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DEBATING is about developing your communication skills.

It is about assembling and organizing effective arguments, persuading and entertaining an audience, and using your voice and gestures to convince an adjudicator that your arguments outweigh your oppositions. Debating is not about personal abuse, irrational attacks or purely emotional appeals. A debate is held between two teams of three members each. These two teams will be referred to as the Affirmative and the Negative. Members of each team are assigned positions as 1st, 2nd, and 3rd speakers. For each debate, a motion is given. After the motion is given, teams are given thirty (30) minutes to prepare for each debate. Each of the speakers will deliver a substantial speech of seven (7) minutes duration and either the 1st or the 2nd speaker on both sides will deliver the reply speeches for their teams. Reply speeches will be five (5) minutes. AFFIRMATIVE TEAM. The job of the affirmative team is to agree with (or 'affirm') the motion (topic). It will consist of three speakers. The affirmative team will speak first in the debate in Substantive Speech session. But in the Reply Speech session, the Affirmative team speaker will speak after the Negative team reply speaker. Each speaker in the team should fulfill the role of that speaker. At the end of the debate the team should observe debating etiquette. The team should sit on the right hand side of the chairperson. The seating arrangement is (from nearest to the chairperson): 1st, 3rd, 2nd. This is to make it easier for the first and second speakers to pass rebuttal material to the third speaker. NEGATIVE TEAM. The job of the negative team is to disagree with (or 'negate') the motion (topic). It will also consist of three speakers. The negative team will speak last in the debate in substantive speech session. But in the Reply Speech session, the Negative team speaker will speak first before the Affirmative team reply speaker. Each speaker in the team should fulfill the role of that speaker. At the end of the debate the team should observe debating etiquette. The team should sit on the left hand side of the chairperson. The seating arrangement is (from nearest to the chairperson): 1st, 3rd,

2nd. This is to make it easier for the first and second speakers to pass rebuttal material to the third speaker. CHAIRPERSON. The role of the chairperson is to control the debate. She or he should sit between the two teams. The duties of a chairperson are 1) to announce the names of the teams which are participating. 2) to open the debate by welcoming all the attendants 3) to introduce all the debaters by calling the debaters one by one. He or she should then 4) to announce the motion (topic) of the debate, 4) and to mention the names of all adjudicators in the debate. Then, she or he should tell the speakers and the audience the debate format used in the debate. It also explicitly mentions how long each speech will be for, giving the minimum and maximum times, and calling upon the Timekeeper to demonstrate the sound of knock. The chairperson should then welcome the first speaker of the affirmative to open the debate. After that speaker has concluded his or her speech, the chairperson should then wait for the adjudicator's (if there is only one adjudicator) or Chief Adjudicator's (if there is a panel of adjudicators) nod to proceed and then to welcome the next speaker (the first speaker of the negative team). This process should continue throughout the debate in the following order: In Substantive Speech Session:
y y y y y y

1st Affirmative. 1st Negative. 2nd Affirmative. 2nd Negative. 3rd Affirmative. 3rd Negative.

In Reply Speech Session:

y y

1st Negative Reply Speaker 1st Affirmative Reply Speaker

At the end of the debate the chairperson should do one of the following. 1) If there is only one adjudicator, the chairperson should wait until that adjudicator indicates his or her readiness and then announce the adjudicator to give the result of the debate. 2) If there is a panel of adjudicators, the chairperson should announce that the adjudicators are going to retire for some minutes (5 minutes maximum) for a short meeting to consider their decisions. The adjudicators will then leave the room. When they return, the chairperson should (a) call the adjudicators one by one to give his or her oral adjudication and announce the winner in the debate or (b) to let the chief adjudicator to give oral adjudication and announce the team won the debate. The chairperson's role in the debate is now over. TIMEKEEPER. As the name suggests the timekeeper keeps the time in a debate. This means that he or she times how long each speakers speaks and rings a bell (a knock) to indicate that certain amounts of time have passed. To ensure fairness in a debate each speaker is given a maximum time that he or she is allowed to speak for. This is generally expressed as X minutes and Y seconds, For example "the speaking times for tonight's debate will be 4 to 6 minutes". The standard equipment of the timekeeper is: 1 digital stopwatch (an analogue one will do but it is much more difficult to use). 1 bell.

(if a bell is not available a glass and spoon is good, although hit the glass with care. Or rapping something hard, for example knuckles, against a desk is also good. Whatever is chosen it should be very clear and obvious, many a nervous speaker has failed to hear a bell because it was too soft.) Pen and paper. (at the end of the debate the adjudicator will need to know exactly how long each speaker spoke for. This should be recorded during the debate and handed to the adjudicator after the last speaker has spoken.) At the start of the debate the chairperson will call upon the timekeeper to demonstrate the bell. In five minutes debating, the indication of 3 minutes speaking having expired should be given by one knock (or a tap of the desk etc.) and the indication of 5 minutes speaking having expired should be given by two knocks (taps of the desk etc.). The grace time is 20 seconds; so at 5 minutes and 20 seconds there must be a continuous knock. A sample of timing and knocking indication must be given during the chairperson's introductory remarks and should be used consistently throughout the debate tournament. VENUE. A debate can be held just about anywhere from a school classroom to the stage in any stadium or a hall. In all cases the actual part of the room used for the participants in the debate is the same and is laid out according to the following diagram:

If you look at it, the affirm ative team sits on the right where as the negati ve team sits on the left, and the chairperson accompanied with the timekeeper sits in the middle. The adjudicator will sit with the audience (at the bottom of the diagram) as she or he is supposed to see the debate as the audience does. When the adjudication is delivered, however, the adjudicator will come to the front of the room and address all present. When speaking, a speaker should come out from behind the desk and stand in front of the people (the teams, the adjudicators and the audience) and the chairperson together with the timekeeper sits behind the speaker. ADJUDICATOR. The adjudicator decides the outcome of the debate. There may be one adjudicator or adjudicators may sit as a panel (always an odd number). The adjudicator does not bring with him or her any expert knowledge of the topic, always presuming the average knowledge of the average person, but will bring expert knowledge on debating. The adjudicator will give marks each speaker according to the prescribed rules of scoring available. If you still have to go that far, then a printed information is available, including the SMK ENGLISH DEBATING HANDBOOK which can be purchased from the Foreign Language Installation of VEDC Jakarta for the price of Rp. 100.000 per copy (complete with a copy in VCD).

AUDIENCE. The role of the audience is to enjoy the debate. The audience should applaud as each speaker is announced, as each speaker finishes speaking and when the result of the debate is announced. The audience should participate as any polite audience would, applauding, laughing and so on at appropriate times. The chairperson may ask any poorly behaved audience member to leave the room. ETIQUETTE. Like many similar activities, there are established forms of good behavior in debating. While a speaker is speaking, she or he has the floor and, unless debating in an Australasian Parliamentary Style, it should not be interrupted. This includes comments interjected by the audience or other speakers as well as disruptive behavior from the other team or the audience. In the name of fairness, speakers should sit down soon after their maximum time has expired. In some competitions a continuous knock is sounded after the speaker spends 5 minutes 20 seconds. At the end of the debate the losing team's captain should stand and congratulate the winning team publicly, thanking to them for the debate. The winning team's captain should thank to the other team, the debating officials (chairperson, timekeeper and adjudicator(s) and the audience. Both teams should then shake hands. It is considered poor sportsmanship to argue with the adjudicator about the result. If a gross breach of debating rules has been enacted then a formal appeal can be given, in writing, to the Chief Adjudicator. Otherwise discussions with the adjudicator should be to clear up any unclear points or to get some debating tips. Adjudicators are very happy to give such advice.


I. Politic Motion: 1. This house believes that people are getting irrational. 2. This house would control the press. 3. This house believes that undecided voting is against democracy. II. Education Motion: 4. This house would abolish exams. 5. This house would merge any schools with their neighbors. 6. This house would exert minimum score in SMK National Examination. III. Economy Motion: 7. This house believes that telephone tariff increase fools people. 8. This house would pay state officers based on merit system. 9. This house believes the government failed to run the economy. IV. Sport Motion: 10. This house would legalize the use of performance-enhancing drugs in sport 11. This house would censor sport uniforms. 12. This house would run national lotteries for developing sports. V. Social Motion: 13. This house would ban marriage to more than one wives. 14. This house believes that feminism has gone too far. 15. This house would give sex education in schools.

VI. Law Motion: 16. This house supports the death penalty for corruptors. 17. This house condemns the use of animals for entertainment. 18. This house would not permit gun ownership. VII. Entertainment Motion: 19. This house would ban beauty contests. 20. This house would censor TV programs. 21. This house would ban animals hunting for business.

VIII. Culture Motion: 22. This house would place its own culture first. 23. This house believes that you are what you see. 24. This house believes that Hollywood influences badly to our youth.


Round : Room :

Chair Person : Time Keeper : Motion : Adjudicator:

Affirmative Speakers







1st 2nd 3rd Reply

Total Score Negative Speakers







1st 2nd 3rd Reply

Total Score

Winner : Affirmative/Negative Margin : Best Speaker :

() Signature

Marking Scale
Substantive speech (1st, 2nd, 3rd) is scored:
Matter and Manner 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 Margin 1-4 5-8 9-12 Method Scale 13 Poor 14 Not so bad 15 Fair 16 Good 17 Very Good Meaning Close debate with relatively small difference between teams Clear debate with big advantage o one team Landslide debate, imbalance debate with almost no response from one team

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Peraturan Debate Bahasa Inggris

13 04 2008 Motion : Topik yang diperdebatkan (Tentu sudah pada tahu) Parameter : Limitation of the argument, yaitu batasan yg harus diberikan oleh team positif agar pembicaraan tidak panjang lebar dan tidak sesuai dengan Motion. Parameter penting sekali karena dalam perdebatan akan muncul ide-ide baru yang nantinya tidak akan bertemu pada satu titik.Maka gunanya parameter untuk membatasi isi daripada pembicaraan. Parameter juga bisa digunakan sebagai penjebak apabila team lawan berargumen yg keluar dari parameter anda. Jika Affirmative Team tidak memberikan parameter maka haknya bisa diambil oleh Negatif Team dan itu sangat berbahaya, karena jalur pembicaraan dipegang oleh team lawan. Team Split : Bagian-bagian yang akan di bicarakan oleh masing-masing speaker. Misalnya : society point of view,Law point of view,Morality point of view,Health pof dll. Themeline : Garis besar/inti dari motion yg diambil dari keseluruhan argument Matter : Materi yg dismpaikan harus sesuai dan berhubungan dengan motion(jgn keluar jalur) Manner : Cara penyampaian argument: sopan,tegas,meyakinkan,suara jgn sampai lembek karena berpengaruh pd kekuatan argument anda,jg BODY LANGUAGE jg sangat penting(jgn tegang seprti patung). (bisa dengan alittle bit emotion,tapi jangan marah2) Method : Metode penyampaian dari 1st speaker-3rd speaker dan pembagian tugas harus jelas. Ketiga unsur ini mempengaruhi margin dalam penjurian. Timer :

Ini juga sangat penting waktu semakin panjang makin bagus. Pengalaman saya : waktu bicara tidak usah terburu2 jika apa yg disampaikan tidak banyak, cobalah mengulur waktu dengan pura2 berpikir(acting),jadi waktu kita yg lama sebelum ketukan harus berhenti akan menambah margin juga dalam penilaian. Reply Speech: Kesimpulan dari ketiga argument yg menguatkan. Bisa di bawakan oleh 1st atau 2nd speaker(pembicara ketiga tidak boleh memberikan Reply Spech didlm Australian debate rules. Perlu diingat dlm penyampaian reply spech jangan sampai membuka kasus/ ide baru.Hanya sebuah penegasan dari argument team saja. Tugas2 Team Affirmatif 1st speaker: (1st speaker mendapat tugas paling banyak dan jangan ada yg tertinggal)

1. Introducing team 2. Giving the motion,parameter,themeline and team split. 3. argument

Contoh: Greetings Good morning/afternoon,ladies and gentleman the member of this house..atau..Madam,Mr.speaker sir the member of this house. Thankyou for the apportunity that given to me.We are from SMK N 1 Saptosari Wonosari.Lets me to introduce our team. Me as the 1st speakr,my name is, Our 2nd speaker is,and our 3rd speaker is Next i would like to give our motion today,our motion today is Thbt our govermnt should take a firm action upon illegal miner. From that motion we will give our themeline: That we as the affirmatif team absolutly agree that the gvrment must take a firm action to the illegal miner for the goodness of our country. Then our parameter today is that we just talk about the gold illegal miner in our country(dalam hal ini bs anda ganti dgn pertambangan yg lain,misal: minyak etc.) (Jadi jika lawan anda sampai bicara soal minyak padahal team anda memberikan pembatasan hanya pada penambangan emas,berarti satu kelemahan dari lawan bisa anda jadikan senjata.Anda bisa langsung nembak bahwa apa yg merka bicarakan lari dari parameter yg anda buat sbg team+) well,continue to our team split,

Me as the 1fst speaker would like to talk about the effect for Economic point of view,our 2nd speaker would like to talk about the Law pov and the 3rd speaker wldlike to give more proof and summery of our argument. (bisa diganti P.o.v.yg lain, mis: society dll) And for the reply speech(kesimpulan) will be give by (1st or 2nd )speaker. Next ladies and gentleman,i would like to give mour argument..()silahkan berargument sesuai point of view anda. Jangan lupa untuk memberikan salam penutup dan ucapan terimakasih (untuk semua pembicara) 2nd speaker: Tugas:

1. Rebutle the 1st speaker of Neg Team. 2. Argument

3rd speaker:

1. Rebutle the 2nd speaker of Neg team 2. Memberikan penguatan atas argumen pembicara1 dan 2 3. Memberikan contoh n bukti yg kuat untuk keseluruhan argument of the team.
Khusus untuk 3rd speaker lebih baik yg bnr2 pandai brbicara dan lebih galak.Karena 3rd spkr adalah ujung tombak dari team anda.jadi 3rd speaker adlh hrs yg pling kuat dlm berargument. Tugas Untuk Negatif team: Pada dasarnya sama hanya tidak perlu membuat parameter karena team afirmatif telah menentukan sendiri Sebagai negatif harus jeli terhadap tugas2 1st speaker of +. Ingat: jika tdk ada parameter anda bisa merebut point itu. katakan saja mis: 1st speaker of Neg: well because the 1st speaker of affrmtf team didnt give us the parameter,so here i wouldlike to give our parameter todaybla..bla.. Jadi mau tdk mau mereka harus ikut jalur anda.(sesuatu yg sepele dan sangat menjatuhkan posisi lawan krn bisa saja mrk tdk kepikiran tentang batasan pembicaraan yg anda buat, jadi mereka bisa bingung sendiri mengawali argument mereka.) Seandainya mereka nekat lari tanpa peduli parameter anda,maka itu suatu kesalahan yg besar,berarti perdebatan tdk ada artinya alias cuma bicara sendiri2 dan anda bisa langsung menegurnya. Jelasnya : 1st speaker: Rebutle of the 1st speaker afrmtf

Pembagian tugas sama sprti diatas Argument 2nd : rebutle of the2nd spkr of afrmtf Argument 3rd :rebutle of 3rd speaker of + team proofing n summery(jgn buat kasus baru)

Demikian kurang lebihnya untuk Australian debate rules.Ada jg untuk Australasia debate rules yaitu sama dgn diatas hanya saja pd saat masing2 pembicara berargumen, maka pembicara dr tean lawan bisa mendebat secara langsung(debat Kusir). Misalnya ditengah anda sedang bera argument maka salah satu atau dua..atau bahkan ketiganya dari team lawan akan berdiri sambil mengangkat tangan dan berteriak P.o.i (point of interuption)lalu menyampaikan rebutlenya untuk anda. Namun cara ini jarang dipakai,hanya kemarin pernah ada di EDC smu-smk seDIY di AKPRIND univ.