ...
d~~
JA:'Ofue..r ....

of some English words. \-Vrite these items

, . _'.'

c), p raye r. ..'. ., . . " .". . . , '. . . . " - . . . .. . . . .. . .. " .. ., . . .-, . . . " " . . . '. . . .. . . . " .. d) tired .. . ,_..
II '"' ~ II ..

.'II

..

~II

..

..

It

...

'II

I,

..

'II

;f'

..

II

roo

II

Ii

~.

II

II

II

II

,.

'11

..

..

II

Ii

II

..

II

'"'

II

••

..

II

e) employer " , ,

'. , ,

,
f
!,

b) ,[.(i1'stroa]

..,...

. . . . , " . . . . . . . . . " .. , ., . " , , . , . .

,.. ..

_,.

d} [l.'O:;:l.] • • . . • . . " . . . . . . , • . . , . • • . " . • . " • .. • • ' • . . . .. . . • • • . • . . " . • • , •

8" Which EngIish. VO'l'e.!S, can serve as sta.rtiugpoinis for diphthongs? pohits?

'Vhich as target

.e) [peo] , "

, .. " , . ~

, . '" ...•.

"",

11. Provide three examples of EngJhihwnrds


" ~

which contain;
.

d1

ii

fI

II,

"

.tr

.~

..

II

..

II

..

,I

'"

,"

!!

III

,.

~, .,

I,

-+

..

Ii

iI

..

I. ..
I' i

·Ii

-,

!'

a) diphthongs which begin as open vowels: ., .;!'U'1~t b) diphthongs which begin as mid vowels c) diphthongs. which end as back vowels .., , _
I • " • , ••

;,

"

...

'I'

!II'

••

....

.,

~,

r~

iI

il

II'

.i;

'.

,~

,.. ,

.,

"

Ii

fl'

y.

,
, , ••••••• , ' • ,

.

.,

I!

'"

".

"

!Ii

iI

!!

II

.,

~,

'I

'!'

'

""

"

'.

Ii

Ii

..

"

'..

II!

.~

'.

'.

II

"

.~

'.

II

Iii

9;. ¥fhich of the folJlowing diphthongs

'contain them.

exist In English? Gi.ve examples of words which

d) diphthongs which end as·eemral vowels e) shQFtened, diphthungs


i,

, ,

", "

, .. , '
, , '. ,

I.

,,

,
.'

f) fully tong dipruhongs

.. ,. , . , ,

"

..

tQ)
1 ~~

g) two neighbouring- v-owels which do, nm form, a diphthong,

".
••••• , •• '

'"

_ .. , .
.

h)'diphthongs

which can 'be rnonophth.ongizoo ., . "

I,

"

i) triphrhongswhich

stan as front

VOWe13

, •• ' ••••

, •••.
'

, , . '...
.

\
Number 1 (J oa/) '~;_0eJ_,Iwt8ZiJt

i.. ~\4/~1
" , • • • • .. • • • , , ,

j) rrlpnthongs which start as mid vowels.

••

"

••

•••

"

••

"

-J-_____', 2

12. Com,pare the pronunciation


English

of the undcrlmed

elements in the words g,j,venbelaw:

a) mr
b) bow ba~'~ ~ ~ "' ., .. .
~ + • • • ~
iI • • • • i if.
·1 .. • .. " n

!!

'i

'h

.,

,.

'.'

I. " ,. ~ ~ "
• • • • Ii •

~,

Number 2 ,. . " ,. . , " '. . . .. . . . ..

..

;,

'.'

--

;t

'I'

II

..'

••

.i

If

...

..

II

II

...

..

,.

..

"

Nu mberS . . . . , . , . .. . .." , _ .. . . .' . , .. '" . . , . '. . . . , . .,',. • . . . . . , , , , . " , . , . '"

•••

i.

'I!."

Ii

iI·"'''

II

Ii

...

Ii

....

,.~

...

"

..

Ii

1;"

•••

'.,.Ii

_,'"

'"'

.,.;,

.11';"

II."

~+~

104
c)

105

to»
,
'

i) dire
;

daje .

.
• I

d) dough

dru·

..
,,,

i,

.,

j) layer

" leje

e) wy
! ..

1,4.Below we present the most common ways of spelling English diphthongs. examples to each of the lists.
!>

Add 3

1.3"Discuss the difference


.I

in the- pronunciation words, and their Pollsh.equivalents:


'E','no Iish
. ~.::II:'

nfvocallc elements in

>

SOIne

Eu;glis.b

latJ

...
<y> < ie,
<do>
iau/
/'!jI-.. yc

P'Olish
go.' I
Jrte
("~'.ei

3:) goal

0/lj'-?t:Jr?

(Z'./ft

'

.u}'6',n:.t ..

.r '.

J/"~(J/W(t:,.'U",e,a

-r ,;} i"# .! ' l<f'?//l t!"i..cl c:'['r7jpl.;? r/?/;Ot"/'CN//-

> dl.e.,.

d¥z..lt'&~, /.Ju/.
.,:;rAe .. /::?ori:Ja .ttJtJ:Pfi. "d/t.?IJ./l..().tvl.t'6cl
b) ,.~O, a~'.{!.,
PI' ttlljjt
".f

.I'c¥t:.
,1;$

th..f;! .I.'U;,-Ltf'aaf,

•. #

:?

<?

tJ.{HIJ.6i'

.c •

loi' .

<uy, ui >

radio

radio

e) polo

polo .'

IoU

<oy>d)

~
e'ig[jg.~

stereo

stereo

< oi >
lei/

I~
e) radar

radar

<a> t'~ ... <ea> /~


<a.y> ~:..
(J.et4,

. ..
t) game

..

gem
... !

<d>
: oj

.
g) beer

.
,,.

/;jul
;

<0>

...
.>

.,
h) goer

<oa > &wt.

..
I
i:

gale

<OU> <ow> <er»

Ji7-u/.
:iM'rfU_..

h;n;;.

- ..

••

"

••

""

..

I.

M!

••

!.".

I••

~.""

••

;,_~

••

IM

....

'.-

106,

<eer >
-cea

~
~4~,

••

III

ill

II

••

'!

.,

i'

!i

&

..

II

'I'

-..

it

"

i"

II

..

.'

....

.i

;0

Ii

6~· uprasegmerital p-honetics S


6.1. THE SYI.L4.1lLE

>

,. " .

••.

",.,

.. '''" .•

,,

,.

,. '

,.

".,

••••

;'

•.

Ia.:u;:d

< ur >
< au"> lea:l <er> < ear>

.-ja./~

III

of

..

II

"

..

..

II

It

..

II

II

...

;WI

;0.

'!

'f

<oor > jl/.J(J~


tQtt...;...

.,

, ..

"-

' " •••.

, , " , ..

, •.

, .' . . .. • •.

. .. . . .

_ . . , . . . . . .. , . . ; , , . . . . , , . .. . . , , " . . . . . , . . , , , ; . " " _

1-

L Fill in the blanks. Some of tbe required 'expressions are n_sted below"
So far, there is no completely satisfactory definiuonof

the syllable" Phonetically, it. has been

defined as a peak of ...

J-on":.Jft'!P

' .. '.

in a: string of sounds. All sounds would be arranged.

along .a scale or hierachy of , . , , . . " , . . .. . " .. , .. , , . ' . . . . . _ .. , with 'vowels lr one


• i • !! ~ " •
II • ,," II II I. • h .. • •

II

.,

'I

.i.

..

""

II

.,

LI

;0

.,

'.,

end of the spectrum and stops at the' other. This definition is problematic. however, because
"I

;'Ma;;; '"

I'~"

.''f'

•••

;;'

...

""

..

,,.,

••

,.

~~.".,

,,,,,~.,

ft.~.,.,

I'

....

I.L

••

~"'.I'

..

"

..

"

I.

II

..

"

"

..

!!!

~.

'"'

!'

I.

fill

!II

'.

..

'.

'.

...

"

ill"

"

<air>al~,

'I

..

oil

ii'

II

'I

,I'

II'

'"

~I

II

.,

..

'I

._

"

II

II

..

-15:.Transcribe thewords belowwhich contaiD dipththongs written In an unusualway.

I'

Another phonetic definition, framedin


,. • • , , of, ! • '" " '. .II III ... • .. • ~ .. I I " I •

rerum of speaker'sactivlty,
i .. .. ,..
j • ~

is that of ,. , " " _ . , , ..


'...... • • .. '" .. ..
I '" " I ~ II

,..

'"

'",

..

I,

Each, syllable is believed the

[0

originate from-a separate , , _ " . , ......

, ....

, . , , _, . , " . ,

- , .. , . - , . , , . - .. , , . , - - . " ... , " .. , . ,." , , , . -- ... , produced by the muscles around


·to ~ • • ~ ... ~ .. • '. ," .. ... '" • • '" " ." _ ~
til

"

Ii

I!

'I

,.,

"

"

II

'I

Ii..

I'

...

..

I,

.•

.Ii

.",

.,

b)

aiste

I'

'r

.,

"

II'

.1 .•

I.
" ,

If'

..

"

..

'!II

I:

•••

II

•.

'"

"

..

••

Phcnologists

have rather been concerned with determining

the syllable structure ami irs -3n,d.....

c) g~e

.. . . . . ", . . .
'I .' " " , '. • • ,', "

..

'.'

"

"

..

.,

"

"

boundaries. It is commonly assumed that each syllable is composed of three' parts: , .' . " . .
II •

d) lJ'a:obab

"

"

..

'

..

,.

..

:i

.,

.II

..

Ii

"

Ii.

..

't

.II

II

"

"

LI

.II

...

II

.1

[I

"

..

,e) heir . . . , . . . . . .. . '. . " .. . " , . . , . . '. .. . ., , . . .. " . ,. . . . . . . .. . , , ,

._

,.

"

.0 ,ob,oe, ~ ~ . .
1

· . , " . , . " .... , . . . , . , , .. , ., and form a . , , " ... " . . , ..... · .......

. The la-St two cohere quite closely in a number of ways, _ . . .. .. . . , ' , " "
,Only the , , , '. , , . , " ' . " . . __

~.

II

Ii

~,

"

"

.,

II

!!!

'!

"

11

Ii

IJ

"

II

II

"

"

..

"

"

.,

..

,.

g) ballg,t .. .. ''''. , . , . • .. , . . " ; , i} ch~eur

;,

"

"

.'

"

"

'

..

, . , . , .. Is an obligatory- constituent The- acceptable syllable-initial and syllable-final


,

h) choir. " . . . . . . . . . , , , . . . . . , . . ,. .' . , , . " . " , . , .. . .' '", . .. " .. . .. ., . . . . , . .

dusters are usually believed to be (-hose whicharc acceorable .... , ... , , ._ ...

",
_ •
j • • II ,II

'.. " , , .. _
II • • • f ~ !"

, .. ,
m .. .. '"
II II • Ii • .,

;
!!
II ., • 11 ., • ,; "iI

" , , .. _ '.,. " . '".. " . , . ..


iI-. • • ..
I ., • I .. .. .,

, ' , . , ..

· , .. " . ; .. ,-in],tiwlly and finally- .. Sometimes an intervocanc


syllables sirnultane.uusly, This is, c~dled , .. " .. - .. , , An open syllable is OtIc which, ,"

consonant. belongs to both _ . .. .. . . .


, ••••• , • _.

j) 'Jwk,ir:
I'

''!'

"

"

"

_ . " . " .. , _ " , ....


T _ .,. " •••••••

k.) Saudi .4rabia ....

, " . . . . . .. .. . . . , , . . . . . , ... ;," , ., . . ._" ....

, .' . . . . . .

;,,

Its, oppos-ite iscalled

, .. , .. , , .. '.. '

, .. , . ' .' , .. , ,

, .

A syllable which ends in a lax vowel. optionally followed by one consonant, is, caIl~d . , .. . The opposite term is .,
• • , , , •• oj

which means that

~jle s-yUable

ends in , . , ... '" ; ....

, , " .. , , .. , , , , • " . ; . _.
,;, rio

or , .' .' , . ,

, . , .. , " , .. , , " ,

These d-istinctions are imponant for a number

of phcnclugical proce:ss.es in English, for example . , , .. , , .. __ , . , .. . , ' , ....


.' ~ ,I ~ • • • " I
I! • _

!'

...

"

_,

,.

io

!II

..

'

,!,

'.

"

'"

"

~,

]08

10D

2. Assume that the syUable has the follo wing structure: svllable
~.

d} codas whichare

notpermissible.in Engl ish:


! .. ~ .. Ill.. .." .. ~ ,~

lkff, , . ' , . " , . . , . ' . . . . " ' . . . . . . . . ,


.. r.
n

,",

Ii..

r.

"

II

..

'fo

..

II

"

I'

..

rI

..

..

..

I'.,

:r

~.

"

..

..

"

I,

...

II

Ii"

'!;'

,~,~,

'1."

II

'or""

,"!'"

I".

e) onsets
J

'I." h W1lJC,~'

' . 'hI " : HiL1S:1: ,are permrsstme m pI' 1


" 1 1 ,., ~ 1 I, " •.

'lr ~xrr. ' , . . .' .. ' , . . . " " , . . ., ' , , " " "

..

~1

"

,.,

...

,~

...

onset

"

..

'I-

"

....

,"'

"''II

...

.....

,I

'I'

"

~'~

.,

I'

"

1) onsets which are not permissible in Polish:

Irkl", .' '. ' , .. " , , "' . . , , . . .,' .. , , , . , .. '


, ~ .. ! "
,I • 1 1 ~ • " 1 • • • ... .. 1 '} ! 1 .. • • , • • .... ! I

'If

to

"

"

.,

•••

II

II

!I

..

..,

.1

"

nil

..

~,

fl.

..

..

II

;;; _

g) codas which are permissible in Polish: Isolate individual elements in. the following syllables;'
ist],
11.ac&N.,d,"
f
II,

su" ~ ,. ., ., .
: ,'.
" " , 1 .. 'I

II

..

"

"

'I:

.,

"

,.

"

'"

"

"

..

oj

-"

'i'i

,...

..

"

'"

_,

..

"

,i

"

.,

oJ

t;

,.

..

;;;

"

"

"

..

'!

I'

..

"'I

..

"

i!!

..

..

"

II

~.

I!!

'

a) /stop/ . , .NAJet.·, b)
e)

/0./, (}(NkA" /pl

. '. ' ; .. " ....

,"

,.

11)codas which are not permissible

in Polish:

fbil .. ,
If

,
I,
ii • '" • • ~

, , .. , , " . ' , ,
.t

, " " , , , ' .. , , , , ,


~

,.
• ..
I " "

a:,' ~.~ " . . .. ~

Its}. ' " " . . . " . . . , " . ' . , ., . . . . . . . . . . . . . " , . "' .'. . . "' . , _ . .
'. 1 i '. 1 • .. iii "Ii .... " • u • • .. • ~ r, 1 • .., • • • " • i j ~ , • ., '" I ~

I.

"

"

I.

"

II •

ri

..

I, ..

...

!II

,.

I,

i.

d) ltii , , ",, .. " " . , . , ....

"". , . , ", "".

-I

,.

.,

"

..

'.

..

.,.

._

,.

..

..

Ii

e) fki tJ/. , ., . . . . . '. " .. .. .' , " ,', . . . . .. , " " .. , " . . ., . . " . . . . , " , , ' , J) ltm! . , . ' , , , , .. " , , !·.' .....
r·~r·-tE.·! ... "

4. Remembering
I.
T ,

the rules of syllable diYis:ion,. divide the foUowing words inti)! syllables, 'Vhi.ch clusters are particularly problematleand why?
a)

I.IIJ~.~"'~'

~~.II.

rjo.~.ii

g) !.~ tro,:! . . . . . . . . . . . ' . " . . . . . , , .".. ' , . ,. , ,. " , , '.' , . , , , , . . , . , .

"

occiusion , . . c"{::(J-&:-.;}i{JI"I

,"•

. . " ..
' .... ,,".

, ....••.•
,, , ,' ,"

","".,.,.
,, , , ... , ,,

""

h) lents!
1. / ') ,.'p,.'el:"

'
.r.
'!! ' " ~ " • m "

,
~ ... "

,. '.. , " ,
•• " • ~ , •• -I ~ ·of '!! .. 't !II ,...

,.,
'. , •• ~ •

, .' " , , '. ' .. " , , .. , . ,


;.

"/

, , b) ,_' construcuon " . , . ",'.. " .' ,I"". c) hun ;;;:, vrv, " , ,'.. : ',..: . . . ,: <, ,e) edible ...
f)

I,

OJ

•••

or

"

..

"

It

....

,.

J")',' 1k'1: ! . 11.11


r'

"

..

"

"

;.

"_

t,

"

"

.r

"

..

JF

I'

"'

,.

"

II

"

...,

"

_.

."

..

..

..

.,

..

'IJ!

d) mistreat: ,,_ " " .. ~-. ~". :.,.' .. "'' ... " .... ' .",..
,,1._, I... , :." , •• " :. • • ,

'."
• , , ' • ,

, ' ....
" •• , ••

,., ',
' .. ,. , ,

h' ·'l'..,j ~} c,_{.,uren , " ,

_,

'I

..

"

•••

a) onsets 'which arc permissible in Bnglish:


hs!
~
.. ..

g
11" .......... M
ft"'~

empry . .
, "._ '!!

I
Po ~ ;p ~

_'" ~ • • • ,.

'1' ",. I.

io

r.

r'

'"

II

;0.

'"

"',

!!'

,I

..

"

ofj

of!

'I

........

"

......

.......

."!'

I,

..

I,::'''''

,1'1.

iI

......

..

..

'.

r.

'.

h) cof} ee , . . , ' ..":. " , . . , . , . , " . " - . . . , , . " , .' . ' , . " , i):.-regul,ar,
:""'.: ~" I',':._'"

'"~~~·''·1''-~'~~·'''

•,

..........

......

I'"

..

..

Ii

i~

,,~

..

, ..

!'

!II

..

..

"

..

...

..

"

.....

'

II ...

,.

II""

..

"'"'

.....

,,,.
• -:

"

"

••

~,

"

"

,,',

.'

b) onsets which are notpermlssible in Englisb:


, ,
,

J! GHUmplWn .. ,'" .
I....:"'. '
III • ~ II ~ " I, I

(,-J

•~

,_

"

c.. './' .

,,"

"•

.(

,f·
1

.)_

,,1_.

..

r.
,

,; .. '....

'

•••••

"

••

•••

"

"

"

•••

I;_"'~{

,-;'

~,

•••••

..

...

~ ..

.. •

.. ,

..;

ITL'·
iii
I.

..

iI

,..

II

II

...

'!I

;,

'"

II

..

~:I

:.. ......

"

........

iI.. ..
h

) l.4rr:~J rc.. Ua k" , ,' ".1', r'n!'.l_ "


N .. ..

..,

t. r
_

.. I . _'

1_

"
n '. !I "" " • • •

;r

..i.

.,

'I

ft

j1

I,

..

"

'I

II

..

..

II

II.

l'

.'

it

..

..

-t

_.

..

gill..

III

"

..

,.

if

,I

II

11

II

"

..

..

..

"

..

..

II

II

c) codas which are permissible in-English:

5. ""bile native speakers: of English usually agree about the number of syllables in a given 'word" semetimes "dis,crepancies OCCIII" Here are some typieal preblematie wards:'
"!

;:rk/" .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .
i1 '"

,or

..

"

...

I!

..

..

'i

..

..

'"

.. ,.

10

~,

'r

11

!i

!I

I.

..

..

..

..

..

,.

I!

~,

I.

"

..

..

..

II

"

..

..

laboratory. bottling, communism, seul" power, error, medial,

II,

..

..

..

..

OJ

..

..

..

...

.,

..

if

..

..

'",,

..

..

..

"

..

'"

"'

II.

..

.,

..

..

~,

..

,I.

..

,I

"

to

..

..

;;

III

'I

.. ,

,,..

..

'I'

11'0
111 '"""

What are the' iPlOssibl~.s:yUab1.fii,catj.ons or tbese \VOrrds'? "'I"hLch sound. clusters ,may cause disagreement'!¥rlun is revealed about the phenological system of English in this way?
I .. .. Ii .. I ;I I ~ ,.. ~. i. ! • ~ n .. .. • ! . .., 'II .., .. ... ;.

8" Complete- the fonow~fIigE.aMC'. Indicate a positive: answer with '~ plus and swer wi th a minus.
"'·,·N' "III. '. . lFl\.T CA..· .~~ D''E" ... ... .0:,,"":TS'EI T . .,~J'I' • ,l'''' ,.' ""'\..
.!.

negative an-

II!

II

II

11

..

..

.,

.'

..

..

..

.;

'"'

...

..

II

..

..

..

'I

..

..

.'

"

.,

..

II'

II

'...

..

..

"I'

..

I'

..

.,

'I

..

;L

.,

..

..

'"

It

'.,

,.

'CLUSTER imrl

'both English and Polish

English only

Polish onl ~, v

neither Fnglish
nor Po,.I,ish

..

..

...

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

.,

..

"'

..

..

..

'!

"

II

.,

II

Ib'll
.. " II h " I' f P" ~ I' ~
i .. " .. '. .. .. .. '" ". .. i .. .. ~ ... ····..,··~····~ .. ·ilLI

..

I.

..

..

..

"

..

'"

ii,

,Ii

II

III

..

..

..

..

I.

"

II

"

1.;!~iliii.ii.~!1'

•••

,.'

••

'[1,,11

hIlIFl-~"II

: i.
! ~ .. ;i of,

-+

/ps/
It .. ~ II II • .. .. .. ... .. ~ .. I~ of .. ! II! ~ .. .. .. ,. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. "' ,. .. ., ,., 'r r .. ~ " .. II I ;, .. .. .. .. ., .. -

I'

6., Is 3. syllable of the eve, kind (where G is a glide) opcnorclosedf answer depend on the definition of the diphtbon.g~?
.. of • II
! ..

HoW' docs the

lxli
; 15[,'/

l.sf/
I ,.. .. .. ... .. .. "
'r. .' iii

..

"

_.

!!

..

II.

..

..

.,

ri

Ii>

Ii

,.

~.

'I,

..

Ii:;

.,

"

..

I!

!I

••

'I

.J~,
11 • I. '. '. • ,.
I! • •

__

~/~aJ~!
Ispll

+-

~~

~~~

it

,.

I.

,.

,.

..

"

,..

.,

..

.,.

"

,j

",

III

•.

...

I,

.~

;;

...

..

i!

.,

"Ii

"

"

"

~.

...

;!!

!.

.,

'r

'"

.•

,.

..

...

'"

.,

!'

II

"

.i

"

,.

I.

..

...

,.

...

't,

..

..

"

!Ii

..

"'

"

.1

I!I

"

"

"

"

in';

I,

"

'"

....

.,

.,

..

r.

"

.9. Complete the. foUowing t~jibJc.Indicate a positive answer with a plus ..anda negative answer with 3 minus.

"

r.

"

"

.~

"

..

'"

lI.

..

CAN" B:E A CODA IN:


f • • ., ., • ., • • • , , ." • • i • • " " ~ ~. :; ~
L • II I "

7. "'by. a-re syllabic souorants problematic Ior example·: ['b/l1.inl ~-ersus l'L:vI;'Xinl.
'" • • • !!' • " • • '" i • roo ." .. • " • • ,. • • '" • • •• • • "'.

for any theory of the' syllable? Consider

CI~USTER

both English and.Polish

I,", E - nel i...,n,n 1·v ~ _L.o1l, r.u~. J

Polish only

neither English
nO,I-' Pci

I i3b,

/mnf
• ,.

+
,

ti

"

!I

!I.

.,

.,

I.

I!

II

ii

Ii

..

...

·to

~.

J',,,'lk' Ihlt

., ...
,I

'....

L.,....

,..p".

1.,

.....

i.,

...

~~.·~.··

..

·"'··~···['!I·I"··

I"···!~

.. _" ..

is[:3! /pl/

,'_

..

!Ii

..

..

..

.",

rio

ill

~,

II

II

"

••

.,

"

"

11'

"

!!

!Ii

"'

..,

"

!Ii

'!'

lim!
• • • ., • !II • • • ., !I ,. .. • _ .. I. • • • '" ~ ~ .. , ~. ~, ~ I II I'

,I

'r

,.

,.

Ii

'"

"

.,

ti

'"

..

;,

"

Ii

..

ti

Ipstfl , '[
• ~ .. • I • I " • .. I " • 11 "

".

'I

II

II

"

"

••

II

II

"

"

'"

,.

II

...

,-

I!

"

rl--~~--~r-------~-r~~----~F---------~~------~
I L

('.... t nu Ltg
/rf;

'I

,I

.i

II

II ...

"

.,

"

In'.

II

"I

'"

....

"

I.

IL.

.......

,.

"'-L •••

0'

..,

Ii,

"

"

"'!

••

"

"

......

..

,.

.,

"

.,

"

,r

..

...

"

,.

"

"

..

"

.,

"

.,

iks!

i
"

"

"

"

..

..

"

,.,

,.,

"

..

"

..

..

to

Ii

Ii

..

I,

,0;

0;

..

..

..

'..

..

..

f;

II

,I

,.

Ii

..

'"

~,,,,,,,

<iI'"

'lfir.""

ill

...

"

•••

,'

iii

....

,"

'"

I!

~""

,,11

•.

"',

•••••

"

..

I,

R.,,";··

'"

Lof!

0"0"-

..

-"

I
III
113

10. Divide the follo\\ing Polish words into syllables. In which. cases are more d:hrisjons than nne possible?
a} tatarak la-fa ~.rnA
..
I " • of I .. • I

6.2. STRESS ..\ND RHY'1'HM -

1. Fin in the blanks:


b)' p..,-O'i?A~ .J~J
c) 'l1Ia1lna d)
i
1 -

pi

II<

'I

..

;0,

:I

'I

••

"

A syUah1c which rs stressed is one on which .. .. " ,.,, ,.,

'

()!.r'&JJ

jfz./!J . . .. Stress is: called a .. _ . .


, , . feature as it is defined
. : e.g., to' morrow. a

..

,.,

ooj

..

..

"

II

I"

..

11

"

III

"

II

Jo

I.

"

..,

.,

.,

kompo: . . . . . .
~,." .... ~.... --".~ ••••• I"

on units larger than a single segment. These units. are:


a) ..
~ .,,,. • ~ I • • • •

e)wiatrak . .. , ...
f) koidra . . , . . . .

b) c)
! • •
I I I , 11 I • ~ ~ II

, .

J,

__

..

J,

"

.. e.g., '" 1 kb: , otocsi ira,

g) USf roj . . . . , " . .. . .


h)

p.iosnk.IJ . . .. "
i

!.

.,

...

Jill

..

2. In English, word stress is not tied-to one and the same syllable in thc-\,>,.'ard. Give

i) permski , . . J) zastepstwo

..

'f!

'.

..

r.

r.

'",

it'

examples of words in which stress falls:


a) on [he last syllable ~"etm<'

ir

iii

..

. . . .. . . , . ,

II

"

..

!I

b) on file penultimate syllabte


i

" .. ,

e) on the antepenuhirnate

syllable ....

d) on the fourth syllable from the end . 3" I nlon gel"words often m ore than on e degree of stress is given below:
A. mark the primary stress,
II

ecessary, In the e.samples

B. mark. the secondarv ~ stress. .


a)

accus'ouon,

f). m{lg'Cl~ine ~
b,.

b) adapta'fJiliry, c) diapbragnuuic, d) a crobati c,

c,t.elemenJa.rv .
of

11)meteorological,
i)

elepharui as is .

e) muliiplication, 4. English affixes fall into two classes:

j) industrialiuuion.

A. those which influence the stress placement of the word (stress-determining


B, those which have no effect on the placement of stress (stress-neutral

affixes).

affixe .... .),

Study the examples below and:

A. determine which affixes change 'the placement of stress and which do not,

114

115

13,.find more affixes wnieh nre of typeA. and type B,


n) 'd'ip!O:lootldi 'plornacy Jtnf,jj -dd;e/Q~

61. SO.lJlC'English wards can 'be stressed in tW9 different ways (.free variatian], e.g. '.controversy - con'troversy, 'hospitable- /JosJpita1Jle. Find ntore such examples,
,,.,.
i •••• , ' , , •••• ;

b)'ma.rwgerlmtl-fUljg_erial

. , , ....•.

, ....•...

c) 'phO:lOgmphlpJwto 'graphic

'. - . , . , .. ,
".;
I •
• • • • •

,
.1 .. • • ..

,
i

"

•••••••

•••••
,,~ •••••• ~.~iln ...... ·"'_, I • ., ... • • • _. ~ , .. !' .. ,. ., I ~ .. •• •

"

d) 'dem()'lt,strat.el'deffU):futraud
e) "nzysteryimys 'terious ...
I 1

..

..

I,

"

'.'

..

..

...

..

"
-

"

,
,
o •••• , ••••••••••••••••

,.

II

;,

!II

f) 'bedwifiilF!:Jeawijully

,,

I .. 0 ; ••••• , • .. II • • .. ~ " ~ " ~ • !I ~

..

"

..

.,.

..

..

..

"

...

...

'"

..

g) 'decorate! 'decorasing , , h) ':ableiQ'bil.ity. . " .. . . . . . .. .i} 'praaicat/prac'uuoner j) 'nistorythis'torica:

Ii •••••• , • -

..

...

ii

..

'.

..

..

..

'"

'I

..

It<

!-

...

..

..

..

..

0.......········
I • • • • ~

- - . - . . . ,. . . . , . . . .. . . . . .
II • II • • • • • •

(II

,_

..

..

Li

1. Determine the differelllCes in word-stress between American a-nd Britisb English on the basis of th.efollowing examples. .Flnd some more examples in each class . '''hat phonetic phenomenon-typically accompanies stress differences?


0 ,

'Ii

II

II

!Ii

II

..

..

II

..

"

'~

I'

PI.

k) 'lilustratetiltus '(ration....

'Cllte~.lll,elal

'temeuve , ..
,

...

Ii

oj'

~.

'

..... ,Y

II'"

!'"I'

.'~

...

r.

..

~.

m) ·'pre,sidel1'.tlptresLden.tial

..

..

...

..

"

II

I
•••••

American
a) b)

British
fb' b)r~td<ril
ofii

taboroiory aristeerai address

r io:-br~tJo:ri/

r.

Ii

,~

'.

n) A 'mericania 'mericanism , 0) 'reconaterreconcilemem p) 'gradurJll 'greduoluess.


1'11'1' '''V'
lao

••••

"

...

!'

it

ii,

'"

..

....

,.

"

c) translate
d)

. , ..
" .... ,,
" F ,~ • II '!.
!I' ,~ ;"

'.

&

II!!

..

r.

[I

iI

C} research f) cigareue
! ~
I • ., •

... regutate. I' regu la tor . - . " ...

, . .. . . ,
• I • • • ~ ~ • .. • • • • " .. .. .. ~ iI Iir I

T) •aJndidate /'CGJUiidareship

........'

g) i!lq.uiry

,.....

11

5. In Eng.1lishthere are many pairs-of nouns andverbs

that differ in the placement

of

h) fro:fltier

stres~,e-:g ..:
to

ex'tract - 'exiraa,

In.English compeunds, usually the . . ,,~Jl'

. . . dement

receives primary -.streg,s. 'e.g.


, ,
0 , , • , •

.to im'port - 'import,

'blackboard, ·~'(lanhquake. .Otherexamples of this sort are; . '

w con 'trust - 'contrast.


.. • • • 1 'I .. .. • , • ., " • • .,
It •

'r

..

".

...

11

..

Ii

..

..

..

II!

..

"

,.

Find, at least five more examples of thls sort.


" .' ~ .. " • • 'II iI1 ~ •

...,

, Le 55) frequently the , . ., . _. , , . . . . .


j

'

..

o.

"

,a:) ... . • . . . .

••

..

p'
••

~.IIIlL'!

....

,.,,'.i

..

"L.io.~~.~II"···~
• ... ···I~ ...

b!)
c) d) e)

element of a compound receives primary stress e.g.: examples of-(his s,on are: o' • , • • • •• " , •.
0 ••• , •

ShOTt0 ••• ,

'sighted, good- 'looking. Other


, • , •••••

••

•••

"

'_"iI'I~~I'."'I-"

"

•••

.1I1i

..

1;1

...

....

.,f'···
II ~ ~ '" )1 I .. • • • II 11 11 !I ~ ~ .. '"

'I

... •

..

~ .,

.,

II

III

i-I

II-

~•

!I

..

'I

'"

II

'"

..

...

..

'!'

"

III

II

••

.t .. . • ..
• • • • •

...


., •• '", __ II .. , ....... r. •• ·~ll'j~ .....

&=_

....

IIJ!_!i&P-&III1I

••

,.".~,;hlr-I

...

~.

...

...

..

II

I'

IJ

..

I'

.1

I!!

..

;;

II

:r

ill

..

....,.......

ri

'\

in mea ning caused by the change in. the .position ofprhnaIY , ./stress in thee sequences below .. Remove the space In spelling and add a hypben

9 ..~ xplujn the difference

1) diplomatic

j) unknmvn. . ,

where necessary.

a) hot dog &.'(.-~tt;:?/j


b) blue bird , ,
r , •••

(7.;

kd' ¥,d;;4,·_.l'<.>t lit'.? a.a k...:tted


, •• , ,. , • , •• , , •. , , • ••••

Cl/l,V/t-a1'
,•• , • , •• , .•

12. In the sentences below indicate stressed and unstressed words. Do they form separate classes? \Vh:u property distinguishes them? .
a} An 110ur in tne f!JI}(ui1]E. L.~' "',:1/o11h n-vO' in (he eve~i!lR. b) Burn not yemr house to rid if of the mouse: . . . .
c) Eat. at pleasure, drink wi[h measure

t\\lO-

,••••

c) white house -d) heav» weiglu .


e) black board f)
~

('9tlt.hd/l$d((_J-.a,.W:;~
" ; •......

('J;/,~

.16't'?J1t'~J

,,......,," ..,
, .. " ,

.....

,
• II ..

racking chair. , . . . ,. . . . . .
. ....,'-L,'", L '~ 11':"1

d) He wbo fights and runs (.Hvay may live tofight another day ...•..
i

,"

!T)- F.•encn teacher ' !Ii t~~


ill" · .

!!..

e) {llhi.n.gs were to be dane

twice, ail-·would

be

wise,

, , .. " .. _ . " .. _

IlL.

'"

..

f} lvlany words hurt more· than swords , , . , ..

h) to") shop ..:r .{"tv....

• ~ ., "

g) 1'/0 weather is ill' if the wind be still" , .,.


h) U1mt :I)

10..Fill in thegaps:
In normal, connected speech stress is reduced in some words (masHy the so caned . , .
jf4'ZCliIJH " .. ,

can't be cured must be endured ...


do . . . . . , , . . . ., . . . ., . . . . . . , , . ,
hO!1l2 .. ,,.,..... "•.•.•" llUlY

'"-?]zen Rome , do as th e Romans in

j) lVherever you

roam, (here's no place like

words) and tends to occur at . , . , . , '. . , . , . , . . . . . . . . . , . . .

intervals: of time. This phenomenon is. caned " , . , . , . ,. ,


To avoid the occurrence

,. , , . ,., ., . -

. ,.,

or.fstressed syllables in close proximity, stre·~·~. may sometimes . " .

13. Some English wonts have two (or more) phonetic shapes: the sn-ong form and the weak form, Supply UU~mlsslng Items (ill some cases weak. formsmight not
exist at. all): strong
a) can
h)

... , , " . , "

""

" , , , to a different syllable within cl .. "


between

" This usually happens


of stre-ss. which causes differentiation into, ., . ,

syllables

with unequal amount

weak
,
"

,. ,. ,.". ,._

, , .. and

lk3:'nl

. L ,. "
'
j

, , . ,. ,.. ;. , ., , , , ... , ,...

, , . _ . , . .. . , . , stress"
depending- on the context. Show in

....
/ •• .

some

!'Sam!

....

.,
f

]1. In the words belowprimacy stsess carrshift


, !.

c) on

'whi\ch contexts wecan expect. OIJeA}r·he-other pattern .. \Vhat is the. cause of Otis t
phenomenon? ., .

d)lr.om
e) should
• • ,.. ~ "'CI'"
II ~~:"' " "

fJ~d/
f"Jtl

Example: "'only six 'teen versus 'sixteen hats, a) wen-adjusted


b)

t) at. g) be h) has i) under

..

. "_"

-",

lbi:/

clarinet .. ,
• • ~ • • '" &

lb..e:rz/
f

c). .. ft ernlH:Jn a

,.,. J ~I ~\n.

.'

.•,

'..

...

...

·1

.•.

•.

..

d) -cbseni-ounaed ....
e)

j) and
I I or'

o artificial ...
it: ..•

vice-president ., . . .
11 • • ~

J.

PT.

..

•••

....

"

...

.,

11

k.) muse
i

1) to
• • • I I D III ~

..

0') ,~,/ .. fW

v .L

ort: ...

, , .....
, ... , " ... ,.
~ i "
LI .. i '. • • • LIj • • I •• " I • Ii .. , .. ! ... M ~ ... M I

rn)

would

h)

continental .. , , . " ....

,,·1

\ ..... 1. I- 8..... ' _


"...

119 which of the underljnedwerds


3IVtI·ear·jn

14., III the phrases_gbvc:1'l below indicate A. strong form"

tbeir':

Ii

II

!t-

hi.

"

..

. The !1ml.lsyU ables 'are called . . . . _ . _ . . . . . . . , , , . . , . .. . .

. The exact placemem of rhythmic boundaries is a matter of dispute. One. method is . . . . " . , , . . "' , , . . . . . _
~ .. i., •• ,~ •••
gll.gll

B. weak form, strong


a) ill the tab!« in [he b) where is fie (rom?

R'~-ii'l~

......

M~,.Ii_"I~I~

....

weak _f" ,
•• I ~. '"' ...

garden _ . . . . ."
. , ..
I I ,,,.

I :"Ir

.'
.-, t.~."

......."........,.IJ
I
,J ..
I I,. ~ ~

t
I

0-:;'/, . _ , • " .. ,
••• I •• ' Mil 1 I

17. Divide the following sentences into rhythmic groups and mark them as in the example:
E I ,I
~I. ~

,I"

c) they Ufll'!i_ gone

{.a

her ..

1 s n 't it s p 1 e II did !

l.n.,

....

••

"~IIl.III,."

••

•••

....

"

...

'

II

II.

d) you sfwu ldn. "t wOrl}!abou.t that . .. . • . . e)

.I
a) ~Vhatabout

I said or nm and

_. . . ,

I'

II

.'

II

•••

II

'lI

..

iI

l) to be QL not
g)

te.be...

you? "'. . . . . .
~.-.-.-.".r.-.

.,..".,., ....,"...,
I' , ,

, . , , . . . . ,,_ . . . _ _ , " , ' . , .


" • '" , •• , • , ••• , ., •• , • _

'but' is a conjunction g_mls() is 'tmd~. ; " . " .


_ , • _ ••
=
i

b) \Wwt unusual colours! .. ,


c) Thtlt's

h) do you think. .YOJi, could .'I' • _ , __ •••

impossibte. . . .. "'. possibly " ...


! r ~ ..
II

1"'~·"·I""'rl"~I.'!!!~'.~1

,. , • '"
~
iJ

••,,•••••.,• .•.•.,•,•
i , , "

d) Slle couldn 's have e)

C:01l'e

i} 'Sb~ soon. as he came"


j)

it. , .....

' _. . , _. ,

.."

'.

or

II

.II

II!

It

..

..

'!'

I-

..

...

you must have seen ,hirfl ,

lJnreaUstic.atly
II

"' , , ,
!
II ~ ~ ~

~r

..

"

~."

iI

'"

Ii

III,

I'~.'

fl'!!

••

Li.

".'''''!

LII.

f} l can .. - ., . , g) nley h)

II

"

Li

....

'I

J•

15. Explain the difference ill meaning between the pairs or sentences given 'I'h e worus w ncu recerre primary stress are uno ernnec, ..:1"'1' h ..., d 1:' d
a) John bmtghl a tlelf car

below.

have not arrived. . . , " . , . .. " . . . , , . . . . . . , . . . , " .. _ . _ . _ ,,.,,


" • • • • • • ,
..

. _ .
~ I • .. '" ~

Do YOllwanr any.help with the walls? _ .' , , "


. .. .. , .
+ • • " • •

, ., . ,
.. .. ~ i .. .. ~ I I

yesterday. Jj wad r);· c~ tf4.t fi;/n /o.tp/ft.


_ "". , ",," " ,'

i) \Vha1Bre r' you do. becereful!

John bought a new car·.vesterday .. .Jf tI/a;.1JI8ja-~$#U:atfiht tJ.~t.tpItta: tX~ b) Peter works in tluu ,t.errible twildi:ng _

j) Tlury brouglu pape.r) pencils and Int. . . . , , . .. . . . . . , . . . . " " . . . . . . . . . . . . .

UL Supply words and .phrases exhibitiugthe rhythmic structures shown ern the' left:
word

Peter w'orks in tha: terrible biuiding, .


-c-) I saw Jeremy ,compte.wi}' druHk" I saw J'eU'll1.r compde!.dY drunk.
__ ...................."

,.....,......,
, .. ; , , , . , . ' ..•. __ .. " , _. , . , , .
e , •••••• ,
II-II •

phrase
.Ii:f.oa.P
j ..

d) I have never dreamed. of going '10 Sp'ain, ...

"

III

'f

..

'"

'"

'"

l have ne ve r dreamed of going f () Spain. . . • . . . . . . . . . , . . . .. . . . - . . .. . . . . _ , e) Uow wOllder!itl to see you again here! , , , . . , . . . .. .. . . . . .,' . . _ , , ' , ... _ ,
How wonderful 16. FBI in the gaps!
In the flow ofspeech, a rhythmical unit composed of one,
+ • , ••• , • " " .' , • , ••• , "' ••••

to'

see you again heT'!!

ii-II-'
;I ;I

01

..

..

I<

"

,.

..

"

...

.,

..

..

II

",'

iI

'I

...

Ii

'r

Ii

Ii

..

"

"

'I

"

,.

II,

'.

II

..

..

~""'··-'1II·I·~~"'~.It-"--i

••

""'''I

...

.. Jk¥:J~d , .. syllable and


"' •• ,

....... iii-.,.
..-,.,-",

..

'

..

II

'f

..,

..

..

..

..

."

(uptJomdly) several . - , .

is caned. a , ._ ,_ . _., .
.,
't-

. . . . . . . . . .. , . . . , . - . ,.

. The syllables preceding the stressed one arecalled

..

..

II

..

..

..

..

,.

..

"

..

..

..

..

"

'!'

..

,_

..

!I

..

..

..

..

....

"'

"' , ,

"' ,

" , .. ; and are said to stand in

"' ,

120

121

19.1Vba'1 are the diffe:rencesin hl the data below:


En.gnisb
a)
\ 1~ ,. ,'\.o 'Ju!)g tum

word stress between English audPelish, as exempU.i1ed

z.lecerritJbi orca bt.tl.(inopbt

gf.Qsz·orob

tr6jn6g wielo

dw:up€m
IIg •• ~~ iJ" '!'.'!~.J'~"'.'II

todzinn»
~.! ~LlI!

'1'."'.

•c@lleg.e r_"% 3?;;'!f0/C'JWdJ per


,

ljj

/Z;r,.et$ &1l- tt€e/1'&!'Mdllitluddt.1Jt//G1&.


I
" LI " '" •

,.

'"

"

"

~, "

"

..

'I'

.. ,

~,

...

"

...

~J

b)

pe,':swQ;ria
'r)!,Y.ff-J1'

JilUlr;J..f/

)1

" • • • . •.

. .. . . • • • .

..

!I'

!'

~liJ

~,

•••

,!

~'''.

_'

...

.'11

••

nl

••

..

"

,",.'",

I.

'I

c) gen'lftl

'generative
phi '{osophy deco 'rauon
.~ L-"!I F .. .. ., • ,. ., I • • • • • Lil ~ .. ~ I
• ! I

,1

,
I

oJ filo 'zvjia
e)dekD 'racia

'I'

'I

'!

of'

_,

iI

.'

.'

"

"

"

_,

'"

;I.

II<

~,

...

;;;

...

II

.~~;o,'"''''''ill-.'~i.'.''~'

•••

''.''~

•••

J.'''
~i

20. Ccmpare Pohshand Engli:sh word stress:


A. Is stress inPolish asscciated.with various syllables, as in English, or not?

....

_.

i.,

.•.

!!'

••

, ••••

;!!,

••

!!

~_

~,_.

oj

II

...

,iI.

~.

Ii

.I,.!!'.!!!

_~

....

"'IJ

'I!

'I!

1I.1i

••

'.'

•••••••

'.

LI.~,

1"-11--11".

..

,.

...

II

..,

Ii,

_.

Ii

E .. Does Polish have stress-neutral

and stress-derermimng

affixes?

C. Can Po:lf.sh. words (e.g, nouns ..and verbs) be differentiated by meansof stress only? D ..Are there any words in Polish whichcan be stressed in t.WO' differeRt ways?
,.
')'
~ ~ :;: ~ "! • •• • ,~ !J •
.11 • ..

22. Nlark the stressed syUabIes in Uu:' words given below .Wh at rule s of stress placement :10 --Polim. words can.be t~ormula.ted on the' basis IOf these examples?
kolat}a.

I!" Is there secondary word stress in Polish?


I. •
I, Il .. I " • •

stoMwka
pojechafbym

parry tu ra

.J •

PZJMOt
il

r::mgtis.ryka zrobil.isM:ry naprv.wUby §

Ii

I~

••

LI

"',

,.

iI

upo.rz(Jdkowany

ONZ
uni l'WrSy tet

EWG
• II ~.~ •• '"

..

'I"!!

••

"

•••

'i

..

...

'"

"

.•

".

..

I,

po.'u.Uffcie

zje:dUvy ojej/ matematyka

popatrzylibjkie l.:dvbyliuyimy

1.,
J'

:[

"."'~'~"~

••

'

••

•••

r.-·i-'t~-.=-·-

••

·.,~,.~~

••

,!

pmwdopodobnIe
" _, aC{1.a~
', ..... ~ '" I'" ""Ii •••
oj"'~-

"

••

..

•••

_.

'"

'",

"

-!

-!

~..

..

"

'"

'r.

"

"

".

'r

pauuajt

~.,.".!,.,

.•

~.E,.

I.

1111

Ii'.

"'i""',,'~

•.•

HI

~,.,!!,

••

M.

ML.

M"

i.

""'C'

••

,11

!.!,II

I•••

"'''

'.

=,,,,~,,!

!,II,

•.

_",

'!

.••.

!,~

•••

'.

..

,I

II,

iI

!II

'"

..

'!'

"

II

I'

"

Ii

'I

'I

'I

"II

"'.

'I"

ill

!.

,OJ

..

~.

OJ

" ,iii! ". ~.

~'!'

..

!'

L~,!,

......

...

II'

••

~,.

..

I.

II.

.J ••

•••

"

II,

!!!

~!

ii

ii

..

OJ,

~..'

,y,

..

..

"

'.

'.'

'!

..

f.

..,

;;;;

.11

!'

.r _ • •
II .. 'II ~ I,

"

.'

"

..

is

Ii

"II'

..

,".

~,~!'!

'~""

••

Ii!!

'•.•

!"

•••

,.

...

~"

'I'!

_.J,,,

..

21. Study the examples below .. V\'bat is the srress-pateemofeompaunds How docs it eampare to the sitna;ti'on in EHgliEih'~
Hint. consider the syllabic structure of tht; dements of the compounds.

in Polish?

..

...

'"

i'

'r

..

..

"

'"

dlugopi$
,1

liczykrupa
'rvl6cr.yk(f
giebomawea

me1,roscianka
zletilO zrrrrwak .-

{r.lubo~kw-viamia korkoci cg

I'

I" .

1:22

23. Divide he following sentences into rhythmic groups" \Vhieb words In Polish aTe not stressed? How does 'that compare wiil] the .sitoation Hi EngJisb'?
'11) A1u5Zd los! Ja;)r; cr.:/4-1/
b) ft..-fieJ:J\ali
c)

6.3. INTONATION
1.. Cnnlple.te the following statements:
a) In articulatory terms intonation may be defined as
NJ/ll//Uuvz.:1 N.vht..0/M

pod lasem ....

, •.

14/Uld /uo.c.r)/

If

.,"

..

Sp1esze sie do domu . . . . ' " .


W
• ~

cunl (l-iJ5..ation )'1'(11'8) ~


.. .. ~ .. III • .. • it I !
I[ .. ~ .,

a "PJ-'WIY?l<'l"-tko-4 0.J;lt£z/,ued jl.r~~ra( q/uttC';f'a~iCe,

II

'I

d) 10k
~} "'='"
I

D_yfQ we dworzei , , . , . . . - . . . . _ . _ _ _ _ . , , _ ,_. . , . _ . .

b) The main inmnation contours in English a.re~


Ii.. ~ • !i' • '. .. _ I
.11 .. II .. • • i Iii 'I .. II • • " I II • • • II • , • Ii ~

" .. ",
.. II II • II • i ~ II I ..

,
po Iii. II • ;t I "

A, ,n CO'

""s'I:r II.

staio po
. ".1..";'

II

II

II

'"

iii

p"7""nnr'o? o!i".JL." ... ""., v

II

...

;II

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

!I

"Ii

'.

..

..

..

"

,.

••

.,

..

..

~.

..

..

III

'"

II

'I

II

!'

II

II

nil.

,II

II

III

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II

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po

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III

..

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,u&'f' ," ., . t 'b 1 ._.~XPll~Utlule04;1.. _u.A,~et'enc.e ,. meanmg bei Ul ,.etween tl parrs 0'f sentences gIVet);C:);:ow", me '4 'Gi I·

II

The. words which receive primary stress are -underlined, do these examples teU us about sentence: stress in Polish? How does that compare with.the situation in Euglisll? '
a) !\lfarek wlafnllllHJjeEhal

"~at

c:) Grammatically,

intonatlon serves to . . _ _ _ ~ . . " . . . . . . . . _. _ . . . " . . _ _ . . , _ ,

_.

II

...

II

'.

..

it

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to

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iii

III

III

.,

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'II

...

d) The attitudinal function of intonation is du Krakowa. 91cyzi--:YZAt a


tiJj/ntdtt:y.l'
", .0; • , " • • • • • ,;; ~ • •

to . ,
II

_ .•..
~
II • • .. • • III ., •

, ; •.•...
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,

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lvlareK
~ ,

'Wtasnie pojechai

do- Krakowa, tz n.ie EM Y~@,?]It. " , . . " " _ . , .. , , , . ." .


I
iii. ~ ~ '" .. "
I .. I " I ;, •

b) Dtactego oml nie lubi lulipatli'jw.?

e) ).7on:naily. '[he melodkaHyr.nost prornlnenr syllable is situated; .. , ,


• • '" _ ~ • • ~ • i • .., I .Ii II' ;; ~ III • .. • • • • • • • • II .' III ~ !I I' f ~ ... I " • I .. • • _ .. .. • i II

,.
I II

Dlacz.ego ,ana nfe lubi m[ipan6w?

" . , ...
e

" . , , ,.. , .. , ., .. " , .....


• , •• " •••• •• ••••• , .'

, ., .....
• ••••

,
,.,-

c) Ill! ani ladnie wygl4d'aia net tym zdjeau! Jak Qui iadnie: vv'),"gIQuajtl na tvm zdigdul

;II

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11

,.,

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f) The relative range of pitch change correlates with


,"' II'

""."
I ~ • • .II " III • • • III " 1

" ...

II

I,

..

...

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I.
i

g) The main differences between American and British intonation patterns are
til" ~ '" '" •
I '" '" '" I Ii .., II

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II.

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h) TEte maiu-differeaces
'" '" '" '" '" " '. '" '" ~ .. ~ l1li '" '" III

between English and, Palish intonation patterns are that . , ....



III • • ,., • III '. 'II '" •

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••••••

2. The follo"fving arc intonation graphs for one- sentence: She c()ultlflud some, said in four differ~nt 'vays. Identify the 'exact -meaning of each version:

If.

..

II

..

..

II

II

..

"

;;

II

II

.,

"

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iii

II

II

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....

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ill.

.a.

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(a) ..
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till

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.II 'I I ~ II " • 'I

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(b)

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124

125

\
(c) . , .

d) 2

]3

\\
(d)
• ~ • .. ~ • I I ;, .. .. • , ~ I I I III ~. ..,

good morning

.
"

II'III.I

......

~~-~.,,~

•••••

III.II

....

3. The followtng are the six most common intonation contours of English, 35 usedln the proaunclation of one syllable: ~no'~ Identify the contours and Ute probab~t nleaning'and contest or the utterance.

e) good

rnormng

f) __

good ')

morning

II

'"

..

..

..

..

iI

..

..

II

.~.,

......

II~.I.!·~"l

.......

,I~"1

5. There is. no grammatical unit in English which wonld exactly correspond to a melodic group. Discuss this statement usinga couple ofexamples,
(a.) ... , , ... " ... , ... (b) , ,.". (e) .... , , .. " '. '....

"

""

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..

..

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oil

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ill

..

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•••

r.

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h.

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,-1

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i i
11

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(e) . " .. "

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.
~ .. • • I I ... " _ ~ ill __ .. ~ ... Ii" I • I " " I .. ~ I " ,. ~ _ •• 'I • _ .. ,II .. ,. .... " .. , ..

',"

;.

Ii

..

4, Discuss the relative advantages and disadvantages pitch-contour notation: -

of the foUowi.ng types of

6. Is the fnI1o\ving llkeiy


analysis? \Vhy'?

ltO

be a good match between a sentence and its melodic'

a} - morn mg cood ,

a} She's been living here since her early childhood.


"
'!Ii ·1'

II

II

...

••••••

....

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.......

11

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,.,

126

117 b) When are they coming?

I
~
til

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;to.

..

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of

'

..

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!!!

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ir

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ii

II

c) She said she hadn't.

c) Hnve [hey brollgh:t all this/rom the shed?

ill,'


II •


• .~ " • I ~ • ~ • I " •


,. • ~

.\
'I • I,
I " ~ ~, • • • ~ ~ .. • ~ I I I. i ~ '" • • • • • • "! ~ r.. I. • • • _

d) Are you. quite certain?


ii ~
li

.1

d) Butlohn: hasn't seen you by flU, thance, has hi??


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r-"

.,.

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<>:
~~ •••

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e) Yeaare

certain, aren't y.ou:?

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....

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II

A, Can sentences with me syntactic structure of statements exhibit rising iruonation?


.. II II II ~

e) lWu're have you berm hiding, for God's sake?

'il

'.

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...

II

!t

II!

II

_,

..

II

'..

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..

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..

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in.'

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'"'\

B-. Can 'wh' que-strom rise?


,\,
• • ilL • ..

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If:

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ill...

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4,

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C, Can 'yes/no' questions: fall?


~. .,j • • ••

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tI

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III

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D ,What would be the appropriate situational contexrs


I. III • ! • • ~ II II

rOf
'"

A, B, C'~'
• ..
III • II

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II

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ii

II

=
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II' ., II I '"' II " i • ,;
JI ..

f.

II

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..

iii

II

III

II

_.

...

II

II

II

'"

;0

7. Say the follnwing sentences "r'''arying the posltion ole the nucleus. Haw many versions can you think of? Make a melodic' analysis-of each.
~ 4
It ~

!II

II

II

.r.

II

miL

..

,.

LII

,.,

..

ro;

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II

III

II

II

,II

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....

...

a) Don't go near the cage!

8" H-ow does intonation

sentences?
. -;

and stress dismnrriguate the·toUmving graphically ambjguous

a) They are eaung apples.

-(.7'/f. .... ..,

R.n ..

# az 1'J.{tCtiJudM

eatl..tl:j.-

/(M;tma

f7'_. Ph?

./.. . / ad_.M"':M4.tua.,

b) 1.rhougJ11she didn't Jike me., . . , . . . . . . , , . . . . . . . _ . . . . . . , , , - ...

,.

128 c)

"Til eyfed

h IT dog b is cults.

7. Casual speech
~ ... ~ • I I .. II I " " jjo ~ • '" , • • ,", ...
:II • • :i. ~ ~ _.

0) They dL'5:erved to fail. e) Success is also the

.-.

.I;

I'

que.~'tionoj'skrl1. _ , ,

"

,~

..

,.

!<

....

••

I!

••

..,

..

.'

..

..

"

..

'!

9. '\lhy can intonation (lot disambiguate the following sentences?


a) If' s too
flO[ TO

1. Comment on the folio wing statements: a) Fast speech and. casual speech are terms referring to the same phennmencn.
"'''LlIIII'~'' •• ' ' ••• 1 "L ••• ~ ••• ,· ••••• " .. ,~ " I YI !" .. " .

eat. .9.f~c,(U.0eM~ '{y7l&~J:('}~ High Street .. _

t<..t

0 i'!. oo/~~d i>'C,P.j/,d


T

1,,j~?,";R-*_""".

b) She cannot bear children. .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . , , . _ , . . . . . , , . . " . , . ,


1.:) He found a book an

,.,._
• • • i '"
I • • • • ., •

,
~

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..

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II

10

"

lAo

to

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...

..

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fI

d.) i dislike English firms and historical novels. ..........,


e)

••

, •

."

....

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..

f~·

.....

..

...

.........

.....

io

......

I.f~11

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......

I.

II

••

He hit the woman witban.umoreila

b) Fast speech processes include reductions. deletions anti assimilations.

10. What intonation pattern is usuaUy used for the following English and Polish sentences 1.

..

..

.,

II

.to

'I'

Pagoda fest olcmpna


,h ,.' ' b)' OJ', S.·_ 'l~t.1
. I , ...' ~~ '
I' .. .. • .. II •

tv
• •

rym tygodniu, , , , .. , , .. , .. ,
~ .. .. r • I ... .. , I, '"' _ f! '" II! " .. .. I " " • • " • • ~ ,.

.
'.

c) AU fast speech processes are optional.

D. cholera! .. " " ,


c) Did
yail Sf·(J

",

"

" .,

, '. "
",. _ ,

.
••• ~~ih' ~
I ~ ..... " •••••••

what he was doing to that ballpen? .. ,


i"'\lm f..l

ii·.·.·"1'·~~

.......

""

••

'"

I.!

lv'idt.laJd co on 'wvprawia Z .~ , d\
1

dlueooisem? . . . . . . ~r

,.,.

d) Past/casual speech should not De taught in foreign language classes.


.~~
" • ~

ll)"l.!,

J."d' rfolf~en .. ~r
.<

~I.· " " ,:, ~"U'''J~" r.~'~·I' .movem" " }UUluj ',.

. .,.. . . " . .. . . . . . . . . . . " "


~
I ; , .. I

....
! • • •

,.. ... ~ ... ~ .. ··~···,T·y


" " .01 • • • " ., • ~

... ~ ..
I ~ • , !
~I

,~ ..

I

~·'1'-,~·,

••

". k "" K'i',A,; s~" w,oncu ~eu)' ,.

','Q' adzili? t\-pfu}'Vl1d l.

I'

-I

..

."

.,.

..

..

.
• • ~ r ~ .• I I

e) Excuse ,rne,;-doyou ,mimi if I srru)ke?

. , . . .. . . . . . . " , , . " ...

.,

"

..

II

..

!I'll

'!

'"

"

.,

'"

"

...

..

'i

'I'

..

I~

.'

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ri

Prrepraszam,

czy NJo;t,nazap.aUr:!? , ....

e) There are 'many levels of speed and casualness of speech,


, 'r Ir ., , '" ,., .. • • .. • ,... '" ~ .. ~ I I ~ II I' ,. I 1 ~ 'I ~ " • •

II

..

"

.'

r.

II

..

"

III

"

If·

"

..

"

f) Fast/casual speech processes are quite different from those found in slow speech.

I.

..

..

io

,;

,.

I:

:II

..

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ill"

"

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II

ii

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•••

'

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g) Emphatic speech processes are functionalty opposue-to casual speech processes,


I ' III II , " .. i l ••
g

"

11 ,

"

"

••

II

Ii

to

-- -~-

130

, 131.

_x

I'

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,~

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II

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II!

II.

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h) Lis te ners are rarel y aware of the amount Q f redu ction and assi rni latl on present in fastfcasual speech ..
., ~1~it.I.!!1'''' ~., .. i II ~I ~r~~ I l'I.'6i,LlI,i

1. For:mulate the rule responsible for the option.alvariaHon in some of the phrases
below:
laea
[aPdi.;:l]' [hi;] uo:]

M~"~'.""
ILla .... _._

....

••

~~.I~1

,.",.~.,

~·'~"'I-li

......

"!~;;;·-

•••

'~"""~"'Y

i,r'r

...

.•••

.t;I'lI.

!.U!

idea is h:e and s:he


law ·and orde r

[~I "dL;ariz] ~ [ai'di<liz]

:th i:an ' J f;:] , *[' hi: ran •f i:J


[' lon;-.::ma 'Qcd~] ~ ['16~~lU dIu.:dd] [0'(~ler!'l8'riz]-[eli'
L(,"[I);}lZ]

......

.11.

I.

!.-

I.

•••••

'!.!!'

.·r

~ ••••••

law
~.II:,_ •• _ ••

••••.

~''''

~"'11

L"

I.~

~.

i} Casual speech processes mostly affect allophones, notphonemes.


~'i··!';;;;'I"~.' •• ,,, ~11II.~~'1~ I"" •• 'YI~II~ I,i ... , ,'I', ..... ,. __ ,~ ••• ".'"~~'h."

dfteml'lUl w,..:o Shah

[di'lema]
[rus]

dilemma is
fJIV'O

of three

rfo=]
['b~.l!t:)] ,[so:.] ['WCl~O~J

Sholl

ofPerSi.a

rJ Cl:l";;If'p;;I:J~]

Bm'lfla
.' •• I!

BOlhe of Somh Afrka

r Ja;~r'PJ~J;)] l 'b;;:iUJ;:;ir;;lf sa uEl"a=frik;}]- r bJ'lli..:::dsuue'


~. [,wo:so:r;')n'kneK:;)tl]
'I .I

[I ru::).f' Hr i:], *[~. tu:r;:lf '8rt:]

a:£ribl

~".""

'I~'

t·i

•••••

••

J~.

;;;;' ....

~'.!"

~.~

••

r.

••••

'I'"

~.Ii!

IJ

LI

I,

,~

LI

••

"' • .

~ .•

,~.

'"

L.

;,

L.

""

~.

.~

•.•

L.J ~

•••

~ ...

L.

L.

•••

•.

.,

.+

America saw
W'a,rt-dW

[;J"mtrikannd 'e1I~} - [~'meTik;):nd"e~J ~J

law tr
tVt.1f':£a~¥mid Cracow

rso~rir] _" ['Si":Xit}

j) Slew speech representation

is 'thebasis for describing fas.tlcasual premmeiarion.


I~~'~'+i'i •• I~"~~'~'''''''LI •••• !! ..
I' ... ~'~'!"

·'···=r~
•• ~ ~ ;,,, ~.

shoe
I UL~'~.=

~"'~II"""~

om
•• ~ Ill ... I ~ ~ .••

[J1J:.J
[bra~] [si:.]

snoe .and fa ce
bra in
(fl.£'

rJ 'I:;t!:;m'te[s]. ;jC[' Ju:;r;;.t"':I.' h~ is}


[' bra: rin<J::l] - [ •bra:"n~ 1

ILwo:w:~n

r'~

1Ii,1,

.{;.r&;':KJU

1•

~II'

,"'.

~I~."

•••

.....

~.~

.".L

••••••

ii

iL.'iI'

••

J.,,,,

.,.,.

a'~'''i

Ill;

sea and land

['~1~~n'he['i)d]" *('si~r.dtrl:be.ndl

!J~'n'LI.1

.,~

it

L!

,"'.,

•••

~ ..

!!,

.,.~.~

••

".Iot;

••

~"

!!'

••

II

~.~

~L~

•••

..

••

k) 'The extent
states,
~'F.~,,,,,ti

[.0

which. words can reduce in. fastkaswd speechpanty

depends em thetr lexical

it·

"!

it,

.;;

,..

.~

.,.

II

I.,!._

11·

••••••••••

•••

.!i

..

'!!'~

~L

.. ~ ~ ~ .... " LI ~ " LI

"

.,

.J

'"

.,

'"

..

'"

..,

""

"

It!

'r

I'

. .,

...

.. '

I!

'"

•••

Lil"

•••

I'

"'~

.,i

.",,111

..

h.'

•••

iI.

",~

! .•

._

..

...

••

!.

'i

L •.•

,,",.,

••

,,

~!

~".;r

"'~.

~Iti'.

'i

LI

II.

t"'~J~

••

~!

'!!'

I';!

...

"

I.

IL!J •

~.

.J

",1

.J

..

'il

II

II'~.

I,

p."'I!~'

II

I,

~,!!

.,&

••••

"

• ~ I. • ., • ~ • ., ., ~ ~

1) In fa:stlca5;md speech. phouo']o_gic.alprucesses.


~ •••• ,.~, ... ,~ •• J.'. 'i,! ••

word boundaries

by and large lose their blocking effete on

3. Fonn,ma.Ee tbe rule .responsible Joe the optimmL varlatlonbi be1:ow ~:6O'1:lDdinsome-dialects -of British English.
{sju:] • "'lTn:]
..l·,.n.·.!~ IW_"

some of the words


"'[PT~'3u:m]

~1Il

••••

..,

......

h.

~L.IJ

..

Ill.

IILI

..

iJ

....

~lll'''.~;;;;

~"".

LI

presume
eNlu:re

[;Jri'ZltKm], [i n' d.juJ]['f2ektjl~,;:)fJ


[zju:sJ,.

L'

~!

•••

III

~.

I.'~!

"I'~I~

Ii.

~,·j.,1

.11

HI

.I

i'li,

I.

",i

.J.I.'~.

~'~"I

LII!'

••

!.

rdJu:.tl~ - ["d,s,'U:~i]
Ir}u~nJ- [1fll:n]

nn·cttid 1
-

..

II

il.

...

'I"~.L

...

I.i

........

'!'.

~!

•••

'.

~,,,,,~,;;;

•.

'.'

••••••

,!!,~

,!,II

to

'!

'~I.'

.•

tun.e que:stiofl.

m) P.h0I10st.rlistlcs I~ concerned witb pbani,c styles of speaking.


•••• '!~ •••• I .....
11 •

b1digesli(Jn
~ .. ! ~ ,I ~ .. r ., • ~ I " • ~ ~

...

"

'I

IJ

........

'"

...

stl:ldeW

super .factual ["kwe,sOIl] - ['kweHn] [,indVlB~sf,)n]- L)ndi.'ct;eJ~·Jn] educase ~'.stjD:d;;lntJ, *['s~'u:udntl Zeus

['sju:PJ].., -'+;1' [urpa]

L'£::Ekfu~~l

[·.eJjukcl:tJ - ['e~uke:i.t]

*Isu:sJ
I ~ I I •

·""'~"''''L.'.

~."

!~"~.'!

"+~.'~~""'LI."'

••

HlI~Jili'''.'

•••

'"

•••

'''I'~

•••

'

IJ

..

.,

c.

'.

•••

.•.

'.

.J •

••

I.

'.

'"

IJ

!'

Il

Il

"

L!

.J .. .

'!'

.a.,

..

••

.i.

;i.

...

'!'

o!'

.....

it

....

'"

IJ

n) gblJnmnyiistic
~Li,~ !'·.Il, II

processes
~,"! ..,i'~.~I.'.'L!.'''II

arealways motivaiied by tOO esse ofarticularion.


••• ~'''''III.'Y.'~ 1l~.1i1.'~1 i'''i.'''.~,;~.

IJ

'!'

IJ

'I!

~J

LI

'.

I' -.

o!;

IJ

"

'I'

II'

'I

!'

L•••••

iI

,.

I.

'!'

L.

Li

~~.

..

'I

'I

'I

LI

r
I'

i 33 '

Ii

..

10-

..

OJ

••

'"'

'"

01;

ill'

!!'

..

01.

..

IL

"

Ii

4. Perraulate
hi! you
[old you

the rule responsible ro~rthe optional variation in same-sf the phtMeSl, below, found in some dialects of Brftlsh English.
["hI{jul - L'hi~u] ,ila ,chin [his yfe:lds

[;nals:',nn], "* [' no] .r· in]


{u15'ji;ld=~, *[ol_f'J[:kl;:J
['["211 r' jurntt I,

6" Formul.ate the rule responsible for the optional variation in some of the words below. Notice that on the phonetic level some of the initial dusters are ill-formed and yet acceptable in English. 'Vhat conclusions can be drawn regarding the level at which phonntactic constraintsare op-erativ1e?Pnnride some moreexamples where schwa elision is not. possible. How do tbey differ from those with schwa deleted?
QtQrrdc
HmUHO

[':~uIdjul - ['t;;n:lu;u]
["1I1)5]1l] -

l'r:'11Juj [di:]c'=.zl

these your:!: this S!1llp did you

rUl;:'JQ:;:J ['dioju.]

see right unit


OJ' .WJU

e~2'fu:'$l:l ..... r·'EJ jU'5i:]


['S';;""1eisJlIti -

[;:,'rJmikJ"

"I' t.Jm~k]

v·e:gewble

"'f' fa ie-' j II mi t J
l'spel;-[ipJ

[t;;)_·;na,:.tJu] ["2efriblj. r·~ec;,_)<nl\a~].

L 'tmaztau]

pouuo

[p;)'tcit~{]J ['DJb!!] ~

£,ptl'itJu]

[OiS:'J:Jp) ,_. Lt'iLJ'J)p]


- ['aiU3U]

spaceship good /rIdge

deba1e
Ajrfca

[d~'bei.t) --' [dbelr]


"'["~f~ik] ['y;e:'I;l./\.Q;:t]

tiJr1,lully
laborious

does sh£!
u)ld

['d,u_fi':]- ['dA:sJl:] [t~uld'. lrlo], '*rt;;lUld;'Jl:1~]

Mrs l:':Olwg
bad yoghu.rt

r !11bL~'j,1\ lJl,

['g'.1d·d,i\ci3]

"'i·g"_ll.~·c?;AJ.tl
*[. m~tJ

Sheila.

'J,I\ul [b;;ed'j;)g~r1 *Ibre~5':J~nJ

get another
deji"nirt attow

aspiri'n

['o:iUJ ~~iI' oo:r!.d:.'.],,"[ "lbo:dJ '1 r'tespirinJ ~ ['&sprinl


rtemp;)r~lli] '[pcl"ha::psl -

was amwyed
........ i •••

rdeftnitJ - [['(Jdl1irJ [j·l.a.ul, *'[hlU 1 [w;:;lz;i'noidJ - [-.,;.,.o.;.:'1;1.oLd1


[~F~mlii]- rf~mH]

temporary
pt;rhn{Jj-

r temprcri]

-... [1:hGCp:;~ - [p''r;;£p.~l

'1,~.~~

'

..

~II~

..

zr-'-.-'-"'

..

Jamay
after a whlle
potiee v~'ha_(do you

murderer mystery

('n.l.1~d;ir;;l1 - rm~'!:;:b';}J

t' mist:..r i 1 - l·r:l i:~.ttiJ


['diHkli:] - ['cHHtj
:U'J'n(c~tb] ~ ['rE1-ctik~

correct
Alaska

rJ.~f(3L)·'wil:lJ - r~dtr~Lwtrl~) dijfiCJI~[ pl.!one1lcs [p~'ll:'!i] - [p~bJ ['W)tddj;a] - {'v,'::lt(ijJj remember [k~'rckt] ~ [krekr]

[rt'mcrnba]. "'l'rmenlD",)]
rn:::=Tli.~rLJ - rm~n":Ti}
(k,;1'n~t~i[~l"

*[,km:dnJ
~ ~ '" ~ '" 1 "'. ~ ~ Ii '"

5.,Formulate therule phrases below:


softly conflicts chUdren postpone second time
wouidn '/ go

responsUdefo:r the optional variation


the pos: firs: fight
hands

in SORlieof the words and


Ii •• ' I I ,_, __ • ' ....... ~ _ ~
0;.0; _,.,

r·-~·I'

,.....

['nftll] ~ ['s)Hq

Ul.d' paust], ['f¥S!']aitj

""[O;l'P<1t!SJ -

rk:anillkts]

'"l'LbI I'lfillkJ.nJ - l'~-Ll-:ml


['k::m [pa~<PduD]

r;f~:s'lalr~

...

.•

[P;;;.st'pdun]-

['!!i~-:bnd'tain:"!l- 'sekan'talm] [
rW'~dllt'g<lU] 1['wudn':;J;;)u] ['c:lo\ImJ~;] -

cap 'f,J. ':gOWt~ slandpobu postman


winds

[hrencl.!J - [h<E 112'] l·kQ;:::p;m,d.'g:il.an] ~ ['k~Pd'n \111 1 LU1


rsr~_!ldpOil1t]
['p;;rLlstn1;;m] [windr] -

- ['s"cenpoint]
~ ['pousman]

doesn 'I' she last chance Woti 't bvy wes: region ,~iftnorse
bfindru!sJ

[:'<It.znJi.:J

[wirtz]

7. Formulate.the rule responsible for the optlonal varlatien in some of the words below found in American En,gHsh., Explain the phoneticmotivatlon oJ the rule.
winter pianted
me-lIed
husuing bottle kind

['la~t~[ams] "'" ['la;s·y.a~ns]

{,w-dun-r'ban - [,w.;}uu'b:.li]
[·we.f}('d:u"dn] - [' wcs'ri~.::'~d11] l'glfc'ho~s] - rgif'ho~~]

just one strong get }'tim construct


red la/rip badJfm

[.c~~:it',,,,,t.An] - [(;'Jcl'WI'<t1J Lstr.)o]. ~Isr:)lJj


['Qe~imJ, *['~i1fll] [ken 'str.vkt],

['winrrl - ['winrJ

*[k:Jn'srAkt"]

rp-!~ll.ri:JJ ~ rpl!:{;nldJ rmelt~d]!, *T'wdid]


[,h,l-t,n,rl;]] - ['lv\niuJ ['bud], *[fx,lj [' bIm;J,vl -- [' kain;;.v]

handlecandidates
wrfrt~g twenty

[' hJ;'nr~] [' l4;1 t ri (J

r' hEel"ll]
C k<:enli'cLt~J
=

t'k.t;nt:teitsJ ~

l'oldnJnisl ['s\:t.nsboriJ

- [' blajm:.L<:;) - I -dnB~r:J

Sainrsou_fY

l'red'h~~npJ, "l're'la:mp] r<b~d "lEil";t], *rh;;eQ3irn]

*[' r:t iLU]

wcnrlJ

['t'>cl.,'en!l

retued
wamed i1 is

['-renrtd]

~ r'ref'!,ll:]

,of

i['\~rCIltidJ - [·wClri:l~] [irtz], *[iiz]


[·V.£r1ct] - i['pa.'nll

lillie plenty
• • • • .. " if'" • • .. • ~
i • " I I • "" .• ii !" • " • • • • .. Ii. oi i ~ t; • '!! • ~ •

rih!J, ~{1i11
('bMvL ot<[bM} ['p[crdj ~ ['p!enil

Panty motu

[',,:'-er.:JrnJ, ""["a:;Jm]

"

~•

~ .. ~ _ ,_ •

LII

1--- _

134
HJ,Kll] -

135
y!'..IU CGti

I '-

U::"!k]Jl

earlntm cap an.d gown

pri.EJfJ.
I ~ I I • ., •
• • " _ _ I • ._ oj, ii • • _ I ~

{·prirrn].. :.l['pri"Zr.]

['.:d3nJ - [\:d3nJ ['h~pn:ga~[nI - [<k~pm'tl.mnl


['bgn'rdt;t.J - I'f'J'90're'iL1J

hoppens boaom h~ban(f

['hc'epn::rl - [' ·1a:: pmr]


['b:lrrn], *['b::ltn]

...

..

"

't.

Ii.

..

.•

§···

.. · ... · ..

·--~I

••

IIII!!

....

,.i,

..

8. Formulate the rule responsible phrases below,

fOF

the oprlonal variation In 5001e of the words and

[,n!'l.zbndl. *[,hAzomd]

JOB and min. sicken blossom

l's.tkn 1 - I'5ik u]
r'bb::;mj:, *f'bb.sn·l
,

..

A. Is the asslmilarion regressive or progressive? B. How does the rule 'interact with that of 51
warmt:h
,I

[\vo:rne). *[wo;n'ti] [In''-uT] -I'wxnkan] .~ [:JlU"ft:;t] ['\lft!.)jk;::ln]


I • • j, ii i • I -I ~ I • " • • _.

i
,!
I,

on foo: clean- tha: one can I'm going


(En men .and play infant

,to

II

Ii

"

..

II

..

l1li

one moment luz'Ilen'{ Come rmproduClivE'

rk1i:n'(}~!J ~ rk~i~p,'i')ir~tl
[aim ~goi!J], "'[a'(Jj'g010] I['t,en'i"nenJ [~Hl'pici]
['L! f;mt:j -

[1"""Vl'\:,'m::mman

] -f'W'I\In'ru;JulTl.J-llr]

['h,:;l;';·vn'kJ'l.n,J - ("b".'::'Ju'kJYm] hnpr.~'(bktiv~ ._ [Ampr~'dAkti'~ J


['J."iskri:m.lk~lw].,
f&t<l:'"l1poim] -

['tem 'men]

ice-cream eone stamipoinr govemmem


singing poe!

* ['ais:.l:u-i:n· k;;lun]
[,sr;::ernpoint]

10, Formulate fbe rule responsible for the optional variation in and phrases below,
A, In-what ways is this rule similar to tl"latof 8?
-B, Is the phonetic motivation the same in both. cases?

SQll1.C

of the words

- [:dIll" plei]

bread and b.utter [' bredn:

b,...C;J] .....('hre.dn:' bA id J
:40

from tua ten, cups


come tater

['irnf.dntJ

[frarndlk],

*rf fdn'aikl

l~gAv;)nm;,')nt] -,[ 'g~\vommant]

l,si 1:)il)' pou itJ,


['brtnmi]. rDn1i 'dun]

[.si D"iri1·p~l.lit]

l'teu' kAPS]' - L'relJ'kti..ps] rkil.ndeU;::.] >j;l'k ...... u'leit;l.]


[sam Lbfll *[SdO' KJfi]
I~iI''' ••••. I

ungracious bn'r.lg me

[l'In.·g:reif;.:)1)J - [....tl·.Y.rejJ~sl

C, What are the constraints here and there?


- l'()E:e p 'pen 1 gao.d morning IguJ·mo:n.iOl ~ ~gub·m():.nl!J]
rhat pen

some c@/fe.e
•• ~~,""'.

"I' brimm[l
T

[< ~:)'re pen] t.' l'n~:tm;;mtJ

!h.m cup
drab town admire

['~t!k:\p] [:xhna.i;:;<J ['-;'uu"but] -

.....[\.1a:j{ 'k:\p]
1~b'm1Ll;)]

Tom. Dean
••
I I

*(tJnd!;!i1:]
• ~ Ii " I II' • .. .. • I "" iI ~

l' clr<."eh' taun], *[' ur::ed 'raun] L'guh'bDl! d!'tukinJ


['gug'g;Jd]

treaiment
~'Ii~

['rri:pm.:mc]

oj

II

.......

"

.,

..

'!

;t,

it

•••••

_.

It

ti

,•••

II

If

II

II • • .. '" ., .. I ~ ..

eo

[' I 0: l;.k t\ muj] - l' f o.kk. ... lul m good boy bread' and buuer ['bredm 'b/\tE1J - ['brebn.\ ':':\",[;)]IOjJ arinJdng S shortcoming
black rowel

['St:TJ'cil"iUk!1]], *['c:rx

•.

...

11

"

"

ii

,I

!'

...

~,

['hkek·tnu.;;:lL ['brecl'!J:f\.lr]

'''rbL-ei 'tauol]
- ['b~g'Q~iz]

gund girl

..

"

..

"

ii

'!

"'

"

If!

~\rud'\pil ['bjb~tkbf],
i

bad guys:
~ ... .. '.. • 11 'I ...
!i '. II • • • _

fOp class

,['rop' kl<l~~J.~rt)k "kb:s]

PI

.,

'!

iii

Lit

..

'I

..

"

,.

r. • •

footbatt
••
IJ!

['f1]1.:oo:1] - ['f LJP~fd]


i1~iF.~:t-·~~ ~ • ., • '", .. a. _ • fo .. • i

Bob Geldol
• i •
II • I

*rbJq'geldJr~

••

iI

...

.........

.......

,~,.,I!

~"

.......

·..

ii.~

_.-

.'

........

.....

~!!!' ....

9. Formulate the rule responsible for the optional variatlon in some of the 'words and phrases below,
A. Compare the: process involved inthe examples below with the rule-in theprevious exercise .. H, \Vhith of the two processes is more restricted?

beg me

c. Is the syllabic structure of wordsof any importan~ happm l'htepnJ .- r arepmJ second
['begm!!],

to 'the rule?

r'sckn] ~ ['.sekU]

"fbcgOI..:]

look nice

organ
open. often
bacoil'j

l'O:g.lJ ~ [,o!gIJ]
['oupn]

rluk'

11. Formulate the rule responsible for the optional vartatlon in some of the words below.
bench
'[be';"l~] [ben

nals], *l'luk' Q~llS]

L'JfnJ

~ ['Jupr'H]

happenin.g
weakening
ribb.on

rilvfhm. .-

['rit3m], ·"'[·rion]

Jl

bachelor'

['~:fJ.l.Jl,
['lnr.:.k-a]

"'roa~l<lbJ
- ('Ht)J]

[lhdknI

_-

[L:J.froj

rha:pn~Dl, *f'h',~pmlD t 'i r"'.' inl , '"['\vi:k:Gi OJ! i:kn


r'.ribn]
~-

orange
dlair putu?h

['"}.rin(B] -" p:rrtn}l

.injure
bulge'

['be·~kl)l

r rLbl'lnl

[1f ea], ~L.re:dl


[pM~lfJ

rp.. nn \

[bAlcH]: - [b~\tjJ, [fll'~1-- [fUn

fit,ell

136
arrWlfUll&1f pineh John

1217

lJ

remcSrn;::Tt"l.

[P1t1.~] -

J[?tn S1

[d'rdIi'lJ,m':l(u]

wEsibJe
Rkhard

r tieJhti bUl~:c13L
'f'[ba'31

[' rzet1;;.1bll

.,.,

"It

to

Ii·

••.

"

('fit ~dL *[' rlf.idj

£QPrl J. !lit ;:n~]'

b£'ldt, badge'

[bd~~- [bel]']
;I, ....

..

II

Ii

II

II

I.
..

11

II

Ii

,-

I.

II

..

J.

"

11

i-

-IE

'.

II

..

...

io

II

III

...

II

..

II

II

..,

,.

..

III

·to

II!

..

II'

II

II

II

.,

.'

...

..

14. Formulate the. rule responsible for the nptional variation in the words below,
A- What is the direction of the rule?

,
I

...

.i.

...

...

.r

..

"

..

.II

••

..

...

B. Is it insertion or deletion?
I ~ • • • • • I
,_ ir • .. " •

It

,.,

..

...

...

..

...

..

II

C,\:Vhat is thephonetic motivation behind it?


abo

...

..

,.

"

~..

•••••

'.

II

"

!II

...

r.

12., Formulate the rule responsible forthe optional variation in some of the words below.
I,

e0;1~;}'iJl.,*['o;ltlit::lu)
{pr~H51 - [prints]

sense
s{Jm'tlhillJ;

~s~n~l- [st'ubl
'l'S,All'lOiQ] - {'sAmptJ.1lJ]
['k:nTIrdJ], >;;['!!::lmpn:lJI [te n 8] - [teIH8
1-'\ Iwo:n,tJ"J - "~\lo:ri'!;i:"j l

prince
length

tieu81 ~
l;:$'H1;'\lJ'St]

L!~nk8j
[;fr:I:MTlbIj

comrade
temt: .tor/rl:iil

freehold

['fri~hJ1jhJl - ['frl:~ukl]

amongst
Alfred

fU'slOry

['h~stTi]. *1' ism]

inhib~'{['Oli behind
lu!biwal inJ!aimiO!!

W-lb i'bl] n]' [h~"'I'b~tfu;::.lJ,-

{lnl' bijn] [rll'bttf'u;;ll]

['.;_~[f rldl,

'~f~lt:f riel']

neighbourhood
fn'iibit
habii

['neibJn ud]- ['nelbo rud] [in 'hiblt], *'jjn'ibit] ['hoebLtJ. ""I'rebitJ

[bi'hamd], *thj 'aind] [inh;)'leiJnJ ['.fijlmkJ I I. • • • , .. " I .. • Ii,

once Samson
bananu; ymmgm."r bench

[wxns]

- IV'I'!lnts,j - [b;;t'na:'l.d?~l [' jt't.l]kst;)]

['s&.m~::ml "'- [\,!£'lnp.s;)nl (b;:}'n~n:;,)l [' jr.o.t3kitrl] -

Sianhy strength

['~;;~nHJ. *l's:a:mii] [si:[C>L_lGl - (~ml'IJkGJ: [mnnz] ~ [rni.ncir] Int1TItJ - [nlrnpi]


[lm'po;nn5J ~ lIl11'~a!Dm:~]

~, [h'J.~deiJnJ

means
nymph

inltnle
• .. 'Ii -if • • .. .~ • ~
i I

,fish ·hook
II • • P " II

['nJ uk]
J
f II i' • .. .. '" • ~

[b~n if],

oj<

[hen r:(]

importance

I I> M • • • • ~ • • .. I LI ~I • "

.1

'II

ill

..

"

II

..

II!

!-

i.

..

,.

..

..

.'

II"

..

..

'r

.. ill ..

..

..

'

"

..

II!

...

,.

Ii·

., •

~-

..

.'

.,

., ~ i

~•

..

;I

!'

..

..

"

"

I,

II

II

!'

..

'!!

"

...

...

II

..

..

..

~. -Ii

"",_~~~_~~"'I
~.~ ••••• [!

...

"r."

~R~."

.••

'

.••••

·~""'''

••

~'.''''''

••

••••

•••

'I'"'

.....

'·!!.II

...

~
'r ._ t I I ~ ~ II • ~ oil ._ I ._ Ii' I ..
II~.

:r

...

13.,,~F:ormu~ahifthe rule responsible for the nptional varlatkm.In below.


b:ulklog airr:ady

some of the words


• .. • • • • ... • • • I • II • • • ~

,i.

;a,

rbuId)g], ~rbudJg:]
[o;!'redl] [OJ&lU] ~ [o:'reoi]' ~ [' ka:m;)~iv]

always
Belgium

( Q:I vs eiz] ~ [' orweiz J

15" Formulate the rule responsible [-or'the Ol)tiol1al variation


below,
senous opium
gradual
['5~~]'jJS],

in S'ODle of the words


[,):J' viij cl n]

roc' cb~tn], oFrbect;'ll"n] [,kl");lboi].

calmative
although tJalcotry

rk~lmJtiv]

call-boy

,of ko:botJ

- Io~"6~u]
*rb~k;)ni]
~{1~;:C

*!,siar}J.S1

pavuion

L~)J'vilio n 1 -

.falcon
im.!k

,[ 'fo:lk.:m] -. I' f o:bn]

['JUpi;;lm] _, [·;jIUpj.1L.1]

comedian trivial labial

(' ~n:;;)ni].

almanac
alternate
soid£f'

[·u!l}rn~rr~kJ

[i0: Li..lTIC
['''~.e!d;!!]'
~L).I_ '

- rcan i!l - r _,
f'ro;d~)
....
• • ,., n

kL

Falkland

(y;- ,=,'I'~'" .•• --_ . .10.,: i~

C1.dpril

[bo;lk] - Lhn:KJ [':fo;]kl~ndl - [,fu;kbr:d] ['k' .i\ 'ltY-'i] iIor'lr·....... ,P-"tt']' t ... ~ r L t..... ;.,
I'
I

bacterium fastidious
c'(lsua.l

1'9r~lBudl.] - r\ir~ect,w.dlJ [bok' ti;:: rlarnl, *lb~k't:~r-j;)rn 1 LfvS"ridl~] - [f;)~·tjJ;.:<:'i]

Lb"mb:!ianJ _, l:':'~'mLci}J'n] {'u:vl~)tl ~ ti'i:'Ii;'11] [' Ide iai] ~, r k'lhlli]

llbrsuian
parochial

[l:Li' rn=-Llri.~n], t{la.i' hre;;rj01\1 [pJ 'rou k (.)1]

pilgrim

[<pd,grirnJ, -;f1'pig-rim]
.........
I " ~ • .... II

malki« ball· cock


......
_i••••

['lrio:lkinJ

-~ rmo:kin]

rkX3lP1] - rk&J'V~}.l]
L ':'i,e:",

~ [p.)' r:n..:'(}.ll] 1
;j;[n.:-l'(~.ietjo]

rbo:lk:)' t. *[,baA:Jk]
.. ~,,~ •••• ~ .... I ~"' ••• ~ .. ~

,.'II.~.~
II , I. "

~ii

"L"'"

sexual binomial
labial;r)'
I ~

J Ij~l] ~

[\ek§

\:i/dl]

congenia;
rtN.iimi(m

Ibn '(3;:~1:;,:lj - Lk~I:-J,\_6i:n~lJ


,[Teidl'dJrr].

[han' naumial]

- [hai' n;Jllmj;l:]

[lclbi.' delHi], *[Jei' bja:-lir}']

"

If<

.•

..

'!I

II

.'

II

:.

"

..

Ii!

"

,"

ii

oR

~.

..

..

138

13B
--'

poor'
I ....
'II ... " I ..

[puo] [fjua] l'


.' g ...

- [po:]- [p:J~]. >!:lpu:]

fuel'

[fiu:)l] - [fJu;]]

of!

!!

fewel
.,., •••••
1

* retu:]
" ,

~.,"'
' ••

•••

~ ••••••.
•••

~~

.!I
t •••

.••

, ....
ipl

"'--"".'.
II

IlL

or

..

...

l!I

iI

'"'

-I

.~

'"

..

'"

!11

"

II

....

..

III

..

Ii

...

I.

"

"

11

..

..

IIr

t;-,."'ILI_lIi1

..,

. • h " .. " " i .. ~ .. • • ii i ,. • •


"'I •

til

..

..,

'!I

..

..

"

.,

'I

.'

;"

'"

..

....

'ii.

..

"

tOo

II

••

I.

..

rL.

"

I'

,.

I'

,,'.1."

l.iI

.,""oi<~@.,

I.~I

1.1'

.,.,

.1.11"'

••

.,

,.,

••

!I

..,

Ii.

"

II

.,

..

OJ

..

:Ji

I!

..

..

..

"'

.,.

..

"

,.

"

..

I
L .. • • • • .' ~ • I I' • Ii '" ,

Hi. Formulate the rule responsible for the eptional vaf'iationm some of the words below. This rule and the rule of l's··ol',eso,mttimes npplicable to the same stdng~ e.. . casual, How can this competition be resolved (ordering? simultaneous Hppli~ g . n" on ?)?' c:a ..
rosuai
lryClI];ain laNai

"

Ii'

.,

;t

!!

••

..

..

ii

of

..

.,

...

..

I'

...

..

t;

II

rk<:lt)i..Ldl1 - ['k~ul I
[' tm.i~'gen] - ['tmi 'gen]

g:radua.( go

['qr<!2~~u;ll]: -

["'iJrre!\.tulJ

IS:.Formulate the rule responsible for the dlstrfbutlou affinal stops in.the non-standard English data below.
A, Analyse [he morphological
morphology?

llway

['g3u;)·~J,,·eil - ['gJu'weil

I'leibial],

*t'leibii]

b!f1uence

[Tnfluans], *finflnns-]

structure of me words. How docs the. rule depend on

,'1lalut!ble
congruence

['\!'.~lju~bll - ['v~[jubW ['k;)ogHl<:ln~l, ['~k{

tn'w,tr11

*I' k:JDQTuns]
[\ekif

aauai
radial

u:.:tH-

un

se.;rual
crud

rUlvL:>i]', "'['.trivH] [' m,ren ju;)l ]'- I'maenju 1] 'eL-" ~i][' s '" I,J~1t - I" ~e- U ]1 l kJ" j

B. Compare this problem 'with 5, In what sensesis the process here a generalization of [hat in 57
S~l1d
[tl<£llJ

{,reididl],*[,reldiil]

l'knJ~~U, - [krutl]

bestowal
" • " • II II

fbi '5~2l11;:ltl,
.. II .. II .. II ....

[bi.4st;;iUU
II II .. • II II • II .... I.

(Old
guessed Jump park.

[~;;lIJI]

of'

'I

"

..

II

"'

II

..

..

II

..

..

..

..

"

"

II

!!

I'

tt

it

II

filled

[flld] [ka.rd] (gl\.i!J ]

1ge~tJ
{Lttdl1p]

•••

M"',.'II!~"

l'I!"!.'liI~'~~~

;'1.""'11

UII

!I,I'.'M+.iil

••••

''''II,,!.

'Lloi

~I"i

cera
gulp sinned
old wmp

[pu.rk] '[sirept]
[bes]

[sind].
[;;lull

slapped best rrrilu produa


left
•• '.'11 ••• '•• " ... ~ ~. M'Iii'h I •••

~~

ill

"

"

10

..

..

10

10

I.

..

..

..

..

..

..

II.

..

ii

'II

..

iI

..

..

..

..

"

"

[wos]
[rekr]

[mint] L"prQt!.i\t;,]

......

II,

;0.

.'

II

I'll

..

I'

'I

..

..,

""

iI

II

......

11

..

Ii_II

....

~,

'"

'"

iI

!f,

't'

I'

'!'

.1

......

..

,.

eo

...

wrecked

".

it

..

..

..

..

II

..

..

II

,.

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

.i

II

...

tJ,

'T"

"

II

"

,-

"

..

..

..

..

..

..

'!I

"

"

..

b.elt
'''L.'~_

[belt]

[ ef]
J. ~ ~L ••• II •••

LI~f.tt·i'lln.iI.,

II"

iI."

...

,II

••

,~,'

.......

~"".lILI"LI·,IIIL

•••

~,

••

~,,~"',~

..

~~

,c.

ill'"

io

•••

ill

II

..

""

OJ

..

..

..

"

III

'11

..

..

II,

!'

..

..

II

'I

"

.,

..

..

..

..

Mil..,

..

..

"'

-!!

..

..

.,

It

;,

.,

.,

II

""

..

"

II

II

.. '

"

,I

..

II

"

..

,j

!Ii

II,

I,

"

gil.

II

..

;.

'II

'"

..

17. Formulate the rule responsible 'for tJJe optional variation in S'01ne ill the words below . What is the common eore in. the last three exercises?' Are the precesses p:lmneticallj: mnti:vated'? 1f so, what ls thijs- motivation? Do grammadeal factors affect the PI~OCCSSe...,,?
"tDwer

,.

."

II

"

iI

II

II

I.

..

Ii

..

II

II

II

!Ill

..

'!!

..

,.

..

..

11

....

ii

"

II

..

II

II

"

"

iii

"

'r

"I

[r:J;U:;;I] ~ [tan] ~ [ra.], 'f!,[~a.uJ [';f!b] - [rao] - [til:]. *{~<Li]

towe) fire
pOCll"j'

[OrauJIJl' pauitri]

(ta:Jq- [raul], - [r<'l~.il


~ ('pcl'itrlj

19. Formulate the rule responsible for theoptional


below. A _What are the similaritiesin do they point to?

variation in some of the words

lyre lo:yal
Ijll]w(..!du,YI (,{)1Ve)'iW

["fat;)J - [faJJ - [fD.:]. '*Lf(~ij

[' lOl.;;il] - [tChll] - [!DilL ,..kdl [ rnau.·Jdd:] ~ ['naJdeiz] - rna~delz]. *['TumdeLzJ [k<JJ) , vd~] - [k.;l11{ves], Ii< [k{i'Fl' vei] /*fk d:n 've.]
[i)11 ~d3u!db[]

p'tnyer

['ple~~] - [plea], <li«pici]. "[ple.] s~ower [' !$bu~ I - [slo <=til. *-[:; L;:n.:J. of b[o; J L I['daidil"'" [daal] ~ [dalll, -- [cia.:l]

the behaviour of [w J and {l1 with respectro the rule? '-V¥'hal

i!njo}'abie

- f~H'l··(;o;;lbl].'''{;:In'd"otb11', ""[;:m\i5o:bU dial

B.. Which of the two. sounds is more resistant to the rule?

140 ~uu:J}':stny pcm;e(f~


koiia'w),

141
U.ll] - ~:tn 1
[d,,*'] -

lekk:om yi:lny ok;refll1.i'k ~tmdJ

[~IJ'!J -

[~!iJ

s:!!..ei6~~
deilczfuje
lff)'frte;fz.cz;

{scs.] -, [:55]

'[(J

rshil ~

.en W\15T poln.y


zja'!..il gwarM'w
S,lYl;'irzClC

[stp] ~ lsp~ [z.d,gl[S~p [£;[IJ{zg]' r$lj

[3;Al

~~TlOC:Ui

[51]

Isll."lSl
F&lrl] fgw] -

[dw] ~ L[] [gr.]l. o;.[Mq lbwk] - [pkj


[ml], *[mJ
[k'w~ ~ [kJ

rtcmi e.f In ik rn@gi


l!~~dly 19nrlt:
tlIOdl sie :ifpMiJ:.

r:s~~l
Lkj

~§n.ll
jrio(ka

sr.e§i kilo

[~~cJ. ~,[S] I~c'kJ'l - [50]


fidu] ~, 127] i~tkJ, ~!sk]
[SC~].-

~rsf]

p.r..;r;ro.s~ .luifw!)Sd
post

.:sz.eU .do.0'c11
(hrM~Sl.Clcyka

script/un

[st'ikJ ~ [ssk] [ZQv1. *fzv)

(awl. -t o) anI ibmj.' ""I't~. ""


[dl~] - [tsl
[t~'J - [t]
., t ! ., ! • P • ._

Kf'~mtl z.'rvyld Jkat wwu'6tl


I! ~ • • • ~ .. '! • !

ro:;.dwajac
rOZ_J;rzQ.So. ~

[§cl

r.st~l:, "'{5~]
L;1p] ~ :[spj

[wkl.~[k] [lW] ~

lifcklonn

[sck] ~ :[sk]

most Pm1.iat(1w:;;kieKo

lrl
'I: 1;1,'." ~
I. ~

!
.1.·111 L ~ ~ ~ 11..1.", ~.
n

~~"~·.,.,,.Ii

••••

II

.J."

I.

.L

•••

l'~~'

_~

..

I'

.••••••

'~

"'~

I.

~.

,!J

II

•.

,"

.,

••

'

••••

'••

'.

~:~

..

!Ii

-I

IJ..,,,

IJ

'!

'!.

••

••

..

"

I.

oi

hr.

iLl

...

ill

!I

~,

.. ,

..

,.

..

iI

ii

"

.~

..

'"

..

..

LI

'!'

~I

••

II

••

I.

ri

.'

II

II

..

~;

II

II!

,~

iI

II

Ill'

::

.,'

'i

IJ

tI

::-

rI

L!

'I

;;;;

~,

..

,~

oj

...

...

L~

..

20:. I:~ormu19tethe rule responsible fGlf the optioua~. variation in some of the words and phrases below. Giveexamp~es of words in PoHshrn~'\i'hjch this node. is obligatory., How do they differ from the examples given below?
ro.l.szen;y{:
u,~y{
pies s.zczdcf1 c7.l·ie lclti.ec [ss]: -

[ssI
prze:
?1m?'

Iss1 [z2.]''l;Siniet

[&5]

($51 ~ f_&s,.]i
[sbt]'l [lZ)

[if]

[§~c]
[ 7.;£J " "i

~.

pas surati
tcrda,lQr1Y zatal. a.ekarlia

mz.ci-n:ac
rOlxlziemc

lsc]

~r3t.]

l~~J- l,s,sl hsJ,- ls_~J fzt} - rzil

[zd±] ~,

li.iliJ

tJe:iytia
J.N7;.e'Z. fiZltdo"
tQrl)ned{

raJ ,_,[zzj
[in - m1
tnl j.,
~ • • • L. • ~,

[~cl~zdiJ -

Ws.cf
[t~d2,]

b~~rrif.'go
nos d.l.ieck.a
olJraZfary
• ,"' ~ L.. '. '! •

l~il J, ,. [,2[l J [scl, -t[tc]


• ,. ''"' • • Ii l' rIl f
,Ii I. • • • • • • '" ti ~

'* [.,:bH
IJ

LI

.J

.'

'r.

.J •

••

L.

.,

IiJ

~'

'.

,.

iJ

..

'i'

'",

.'

•.

!!

'!!'

II!

10

II

..

...

.,

,.

II

...

I'

.Ii

,S

.::, !I

=.

,L

,..

,I!

IJ

Ii.

'!

Il

..

I'

..

.,

.,

jJ

II

..

IJ

"~.~.""'''_.L~II~''''

.L

•••••••••••

"

••••••••

~I'III'~!

•••

~J

"iLI

.1"

L~

••

i~

;;;;~.',_._L

••••••

•••

••

;;;;

...

••

nll

_I·

..

...

21 .. Fnrrnulate the rul€ respoasihle for the qptional Yarmtjon i-n some.of the words and plrrases below ~Give other similar examples fromPolislnIs the nde: restrkte:d to :single consonants only'?
aoJt

.It;go

I' ,~ ....~,..

"/··1' ~,'''t.
0

.~

['~
.L' ..lI

·'.1 !"J

fsckl,

*T§:k]

sz.distl

[scsI -.. [.ss]

l~Ep] - lsp]

143

8,. Review exerclses

2. Comp,le'te the ,foUowing statements of prioportion:


a) ;tll is, to 19l as Ip/ is to . , . . . , .

1. '"that are the d.ifferenc,es between the foUowing minimal pairs l'
a)

b) Ii ~Iis to /]/ a.s lu j is to . . , . . .' . c) ImJ is to {pI as ". . . . ,,, ~5 'to I U as . . . . . . .is 10 [k( d) If! is to lv! ,as .•. , '. . . is "to /01 as. . . .. . . . . is to Iz/ as . . . . . .

rise - rouse
,.
, I

hi to ...

••••

0) list _ lisp •.
t) thin ~ (fling.
d)
$(1(/1<. -

e)

is to lei as 1)1 is to 10:1.


,.

sick.
or
,j, ..

..

Ii

r~

f)

is 10 I Jf as Ictl is to. l3 I.
. .... is as /,ail to, lei/ .

g) 'au! to ,

e) which - ricn . 1) track _ crack" •.


g) place -

b) /wl to ... i) . ..

'.

. is as fjl to Ii;/.

to '

, . is 3.S
.

lre.f to i»,
11

plays
I'

j) .

. .. to .

. . is as Ip/ to lp- '1.

,1-,,): ~"'l!,_;f~,~" ,uuua.

mad

1) good ~ god. . j) cheap - sheep k) beuer= batter" I)-yet~- wet


m)
i ,.

I'

ii

a) Itt and Id/' .


;. •• I.

III

.. " .

b) /81 and lsi c) lei :and Ire! .


t
r

joke - choke ,.
, !

n) duck - clark

-0) bang ,_ bag .


p) ,Ug!lt - ri,gM q) time - tame
r) teel

oJ.

,I'

d) If I and Iii
" ." ... ... ~ • ,II II

i!

_ veal

e) /pl and Ipll


ii • • • • • • ~ ~

5;' bed, - bird'


t)

prison _ prism: .
II .. ~

..
,
,

f) l dt and Inl
,,

n)thmm ,_ tank . v) pain; - paint ,

g) /w/ and Ijl .


I I
I! ..

I
I

w) theme - seem. x) broad - brood. y} hal ~ Cal . .


z) tire • I I

:I

h) /JI and /;;:1.


11 I' I ,.,
II

~-

~I

..

!l

..

'II

.cower

i) III and ill.

...

j) Ire} and ts! ., .

145
l) Suprasegmental

4" Vi{hichof the &tn: ements given beloware true and which are false?
a) 10,[ all the sounds ptmnet:i:Cs deals wi,rh speech $;~'tUllds only: .' . , , " . , .... _ ..

psonetics deals wirh sounds prcducec m the upper pun of tbe vocal
J Ii • ,..
I ~ II

met
, .. _ .. ; . n)Every

III

..

..

.,

Ii

..

,.

I!

e;

..

..

III

II

"

"

..

...

'Ii

"

..

..

,01

'...

m) Some languages use egressive non-pulmonic' sounds . , ....• syllable must· have a coda. "
(0) Not Qui},'vowels, but sometimes 8!.l:sli.~ consonants,
..

,,

b) One sub-discipline of pnonencs is oTthogfllpby ....

, , . , ..•..

,.,, '_ can be syllable ....


I

.. •

c) In many Lauglligcs there.is no one-to-one correspondence


, ~ ,: ... T

between sounds and leuers,


_. • • .. .. 'WI • I
II. ~ • "

~ ..

"

"

...

...

,.

"

'

"

..

...

._

'"

II

"

-'

d) AC{]US:lic: phonetics studies the waysin which soundsare produced.

. .....

" , , .. ,
[I) treating .Hrl and Idri as affricates.
~ I I I I I • I .,., .. '" " ., • oJ •
II

e) Broad phonetic transcription includes more phonetic. details tnan narrow pnonenc transcnpnsn. . . . . , . , . , , , .. . - - , , , .. . . . . . ,
f} Speec-h is secondary
[0. writing

••

"

, , , , .. , . ; .. ; factcrs,
,

, .
,

't.

"

..

..

,..

••

'"

..

..

"

II

..

..

..

..

III

..

II

'II

...

..

Ii...

0;

..

..

..

g)

OUf

unerances are limited by ·l~8:.riOt]spi1ysiologkal :

,,

~""'~""'I

rt:t"

••••

IIi

....

,NII"'

.. __

~.,.,

••••••

h) Pulmonic sounds are opposed to egressive sounds. . . , " . , .. , .. ,


i). The: wind-pipe and the trachea are equivalent terms

.
I " • ... ... II ,_. .. ,_ ..
II " I "II • • " I !

'"

,.

j) Tri.1I and .(oU ar~ synonyms:


!) Ali vowels are cnminuants

- .. , ....•
. . . . . . . ,. ,.."....

" .......•...

,
; .. _

.
. ,.

0) treJ.ttng.lhl as: .. a fri cative,

-k) Tile epigluttis. is not au orgnn elf speech

, .. ,"""

; , , . . . . . . . .. - . " - . ,

m)Re[rc)fl:c:x sounds are those which involve the curling of the tip of the tongue ....

n) Semi-vowels 'have the articulatory properries of vowel's. but rhe function of consonants o} A diphthong is any ~equeuce of
(WO

..

..

..

..

..

...

oi

lit

Ii

...

••

I!

...

vowels

, .. ,

.
.g

.5, Which of the statements given below are true and which axe false'} a) A sound made \Ilitb a very rapid movement of [he tongue to. the top of the 1110mh is.

~.~"~.1

~.,.~

B"'i

I.

I'}<I;-.+.

•••••

I.I_

_'·oI

11~4.

caned. a flap . . .. . . . . .., . , .. - . . . .. . . . , . . , . . , , " , , . _.. . . . . , ; . . ., . . " . b)..AIl affroC(:lles. are obstruents bu [ not an obstruents are affricates . , . . . . ; . . .. - . . , c) Nasal.consonants
tlOI1"
II I • I "' ! ~
Ii.

..,

'"

ii

iI

I.'

.....

III'~~

••

·i.,

••••

~.!

,.1:····.,1

......

-.~.

c) treating iT! as':

resemble affricates in that a-total closure is, involvedin their' anicula..

II

Ii

"

Ii

;;.

'I

I'

'.

II

.,

Ii

iii

iI

;;,

"

"

d) Open and closed syllables have different onsets ,


f) The antepenultimate

, . , .
I • • It:.. I I _ " • ... _ _, .. III 1 II I i I • 1 I " I I ~ 'I " " • • 1 .. • • " • .. • ,. 1

e) In longer words often more syllables than one must be stressed " syllable Is the second syllaole from rhe end of [he 'word •.......
{be speaker can change themeaning
, • .. • _ • _ ~
it II Ii • • • , ,. i OJ • • • • iii

..

...

!I

Ii

.,

oil

<II

,.

ill

..

!II

••

"

•••

..

!I'

"

..

".

..

'"

••

...

••

Iii

..

..

..

._.

".

g) Intonation often expresses the emotional attitude of the speaker h) Byemploymg [e r~mc.:e. .. . c~l!l~dtone languag.e5.
co I1.f:emed , . . . , • . . . . . different Intcnationpattems
• _ Ii II • ill II .. • •

• a consonantal element.

of an utill, "

i) Languages [hat use the pituh of lndividual syllaNes 10 contrast word meanings are , .. ".; mostas
. • , .. • •

~-

,.

..

...

'I!

"

" --

.
- d) rreating glldes
;1'S~

j) It 15 the "final irnonation contour tharccurus


I • • • , • , _ ._ •

far 21"$he meaning of a. sentence' is t


• , • " .. • • • • • • • • '" , , • • • • • .. •

• vocalic sounds,
~~II.g"" ••

k) Some sequences of sounds an be divided into syllables in moreways

than one .. - , .
'I"~~1 ••••••
~!I" ...
"B .. I~I.I_.!II!tr ..... ILI.,." .. ~~_ii

I~

14G
.,.II.,~ ••• IiII-!'I·.,,",I_,· .. ;;;"""I"L.~

147

jIo

...

...

.......

....

••

i} using many stress levels, in phonetic analysis,


01" ~•

II

.1

to

I. ~

!'

iI

it

Ii

.".

I. • ..

'"

Ii

I. •

_.

I'

..

...

Ii

"

..

'"

II'

it

,Ii

II

.,

..

..

..

..

"

of

II

II:

II

...

'I

..

••

II·"!

......

I11

••••

...

",

liI

.... ~"

...

.......

i~

..

.....

••

~'I'Ij

.... .,._· ..

-'

..

til

j} different systems ofrrauscriptioa


,•• iI_ •• ,.",L!" ..

.
•• ~ ••• ~ ... ,., ••••••
HII •• "~ III n-I.II,."II.a.

~=."",,,,,,,'>I"

e) (refilling llipllthong.sa'S:: '. one vocalic


r • ., •

"

'!Ii

..

;:

II

Ii

io

.!

..

.At

..

"

"'

I.

S,(}UIId
III ., II II

of changing quality,
.i. • • -;I III. • .. • " .. ." • • .. .. ~ .. II • • • II •

..'

iI

"II

...

..

..

'"

.,

..

'f

,I

:i

II

II

II

.,.

111

II

it

II.

...

Ii

..

7. Give au example, taken fro~ English, of:.


a) a word in. \vhich the nasal is labio-denral . , • , . . . . , . . . . - . .. . .. . . . .

II

If

!!

.,

~J

'I!

...

'I-

I.

I!

II

II

.i.

"

.,

"

..

ill.

II

'!'

..

Ii

,.,

111

of,

III

'"

,to

"

I'

II

'!'

,.

"

I'

i.

..

to

'..

.ii.

.i!

"

II

II

II

"

"

...

""

'"

.,

Ii

'I!

..,

'"

.. 'two vocalic elements.


• _~ ..... Iti .. , " •••• I!~~ ••••

-b), a word in which the penultiJ,utue syllable is- stressed. . . ,

c) a.wordwitb
,I!'!!~ ....
rl!lI.·. I'~[h~ ~ ••• , Ii

a homof.ganic alveolar elosrer. , ,


'3

••••••••

d) a WHr~ with a voiceless palatal glide . ,., ..... . .

, ". , .

"

••

-I'

..

II.!

'

"

III

.'

-j

,~

II

,i

I,

'"

Ii

If

II

..

..

,I

I!

I. .. ...
i

oil

..

III

..

_.

'I

..

..

e) a word with

stress-determinlng

suffix. _

,
.

,,

.
-.,

II'"

II~

ii'I!.'

n+-F

••

r+

II

.""".,.'.

iJ.

i!

.,

•••

~,

••

,~

'I.

L~

iI.,

~, ••

f) a 'Word-with a closing narrm~ dFphthong . .. . .. , .. . . ' . ; . . . . . . . . .

., a vowel followed try a semi-vowel,


I • III

g) a word speIt with five letters, but pronounced w~th three sounds , . '. ; .

I .. • • .. " • .• i ... • • • •• I • .~ ! • .. II

;oj

...

"

Ii

'"

!'

'ft

!!

ii,

•.

·t

Ii

..

;.,

,~

i'

I.

...

..

...

"

h) a word Inwhich aspiration is manifested through the de'iroicing .. f the following sound o
.J • •~•
11 • .. • '" ., I

•,

!!

II

~I

.......

io

rio

'"

.,

~,

Ii

,.

"

;,

',..

,.

....

,_

••

..

ill

II!

••

iI

..

"'

Ii

II

...

..

..

if

!!

II

to

..

'.

"

Ii.

II

...

OIl

.'

II

.~

.... -.

't.

iIo

.II

••

of

••

.,

,.

••

fi

!!

!<

-..

..

'"

..

..

n,

1) 61. wordwita
<II • • .' i .. '" '@ •

a. stress-neutral

suffix ,

, .. _ ,
! • " .

f) symhoHzing vowel length hy ·21 colon,


! • '@ ~

j).~word

with

.a syllabic nnn-alveclar consonant


can

II

..

Ii

I!

'I·

't.

..'

..!",
•••• ~.

'., •
~IIJ.
, ~ ". .. • .. i ... .• .. • i • ~ • • • • I • • I • .. I '"

'lQa wordwhlch
i. • ,. ..
I

G'l)n be pmnol:illced \Vitll·a.tTiphthQll'g


otC'Uf , , .•••.••

, •....•.•.

1) a word in wlrich glottal reinforcement

iI

~'I!'!

••

,.

~1~lJ!I.

Iii.

to

m) aword in which ts! can. give rise to 'D)

'an affricate

.. , . , " " . " ,

, .... _"

...

..

II

..

iii,

Ii,

..

,.

jI

"

III

to

a.

..

:f!

,.,

~,

II

II

.•

.j

iI.

I.

..

'I'

t. . • ~ . .. ~ ..

n)a wordwlth a partia:Hy devoieed dental fricatlve : .. , ., ...


;9,

g) using Cardinal Vcwels as referencepoints,


, ~ . .. .
• I '" • • I ~

word with a shortened lareral . . .. , ....

,..............,,
'I , ••• , , •••• , •••

It

II

[.

II

'I!!I

II

II

'I

...

,.

•.

aJ

"'

"

..

;:;

"

..

.,

p) ,a word with a fu.11y voiced affricate.

, .. , , . ~
• ~ I •

..

..

..

III

...

to

"

q) a word wid] aU rounded vowels


r) a word with more stresses than one . s) a word with hi~:h vowels only .. , ..

,
'" • ,; • ... I

.
I

r. .. • • • • .. • •
• • II ~ I '" ..
fit •

;;

"

..

I-

..

...

..

.,

...

II

II

II

III

..

..

... •

II

..

.,

I.

..

.,

...

'"

..

1"

t) aphrase in which the inrrusive lt] can occur


I, ..

,
_

..

..

.'

..,

"

II"

'I

..

"

11) a phrase in which "have' is used in iUl·strong·form . , Y) a sentence with the main stress on. the last word

..

II

...

..

148 w) a ::::enmntt. wiCh a rising imrmal.ion

149

cHmour ,

,-, -- -, .
l

" .. - . , ... -I ~ ••

x) .asemence which

Ca.11

be disambiguated by intonation onser, nucleus and coda , . . ..

.iI

y) a syDabl.e Wilb one-segment

a) The- length of vowels often depends on their position in a word . . . . . - - , . . . . . , b) The linking Itl t» used only arret' certain vowels . . .. , . . . . . . , .
• I • • • •

7:) a compound with the second element stressed.


./

Ii

.~

.r:: <,
'.,

'\" 8.1'Vhich of the statements about English given below are true and which are fa~s'er!,
a) Ingressive sounds ant sometimes producec by the speakers elf English , b) Non-pulmonic sounds 1ue not phonemes ,. , , --.
I ••

c) In Eng1ish there are no velar fricativ-es , . " , , ~ e) There are no geminates in rnonornorpbemic
g) Word-finally

"

, ,-, ". , .. - . - , - .. , . , , , , .. - - ,.

d) English diphthongs in many respects behave like long vowels , . , , words in EngJish ,. , "
--"

or E1Wlisb,
~

, . ; , . - .. , , , , . , , ... , .. , •.. , ., , ..

f) Tbe ht sound hasthe effect of retracting the.preceding alveolar consonants


1

c) The length of nasal. consonants often depends on rheir position in a wont - , .. , . , .. d) nasal consonants are never pronounced as de-ami. sounds .... e) "R,P is an abbreviation which stands for Regular PrOrlunci-arien
f) AU wide diphthengs are dosing .. , , ... _.. ' . ,. . - . . . , "

plosives never have audible release,


UO[

h) The position of the soft palate does


j) Soncranrs ilre always voiced.

serve to differentiate vowels ... , , __ - .. ' , , . ; .. " " . ,


i) There are no palatalarfricares in English - . ; ....

, . , , ., , ,

' .. ,

, ..... ,
t
I R I

g} The palata} glide is always voiced .


h) AU front vewels

k) Front
1)

V0WelS

are not rounded " .. " ,

...

'••

"

.....

ii...

.i

are rounded

.. - .

There can-be no more man three COnsOITdTItsin [he onset, , .. " , - .. , .. , , , .. , - , ....
i ' • , , • ,

i) Nasals arealways

syllable in word-final position

,,

,
, -• , ••• ••••

rn) Weak forms are used only when a given word is unstressed n) Every Eng] ish word has both primary and secondary stress
0) Stressed syllables tend to o'Ccnr at equal intervals of rime .....

j) Lenis affricates nevler lose their voicing ...

,,,

".

••••

k) The vowel sc-hwa is lowered in. the neighbourhood of velar consonants 1) Ihe fortis-lenis distinction is always neutralizedin
the word-final

, .....
.. , .

, , , .. ,

posiriou

p) Every morphemehas

constant.stress,

regardless of the

C0rrUeX[

in which it appears, . ,

my

Dark /1/ is always syllabic . " , , . ,., .. , .. , , . , , .' .....


,. . , , , . , . ,
I ". I .... y ...... ' •

, - , ' ,. - - .. ,

q) Tille articles never occurin

their S(Wl1g forms

n) Clear IlJ is never syllabic oj-Affricasesncver

r) Only content words can be stressed

, , ; , .. , - .. , . " , ... ,

lose their release stage , the velar nasal

s) Compounds.and
II ., i I "" " .... II< , ,

phrases often differ in the placement of stress. - ...

p) The ·gloUa] stop often reinforces \.vord-fil}al fricatives q)""Short vowels cannot precede

.. , , ...

,,.

i)-Different varieties of English might have different stress placement in certain -words - . u) l\!l B riti sh Englis h vO'i'vds ate d itferent from Amencan E ngl is h vowe Is - , . • . , ,

. , " ... , . " , ; , " -" ,.,. ,

r) Obstruents are fully voiced. only in the intervocalic position ... s) No diphthong is fully roun-ded
t) Piosives are altricated if the release of the plos ive closure is made rapidly

y) DE long. Ia.:f is
w)

always

pronounced

;lJS

ice/in AE

, .. -

~ , , .. , , ,
, ,

Aspiration is the same in .BE and AE'. - ,

- , .. ' , , .. ,

x) British English and American Eng] ish. differ inthe distribution of ttt , . . . . . .
y) In American English hI' is. often -replaced by the voiced alveolar fricative,

u) Centring diphmongs have the same starting point

... , . , - - . ,,,.-

\') Between voiceless Clmsonams vowels .arc devoiccd


\1.')

". ",
,,._
, .. , -

~) The word possible ,."


,

[So

pronounced differently in British and American English,


fKJ:

Alveolar ~~onornnIS·can have labio-denral variants


, , . , , , .. ,,

.
.

to. In the

words given below, indicate the-most rerracted-rariants.of

x) AU hack vowels are ruunded z)· In the word-initial

y) The intrusive ttt occurs whenever one word emIs.·and another begins. with a vowel

". ,,

again, can, carp, folklore" macaroni, sec/ion, back eturance, communism .. II. In the words given below, indicate-all alveolar consonants:

posiuon, fortis plosives ar'<! always aspirated . - . , ,

1 .5 I

12 . In the words given below. indk,ate,all fully long vowels:


bar, mother. orange, borrow, fool. coffee, parents; darkness,

2'0. 'Whkh of the following English vowels can occur in open syllables? Give examples.
a,)1/1.':.1
f

sugar.

.- , "
";

" _,

" . '" " _ " ""

it

..

!;

"

II

..

••

oo"

••

II:

"

or

13. In tbe words given below ~ Indicate all clo ,jog uarrnw diphthongs:

' b)Je'['"."T''''
') C,·
Ie.~

..•••••••.•••••••••••••
""

,_
~."' ••
I ••• •

_ .••.•.••
R"

I.

IN."

...

h!;~·oo

~oo

~"I

I.,

&

.1.

~.

'.'

r".!I'.

"'

d) /1\.1 • . , " .. . . .. . .. . . . • . . . . .

••

..

..

..

••

14. In the words .givell below; indicate all fully voiced consonamss
mother, thigh, finger, depend, player, terrifia, canljoflabl.e. chestnut.

e)

'.•

~'l·.J \..~.'l

;;; ••

II

...

il

I!

!!

If'

<II

..

..

,.

Ii.

"

,.

f'

III

.......

10

.....

,.

..

II

..

/./ f) ,iL ~
c· n)

~~•

.... I

~ .•

"

,.

I.

••

Ii

II

..

,••

••

10'

....

LI

[II

••

'I

<II

10'/ ~

OJ

I'

,I

-!!

...

...

It'

I··

Il

II

I'

......

l-

IJ

.~

11

"

II

..

ii

••

·OJ.

II

.....

II'

•••

15. In the, words ghten below" indicate the

UIQSt

open vowel:

1). II111.' • D

.. " .•. . " • • • . • • .. • • , • • • , • • • .. .. . ,

,oijl'~·.""~

•••

"11"1."

••

~OO

i) /0 if .. , . . . . , . . . . " , " . , " , . . ..

...

_ .. . . . . _ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
" •.....••• " ,

choraaer, luridly, brotherhood, corner, sima/Eon, sensuive.


1.6. In the words given ·bdow)indica:tJc adjacent .hoOl,(Jrganic consonants:

jlJ IJi{

, •.••..

"

- .•••.••.•.

true, fence, imperfection, bubbte, ten.fine children, breakfast.

21. Which sequences of sounds given belew cannot be words 'reasons. a) l ka.:: n kl . .. . . . . . . . , . . . . . " . ,
b) '·kJt ...... '
I
J , -,'

or EngJ:i.ili? State

the

"

..

i. 101'1

..

..

..

"

"

..

..

I!

<II

..

!I

oo.

"

.11

.'

..

"

..

this, symphony, Thomas, aaiacet«, ten thin girts, courtyard

c) ('fo. tift iv I.

.. . . " . • , . " . . . " " . . . .. .. . . . .. , .. . .. . • • • • • . " • . . . . • . . . . " . . " . .


" .. "
" - •..
..

IS. In. the sentencesbelow,


a) He should-have b) .Pur

indicate all weak forms:

d) /crelb/ . " 'e.)


u. J! lou;rf11
LL'I'''"

"

"

••••••

"

••

.•..
I

"
• • '. •• LI .. ~ _ ... <II I. .. • • • • •

'
• .. -; ~ ~

... ~ • • .,

_ •.
• I iii

" •.•
~

~. II ~ IN.. • I •

.
,

thou.ght of it earlier.

ft ,v., .,,i ~ ra -h I .~ ~"'!" !

I'

.1

"

'r

the flowers on the table in the sitting room.

'0) /m u·':!!:.::1 ......,.'. ,. tV ..... , ,-. 'n) I ~e i 1

OJ

••

..

..,

..

..

II

"

"

..

"

...

..

c) oo« J( look: at me tl ke-t!1Ut !


d) T.42 cat and .the dog are: examples of domestic animals. e) Thomas didn't 14<unt J eQ today.

Jn I .,. . . .. . . . . ...
II •
II] •

. . ., ... . . . . . . . , ' , . .... . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . .

j) /":;n1k e l _. ... , . . . . . . . . . ... ... , , . . . . " .." ... . . . " . . . . . . . , . " . . ... . . ...

J") !·p.:y;,l i i
, ( r '~~'~I

tI

f.

'"" '"'

.....

..

I!

!-

"

OJ

...

'"

'"

I.

"

..

-to

.........

'"

.,

19. \Vhi.cb sequences of sounds given below are well-Iormed


a,) /2111/ ~
t "PO ...." I.

syllables of English:
.. ..
iii "

22. Anaiyse the fono'~i.ng sentences rbythmic.ally and melodically, Indicatemelodic nucleiand stressed syllables. Determine the likely intonation contours. Discuss possible stress. reductions and shlfts.
" _

...".".L."

,.

..

..

..

..

..

.~

'"

"

..

..

..

iii

'

..

..

..

"

Ii

"

"

b) lhe! c) ;fell] l "


OIl "

.
iii _ _
I I

a) For God's sake! nl1at have

you done?!

..

..

...

III

..

..

..

!i

"

"

"

"

..

"

"

"

"

Ii

I!

Ii

-!

••

"

"

"

II'

..

"

..

..

...

...

oM

.J!

"

..

..

..

II

,,'

..

"

"

oj

..

'r

.1

"

..

"

.;

""

d" I J) li: .,' J 1


Ll i

..

..

"

.~

"

"

..

..

"

"

II

gil

II

"

IJ

:;

"

III

II

'"

"

..'

"

e) It"Jn/

" _ . '........•.......

"

.
• .I~~"'~ ••

"".'+"'"

••

"

..

"

••••

"

.. .,.~~

...

r:.I.I

••

,+II"._

••

n·I.,..-OO'

..

...

OJ

"

..

"

••

"

I'

..

II

it

..

..

II

"

.,

OO'

if

'"

II

"

..

..

"

"

"

'"

..

..

til

ii

"'!I

..

..

.,

,.

"

II

"

..,

..

,I

"

'.

"

iii

152 b) Are yo sure she »,.Iill come?


II II II • ... ..

153
J " •

II

at

"

..

..

II

II

II

II

II

"

II

..

..

II

II

'"

II

II

,I

..

..

"

II

01

II

II

'""

II

II

g) John doesn't like cod, bu: {do.


.. • t .. ..
n ,. • L I _ _ • .. ~ r .~ ~. , r II •

of

II

II

III

,~

"'!

II

iI

..

..

"'-

.,.

..

&

II

'.

..

..

II

II

II

Ii

..

......

"

tI

'.

I-

.,

...

"

......

...

~"

•••

"'-I".".-'l-;a.

••

'."'~ill.i!~.""

•••••

""

c) lV:hnt"s his

name (rna address?


i ~ "
II L " .. • II .. .. " • • II II I , III I

._

"

"'

II

II

II

!I

gill.

..

"

'"

'I'

"

II

,.

!,

..,

..

..

I~

"

II

..

:II

iI

"

..

,..

"

"

"

..

...

II

;00

"

:10

..

I'

..

..

'

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

....

II

..

II

..

..

i-I

..

"d' h'" h) I sm' rapt'd' ~ not' ·raomt. 'r .'

d) She said 'Good bye', and walked ·away,

I'

..

If

.,

"

,.

..

'I

,.

..

II

..

..

"

...

.,

j;

i!

'II

II

'.

I'

..

..

..

..

..

..

II

..

ii

,_

;0

II

II,

'I

:i'

..

"

..

'.

..

..

f.

..

1) They bought

some bananas, pineapples and oranges.

e)

Realty? Are

yBU

positive abosa it?

..

'"

..

II

..

"

II

..

..

..

III

II

..,

II

I,

II

'01

II

!'

'

II

"

..

Ih

"

"

..

..

i-I

'"

II

"

,.

'

II

..

..

II

..

..

"

..

OJ • • • iii iI .. • ,. • • .. •

II

...

'!!

...

!o

..

I.

,;

..

I!!

III

II

II

II

'"

..

II

'"

"

II

,I

II

"

..,

ttl

..

..

"'

••••

I,

"

ill

"

I •••

"

..

••

j) Whoever
'II • r."

CQJl',-t'e

see

here:

UttLe John, eh?

!'

;i,

'II

iii

..

..

..

..

'ft

!!

,.

..

..

"

f) Be exzremeiy careful, will you?

..

..

II

l'

III

••

..

OJ

II

II

II.

"

"

II

..

II

II

~II"'''''

,....

"'"-"~.-·-'''''".h

..

~~~

..

'I

"!

...

""

"

"

II

..

..

"

II

II

II"

II

..

..

..

..

II

II

..

II

..

II

"

hi'"

II

..

II

II

..

'J.

..

"

• .. .. ,. II • ,. • I .. II II II I I' " ~ ~ ~ ii • II -

..

II

.,

..

..

II

II

II

"

_.

I'

'.

154

23, \Vbat i$ theeffect of the fcdlowing factors on the length of sounds? "Vhat are the d!iffe-r,enees between vowels, and consonants in this respect?
3) rh:ythm e f speec h,
or
II • " • • I ~ " I. II •

~'lt

(O

[W:Ul

tr~ 1

............

[WJnn~J "' '. ' [ternpri] .. ,


[mu::mpa.:]

', "' . , .

temporary ma and.pa rh ey crln- g.o

[rernpari] . , , _ . , .. , , .., . [:ma;:r,;mpo:] , _. , , , . . " ..•

. . . . " . , . . ....

t6eklJ9;lU],

., .....

,., .

[octkOQ;)Il] . , " , . , , .. "' . "

.,

.'

<..

II

II

..

it

II

II

,.

~.

..

"

Ii!

II

..

"

lit

III

!'

"

'"

25. vVhich of the: a) modal verbs, b) prOl101JnS~ c) prepositions undergo reduction in fast/casual speech most readily? \V.hich are resistant? 'Vhy?
I • • • I • .. " • AI • • ~ II • " , ~ ~ • ... • • • • • • • • • I , II ... •

..

_._

..

~n.'

•••

·!i""

••

ilrll'I·"!·"~i"'III'·"'f"·'I!

••

illi

.....

TI

••••

I!~

••

~"'Y

!I

II

II

II

..

...

II

II

...

..

.•

..

....

II

II

II

II

_.

II

II

II

II

II

II

II

II

..

II

II

ill

..

..,

III

I.

III

..

.,

..

II

..

II

II

,jjj

..

"

Ii

....

t;

"

fI

t;

."

...

~,

"

..

b) neigbbcllring sounds,
iI ~ , !I ~ "
I, , • " • " M • • • • • ~ '. • _, ~ I I ~ • • • • ,. • II

.'

"

.,

II.

II.

II.

..

,.

..

II

"

II

"

ntF"~""

•••

'.~

"

••

.ii~.II'''I''~.''

til,,!!

".r

••

'"

,.",

•.•

,1.,
'I' .111"1"' •• II ... '"

_'~.""".II

••

'.'L

••

·.~

;1"

•.••

",

••

,11.1

~.o;~"!I.i.'

.....

LI~,"

II

II

ii'

..

'II

:.

"

,II

II

II

"

II

'II

II

II

"

"

0,

..

II

Ii

II

I'

Ii

It

,I:

II

II

if

,.

II

II

II

,.

I.

II

Ii

...

II

II

!'

II

II

II

I • • • • • • • • !II .. • • II • II , ~ II • " I I • ..

Ii

..

III

"

"

I'

tI'

I,

.'

.,

oi,

..

.5

...

III

..

..

..

"

II

..

II

II.

iI

II

II

II

II

II

II

II

II

II

II

Ii

Ii

jo

oj

'"'

..

.'

II

II

II

II

,.

II.

"

"

II

..

II'

iI

.~

II

II

I~

I!

CI

'I

"gernmabon,
• , ......... oj

.,

••

"

••

••

Ii

._

Ii

I!-

II

••

II

...

••

'

,,"

II

'

AI

•••

•.

...

11i

•••

~II'

••••

'I!"'~~"J

••

IIJ.III1.,,~q

~'~'."n.

p.r

1111"'"

••

"

...

.,.

.......

,.,.,.

26 NO'tic'e the possible


e, ,

phonostylistic variarlcn of one phrase:

'"

~"

••

,~'"'

'"''

~!!!

..

..

~'.'.I'"

".t;

..

.,

"

!II

~.

'-,

.[

•••

II,

"

'"

"

..

,.

"

If

"

"

"

..

..

;0,

II

••

"

II

..

"

..

..

..

II

..

..

'"

"

II

II

!!!

..

..

cop and gown


[kcl:p;)ngaun] [k~~ptJgal;Jn]

d) speed of speech.
.. • '. 'r. 'r. " I, ~ ,OJ ,I • ~
If .'

Ii

...

i!

"

II

..

II

'"

,I

"

"

'I

'"

..

I,

"

..

,.

~'

..

"

"

..

Ik.::ep~DQaunJ
(k<I:'PDgaun1
,

!I

II

..

1m

'..

LI

..

..

Ii

..

...

,.

'N

If

!o

'I!

.'

'..

..

"

Il

II

'~

..

..

o!

..

II

"Ii

!I'~

~;;

II.

'"'

........

••

,"

......

, ......

"!!

••••

~'E··

.,

••••

'.

iii'·

oj

.'1

"

•••

'

•••••

[kzepmqaun]
A. What rules are. responsible in eachcase?

e) emphasis.
" I
If • " •
If ..

••

..

,.

II' "

ttl

.,

II

'I

"

.~

If

.,

.,

III

~.

II

II

ii

.,

II

••

iI

j,

.m

.'

LI

g,

,~

._.,

••

•••

~,

I"

••••

II'

,I.

1'1'

II

'"

'.

I.

I'"

..

.......

I'

III

.,

.,

e-

ow'

••

,.,

.,

II

III

III

'.

it

II

I,

..

'.

II

,.

..

II

..

I'

..

,.

.'

,",

III

"

!'

II

!I

..

24. Out of the two variants of fast speech pronunciation of the following strings, only one is cerrect, "''bieh?
that'll do
CJ~t1 ,' J ["'" 'td. u;1 '
••, ••••• •••

R, Do the rules bave


• II • I' , ~ • • • II .. ..

[Q

be ordered?
• I 'I • " I • , " • II i , • I

to

,tI

II

..

"

..

II

..

"

..

.,.

II

I"

",![t);::edd'll:]

fish and ch.ips for instance


.1 suppose

JLJI~!fips]

'
,;.
. , .. "

rflJ~nflpsJ "
!lfdrinstns]
I

,. ,

"

Ii

.,

0;

If

II. "

~ .,. •

"

II

,.

I,

.'

•.

"

..

oil

'1

III

II

,.

rhTin~tdnsJ .. , .. , -I~.i]sP~l:'5]. . , . . . . . . . . , [[St,' b.'\td] •. [betennset] .;,


e • • , " , • •

.•.......... "' ". . . ..

c..Are
II

snme variants typically correlated with. faster/more casual speech than others?

[aispauz] '

some butter

[sml», tJ] . ,
!

beuer than that mus: be

[betdO,~O&'[] . . .. . , .. '. . . . . [m,;)sbI:] . "' .. " .. , , ...

I".'.

r'

~.

_.

..

II

II

..

..

II

..

II

..

..

iI

Ii

"

i:

..

,.,

..

,II

fo

[maz hl~] ,

,...

~d.,"

••

"'i"".Ii.

,,~~'iI

..

I!!!!'I~"1I

""io'~;J~

'."I~!

.'

••

II~;l,

•••••••••

156 D. How tan 'faster' be caprured by the rule mechanism?


i .. '" • • • _ _ • , • Ii .... ...... • • .. ., • " • • • • .. .. • I ~ ... • • .. • .. ~ • ~ .. • • , ~ ~. ..

L57
b) [mal ~nt 'mnli Ir ~. lorrk Ino mx'jork prg~'11·rdJJ1]I, k [mai amt lnDli tz ~ kla.k in ;) Inju:lto~rk o~;g.}na.i'zeiJ.tlJ ' c) [Its not 'pcsibl
I I .. • • • •
IJ

,. ,

"

It

or

t;::l pteE t;,

6is a~g~;;em in

(j;'l

fo~IJ '

•••

Ii

...

.,

,1Ij

Ill"

..

hi'"

"

...

..

.Ii

Ii

It

of

..

..

..

..

...

..

or

..

..

..

...

...

..

II

[its not 'posibl

pa:5 015 ;J"gzrem in

cH

"o:t;:')m] . "

, ' , . _ , _,

,,

,I
i

27.VVhatphunetit processes are likely to appear in the' foHo"iI1Ig strings in fast/casus! speech? Name the process and transcribe the string.
i.... a) f '1..., ..
!;.·

'3,0.\~'hkh of the statements given below are true and which ore false?
a) The Polish /x/ and English Ihi sounds differ in the place. bur. not in the manner of ar-

p.",. 'I!'-!l:-

a.r

"'

..

il

..

..

..

..

"

..

"

...

;0

..

ticulation . . , . . _ , , . . , . . , " , , . . , . . , . . . . . . _ . . , . , . .' , '." . . . . , . _ . . .


b) All English bilahiels nave corresponding bilabials in Polish .. , , . ; .

b) c)

wru sei« . , . , , ... try

, ...

- ....

- . , ... -,...

, . - , . , ' - " , . , ....

' , ...

,,.,., "' "

again , " , ,_, , " .' , . "' , " , , , , .. • " , , , , . ' , , " . , ' - , , , . . - - . , , "' . . , . , ,

c).l\U Po,tish bilabials have corresponding

hililhlals in English, . , ,,_ ,

, , , . , .. , , . , , .. , , , , , ,
,
•' " , ' , , ••

d) run quickly, " , . - . , " . , ....

, , .. , " , " ...

, , , , , , , . , , , , , ...

d) Both Polish and English frontvowels are unrounded ....

,,. ,,,
.

e) glve me . ' " , - . , . . , . . ., , " , , , ,. . . '. , , , , , ' . , , .' ; , - . . , . . . . , . " , . . . , .

e) Polish lV -alld Ellglish clear FU have the same place of articulation

'0 ten ,.n-~Jj ...


h)', .' ., fA 't go w,ou~un,

" • ' ....

' , , . . - .....

'. , .. , , " " . , .. " . , " . , , , . - " , .. , - , ' • , . , , " . , , , '", " , . . , ,- . , , ,
, . . . . - . . . . . , , . , ..
• • , • • • , , • • • • " , • , • , • •

f) In Palish only voiceless consonants can appear 'in word-final posiricn . ,

,g) that ~nefl" , , , . , ; . , . . . ; ,. , , , , , . . " . . , ' . . . . - . . . . - - - , . .. . , '. , , , , , ' .,

g) 'The velar nasal is. a sound. of English which never occurs


h) In Polish. but not in English, there ale palatal affricates

][1,

Pollsh
,

, , .. , . .' " , . , , , . . . '...

i) seen her" , , , .. .

- , " , , , . . , . . .. , .. - , " . . . -, , .....


r , • • • • '. , • .. • • " • ' " , • ,

n Tne.oosidon
* ~

"

of the soft

p'. alate

j) next

can cla fferentiate Polish, hut not En2'lish vowel s . _ , have the sarae pLace of articulation ...

lint€!

.,"••.,•.,,

j) PoHsh and EngUsh semi-vowels

2ft Spell the foUo,\'-ing English. utterances


a), [vjJf

pronounced at a fast rate:

k) Pollsh and English hi 'Sounds differ o-nly in the place of articulation .. 1) The fonisfknis

distinction is muchmore important In Polish than in English , , .. , " .


, .. , . . . . , , ...
i I .., _ •
OJ ~ • ~

!lLJ''H.tabu kJ . " . " . . . - , ...

,.......

- . . . .. , ...

, , , , . . . . , , , ..
, . ' ~ ...
• " • • , •

m) Polish plosives are not aspirated. ' . , . . . . .. . , ...


p

, .. _ , .. ,
I • " I I • .,. • •

b) [v.")cG;:;r\1.,o':Jfl t] . . , .. , .. , ,',, . , .. , . , . ' , " c) [jllkD~rn.tua~11l .. " , . " .. ' . , ... ' ...
d) [1emik """nil n ] .. , , .. . . - , "
ro~~LIi.' •• 'ii~

" ' . . . . . . . , . , , .. " . .' . - .. , ,,." , ,

n) In Polish but.nor in English, only vowels cart be syllabic ,


0) Polish ·tal is-more front than EnglLsh 1a:! ,,, .. _

" .. - . " .. - - , " , ' , , ...


• " .. , • " , .' , , ~ , • • • • ,

, _ ... , , .... _ _ ..
. , , . , _ .. , .. , , . ,

,,
••••

'

.. "

p} Geminates occur in Polish but nOl in EngH'sn . , .. , , q} PoEsh fal is moreopen Ulan English fa:! ,

~'""I

......

rlr.u

••

~!,,",1

I"

I'~~'"

~h~·

••

~i,~

f) [a,\v'lJ.1J098ul .. " "

, , , , , " , ' ..... ,

, .....

- .....

'.,,.',

".

r] Alveolar piosivcs and fricaeives in English have dental equivalents in Polish , .. , .. , s) Polish, but not. Enghs.h, has dental affricates
t} Vowel length is important

g) [tsoqubpen]
, I' I' 1,

,, --, ., , ,' ,

' .- , , , . ' , , - , .. " , .- _,

._

' , _ .. , , , .. , . _ "

, ,.
' ._

,.

h) [ta:.s maim t\ in] , , . _. . " . , " . . . . , . , , . . , . . . - . . , " " . . , . , . . - . , .." , , . ,

both in English and Polish.

i) [~rD?rattJ .

"

f.

..

..

"

..

'

..

LI

,I

..

"

..

..

II

..

u) Polish and English 'word STress are governed by different principles .. , ,


v) Unstressed.syllables in both Poli~h and English are reduced _ . , .. , , , weak flmng , . " , , , , . " , __
w) Only -English. but not Potish.ftas

j} [ .... vtw~umbll:)lJl

., ...

, " " , .....

, .. , ...

, , .. - .. - - ....

, .. , .... " , ,

. .
I ; , ,

f'
,

II

29'. Vfhic:h ofthe following sentences represent: British English and which Americau

English pronunelation?
a)

\Yhat features help you to make a decision?


\J.,..

x) 'Yes/no' questions in both English and .Polisn have rising intonation _ .. , , , _ .


, ..... y) Polish pem1JLS mare consonants in syllable onsets and-codas

:t6:)uz
[L)CH.lZ

"~rj\l~d;H1ts

knmr

~~k h<1:J )n
r k hc~;rd Gll

jll:2diJ . _ , . , , - . , , ....
• turzdl]

, , - ...

than English

'sturd cnts

k;:ell.'-t W:Jl

". , .....

- -, . , , . - .. , " . , .....

:1

,
I

...

--",~-"""",.,

lSS

IJD
z)_Both Polish and English have words whose meaning can be changed by mod,ifyiIlg
their stress . ., , . . . . . _ ... , . . . . . .. . , . , . . . .. . . . . , , , . , .. . . . . _ .... _ ...

32·.Compare the English and Polish pronunciation of the wordsgiven below, Point out. similarities and differences.
English
a)

31. What are the dif1"erences between the following minimal pairs in Pollsh?
a)

Polis.h
medal
I • " • " " LII " II'

tom - doff'! .....


l.m.I'~.I!.'''~ '''' •.• ~I!~!I~I!'~I

medal
I ~ ~ !

b) foiel : hotel , .

Ii

"

"

"

II'

'!

.11'

"

"

,.

"

..

'!

c) lama - ranfO. _ . . . . . . . . _ • . " • . .. , • ' " . _ _ _ _ . . _ . . . . • ., . .. .. ..


••• OJ

d) kat - kat ... ., .

III

II

..

.,.

..

..

J.

I " a; ~ • • I r

'c) buda - budds: .


f) wyje- wiie . g)
+ , , ••••••••••

.,

..

.,

"

'I

••

..

II

..

.. r ... '"
oil

....

b) habit
'f' " .. _ • I I • • .. I ~ _ I I • " I •

habit

. . . . . . , . . , . . , , . . _". . . . . . " . ,
"-''''''''-~.'''~~ __ r'''!1

••

"

.,

sieje - zieje'
,.,

, .. "
,, ,

..
.
, -!! ~ • • " ,

···~~""··"'~·"·~--~-~-~"."~i-_.II.i
• • II· .... I I I I' .... I

__ ."'.
!
I .. I _, ... I

Hili

OJ

I.

I'

11

h) plasek- paset:

i.l nosie - nosze


1.\

., ;
.. • ~ •

, _ .. ,
• • " .. • • • • • .. • • •

.
.. ~ " • ~

"

'"~ ..

"

..

Ii

nons el'lj'

"

OJ

..

"

"

...

..

_,

'"

j) lecie - locie ..
k} bUf-· bud . . .. . 1)

"

"

'"

"

II

...

.......

"

"

•••••

;;;

II

"

."

"

"

"

'i

;0

-;

..

'I

ii

!!

..

"

"

'II

"

ii

..

'I

.II

..

'r

II

"

II

.J

..

..

"

""

iii.

..

"

..

..

to

,~

..

.,

II

..

""

..

I.

..

'II

"

I.

cut~: czes,c .. -

••

,II

II_

"

"

,.

'"

" " • " ... I ... ..

!I'

..

Iii

..

'I

.'

......

I .......

•••

~i.~

••••

~_"

•••

,,,=,

__

,,,,,.,

m) nic - nlc .... n) konia- kona . Q) kura - kora


p) jaki - raki , q)

"

"

II

,..

...

d) s{a[s.'·n
I , 'I " .... Ii 11

slalom . . . ., . . " " . .... . . .. . , , . , .. . . . " , . . " "


I " .. ~ .. ~ II '" • I

. . . . . ~.
" "

~
" .........

..

.,

II

. " .. . . ., . !. " .
• I. • II' ~

Ii!

"

I'

I'

,.

..

iI

,.,

...

..

..

"

...

Ii

..

..

..

II

"

.r " .. .. ..

Ii

..

"

..

..

'"

..

Lor

..

II

.II

II

.......

..

.1;

..

II

..

'"

II

II

I.

I.

<t

..

f"

!'

II

" I .. • • ~ • , .' • • 'I I 'I ~ I

ramie ·-rame ..

"

..

..

III

..

..

't

..

"

io

.Ii

..

Ii

..

_.

..

..

..

r.

"

_.

....

.~

"

.. .. •• '" " I' I

e) zebra
II ._ -

zebra _ " . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . " . . . . . . . . , _.. . .


I I ..

r) kqs: kos . . . .. . ,s) szepcze U'). ka .r...,. . ..


1'- ~

···'I~'i""''''·!!!·······'_
• .. "' ... R 'I .., I 'I II, • ~ ~ .. III • .. .. •

•.•
,., • •

~~~~.IIJ.'

...

..

;0

..

..

..

;;

II

...

II.

LI

"

..

..

..

..

III

11

"

"

szepce
. . . ."
•.
II ..

..

0;

la,

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

. '"
•• !I~' •• ·.~ •••

.. .. ..

- ~ ~ ..

..

..

~ ..

...

..
• •

t) lawa - lawa

..;."........"........"...........

,. ..... " _ ~ II • I.' I II " I • " I • II " "" oj I ~ ~ .. I I " • • • I

"

or

or

iIIJ"'"

..

~~

..

1I

'1i."~'''~11

'e ~

x.1!.~~

l'.I'J:.'-1";...,...

nil

•••••••

f) boxer
~" ,

bokser

....

,.

'.

II

..

.,

"'

!'

..

,.

"

"

"

v) drugi - drag;'
,.
r-

..

II

..........

'II

II

II

..

..

I'

II

II

.....

.. .. .. .. .. ..

"

w) gmnn - gwnma.
x) plortm - piolun ,

..

..

..

..

..

..

[II

I'

'"

..

_I

"

"

"

'I'

...

fl'

........

i
" _ 0; ,. ............

..

..

Ii

fo

y) bieda - biada . .
z)

. . . . " . , .. . . . . _ . _ . . .. . . .. . . .....

,,

lud - 16d _ . . . , . ., . . , . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . • . . _ . . .. . . . . . ., .

_g}spon

sport '" . , . . . " _ _ . . . . . .. . _ . . . . " . _ . . , .. ..

'.

I.

.,

II

..

..

..

..

..

"

"

"

..

II

.,

..

;;

or

.~

,",

"

to

"

33~ "\'.bat are the differences

between the Jollowing English and Polish sounds'!


" • ~
I ~ II ..

34. Complete the foflowingtable answer with a minus.


II II II

..Indicate a pesitive answer with a plus and ancgat1"v€

I
I ,

8;"1 /

E lU
j

.....

PhI
I

_'

.......

I!

Iii,.

II

t'

I.

~,

101

...

"

II

...

...

II

..

II

...

..

b) Eli) - P Iii .. _ ..
C") E,1 .'r 1-, •. 1

OCCURS IJ":
I .. ~ II ~ ~ Ir II " II I I • ., I ... I I

.p ,'S .•.•• I~I

TYPE OF SOU~T()'
" II I I. II I

both Fnglish
and Polish

EngILsh

d) E lj/ - P Ij/

..... _, , ,
... , .... ".,.
I .. I

only

Polish on I,,;

neither English
nor Polish

-L

e) E lui - P ra! 'f) E /" I 'k ' .. g) Elf!


-

voiceless v elar fri catlve


iii ... i • "
I .II. II III • II

.t

P .1 (k

.,

"

..

'I

...

"

"

~~

••

II:

....

~II.,..~L"'.~"

-P

lh . . . ...
"X' r""' .....
~ ........

h) E te! .- P lEI. , ...


I,
I I

") 1·,E j.I'1 1iI·-

'p

,
~

"

..

..

...

..

II

II

II

II

..

II,

II

II

..

"

;;

II

!!'

II

II

II·

!"

!'

..

...

or

II

voiced p3lato-ah:eo~ar affricate


1-

I,!

'-

j) E lt! - P hi HE /h -P!xl

II

II

II"

..

II

II

II

II

II

"'

•••

.i

II

....

'.,

•••

'.

II

II

."''"''.

~_

II

II

k) E 10: I - P /.ol ..

I'

II

..

II

..

!!,

J-

ii

..

II

"

....

ii

'"

I!

_,

II

II

.,.

"

<.

••

II

II

..

'I

II.

II

..

II

I.

II

II

II

II

II

II

II

II

,.

II

II

II

II

II

.'

voiceless palatal affr~cate


II II II

rn)

.E tIll/ - P I mI .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . .' . . . . . . . . _ _ , . . . _ . . ._.. . . .. ,.

!!

II

OJ,

'"

..

II

n)

E 1.0:;/ - lP lEI,.

. . . ., .. , . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . _ •. __ .
, . . . .. . . . . . .. . • .. . . . . . . . •... '
< • _ , • • • • • • •• _ •

0) E 19{ ~ P I gl j p) E 13I - P li/.


q) E ,tIl - P IV. r} E , "
IW·j J.,
l) ~

..

. . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. .. . . . . . . . . .....

lablo-velar vcicerl affricate


< ••••••••

.. . . ., ; , . . , . .. ,.... _ . . . . , . . . . .. . . .. .. . . . . . .
II

,high front unreunded vowel


-lou:!!:"mid centralvowel

!n,·t p'r

....

.......

II

s) E til-· P /ii .,... t) E Inl - P' I:m' . . . .. .


u) E lei - P If! _ ._ ..

'!I"~~!

illliI~';'~llrll~"~

II~~

",

...

~rii

II"--~",

...

I,

alveolar frictionless coutinuant '


"

.m

'"

of

..

i.

II'

II

II

II'

!IJ

..

"

..

..

..

oi,

..

.,

"

...

II

..

.f

..

"

v}E/fl-PlS/
w) E

...

35. What fast speech processes arc likely to. occur' in thewell-known twister?

Polish tongue-

ld3l - P ldil ,
I

x) E Inl - Pin] .. )I)

.""'''''~.'~~.''''!

~''''III.'''~,LF~.~'~~~

_,

••

~"'~III'"

E fa:1 - P Jai .
.. \

..

II

I.

II

..

Ii

f.

HI..

II

II

"

"

II

I.

II

II

'"

I'

t'

"

..

to

;;

..

II

..

••

l)'Ell ,

P'I 1·a ,

'...

II.

I!!

I'

~·.I'Ii'"

II

..

II

II

II

II

II

"'rll

..

~.I,'

.,,

II

II

II

II

"

I,

.J,

__

...

..

'"

..

..

II

..

..

II

II

..

"

lOr

..

._

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

....

.'

..

...

......

II~.~oj'

••••

I'!

,.',n""1--

..

_~,,_~

......

__

~_=J"~·"·"'·I'·"'1

I
-i

'!

..

..

..

"

..

..

..

..

II

..

..

..

"

..

..

..

""

..

..

..

182
q) camping

.36..._~hkh

of the f()Uowing words alldexprressiollS have fasl speed} forms. Umtare different from SIQ\l{ speech forms? Wha'tar-e 'they?
a)

" . . . . , " ,. . " •. ._. , , , , , , ., . . . . . .. .. _ . "' .. . .


i ., ~ • i •. ~ • " ~, • " ., , , • •

r) backhand, , . '. .. .. . . .. . . .. . . . ,. , . . . . . . _... .. . • . , " , .s)jau" ., " .. , , "' , . " ,., " .. ' ,_ t) outsider . " ., . .. ,

!
,

,,,'

pi e,rihir!'si(1t

L~

..

••

..

OIl

..

.,;

i'!

'"

"

'"

~'

~.

"

.'

...

'"

, , . . '". . . . ' " .. " .. " " , . , _. .

,. , .. , .. , . . . .. . , ., ..

b) Jr landczycy, '
d) bezszmerowy

,.

Ii

'"

..,

c.

'.

.,

.,

.~

.,

...

~,

_.

•••

"I

,..

...

"

II'

'I

;;;;

c) hymnrr.arati;{)'wy.
j • ,

. . , , .. , , "
• • , , > • , , ., • • • • ,. •

, .. , .....••
.• •. , • • • • • •

"
• • • •

, . ~. , ,
• • • • , , ,. .• • .,

, .. , ..
, , " , •

].8. Belew, a rough. transeriptten

is given of an EngJish sentence, 8$-prO_flounced by a bcginnin,gPolish learner. Identify PoHsh in.tlu.ences and the source of errors, The words which. mean imporuuu things are Qften difficult to pronounce.

e) knlle w5ki mistrz; ., , " , " f)klamstw. .. ,. ,. ,. ., . , . ,. . .


" 'r. _ • ,.
I. '. '. • • • ., • • ! •
IJ • • • ~ •

.'

.~

01

...

,I

[de wets wjlc niin im 'potent:iAnks a toten dil'fLkult


" i~,I~ •••• ~
1'1

ttl

pIB'.naws1,

g) rozstrtela, ., " , .. . , ' , . . . . , . .. . . . . , .. " . " . . . . " , _._. _ " " . ". . .. , . . ..... _ .11} patrtsie. ."
_

~"~J

rl~

••••••

'"LlI"'~'~'

"..,r',.,i'r.~_'·~!!'·"··'!"··'r.

. . .,
a.

~.,

.'.

,I"",

~.'

'"

'"

'"

,"'r

••••••

".,

••

•••

'I

'"

""~"'~

~,..

_._

.....

'r.'.~".iI!'

....

"

.•

""

••

,~."'I''''''

•••••

••••••

jJ~"".!!I

!'~IIIII'~

Il!!'·

i)· Ziarniasl wakac.. i, . ]-,·


JI'~

•.

"

..

.,

.,

"

-,

'.

.,

'r.

:ii'

FIl

.;.

'i!

..

~.

"

..

;;;;

."

....

~, ••.

~J.,

••

"d

"

....

,."

11.,

.,

•••

•••••

~i!g."

",",'.'

.~_,~_,~lJrnl,1

i)' ·m~"f;h.{wi7m· 7"";""'11.~~Ib'~'


i ,~ '. ~ "",',' ~'~"""" ..... '

.. ,~ •

~,

LI

...

"

!'

'.

,~

'~

..

..

.~

!'

!'

,II

.,

r!'

'!'

.J ., _.

til

.,..

~,

",~H'"

,.,.,~_~,."",

•••

",,,~.~,~_,.._~

.i,

,.~,~""

,n

..

..

···~····~,,·_!I!·
i.I'I~'''~''
I~ Il~.-

..

II

:37. Due to the popUlarity of;_BritiShandAmeric·an,cu~ure:inF_ola~,dm-a.ny English words are used by Poles nowadays. What distortions eanbe observed when the words b~low areprnacuneed by Poles who do not know English? What explanation

~!!"..,

•••

~'".II'

lJr.~,I'~

.•

lJ!.~.,

.•

J,

""

.•

..

Ill

!!,

••

'~".L

•••

LI~

•••

"

'

"

I''',.!

'i",.

••

•••

_~

,I,

..

1.+

••

".

it

..

-"

~~

can be given?

~!

.Example: The Beat les -)


a) Heath , '. .. . .

[' b}ite 15] -• ~ r.

r bjl des]
~'r. it"" ~

39. Below, a rough transcription iSgl¥f:n of a Polish sentenceasproncnnced by a beginning Englishleaener. Identify English influences and the source of mistakes .
, Ciesze sie bardzc, ze mage bye w Warszawie,
••• ~ ~ ~ ~ ..... '.,," ~ ~ ~ 'P'" .. ,~, ..,~ ~'~'~"

. . . ., ,

I'."

,I

Ii
I

'b\~Il .. 1ft

as n" _mgwn .. . .

["g'eJJ
,'''I'~''

J~'ba;z.~u
~~~

:;;J
1~'~.iI~"

"InJQ9m
",,,

bilf
••

va:' Ja:vj?]
,~''i..! I. '"

c) C(nliffuJ.l1weal.th ., . .. , , _ . ; , '" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . ... _ . " . " . ., . .. . . .. . .. -d) .cowb~y, . , , , . , ". . . . " " , ,. . . . , . .. . . . . . . . . .. .. . . , ., " " . , . . .. .. . , . . e) football

",,,~+,".,,,,

•••

~.,,,

I;"'"

"n'·"".~

OJ

rit'.

'it

..

"

•••

..

,.

",.

r"

'

II'

lJ

"

••••

' ....

'~'!!

....

__

.'

...

~.,

••

,•••

oF

. . '" . . . . , .. . .. . ., ;. " , .. . . ..,.

.. .. " " " . . . . . .. . . . . . , ,.. . . .. . .. , . . , .. ' , . . ., ' . .". ..""

II

.J •

~,

"

'"

••••

~,

,~,~

..

i,

II

, ......

~,

,_.

II

,.

f) RU:Eherjard .. . . . .. .. , . . .. . . " " . . "

•. . ,. , . ,.".

••

~.

,.,

'r

'r

,~

..'

oj

'"

.,

..

~,

"

"

I'

'~

,.

,.

lJ

"

"

lJ

.,

_.,

'Il

g) leader , ., " " .,.. . . " " . .. . . . ;. " '. , . " .. ,. . . . . . .. . . .. ... , ., ...,.., . " ... ,. . . ,... .h) gendeman . , . , .. '", .. . . . . " . . . . . '". . . . . . . . . . .. . . , . ., , . ..., . " ,. . .... ~.. . .
"I

,.

.•

"

"

<!

.,

"

lJ

"

"J

'I'

!;

'..

..

..

!!'

.J

II,

"

L.

_,

,-,

...

"

..

I'

",'

"

ii

~,

L.

..

'it

'!

'.

..

;1

"

.,

...

'"

.,

..

..

r), toni C'


L

..

'I'

rr

..

..

'"

.,

'!

...

,.,

,.

,I

"

...

'I'

..

"

..

,~

'..

..

!o

~,

'"

••

!i

..

"

..,

j) bridge , , . . . . . . .. . . . . . ; . ' ..

.,

'.

,.

••

.,

.'

"

•.

•.

"

I I
I

k)t browning. . , . . . , . . , _ . , , " '". . . ,. , . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . .. . .. " . . . . . . .

40. Below we present a list of severalwords

which are frequently ndspronouJlc;cd beginning learners of English. Point to the- errors and tbeir sources ..
a) . 'on •t 'd··
~''',I

by

1) siueu . ,. , " . , . . , , " . .. _., , " , , .... , , . " " . .. _.. ., . , ,. . . . , . ., .. . . . . , . . . . . . .


m) fan

. ,'.,,. ,.... ...


; .. , . . . . .
.,1 ,.

,...

'''~'T.'

•••••

....

i,

••.

r.'

....

'Ii"

,I.

L"

••

i.,

••

. ont [dont]
,III i I""

...,.,.."...
~' ,.,t,_ •• " i,,"

,. " " . . .. . ., , . " , , , , . . .. . .. . ,. ., ' . '" , .. . . ._.... "


,1'I 'I 1'1'''',0; I
'I.

n)}lnish
til'

r.'~

..

._,.

~"

••

'1

••

O'-"trir, tease J' :l!""'.-',' ,'_


p) weekend

'._!,I~rlJl.'.'

....

~,'

..

II~I."

'"

"

...

I.i'~"-""."

••

'~""

...

-S···'

i_'I1~

iil~

'I'

~,

..

"

"

"

.,

"

r.

'"

,•••••

II

'.

"

"'

jIo

oi

oi,

j,

'" .

~,~

~ ~,~

"'~!

•••

L!

r."

,..

L~,~.

.,~

~L

•••

L.

....

.....

•••••••

164

165

. ---~-

,,

4.
,

c) mother [maver],

5
6.

. .'

(I) Amenka [a'rnerika] .

..

"

.
.,. ...... I

7" 8. 9.

c) develop I'developj

f) word [won]

to.

g) country .

[i'(.1.1.. try] m

.,

42. How are tbe following IcoD8onant:-leu.ers-aJld sequences of letters pronounced In English?' Gh'c three examples foreach pronunciation",

h) only [an til] .

<c>

i)

national [najlonal].

<s>

,-"

j) baseball

[bejzbol]

41. Make your own list uf J 0 words frequently mispronounced by Polisll Iearners of English, Point to the e]TOrS and their sources.
1.

<gb > _

<th.> 2.

3.

<en>
~ • ~ ~ ~ '. • ;j ~ ... .. ,,". !I

iIW

.,

."

"

..

..

I.

"

..

S'

..

..

'"

..

"

~"."

••

••••

••••••

~.,

LLIjIII.Li!i_

•..•.•••

i.1

i~

~II

.~.i ....

,I,.,P~-·rl.

c) until, jury, total,


d)

JflU1H,

!ound,t'ttfr.s

< x>
I
r,

system, hot», testimony, alone, scnooi, less


j

oi'-·_·

..

-~.i

.,

...

oL,

I".'~~.'~

...

"r"'~."!,,!

e)· dsveloomen: b ....... ..'r ~ ereoter .lakirLO vet. didn't. ·oin!


J .. ~~".. ~. ='
p'

"

f)
... 11 •• ~"'I' 1· __ ~ '" I •• -.~ I'I"""''I'!'' ,! L h'"'' '" ~,,,,. ~''''.II''.

be,gem;,distinct" inside. order, white, large

<ng >
• '" i. ,.
'r 'r • • • • • • • ., ., " I ,.. ,~ ., ., ,"' ~ " • .. • ~

g} itself; papa. am ount, withia, want, service h) result, Japan, frequa«, York, line, across
i) ~plril, legend. final, anything
I

in.jorm{uitl'l!" I'm

<j>
I"~~~'~I ••• ·,.,11."., ••• 1"!' •••• ~''I'1'11.,.,~~I . .,'' " .•• '."!"~ l'I.,~r..~~1

j) be}{)1!'d, e~tfdb£t, county, having, Miss •. cannot


k) hundred, patrol, below,

special, saeet, position

n simp.l,l·',member,
.... ii,~. I

undersumd; board, seem, deparrmeru;

r+~·

..

~'

..

'Il

..

..

,~.!,

I··f

,"'~"

r.

••

"

I''''

I'

IJ

~II

,~_"

__

.'1

..,~,.,~

,'_

<:5.]>

my dkeCll)~,.component, volume, joUmving • sometimes, party


n) distria. cabin, 0)

onion, maybe, educetion, figure

direct, neon, association, rate, art, ('ent.ury ruin, ctr,1'il'y. north, plan. evidence privacy, religion, sound, surface,
pers(mal

p) respect,

43. How are the following yowe] letters and sequences uf ieUerspl'Onmulc erl En.glish? 'Gi'fe three examplesfor eaehprenunelation.
l

in

q) aaivu»,

r) specific. design., j~l::;t1't:(!.third, compiete,Wmfe s) qualiFy, appendix, continue. support, Iwpe .. couldn't

<a>

...

<a~> ..
<e>

..
.

46. By numbering, arrange the words belew like in dominoes, so that the last sound IOf one ,word. is the. first .sound of the next
a)

American, deal Edinburgh,

Negro. -ald, physical

.< i> ,~ ~~~~" ~. . . .... . ,<' O.


>1
'!' ~ ,~

b) abroed, century. does, lmver,


I' ,~ ,~ P' 'r. " ~ • _~ ~ • • •

people, Xerox

c) early, effect, natural, sir, Theresa, upon


~ ..

'I

'I

,~

I'

"

...

'I

~J

!II

,.,.

'"

"

.;

'r'

<oa>

d) available, exaaty,
e).miwnwbi~el

jury, torge, means, zeim:

<00>
<u>_." .. ", ;
44". ,\Vhich or the balded letters are pronounced in the words bel on"'? casae .. veJddeJias.fen. jUnctt()n" doubt, mirlday, receipt, muscle, recipe, balle.t" hajj. lWne:st, hypo.tC!iJYt government, enigmmic). hy mn, gttaw. 45. In whic'h words does-the number of Ietters differ from the numheref
a) b)

cow, o(Jk,War,}(;nv,wh;~'S,e',zero

I) dropped, Engl(1nd~ non«, ready- Themesczon»

sounds?

chief. 'eacn, key, phlegm, slapped, technique 11) absurd, circuit, dangerous, gesture, farge, Thomas i) association, attack, chronoiog£Ca.l,dara. limited. nylon j) advice, alibi" layer, move, p'~~al.m, eU y k) ache. degree, ease.. extent, q:uality" trate I) an, coiumn, mamma, observe, Turner 'V/:nage rn) dim b., exhibit, moment, neady, transfer, urban
g.) n) agt.lin.u, cholera,

very~ demaml, making, will, such. each American, product, became, suue, during, place

egg," gear, pneumatic; .typhoon

1 R9

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l: