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EM4S03 Hybrid / Electric Vehicle Technologies Lecture 1 Introduction to the Course

Mr Jonathan G Williams Principal Lecturer / CAPSE Director University of Glamorgan Faculty of Advanced Technology Pontypridd CF37 1DL G202 jgwillia@glam.ac.uk

Market drivers for low carbon vehicles and fuels


Petroleum accounts for 99% of transport fuel use with widely recognised future climate, security of supply and price risks

Market drivers for low carbon vehicles and fuels


Improving vehicle efficiency

Market drivers for low carbon vehicles and fuels


Modern cars are 15-20% efficient there is considerable opportunity for improvement

Market drivers for low carbon vehicles and fuels


50% improvements in vehicle efficiency are possible with existing technology most payback within 3 years

Market drivers for low carbon vehicles and fuels


There are a wide range of lower carbon vehicles now available -but sales remain modest

Market drivers for low carbon vehicles and fuels


Improvements in new car CO2 emissions are accelerating as a result of regulation and changing consumer attitudes

Market drivers for low carbon vehicles and fuels


The most efficient vehicles in each market segment have around 30% better fuel consumption than the segment average

Market drivers for low carbon vehicles and fuels


The disparity between real world and test cycle emissions increase disproportionately for more efficient vehicles

Market drivers for low carbon vehicles and fuels


There are a range of closer to market technologies for vans which deliver significant CO2 and fuel savings

Market drivers for low carbon vehicles and fuels


Choosing best in class van offers significant opportunities to reduce carbon footprint now

Market drivers for low carbon vehicles and fuels


Choosing best in class van offers significant opportunities to reduce carbon footprint now

Electrification of transport

Electrification of transport
There is global momentum towards electrification of transport EVs address key geopolitical concerns Climate Energy security Peak oil
Early consumer interest as sustainable, cool, high technology products Substantial public funding of research, development and demonstration and purchase support

Investment & commitment from global OEMs

Electrification of transport

A range of EVs from global manufacturers will become available from 2011 most based upon current car platforms

EVs deliver a third lower CO2 emissions using current UK grid-mix off-peak recharging increases the benefit by approaching 50%

EVs deliver a third lower CO2 emissions using current UK grid-mix off-peak recharging increases the benefit by approaching 50%

Technology will be tailored to the application EV for city use, PHEV or parallel hybrid for medium length journeys; IC for long journeys

In the medium term electric vehicles will only appeal to most car-buyers with significant incentives
High capital costs key purchase determinant, Leasing options likely Fuel-cost savings heavily discounted Requirement for very high range

Range anxiety reduces usage to 33-50% of technical range Fast charging / battery swap builds confidence
Low willingness to pay beyond early adopters Limited availability of recharging infrastructure New technology aversion

In the medium term electric vehicles will only appeal to most car-buyers with significant incentives

Fleets are more sceptical than private buyers and concerns increase with experience

Market uptake is highly uncertain depending upon public acceptability, battery costs / subsidies

Visible on-street charging may be important to increase public acceptability without being technically important

The Coalition Government is maintaining strong support for EVs


Office of Low Emission Vehicles 250M purchase support fund for cars 2011-14 5k per vehicle to 2012
140M Low Carbon Vehicle Innovation Platform 30M infrastructure support Plugged-in-Places 5M Ultra-low carbon car competition 340 vehicles Joint cities demo programme 20M public procurement support for electric vans?

The elephant in the room -Fuel duty revenues

Alternative fuels

IEA scenarios show an increasing penetration of renewable transport fuels to meet increasing demand

There remain challenges with all current renewable transport fuels

Final Thoughts

In the next 5-years?

Final Thoughts
We must wean ourselves off our petroleum dependency There are no silver bullets Selecting fuel efficient models can deliver significant savings now! Vehicle efficiency can be improved by 50% using existing technologies that payback within 4 years Barriers to electrification of transport are unlikely to be resolved quickly; the market share of electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles will become important 2020+; but gain experience early Beyond 2020 renewable fuels will play an increasing important role including biofuels and hydrogen

Technology is only part of the solution demand management and building public transport infrastructure to encourage modal shift is crucial

Final Thoughts

Metrics are confusing .... In tests the most efficient new cars emit less than 100g/km CO2; 65-75 mpg; an average new car is 140g/km 45-55 mpg

Global energy demand for transport is projected to more than double by 2050

A range of existing technologies are available to reduce CO2 emissions at a cost

There is emerging consensus on the future evolution of low carbon car technologies

The scale of the challenge

Section 2 - The Tribrid Bus


Jonathan G Williams, University of Glamorgan
jgwillia@glam.ac.uk

SECTION 2 - THE TRIBRID CONCEPT


Battery Motor

Ultracapacitor

Controller

Length Width

5.30 metres 2.10 metres Iveco 16 55 mph 150 miles+ 70kW DC motor H2 + electricity 200 bar H2 Lead Acid Battery Ultra-capacitor Fully Disabled

Fuel cell

Type Seats Max Speed Autonomy Drive Fuel Gas Storage Energy Storage Power boost Access

Hydrogen vessel

SECTION 2 - THE BATTERY


Atraverdas Ebonex powder 288v modules

Atraverdas Ebonex plate

144v battery pack

Battery Bank A

Motor

24v/6amphr battery
Battery Bank B

72v battery pack

Bi-polar Lead-Acid Overall Weight Nominal Voltage Capacity Configuration 810kg 288v 133Ah Series - Parallel

SECTION 2 - THE ULTRA-CAPACITOR


125v ultra-capacitor module 125v module under vehicle

125v module installed in bus

125v case installed

Ultra-Cap

Ultra-Cap

Motor

125v module case


Ultra-Cap

125v module in case

Ultra-capacity Overall Weight Nominal Voltage Capacity Configuration 150kg 375v 63F Series

SECTION 2 - THE FUEL CELL


12kW fuel cell module 125v ultra-capacitor module

2, 200bar hydrogen storage vessels

Fuel cell connected

Fuel Cell

DC DC

Motor

15kW DCDC converter

Fuel cell + DCDC cooling system

Fuel Cell Overall Weight System Voltage Capacity Configuration 120kg 38v-58v 12kW Module

SECTION 2 - THE OVERALL POWERTRAIN


Battery
288v nominal 133amphr

High Voltage Control Box


Pre-charge circuit Isolation and fuses Voltage / current monitors

Ultracapacitor
375v peak 63F
Motor Controller Motor / Generator

90kW peak 12v supply

90kW peak 12v supply

FC System
12kW stack Compressor etc.

DC/DC
15kW DC/DC Uni directional

FC control
FC operation commands

Overall Tribrid Controller & Fuzzy Logic FC Controller DC control HV data MC data
Fuzzy logic power control Battery, FC ultracapacitor Voltage current etc ...

SECTION 2 THE FUZZY CONTROLLER Fuzzy Input


Motor power request

Fuzzy Rule Table


Fuzzy Rule Sets

Fuzzy Output

Fuzzy logic power control

If / or / and statements
FC Requested Current

DC/DC
15kW DC/DC Uni directional

FC System
12kW stack Compressor etc.

Fuzzy logic power control


Battery SOC

Fuzzy logic power control

DC control
Fuzzy logic power control

Section 3 - The Results


Jonathan G Williams, University of Glamorgan
jgwillia@glam.ac.uk

Peter Stevenson, University of Glamorgan


prsteven@glam.ac.uk

SECTION 3 BATTERY FUEL CELL ULTRA-CAPACITOR RESULTS (VOLTAGE)


Batt_Voltage
320

300

Batt_Voltage

280

260

240

220 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000

Time
320

FC_Voltage

300

FC_Voltage

280

260

240

220 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000

Time
320 310 300 290

UC_Voltage

UC_Voltage

280 270 260 250 240 230 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000

Time

SECTION 3 BATTERY FUEL CELL ULTRA-CAPACITOR RESULTS (CURRENT)


Batt_Current_Draw
110 100 90

Batt_Current_Draw

80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 -10 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000

Time FC_Current_Regen

100

FC_Current_Draw

80

60

40

20

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

6000 UC_Current_Draw

Time
100

UC_Current_Draw

80

60

40

20

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

6000

Time

SECTION 3 BATTERY FUEL CELL ULTRA-CAPACITOR RESULTS (POWER)


Batt_Power_Draw
50000 45000 40000

Batt_Power_Draw

35000 30000 25000 20000 15000 10000 5000 0 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000

Time FC_Power_Draw
50000

40000

FC_Power_Draw

30000

20000

10000

0 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000

Time
50000

UC_Power_Draw

40000

UC_Power_Draw

30000

20000

10000

0 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000

Time

SECTION 3 FUZZY FUEL CELL CURRENT CONTROL RESULTS

sent_charge_values Current_FC_load CurrentDrawAllow


250

200

150
amps

100

50

100

120

140

160

180

200

Time

SECTION 3 BATTERY FUEL CELL ULTRA-CAPACITOR RESULTS (OVERALL POWER)

25000

20000

Batt_Power_Draw UC_Power_Draw FC_Power_Draw

All_ Power_Draw

15000

10000

5000

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

6000

Time

SECTION 3 - CONCLUSIONS
TEST TRACK CONCLUSION

Range
S3

150 miles

Top speed
Max Power Output

55 mph
75 kW 45 kW 72 Ah 35.6 kWh

S1

S2

Max Power Input


S4

S5

Capacity Discharged Energy Discharged

TEST RESULTS OF C02 SAVINGS

Tribrid minibus CO2 output


mass of H2 used (kg) CO2 equivalence (CO2g/H2kg) 0.48628 9742.8

Diesel van CO2 output


volume diesel used (l) CO2 equivalence (CO2g/Diesel litre 2.5 2730.37

distance travelled (laps) CO2 output (g/mile)

17 278.69

distance travelled (laps) CO2 output (g/mile)

17 401.525

1. The concept of the Tribrid powertrain was tested and validated to be a success. 2. The ultra-capacitor significantly improved the regenerative energy rates for charge and discharge. 3. The fuel cell operated within a controlled manner with the fuzzy logic controller based on the SOC (state of charge of battery) and motor demand power. 4. The batteries performed well and allowed the vehicle to achieve the project target of 150 mile range based on a city drivecycle. 5. A significant improvement on well to wheel CO2 emissions was also delivered factoring in indirect CO2 from reformation of natural gas for the hydrogen and electricity from the national grid.