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Prof. Niknejad University of California, Berkeley

I1 IN I2

In the electrostatic case, we assembled our charge distribution one point charge at a time and used electric potential to calculate the energy This can be done for the magnetostatic case but there are some complications.

B I1 I2

As we move in our second loop with current I2 , wed be cutting across ux from loop 1 and therefore an induced voltage around loop 2 would change the current. When we bring the loop to rest, the induced voltage would drop to zero. To maintain a constant current, therefore, wed have to supply a voltage source in series to cancel the induced voltage. The work done by this voltage source represents the magnetostatic energy in the system.

University of California, Berkeley

A simpler approach is to bring in the two loops with zero current and then increase the current in each loop one at a time First, lets increase the current in loop 1 from zero to I1 in some time t1 . Note that at any instant of time, a voltage is induced around loop number 1 due to its changing ux

vind,1 d di1 = = L1 dt dt

I2 = 0

vind,2

I1

vind,1 1 = 0

2 = 0

Note that this induced voltage will tend to decrease the current in loop 1. This is a statement of Lenzs law. In other words, the induced voltage in loop 1 tends to create a magnetic eld to oppose the eld of the original current! To keep the current constant in loop 1, we must connect a voltage source to cancel the induced voltage

The work done by this voltage source is given by

t1

w1 =

0

p( )d

where p(t) = vind,1 i1 (t) = L1 i1 di1 dt The net work done by the source is simply

t1 I1 0

w1 = L1

0

di1 d = L1 i1 d

1 2 i1 di1 = L1 I1 2

Note that to keep the current in loop 2 equal to zero, we must also provide a voltage source to counter the induced voltage

di1 vind,2 (t) = M21 dt

This voltage source does not do any work since i2 (t) = 0 during this time

By the same argument, if we increase the current in loop 2 from 0 to I2 in time t2 , we need to do work equal 2 to 1 L2 I2 . 2 But is that all? No, since to keep the current in loop 1 constant at I1 we must connect a voltage source to cancel the induced voltage

vind,1 d1 di2 = = M12 dt dt

w1 t2

=

0

The total work to bring the current in loop 1 and loop 2 to I1 and I2 is therefore

1 1 2 2 W = L1 I1 + L2 I2 + M12 I1 I2 2 2

But the energy should not depend on the order we turn on each current. Thus we can immediately conclude that M12 = M21 We already saw this when we derived an expression for M12 using the Neumann equation

Generalize to N Loops

We can now pretty easily generalize our argument for 2 loops to N loops

1 W = 2 Li Ii2 +

i i>j

Mij Ii Ij

The rst term represents the self energy for each loop and the second term represents the interaction terms. Lets rewrite this equation and combine terms

1 W = 2 1 Mij Ii Ij + 2 Mij Ii Ij

i=j

i=j

1 W = 2

Mij Ii Ij

i j

Neumanns Equation

We derived the mutual inductance between two lamentary loops as Neumanns equation

0 Mij = 4 di dj Rij

Ci

Cj

Lets substitute the above relation into the expression for energy 1 Ii Mij Ij W = 2

i j

1 W = 2

Ii

0 Ij 4

Ci

Cj

di dj Rij

Lets change the order of integration and summation dj 1 0 W = Ii Ij di 2 4 Cj Rij Ci

i j

Each term of the bracketed expression represents the vector potential due to loop j evaluated at a position on loop i. By superposition, the sum represents the total voltage potential due to all loops

1 W = 2 Ii A di

Ci

We derived this for lamental loops. Generalize to an arbitrary current distribution and we have

1 Wm = 2 J AdV

V

1 We = 2 dV

V

Thus the vector potential A really does represent the magnetic potential due to a current distribution in an analogous fashion as represents the electric potential

Lets replace J by Ampres law H = J

Wm 1 = 2 ( H) AdV

V

(H A) = ( H) A + H ( A) 1 Wm = 2 1 (H A)dV + 2 ( A) HdV

V

1 Wm = 2 1 H A dS + 2 S

University of California, Berkeley

( A) HdV

V

Wed like to show that the rst term is zero. To do this. Consider the energy in all of space V . To do this, consider a large sphere of radius r and take the radius to innity We know that if we are sufciently far from the current loops, the potential and eld behave like A r1 and H r2 . The surface area of the sphere goes like r2 The surface integral, therefore, gets smaller and smaller as the sphere approaches innity

The remaining volume integral represents the total magnetic energy of a system of currents

Wm 1 = 2 ( A) HdV

V

But A = B

Wm 1 = 2 B HdV

V

wm = B H

Recall that we = D E

University of California, Berkeley

The self-inductance of a loop is given by

1 L= I B dS

S

Since the total magnetic energy for a loop is 1 LI 2 , we 2 have an alternate expression for the inductance

1 2 1 LI = 2 2 1 L= 2 I B HdV

V

B HdV

V

University of California, Berkeley

We have tacitly assumed that the inductance of a loop is a well-dened quantity. But for a lamentary loop, we can expect trouble. By denition

1 L= I 1 B dS = I S A d

C

L= 4

d d R

This is just Neumanns equation with C1 = C2 . But for a lamental loop, R = 0 when both loops traverse the same point. The integral is thus not dened for a lamental loop!

University of California, Berkeley

int

ext

Its common to split the ux in a loop into two components. One component is dened as the ux crossing the internal portions of the conductor volume. The other, is external to the conductors

int ext L= = + = Lint + Lext I I I

University of California, Berkeley

Usually if the wire radius is small relative to the loop area, Lint Lext We shall see that at high frequencies, the magnetic eld decays rapidly in the volume of conductors and thus the int 0 and L(f ) = Lext Consider a round wire carrying uniform current. We can easily derive the magnetic eld through Amres law

Binside 0 Ir = 2a2

Using this expression, we can nd the internal inductance

1 Wm = 2 1 BHdV = 2 1 BHdV + 2 Vinside BHdV +

Voutside

a 0

1 0 I 2 r2 2rdr = 2 8

The internal inductance per unit length is thus

Lint 0 = 8

Numerically, this is 50pH/mm, a pretty small inductance. Recall that this is only the inductance due to energy stored inside of the wires. The external inductance is likely to be much larger.

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