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Teacher Interview
a. The student has little motivation to do class work. Compared to the other students
b. If the student stopped and really took the time to do his work he is able to do it
correctly.
a. This student has a hard time gasping ideas. In terms ofclass time, the student has
a. The student has an IEP for a Learning Disability. He also participates in the Title
a. The students family has been contacted and seems to care, but has not come
through YET.
Student Observation
The setting for this observation is in an urban fifth grade classroom. There were about
twenty students in the room, and the student being observed, "Danny", sits on the far right side
of the room in the second to last row. Danny has nothing on his desk but a pencil, and he is
slouched down in his chair. While other students continually talk to each other, Danny sits
quietly.
I would expect this student to be more aware of his surroundings and more social with his
peers. This class has a general issue with behavior and talking out of turn. Many times it is a
domino effect. If one student gets out of line everyone else in the class follows. This student is
not an outcast from the rest of the class, and he seems to have a lot of friends. I would expect the
student to partake in the chatter, rather than sitting there calmly. Also, I would expect that the
student, being in school, would be more attentive. There are lessons being taught in the room,
students talking, worksheets being passed out, and I would expect the student to be more
responsive to the world around him. Due to his inattentiveness, I would expect the student to
During this observation there was a math lesson being taught. After the teacher gives out
the worksheet on angles, the student pays little attention to the teacher's direction. He begins to
play with his pencil under his desk and then gets in trouble for it. Following this reprimand, the
class was instructed to turn over their worksheet and begin. The student slouched deeper into his
seat, held onto his pencil and put his head on his desk. After a few minutes of rest, Danny picks
his head up and starts to write down the notes off the board. One can see that he is squinting;
therefore, the board may be hard for him to read. After writing down some notes the student
becomes unaware again. He stops writing and stares at the class around him. He tries to start the
worksheet again. In frustration Danny hits his desk with his fist and then throws his head back.
As the teacher sees the students not working she goes to the board and explains how to do each
problem. Danny does finish the worksheet and gets up to tum it in. While all of this is going on,
the other students in the class are chaotic. Eventually, the teacher shuts the lights off and starts to
yell. Everyone must put away all of their things and sit in silence. Danny falls into his seat and
puts his hand over his face. The children sit with their heads down and are reprimanded for the
This student does and does not match my expectations. I am surprised that he did not
participate in all of the class chaos. It seems to be a snowball effect, and he never got caught in
it. Something that matched my expectations was the students lack of work ethic. He had little
motivation to write down the notes and listen to the teacher when she was explaining the
worksheet. As a result he was very frustrated. With the many worksheets the students complete
daily, I would expect that the students are not engaged in their learning. As a result of this
disengagement the student gets frustrated and the class gets out of control. I would expect the
child to behave differently if the situation were to be different. The routine of the explanation of
a worksheet, pass out the worksheet, complete the worksheet, get yelled at, and sit with your
head down is a common occurrence in this classroom. If the student were to be more engaged in
many of the other students in the class, but overall the class is below grade level. The type of
work that the student is completing is not meaningful. The student is not developing his thinking
skills, and more than likely does not retain most of what he should in class. The student does not
have the ability to scaffold his thinking. Seeing that the students are not allowed to talk in class,
Danny has not developed his ability to solve problems and interact with other students. Instead of
speaking up about his frustrations, Danny simply shuts down. Generally speaking, Danny is not
Overall I feel that this observation was not the best look at this students skill. There were
many interruptions and the student was not fully invested in his work. While I think that a new
situation would be beneficial to see how the student works in a math lesson, this observation was
very true to the classroom environment which the student is a part of. There are constant
interruptions and yelling. To some extent I feel that the students work is reflective of this
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(Answer ILl # 0991138)
Classify Angles
Classify each angle as acute, obtuse, straight, or right.
1. 2. 3. 4.
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The survey test was administered in the workroom of the elementary school. The student
had a spot which was cleared off for him to work. The student sat on one side of the table with
only his pencil and test. I sat on the other side of the table. The door was closed so that there
would be little interruption while the student was taking the test. Upon starting the test the
student was told that this test would not be taken for a grade and to try his hardest. I also said thatl
I would not be able to answer any questions. If the student did not know how to complete the
question he was told to try his best to solve the problem, but not to be upset if he did not know
While taking the test, the student stopped often to look out of the window. There would
be times when he would set his pencil down and simply stare. Other times he would stare at the
paper and not write anything for a few minutes. The beginning of the test seemed to be easier for
the student, and it become more difficult as the test went on. Often during the testing the student
would ask me how to do a problem or ask ifhis answer was correct. The fact that I could not
answer these questions for him was frustrating for him. He often chose to just write down a
random answer.
Towards the end of the test it was getting close to lunch time and the student asked me
how long he had until lunch. He was concerned with the time and paid less and less attention to
the test itself. When completed he put his head down and waited for me to take the test. He then
After the student left the room I sat down and graded the survey test. On a side note, after
speaking with the students teacher and being given academic information about the student, the
student was given a survey test at a fourth grade level, although he is enrolled in the fifth grade.
This served to be a good choice because most of the areas on the test did not meet the mastery
level. The student excelled at operations, number concepts, and data. All other mathematical
areas on the test did not meet mastery level. The two areas which will be chosen for the probes
are time and fractions/decimals. In the following three weeks the student will be administered
Facts: Yes
Automatic and • Can subtract with decimals
accurate
computation.
Operations: No
Error patterns • Does not understand mixed numbers
• Orders fractions randomly

Problem Solving: Not Applicable
Incorrect!
inconsistent
strategies used in
word problems
Concepts: No
The underlying
concept of the
operation
f
Strategies: No
What strategies • Rewriting the problem
does the student • Places fractions in random order
bring to the
computation?
Survey Test: Time
Facts: Yes
Automatic and • Reading a clock
accurate
computation.
Operations: No
Error patterns • Time lapse
• Does not use hours and minutes
Problem Solving: No
Incorrect! • Inconsistent
inconsistent • Reading difficulty
strategies used in • Counting time
word problems
Concepts: No
The underlying
concept of the
operation
Strategies: No
What strategies • Random answers
does the student • Answers all in hours
bring to the • Subtracted hours despite minutes (6 pm  1 pm = 5 hours)
computation?
Survey Test
Name: Date: _
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7. Place the following numbers in order from smallest to
largest
7 4 32 28 17 9 12
8 . Take the information from the table and place the number
t:
of births on the number line below.
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2 Ibs 2 oz. 20 Ibs 8
.~ Circle the best estimate of a bowl of soup.
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re. Order this group of fractions from greatest to least.
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Data, Statistics, and Probability
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Angela rode the subway for 40 minutes. She got off at
6: 14. What time did she begin her trip?
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How much time passes between 1:25pm and 6: 15pm?
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Objectives
(4.2.10) Use a standard algorithm to add and subtract decimals with fewer than 4 errors
out of 17 questions given weekly.
(4.1.7) Name and write mixed numbers as improper fractions using objects or pictures
with fewer than 4 errors out of 17 questions given weekly.
Time
(4.5.9) Add time intervals involving hours and minutes with fewer than 7 errors out of20
questions given weekly.
Strategies
The two weak areas which have been chosen are fractions/decimals and time. After
analyzing the survey test and probes, one can see that this student does not understand the
underlying concepts of these subjects. In terms of fractions and decimals the student places
fractions in a random order, decimals are placed in order of largest to smallest despite their place
value, and sometimes the student rewrites the problem given. In terms of time, the student does
know how to tell time on an analogue clock, but does not understand time lapse. Often the
student is inconsistent with his answers and has difficulty reading. These difficulties are
hindering the student in moving forward in his mathematical studies, but there are many
strategies which can be used to aid the student in comprehension of various mathematical areas.
Strategy One
The strategy which will be discussed is decimals, and the important of place value. This
is a particular interest for the student because when placing in order decimals he ignores place
value. The article, "Place Value as the Key to Teaching Decimal Operations" was published in
Teaching Children Mathematics, a monthly journal. The article first states that many students are
weak in decimal knowledge due to their lack of knowledge in place value. Students who do not
have a flexible understanding of place value often confuse two things. First the students see the
decimal portion of a number as a whole number. An example of this is 1.16 is larger than 1.8
because 16 is a larger integer than 8. The second misconception is the more digits there are, the
smaller the number. An example of this is thinking that 12.94 and 12.32 are both smaller than
12.6 because they have more digits. These misconceptions are easily changed if the students
Many students understand the idea of tens place, hundreds place, etc. but they may not see to the
right of the decimal as tenths, hundredths, thousandths, etc. In order to work with decimals the
student needs to be able to make that distinction. In order to help the student understand this
concept manipulatives are often used. With the base ten blocks, teachers can change the value of
what is "one unit" and make it possible for a single cube to be representative of a hundredth or
tenth. With this strategy, students will learn to be flexible with decimals. The ultimate goal of
this strategy is to have students see the right side of the decimal as an extension of the place
value system, and to see the decimal as one quantity. If students are flexible and comprehend
decimal place values, the two misconceptions mentioned above are no longer applicable. With
ample practice, the student will be able to apply their knowledge to number sense, decimals and
The second part of fractions/decimals is working with fractions. Knowing that often
students are confused by fractions, it is great to find ways to integrate and visualize these
concepts. In the article "Painting Watercolor Fractions" the main goal for this elementary school
teacher is for her students to get hands on work with fractions. The students start with a large
piece of paper and cut it into two pieces, and then four pieces, and then each of the four sections
get cut into an additional eight pieces. After the students have cut their paper they have seen the
process of making 1/2, 1/4, 1/8, 1/16, and 1/32. From there, the students are told to paint 2/8 of
one section blue, or 1/4 of the entire piece red. In order to follow the directions and make the art
grid correctly, the students must understand fractions. Furthermore, throughout the art making
process students are being questioned about their fractional pieces. These questions keep
students thinking about the mathematical concepts as the primary part of the lesson and the art
making as the secondary part. This project is helpful for students who need the visual support of
lessons.
This project would be helpful to this specific student because he does not have an
understanding of what fractions are larger than or smaller than others. By physically cutting out
the pieces of the art grid the student would be able to see that although 8 pieces is more then 4
pieces, 1/8 is smaller than 1/4. Also, when the student is being questioned on what is bigger or
smaller, he has tangible fractions to work with. The art section of this project allows not only for
a visual representation, but it also alleviates some of the math pressure that this student feels.
Often the student gets very frustrated with math worksheets and problems. If the student is doing
a math assignment which is integrated with art he may be less likely to feel that pressure and
become frustrated.
Strategy Two
For the third strategy the student will be concentrating on time. Often, if a student
understands fractions and decimals they have a better understanding of time. The analogue clock
works with fractions. While the knowledge of fractions may help a student learn about time, this
student's difficulty is time lapse. Looking at the probes and survey test, it seems as if the student
does not understand how time "adds up". Although many of the number systems taught in school
are based on the idea of ten, time is not one of them. In the article "Time out for Time" this is a
topic which is discussed. Time is based on numbers which can be divided by 60, 24 and 365.
This is an abstract thought for many students. A strategy which this article suggests is to teach
the idea of time and the lapse of time though an informal unit of measurement. The specific
example is the use of a pendulum, but any consistent measure would work. Using the example of
a pendulum, the students are asked to see how many swings it takes for the students to complete
a task. This task could be singing a song or cleaning up after an activity. The number of swings
is the students unit of time. Once the students have this understanding of an informal unit of
measurement, the teacher can introduce its relationship to time. Students will begin to understand
what a minute really is, and how different measures of time relate to one another.
Understanding the relation of time will help this student understand time lapse. If the
student understands that once sixty minutes has passed it turns into one hour, the student will be
less likely to answer a question with one hour and seventyfive minutes. The student would then
realize that the answer would be two hours and fifteen minutes. This student would be able to
understand time intervals and their relation to how the clock is read.
Time intervals are important to understand how time repeats and how time moves
throughout the day. In the article "It's About Time", the author suggests various activities for a
class to do frequently. One of the suggestions it makes is for each student to create a clock and
create pictures of various activities which are done throughout the day. Examples of these
activities would be eating breakfast or lunch, taking the bus or going to soccer practice. The
students are instructed to place the events on clock where they would occur during their day.
Once they have done that the teacher can observe and ask them questions. "How much time is
between breakfast and lunch?" "If soccer practice starts at 3:45 pm and school ends at 3:15 pm,
how many minutes do you have to get to soccer?" The students would have a clock to look at in
order to figure out how much time there is between these activities. This will support the
This will be a worthwhile strategy for this specific student for multiple reasons. This
activity can be done quickly, often, and it is able to be modified for many students. Seeing that
this student has a hard time paying attention, the fact that this is done quickly is effective. The
student gets a review of time lapse and working with the clock. He is not overloaded with
information and is able to work with his own clock at his own desk. In terms of modification,
each student may have as many or as few events on their clock. Where one student may have
five things to do that day, another may only have two. This allows every level oflearning to
Conclusion
The main goal for this student is to find strategies that will help him learn the
mathematical concepts, as well as accommodating to the students specific needs. The strategies
given above are all interactive and hands on. Seeing that the student is enrolled in a classroom
that is primarily worksheet driven and the student is not finding success, the worksheets are not
an effective route. Looking at the research, the strategies provided allow the student to work with
materials that are real and substantial, rather than trying to conceptualize abstract ideas.
Moreover, knowing that the student has difficulty with attention span and reading, the activities
alleviate some of that stress. These strategies should help the student comprehend the math and
Puwamb,
Document Translation: 9SYSTRAH
Translate this document to: Select Language .

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The magazine publisher is the copyright holder of this article and it is reproduced with permission. Further
reproduction of this article in violation of the copyright is prohibited.
Some years ago 1 examined several middle school students' understanding of numbers (ThreadgillSowder 1984).
The answers that students gave me during that study showed me that their understanding, developed largely
through experiences in the elementary grades, was fuzzy and led me to undertake a decade of research on children's
number sense in the elementary and middle school grades. 1 will set the stage for this article by sharing two of the
questions 1 gave the students during that study and some of the responses 1 received.
QUESTION 1
The sum of 148.72 and 51.351 is approximately how much?
One student said, "Two hundred point one zero zero. Because the sum of 72 and 35 is about 100, and then 148
and 51 is about 200." (Note: 1 have used words for numerals where there is confusion about how the students read
the numbers.) Another said, "One hundred fifty point four seven zero, because one hundred fortyeight point seven
two rounds to one hundred point seven and fiftyone point three five one rounds to fifty point four zero zero. Add
those." Fewer than half the students gave 200 as an estimate of this sum. The others saw a decimal number as two
numbers separated by a point and considered rounding rules to be inflexible.
QUESTION 2
789 x 0.52 is approximately how much?
One response was "789. 1 rounded point five two up to 1 and multiplied." A second student said, "Zero. This (789)
is a whole number, and this (0.52) is not. It (0.52) is a number, but it is very small. You round 789 to 800, times
zero is zero." Only 19 percent of the students rounded 0.52 to 0.5 or V2 or 50 percent. Several of them said that
answering this question without paper and pencil was impossible and refused to continue. The majority of students
had little idea of the size of a decimal fraction and applied standard rounding rules that were inappropriate for this
estimation.
Others who have studied elementary school children's understanding of decimal numbers have found that when
f;~rth'th7;;~9h'~~\~;d~~;"bY s~~:~~~~!':~~~_·.~
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. . . . . . . . . . . .(p. 161). These rules worked just often enough that students did not recognize that they
were in error. (1 suspect that many teachers will recognize them.)
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smaller than 12.17, because 4 is smaller than 17.
'~~".f~ I'!...,r/~I"~~,,"'~I(e.g.,12.94 and 12.24 are smaller
than 12.7, because they each nave two digits and 12.7 has only one) .
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powers and multiples of 10, both mentally and on paper, give students a flexibility useful with whole numbers, and
showing that if students do not have a sound understanding of place value when they learn to add and subtract
decimal numbers, they make many errors that are very difficult to overcome because they are reluctant to relearn
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Full text Page 3 of5
The unit summarized here was developed for a research study (Markovits and Sowder 1994) and resulted in
students' performing much better on later decimal topics in their textbook. This unit has also been used by teachers
who asked me for a way to teach decimals meaningfully. These teachers later told me that they thought the students
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who completed this instructional unit had a much better grasp of decimal numbers than did their students in
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iiiie.(jbhs'1itUs;6I1d1tntng famJlJar1tVw"'~li .. which can be ordered from most catalogs of
mathematical aids. The materials consist of individual centimeter cubes, long blocks that are marked to look as
though ten cubes have been glued in a row; flat blocks that are marked to look as though ten longs have been glued
into a tenbyten block, and lar e. . blocks
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Students must play with the blocks and learn relationships to answer such questions as the following:
* How many longs are in a flat?
* How many small blocks are in 3 longs?
* Where do you think there will be more longs, in 3 flats or in 1 big block?
* I have 6 longs and 3 small blocks. What do I have to add in order to have a flat?
* Which is bigger, that is, has ~_Iats or 48 longs?
In the next lesson we begin to"" " ' ',:';1<' "  : : The small blocks are used to represent the
number 1. Students then are asked what numbers are represented by various sets of blocks: two big blocks, three
flats, and 2 little blocks; one flat and 2 longs; and so on. They must also represent numbers with blocks; for
example, they show 404 with blocks. Twodimensional drawings can later be used for the blocks, and these drawings
AlternativelY,' stu,den,ts can be asked t(),,~~o~ WitQ);lI,9s's,~,!h.e 1~r,9'~,rL"~Jt",Q",,,.9,f!,,1J9)U~,l',W, P,i,~Ro,fth",e ""um,,b,e,rs 204 and
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* Can you represent 46 321 with the blocks you have? Why or why not?
* Can you represent 8 V2 with the blocks you have? ~~~,""~~,,
The next lessons should focus on changing the unit. _~~_(tudents
can then be asked to represent 76. (They would do so With seven flats and SIX longs.) Aff~'m'any'ilu~stions,
they can again be asked, "Can you represent 8 V2 with the blocks you have? Why or why not?" (Yes, with eight longs
and five small cubes.) It is then worthwhile to ask a few questionsremaining in the wholenumber systemwhere
ukewise, children can come to understand that a small block in this context represents one hundredth, and many
questions similar to the previous questions can be asked. Teachers can also present such problems as the following:
In 6.40 are _ _ tens and _ _ ones and _ _ tenths and _ _ hundredths, In 6.4 are _ _ tens and
ones and _ _ tenths and _ _ hundredths. In 6.04 are _ _ tens and ones and _ _ tenths and
A great deal of practice is needed in each of the lessons described here; the questions indicated areonly a small
involVing decimals, it is time to SWitch to another representation. A day or two spent with moneydollars and cents
will work well. Finally, a lesson or two should focus directly on decimal numbers without using another representation
(although many children will naturally answer in terms of "blocks" or "wood"). Questions like the followlnq can be
asked:
* Is 0.1 closer to 0 or to 1?
* Is 1.72 closer to 1 or to 2?
* I am a number. I am bigger than 0.5 and smaller than 0.6. Who am I?
* Are there decimals between 0.3 and 0.4? How many do you think there are?
* Are there decimals between 0.35 and 0.36? How many?
* Are there decimal numbers between 0.357 and 0.358? How many?
Draw baskets and label them "Numbers smaller than 0.5," "Numbers bigger than 0.5 but smaller than 1,"
"Numbers between 1 and 3," and "Numbers bigger than 3." Then give the students the following numbers and ask
them to place each number in the appropriate basket: 0, 0.03, 1.01,5.08,2.63,0.49,0.93,0.60, 1.19, and so on.
This type of problem can be made more difficult with baskets labeled "Numbers between 0.4 and 0.5," "Numbers
between 0.7 and 0.8," and "All other numbers."
If desired, these lessons could be interrupted before decimal numbers are introduced, and addition and
subtraction of whole numbers could be introduced using the blocks. But when addition and subtraction of decimal
~, .,........
"
,··_c,~~~,·'!Br.J4k.gerfl
_,_.____ uch students also develop a good feeling for th'e~sries of
edina I numbers and can compare them with one another. It did not occur to any of the students who received this
instruction to round 0.52 to 0 or to 1 when estimating a product0.52 was simply seen as "about a half."
When students understand what they are doing, they tend to enjoy doing mathematics. It is worth the time
needed to build strong foundations. The time will be easily made up in future lessons, and students are much more
likely to be successful.
FIGURE 2 Alternative number names and representations when a long represents one unit
REFERENCES
Hiebert, James. "Mathematical, Cognitive, and Instructional Analyses of Decimal Fractions." In Analysis of
http://vnweb.hwwilsonweb.comlhww/results/results_single_fulltext.jhtml;hwwilsonid=S4... 4/19/2008
Full text Page 50f5
Arithmetic for Mathematics Teaching, edited by Gaea Leinhardt, Ralph Putnam, and Rosemary A. Hattrup, 283322.
Hillsdale, N. J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc., 1992.
Markovits, Zvia, and Judith T. Sowder. "Developing Number Sense: An Intervention Study in Grade 7." Journal for
Research in Mathematics Education 25 (January 1994): 429.
SackurGrisvard, Catherine, and Fran cots Leonard. "Intermediate Cognitive Organizations in the Process of
J
Learning a Mathematical Concept: The Order of Positive Decimal Numbers." Cognition and Instruction 2 (1985): 157
74.
Sowder, Judith T. "Instructing for Rational Number Sense." In Providing a Foundation for Teaching Mathematics in
the Middle Grades, edited by Judith T. Sowder and Bonnie P. Schappelle, 1529. Albany, N. Y.: SUNY Press, 1995.
ThreadgillSowder, J. "Computational Estimation Procedures of School Children." Journal of Educational Research
77 (JulyAugust 1984): 33236.
WBN: 9709100445006
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20 arts & activities I april 2005
< Luke Evans
textures. It is what we can use to make our paintings
active and exciting.
We looked at reproductions of paintings that were divid
ed into grids and observed how the artists used repetitions
of shapes and colors to create beautiful art. (Spectral
Sq %Wres, by Richard Anuszkiewicz, Spectrum Colors
Arranged by Chance by Ellsworth Kelly, and Flora on the
Sand by Paul Klee.)
We began by folding a 12" x IS" sheet of SOlb. drawing
aoer in half both vertically and ho~zonta1ly""
~; I placer~~,
crayons at the tables. Workin t02:eth~r, we used a red cray
on to divide th
I
i absence of color) and black (all colors
I together) as neutral colors, along with the
i gray and brown. To obtain white, a rectangle
i could be left unpainted. ',' '" .
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Before . we started, .. .' . .
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Art & Cultural Education Materials, Inc.
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(The one rule I One & TwoWeek Workshops
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ment and rhythm work together to
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Florence, Italy star spaces became positive again .. .. \ ~ I '. I '; .. ' ,.'
July 230 when the paper was glued onto an Porcomplete course qfferings1.
... ... ... ... ... ... orange rectangle. vi~it ...vWw.arrowmOnt;org
. or caU for a ~talpg. .\
Days of the Dead We overlapped lines to create plaids
and created little landscapes. Some of
Oaxaca, Mexico
October 27Nov. 2 our rectangles had radial symmetry, r'&OW.MONT\\\
while others achieved asymmetrical 4~aaj"_;'J'M .
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balance. At one table, a group of drag ~5S6',Pijf~y 1\.~t1jJlf}u.gXrif:~8 \ .
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ons appeared! Because our lessons last
just 45 minutes, we made folders from 8654365860
larde No.212 l>'\ ARTS & ACTlvmES ReaderServItoe;.,rdl 1211 x 1811 sheets of manila paper. At the www.arrowmont.org
end of one session, our collages were [Clrcle No. 204 on ARTS & ACJMT1ES Rood... Se..lee Card)
tIAWD>,.~. ~~r:::
placed on the drying rack and our
remaining colors of paper were stored c.~\CAGO CAN\!4
& SUPPLY S
.: Aflr~J & Inks in our folders.
My students were very happy with Canvas • Muslin • Theatre Fabric
• Curtain Track • Dyes/Paints
M~~~:~it
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played at our school's annual art Ph: (773( 478~700 • Fax: (773) 5883139
show and received many compli www.chicagocanves.com
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INTEGRA TING
Math ...
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IN YOUR
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is betweenseventenths and eighttenths." 0.811 119
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Haveyourstudentsset upa whole num ~ul:tiplying With CWecimals
berWithbaselOpieces say, 156 and (~racles 58)
Place the Point (~rades 3~t
Now move Spotso he's lookingat the decimal places atfirst and compute307x . sensetodetermine where the point goes.
'1 five long pieces. They were five tens, but 435 = :133545. Students learn a rulefor Here~ a few examples:
'1
II now Spot.says they're five .oneY. What where to place the decimal point count . .
/., number do the pieces represent now? . the total number of places to the right of 14.5.08 + 3.799 7.] 8307
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." kidsestimate what mals is tbinking5.l2 is .greater than 5.8,
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the answer Will be since J2 is .greater than S.,You can help
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,. means tfJe single blocksthat.had been ones ,havebecore tenths. and'place the dec students see values of decimalswith a
imalpoint accord number line. Draw a number line and
The smallestpiecesare onetenth the size .ingly. Students may reason this way: 30 label a few points for reference: Write
'j
.of the ones, so they'are tenths, andthe  x 4=,120; so 30.7:x4.35should be.alit decimal numbers, on stickynotes and
large square is the tens. The .nnmber 'is, . tie more.They'll have no.trouble placing, have studentsstickthem on the line. This
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read as 15 aridsixtenths and written15.6., ,the decimalpoint: 133:545. Furthermore, . activity can be donein spare moments
Students Can model other decimal num theylll be ~timating and doing mental just be sure you have time for a discus I
bers.writingthem in base 10 notation.•. ' matlt·.
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sionafterwards.
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Teaching Math
reaJi1"K and math programs, Ticktack activities foreven the youngest children.
and our scores reflect tbe
$IICCe$S! we certainly have
improved 011 ITBS, bllt we
·~~r..ol4~>;..
www.saxonpublishers.com
CIRCLE 46 ON READER SERVICE CARD
Time out for time.;.
continuedfrom page 22
passed._
. .,._.._iill
and TestTaking Skills .
Reading 'rime (Grades 13)
Childrencan learn to read a digitalclock
.
't
'We know "it's .important to you to help your students practice more
thanjust testtaking skills, You want your students to develop skills
thatcanmake them successful throughout theiracademic careers
AN.D beyond. The multilevel books in the Mathematical Thinking
series give you thetools to help students develop creative thinking "~';.)'.,;::,
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skillsso they not only gettherightanswer, they understand tr
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It's easy for students to figure out
how they got it.
how many seconds are in a given period
.of time. It's more difficult for them to
Six levels of math problems help you tailor
convertin the other direction  for exam
yoW: instruction to yo~ students' abilities:
ple, how many days are in a millionsec
CTP2613 Level A (Gr.12) CTP2616 Level D (Gr.34)
ISBN 1574717847 ISBN 1574717871 onds? To convert from a million sec
CTP2614 Level B (Gr.12) CTP2617 Level E (Gr.56) onds, divide onemillionby 60 to find
ISBN 157471'"7855 ISBN 157471788)(
CTP2615 Level C (Gr.34) Crp 2618 Level F (Gr.56) minutes, then by 60 again 10find hours
. ISBN 1574717863 ISBN 1574717898 and so on. Have students compare one
million seconds (about 10.5 days), on~
billion seconds (almost 32 years) and
Tolocate the educational supply storenearest you, call 8002878879, or
look one up on theWeb at www.creativeteaching.com. one trillion seconds (32,000 years!). +
24 CIRClE 19 ONREADER SERVICE CARD APRIL 2002 • www.TeachingK.8.com
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directly to students. Students may
groups. No solutions
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CURRICULUMBASED MEASUREMENT DATA CHART
StudentNanne_~~~~~U_Jj~~~
_____________________
\.l __ Reading
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S c h 0 0 l",..,; r: ____
•.l'""::,t.,,,,!':::~ ":'2>.cJ". Gr a d e _~ Room 
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B1 B2 B3 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
INSTRUCTIONAL WEEKS
Data Table: Record CBM data in the table below prior to charting.
Week # Date CBMData Week # Date CBMData Week# Date CBMData
,;
Jllf\ r
Ol f;; "s:IO l I I I I
lB.2Jd, I,~ Iff] r: 'GJ J ,( I I / I
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I / I I I I
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CURRICULUMBASED MEASUREMENT DATA CHART
StudentNarne__l:L~rl~______________________
__ Reading
School ~ ' _
__Qy:c:;..l.1.1I:.. ~
Grade_~____ Roorn _____ ~Mathematics
__Spelling
City Reading Level ___ City Math Level: ____ _ Writing
50
I
40I
30)
20)
1
10I
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o
Bl B2 B3 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
INSTRUCTIONAL WEEKS
Data Table: Record CBM data in the table below prior to charting.
Week # Date CBMData Week # Date CBM Data Week# Date CBM Data
[jill I a ,Q~/n~ ~ J IS I I I I
lB.zJ~ 3 11.0 ID8 (P II S I I I I
~s 3 kilOlo' \ 1//5 I I I I
I I I I I I
I I I I I I
I I I I I I
I I I I I I
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This probe was administered on February 28, 2008. This probe was administered in the
workroom with the door closed. After the student sat down at the table he began to work on the
fractions and decimals probe first. He asked multiple questions and was frustrated that I could
not answer them. He continued to work and methodically went through the test. He started at the
first question and went in order until the end. When he did not know the answer he started to
circle things and write down random answers. Many of his answers were inconsistent and
showed little strategy. When he was done with the fractions and decimal test he gave it to me
and I handed him the time test. He sighed and put his head on the desk. After a moment of sitting
there he picked his head up and began to take the time test. Throughout this test he asked fewer
questions since he knew there was little chance of me answering them. He finished quickly and
In the middle of his test a teacher's aide came into the workroom and began singing. She
stated that she eats her lunch in here every day at this time and that there is nowhere else she
could eat. She saw that he was testing but made little effort to be quiet. She made her lunch in the
microwave, photocopied, sang a little song and tried to have a conversation with me while my
student was taking his test. It was very distracting to him, but in the middle of the probes I did
not want to get up and make him move to a new location. I mentioned to her that he was taking a
test but it did not seem to change her behavior. I do not know if this occurrence changed his test
Facts: Yes
Automatic and
accurate
computation.
Operations: No
Error patterns • Place value error
• Random assignment of fractions
• No knowledge of mixed numbers
Concepts: No
The underlying
concept of the
operation
Strategies: No
What strategies • Student circles the largest number despite place value
does the student • Student randomly assigns answers to fractions
bring to the • Student rewrites the problem
computation?
,'
t~br~v (w"~l I)'~ / .) () DSj 'l51/;J
Fractions and Decimals
1) 98.017 C]8,oJi
~ t..J '
+ 26.346 dr, iJ).
i ';'"!.
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.... _
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2) 106.904
" ,1< l ',. 71; 1~
/.. . )Ql
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87.812 !
l.
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7) Order this group of fractions from greatest to least
_l e t 6/5 I I I<
~ Write this mixed number as an improper fraction
1 1/5
\ \ '5
(vIs
Facts: Yes
Automatic and • Reading clock
accurate
computation.
Operations: No
Error patterns • Time lapse
Problem Solving: No
Incorrect! • Inconsistent strategy
inconsistent • Reading difficulty
strategies used in
word problems
Concepts: No
The underlying • Time lapse
concept of the • Does not understand 60 minutes is the same as 1 hour
operation
Strategies: No
What strategies • Random answers
does the student • Finger counting
bring to the • Leaving answers blank
computation?
~tb·('l'C~'(~ J ~ (~80:{ I
Time
~
x\
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1) What time does this clock say?
)~\
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2) What time does this clock say?
,5 'I \ Cj
)(\
..... \
+3
5) Leslie got on her bike at 2:30 pm. When she got home it was 3:45 pm. How
long did Leslie ride her bike? II .~ I, C,
L ~O\f~ \ CA"~ ~
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~'\ \~ yI\~~~
"
t 1.)
I nOlly 15 mi rv
6) Rachel went to a concert for 3 and }'z hours. She got home at 11:35 pm. What
time did the concert start?
\~\OO ~N\
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I
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8) How much time passes between 11:00 am and 2:45 pm?
°l?f
J~
9) Jacki has to be at school by 8 am. It is 6:45 am right now. How long does she
have to get to school?
2 V') O'".N?::7
o } d'
10) Brooke is cleaning her room. It is now 2 pm and she needs to be done by 5:55
pm. How long does Brooke have to clean her room?
I~;L
Probe 2
This probe was administered on March 6, 2008. Considering what happened the week
before in the workroom, I decided to change our location and go to a table in the library. This
worked out well, even though there was a class in the library. My student finished quicker, which
could have been result of fewer distractions around him. Also, this test was done after lunch,
rather than before. This made a difference because the student was not overly concerned with
time. He was not asking what time it was or when lunch was going to start.
This time the student asked for the time probe first instead of the fractions and decimals.
Throughout this test the student asked few questions. While watching him it seemed as of this
may have gotten easier for him to complete due to the speed which he was finishing the probe.
When grading the probe that statement did not stand true. In many of the questions he did not
answer completely or correctly. Often in this time probe he would only give answers in hours
without considering minutes at all. He rushed through it and did not take the time to really work
on the problems.
After completing the time probe he had asked to use the bathroom. I gave him a pass and
he did not come back for a few minutes. I went to go look for him and he was found talking to
other students in the hall way. He stated that he did not want to take another test, but reluctantly
came back to the library. During the fractions and decimals probe, the student worked quickly
and complained often. He wanted to go to the bathroom, the nurse and back to class. He
randomly assigned numbers, left answers blank and rewrote what was in the question. Due to the
behaviors during testing I do not know if this probe is a good representation of his knowledge in
Facts: Yes
Automatic and
accurate
computation.
Operations: No
Error patterns • Place value error
• Random assignment of fractions
• No knowledge of mixed numbers
Concepts: No
The underlying
concept of the
operation
Strategies: No
What strategies • Student circles the largest number despite place value
does the student • Student randomly assigns answers to fractions
bring to the • Student leaves problem blank
computation?
\ ..
fYX\( Cn lp J .r: o 7
Fractions and Decimals II
\I
1) 84.198
+ 31.086
"*,\; I I \ ~.z ~ ~
/ ,\ \t
2) '~824
~  34.513
l( )
11q ~\ \
().11
t ~
.t\
Cpr/leo
5) Order this group of decimals from greatest to least ). 3.
::, \ L I
0.482 0.23 0.087 . ~~ J. , u87
'J3
xO
~11 }O
11/9 C\/ c\
1 2/5
7/s
'r:t0
....... __
)
J(_~
Time Probe 2
Facts: Yes
Automatic and • Reading clock
accurate
computation.
Operations: No
Error patterns • Time lapse
Problem Solving: No
Incorrect! • Inconsistent strategy
inconsistent • Reading difficulty
strategies used in • Incomplete answers
word problems
Concepts: No
The underlying • Time lapse
concept of the • Does not understand 60 minutes is the same as I hour
operation
Strategies: No
What strategies • Random answers
does the student • Finger counting
bring to the • Answers in hours without minutes
computation?
Probe 3
This probe was administered on March 20,2008. This test set of probes was given during
morning class activities. The student had a doctor's appointment in the afternoon; therefore, he
was unable to take the probe later in the day. For this set of probes I took the student back to the
library. There seemed to be more success in there than there was in the workroom. For this last
set of probes the student chose to take the time probe first and then the fractions and decimals
probe second.
When taking the time probe he seemed to be more comfortable with the material. This
was also evident in the fact that this was his highest scoring time probe. In the library he started
to actually look at the clock on the board and the blank clocks on the probe to help him solve the
problem. The visual support really helped this student. Also, knowing I could not help him, the
student did not ask me any questions during this probe. This helped with his frustration level.
Since he was not asking any questions, he was not getting upset with the lack of answers. He had
come to terms with trying each question on his own. The student turned in the probe and asked
With the fractions and decimals probe there seemed to be a disconnection. Problems
which came with ease on the first two probes he did not know how to do. Eventually he worked
through them, but this probe did not have the success that the time probe did. By the end of this
probe the student still did not have any knowledge of mixed numbers or improper factions. He
randomly listed the order of fractions, and listed the order of decimals from greatest to least
Facts: Yes
Automatic and
accurate
computation.
Operations: No
Error patterns • Place value error
• Random assignment of fractions
• No knowledge of mixed numbers
Concepts: No
The underlying
concept of the
operation
Strategies: No
What strategies • Student circles the largest number despite place value
does the student • Student randomly assigns answers to fractions
bring to the • Student guesses
computation?
tYltw"Ch ao, c::Joog
Fractions and Decimals III ~ Jf S
I
1) 58.184
Xl + 41.073
C\1, 151
....
2) 242.749
y\
\  31.236
\ }
11 LS\ .3
.~.... ~ .45
4) Write the fraction for 0.24
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7) Order this group of fractions from greatest to least ,'j s
1/10 1/3 1/1 Ij I 1/ 3 \JI >
l' ) /1 S .}
.j '
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.:t ~
,i
7/6
7
I (){,\
I I~
1 3/8
l' »
15 !f
Y :t~~
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Time Probe 3
Facts: Yes
Automatic and • Reading clock
accurate
computation.
Operations: No
Problem Solving: No
Incorrect! • Inconsistent strategy
inconsistent • Reading difficulty
strategies used in
word problems
Concepts: No
concept of the
operation
Strategies: No
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3) In 45 minutes what time will it be?
+d
Y:35
4} What time was it 25 minutes ago?
L
~"I
\,
5} Leslie got on her bike at 10:00 am. When she got home it was 12:45 pm. How
long did Leslie ride her bike?
~
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,
.... ,}
v . \ .
1: '..J(
1;~ Lljtll~'I.
6) Rachel went to a concert for 4 hours. She got home at 10:00 pm. What time did
the concert start?
>
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9) Jacki has to be at school by 9:30 am. It is 7:30 am right now. How long does she
have to get to school?
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001108U81
CBA Reflection
The CBA process was a challenge for me. When giving the survey test I could already
see that this was going to be a struggle. Personally, it was very hard for me to watch one of my
students sit and be frustrated and not be able to help them at all. When my student would ask
questions and for four weeks get problems wrong, it was hard to sit there and not help him. He
did not mean to do poorly. When looking at all of the data together I feel that the things my
student did poorly on where mathematical skills that he was never taught. If someone were to
The idea of mathematics not being taught well in the classroom is disheartening. I know
that this student is able to complete his work, but without instruction this student is blinded.
When looking at the math observation, I wonder how the students learn anything in this
environment. There is little instruction, no creativity, constant frustration and utter chaos. With
all of the distractions that are in the classroom there is little learning that goes on. At this point I
am unsure if the poor instruction is the fault of the teacher, the system, or a combination of both.
If there were simple changes made to the environment itself I think that the entire class would
Modify and accommodate are the two words which would be most important for this
student. Ifthere were small changes made to the curriculum and the instruction this student
would find more success. Right now he is traveling down an academic path full of struggle and
frustration. If he is this disengaged in the fifth grade a change needs to be made. If this continues
the student will continue to have difficulty in his academic future and adulthood.
If I were to do this type of assessment again I would take more time to plan things out. I
feel that I did not explain what he was doing well enough, and I did not plan well enough. I
should have had a set location and a set time to administer my probes so that the testing
conditions were as consistent as possible. Also, I do not think I would have chosen the same
subjects to test. If I would have taken more time looking at the survey test and deciding where
the student had difficulty, I may have made a more informed decision. In terms of expectations, I
did not really have any coming into this. I was not sure what I was getting myself into when
administering and analyzing all of this information. I feel that CBA's are a challenge, but are
worthwhile.