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Ecology Ecology is the study of the distribution and abundance of organisms, the interaction between organisms, the interaction

between organisms and their environment, and structure and function of ecosystems. The purpose of ecology is to provide knowledge about the way the world works and provide evidence on the interdependence between the natural world and people. A better understanding of ecological systems will allow society to predict the consequences of human activity on the environment. In the first place, we are they who know how can we conserve a habitat and its biodiversity. Heathland is a valued landscape and vegetation type that is fast disappearing thoughout much of Western Europe. Ecological studies of heathland and heather, the dominant plant, have helped us to understand the effects of traditional management; by grazing, burning and cutting. Studies have helped us to develop systems of management directed towards the conservation of this important habitat and its characteristic plants, insects, birds, reptiles and mammals. In the second place, we can predict the ecological effects of pollution and climate change. Governments and citizens around the world are increasingly aware of the ecological consequences of atmospheric pollution and climate change. Much of the pollution is caused by burning fossil fuel. In large-scale experiments, plants and animals are exposed to carefully controlled atmospheres and different ecological conditions. These include raised levels of sulphur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, ozone and carbon dioxide. Scientists have discovered how plants and the insects that feed on them respond to pollution and climate change. Predictions can then be made about changes in distribution of plants and animals and how crop and forestry yields might be affected. Lastly, mangrove is a forest that develops in the intertidal zone of estuaries and is flooded twice daily by the sea. It plays a number of important ecological roles, for example fixing sediments, supplying food and nursery sites for young fish and providing attachment sites for oyster colonies. Mangrove forest is a source of medicines, firewood and other timber for local populations. It offers an income for women, who harvest molluscs for sale. Mangrove forest is thus a multipurpose, complex ecosystem, perfectly adapted to this specific marine environment, but also very sensitive to variation in ecological conditions. Ecologists' understanding of the ecosystem has shown that mangroves need to be managed using methods that integrate conservation and sustainable use, so that exploitation stays in balance with the preservation of biodiversity and traditional uses by local populations are safeguarded.
Vasilache Lavinia Specializarea Mediu Anul I, grupa 120