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35 1

2005 1

( )

Vol . 35 , No. 1
Jan. 2005

Journal of Zhejiang University ( Humanities and Social Sciences)

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(1. ( ) , 53706)
(2. , 310028)
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CHIN ES E ETYMA FOR RIV ER , Journal of Chinese Linguistics , Volume 26 , Number 1 , January 1998 , ,
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1994-2008 China Academic Journal Electronic Publishing House. All rights reserved.

http://www.cnki.net

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73

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1

Vietnamese ( )

song

Sedang ( )

krong

Bahnar ( )

krong

Katu ( )

karung

Bru ( )

klong

Gar ( )

rong

Koho ( )

rong

Laven ( )

dakhom

Biat ( )

n
hong

Hre ( )

khroang

Old Mon ( )

krung

[2 ]
[3 ]
( Yakhontov)
( Pulleyblank) ,

, :2r22l2 , krung
[4 ]

1 , , krung
: , klong , krung

[5 ] (p. 65 ,pp. 244 - 245) [6 ] (p. 25 ,165)

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(jiang)
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mississippi ( ) wisconsin ( ) (Algonquin) , ,
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(jiang)

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,

1994-2008 China Academic Journal Electronic Publishing House. All rights reserved.

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74

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1994-2008 China Academic Journal Electronic Publishing House. All rights reserved.

http://www.cnki.net

[ ] , , :

75

: , ;

:
,
,
(Maspero) ,s2 3 cr2 ,
[11 ]
; ,song krong
krong , , ,song ,
song krong ,
song
krong jiang jiang 20
song krong ,
[12 ]
s2 3 kr2 ( 3 k2r2) 3 kr 3 k2r2
k2 l2 , , zhong ( ) shu ( )
3 krjung
sung 3 grjug
so , , s2
3 kr2 ( 3 k2r2)
, , s2 l2

, ( chi) , () , syc ;
(lian) , lien , sen ,l2
, ( ) Bodman l2
[13 ] (pp. 460 - 587) [14 ] (pp. 64 - 161)

3 c2r2 , 3 k2r2 s2 3 cr2


(lian)

(jian) ,

(
)

,jian lian 3 kren 3 k2ren , ,lian


kra , song 3 krong ,
[12 ]

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1994-2008 China Academic Journal Electronic Publishing House. All rights reserved.

http://www.cnki.net

( )

76

35

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: 3 hrwjgd , 3 khrjign , 3 khlig , 3 kluk , 3 klug , 3 klwats , 3 gluk , 3 skljung ,
3 krung ,


:
[21 ] (p. 10)
, , , ,

( krung )
( skljung) , ,
jiang ( 3 krung

) , ( 3 KR2 , K = k , kh , g ; R = r , l )
( )
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jiang
3 krung , , krung ,
stung , krung ,
krung ,
krung
, , krung krung ,
, ,krung
,

,
krung ,
Dakhom nhong 2 :
2

Bahnar ( )
Sedang ( )

krong

Wa ( )
Katu ( )

klong

Gar ( )

rong

Koho ( )

rong

Laven ( )

dakhom

Khmer ( )

stung

Biat ( )

n
hong

krong
karung

, , krung ,
krung ,krung ,
krong ,

: , ,

1994-2008 China Academic Journal Electronic Publishing House. All rights reserved.

http://www.cnki.net

[ ] , , :

77

(
) rom
(
, , klong
) Rom ,water( ) rom

, 3 :
3

North Chuang ( )

ram

Bao2ding Loi ( )

nom

Weng2ang Puyi ( )

ram

Thai ( )

nam
[22 ] [23 ] [24 ] [25 ] [26 ]

, ,

, rom klong , rom krong ( )


[5 ] [6 ]
rom krum ( ) rom sary ( )
, , rom
; , klong rom
klong krung , , song
,

( )

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jiang ,
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( 420 589) ,, ,
[7 ] [8 ]

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jiang ( )
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( ) :

1994-2008 China Academic Journal Electronic Publishing House. All rights reserved.

http://www.cnki.net

( )

78

35

,, ,
,jiang ( )
, ,
krung ,
, , , ,

,

( ) (jiang)


[27 ] [28 ]


,
,
( ) huei , nam , ta , kjiang
klong khong
(jiang ) krung

( the Mekong River)


( Northern Chuang)
(Loi )
( Puyi )
( Sui )

( Kam)
(Dai )
(Mao2nan)
( Mulao )
( Kehlao )
(Lakia )
( Thai )
(Lao) ,
, ,ta nam ,
, ( ta ) ( river) , ( nam)

( river)
(water)
, mg:ng , huei huei
( ) , xi ( ) ta ,
[ 29 ]
tuo ( ) , tuo ta
[30 ]
, ( ) nam ,
( the Nam Ngum River) , , nam ,
( the Rock River) , ngum ( rock)
, ( the Nam Ou River)
( the Nam Theun River)
( the Nam Khan
River)
( the Nam Lik River)
( the Nam Tu River)
( the Nam Tha River) ,
, :




, ( the Nam Laie River)
( the Nam Ka River)
( the Nam Thin River)

(the Nam Houn River ) , , nam , ( Nam


kham , ,the Gold River)
(Nan pa ka)
(Nan peng)
(Nan wen long)

(Nan shang)
(Nan ao) , , nam

, Nam mun ,Paknampho ,Paknam


, pak , paknam ,
,

,

: , ,
[31 ] (p. 89)
, , ?
, ( )
nam
, kjang
klong khlong khlong
[1 ] (p. 280)

,
,
( ) klong , Kjang

1994-2008 China Academic Journal Electronic Publishing House. All rights reserved.

http://www.cnki.net

[ ] , , :

klong khong , 3 kl2 3 kr2

[32 ]

79

, kl ,

kj ,tc ,k kr ,kh ,h ,l

, nam , maenam , klong


khong ( the Maenam River) Maenam Chao Phraya
maenam , chao phraya , the Chao2
phraya River ,( the Mother River)
, Maenam Nan Maenam Yon Maenam Wang Maenam Ping Maenam Datshin
( the Nam River)
( the Rong River)
( the Wang River)
( the Ping River) ( the
Datshin River) maenam river
, ( the Mekong River) ,
, Maenam Khong , , ,
the Khong River ( the Mekong River) Maenam Khong , ,
, the Menam Kong River kong ( khong)
, ,
Menam Kong River
, maenam ,
maenam , kong ( khong) :
( river) , kong ( khong) ,
, ; , , ,
, ( the Lancang River) , ,
,
[33 ]

(jiang )
, ,
,
, ,
, , (
)

[27 ] [28 ] [34 ]

, ,
(jiang ) ( yu ) ,
, ,
(jiang ) ,
(jiang)
,
( ) (jiang)

(jiang)
, klung , ( 1992
) , : , ,
2r22l2 , (jiang)
klung
, ,2l22r2
[12 ]
, ( yao )
, ( yu) ,
t hu , Klung
, ( the Yarlung Zangbo River)
, ,
( qu) thu ,thu 3 tl2 , ,
klung ( ) ,thu

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( )

80

35

3 kl2 , , (jiang)

,

(jiang)
, (jiang ) ,
; (jiang ) ,
, , ,

[ ]
[ 1 ] J . Norman & Tsu2lin MEI. The Austroasiatics in Ancient South China :Some Lexical Evidence[J ] . Monumenta Serica ,1976,
(32) :274 - 301.
[ 2 ] S. E. Yakhontov. Chinese Phonetics in the first Millenium BC[J ] . Problemy Vostokovedeniia ,1960, (6) :102 - 115.
[ 3 ] E. G. Pulleyblank. The Consonantal System of Old chinese[J ] . Asia Major ,1962, (9) :58 - 144.
[ 4 ] . [J ] . ,1971 , (9) :1 - 61.
[ 5 ] . [M] . : ,1981.
[ 6 ] , . [M] . : ,1984.
[ 7 ] . [M] . : ,1982.
[ 8 ] . [M] . : ,1991.
[ 9 ] , , . [M] . : ,1982.
[ 10 ] . : 6 [M] . : ,1986.
[ 11 ] Henri Maspero. Etudes sur la Phon5tique Historique de la Langue Annamite [J ] . Bulletin de lEcole Frang
aise de l
Extreme Orient ,1912 , (12) :1 - 127.
[ 12 ] N. Bodman. Proto2Chinese and Sino2Tibetan :Data towards Establishing the Nature of the Relationship [A ] . Van Coetsem &
Linda R. Waugh . Contributions to Historical Linguistics : Issues and Materials[ C] . Leiden : E. J . Brill ,1980.
[ 13 ] . : 18 [M] . : ,1986.
[ 14 ] [ ] . ( Etsunan kanjion no kenkyu) [A ] . : 53 [ C] . :

( ) ,1972. 64 - 161.
[ 15 ] . [M] . : ,1963.
[ 16 ] [ ] . ( Kanji no gogen kenky) [M] . : ,1964.
[ 17 ] . [M] . : ,1936.
[ 18 ] . [M] . : ,1983.
[ 19 ] . [M] . : ,1980.
[ 20 ] [ ] . ( Kochuhen) [M] . : ,1975.
[ 21 ] . : [M] . : ,1982.
[ 22 ] . [M] . : ,1980.
[ 23 ] , . [M] . : ,1980.
[ 24 ] , . [M] . : ,1980.
[ 25 ] . [M] . : ,1980.
[ 26 ] . [M] . : ,1980.
[ 27 ] . [M] . : ,1939.
[ 28 ] . [M] . : ,1941.
[ 29 ] . [J ] . ,1983 , (2) :30 - 40.
[ 30 ] . [M] . : ,1954.

1994-2008 China Academic Journal Electronic Publishing House. All rights reserved.

http://www.cnki.net

[ ] , , :

81

[ 31 ] . : [M] . (1700) .
[ 32 ] . [M] . ( ) : ,1977.
[ 33 ] . [M] . : ,1973.
[ 34 ] . [M] . : ,1950.

[ ]

Chinese Etymology for


Jiang
ZHANG Hong2ming
( East Asia Department , Wisconsin University of Wisconsin2Madison , Wisconsin WT53706 , U . S . A )
Abstract : This paper is a study of the origin of the Chinese character for river jiang ( ) . The geographical
distribution of the names of rivers in China reflects certain patterns. River is called he ( ) in the northern
areas , and jiang ( ) in the southern parts of China. How do we explain this phenomenon ?Both Norman2Mei
( 1976) and Hashimoto ( 1978) claim that both jiang ( ) and he ( ) are loanwords , which are borrowed
from Austroasiatic Language and Mongolian respectively. Based on linguistic data , ethnological evidence ,
geographical distribution and historical documents , I will argue against these leading hypotheses as well as
some other speculations on the origins of these words , including those which attempt to show that they
originated from Thai or Tibetan. In addition , I will prove that jiang ( ) is in fact Chinese indigenous word.
In my analysis , I will also propose and elaborate on the opposite view that the respective form of jiang ( ) in
the other languages is most likely loanwords from Chinese.
One of the other topics of this paper is to discuss the principles used to distinguish Chinese etyma from
loanwords. This topic has remained a puzzling question in linguistics. I will attempt to answer the question by
proposing the following principle for the differentiation : the naming processes of the etyma in a language share
certain common ground and take place under an integral cognate system ; the word loaning processes do not
possess these properties. I will demonstrate in this paper that the evolution of jiang ( ) in Chinese conforms
to this principle and thus testifies to its validity.
Key words : Chinese Language ; jiang ( ) ; etymology

2004 9 24
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