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Finalized Project Plan Influence of the modelling depth of the generator/converter system on the calculated loads of a wind turbine

drive train

Cand.Deeban Chakravarthi Mathivanan Supervisor :Stefan Hauptmann Febrauary,2012

1 Program Description 1.1 Background . 2 Goals and objectives 2.1Main objectives

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3 Planned procedure and expected results 3.1Solution Strategy 3.1.1 Introductory work .....................................................................3 3.2.1 Modelling of a asynchronous generator using SIMULINK......4 3.3.1 Simulation and analysis of generator and Grid Interactions.....4 3.4.1 Comparison of the models using MATLAB-SIMPACK .........5 3.2Literature and contacts....................................................................................6 4 Draft of the table of contents .................................................................................7 5 Formalities ................................................................................9

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1.Problem Description :

windturbines have been developed. Some multi MW wind turbines are running with variable speed, so that their efficiency can be optimised and the dynamic loads, noise and interactions with the electrical grid cane be reduced.The steadystate static and dynamic behaviour(windfield,aerodynamics,structural dynamics and control) and the resulting loads of the wind turbines are currently being computed by softwares specifically developed for that purpose (e.g.,Flex5 programs or have

Bladed).However,these

intereaction with other parts of the wind turbines e.g., bedplate,the supporting

structure of the rotor .In this project a combination of different simulation packages In the recent years ,Wind energy has emerged as one of the most efficient alternative source of electricity.Various types of wind turbines such as fixed speed and variable speed namely MATLAB and SIMPACK are used to model the mechanical and electrical aspects of the wind turbine in detail.

3.1 BACKGROUND Wind Energy has established itself as a major source of non-polluting, inexhaustible renewable energy source. In the wind energy research ,dynamic modelling of the whole system has been already done extensively .This project mainly focuses on the improvement of the modelling of wind turbines ,the standard multibody software SIMPACK is being used . The advantages of SIMPACK, as far as the investigations of the drive train dynamics are concerned are numerous for the investigation of the drive train dynamics.As a part of this work, MATLAB/SIMULINK will be used to build generator models in a multiple le vels of detail and
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implement them under an existing SIMPACK wind turbine model with different load conditions. This tool will then be used to identify the interactions of the electrical system with the wind turbine and especially the drive train.

Goals and Objectives 3.2Main Objectives


Programming of a flex5-alike basic asynchronous generator in SIMULINK and comparing it with an existing SIMPACK User routine. Development of SIMULINK model with different level of complexity of a doubly fed asynchronous generator with power converter. Implementation of SIMPACK multibody model of the wind turbine. Using the MATLAB-SIMPACK interface and evaluate the influence of different loads.

3 Planned procedure and expected results 3.1 Solution Strategy 3.1.1 Introductory work
This phase at the beginning of the work will focus primarily on the study of previous literature and familiarizing with the Simulation softwares like MATLAB and SIMPACK. Referring to Developing pre and post-processors for SIMPACK using Suzlon S82 Data done by Malte holde is also of great use to the planned project. Nevertheless, additional literature research ,especially in the generators and about various interactions with other parts of the turbine will be carried out. The first familiarization is done using the User manual and in collaboration with the researchers at the SWE.The primary work has already been done and the effective main work will be started officially from February 7 ,2012.

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3.1.2 Modelling of Asynchronous Generator using SIMULINK


The next ideal step would be to develop a basic induction generator.The input data provided is of Suzlon S82 turbine. The basic model is compared with the already existing SIMPACK user routine developed already. Parameters such as loads (at different wind conditions),generating torque are compared.This helps to get an overview of the detailed project. The next step in the process is the development of doubly fed induction generator with different levels of complexity and detail. Various research has been done on the simulation and control of wind turbines .However most of it uses only simple mechanical structural and aerodynamic models which neglects the important characterestics of the turbine. Wind turbines use a doubly- fed induction generator (DFIG) and an IGBT-based PWM converter. The rotor winding is fed at variable frequency to AC/DC/AC converter. The DFIG technology allows utilizing the turns ratio of the machine, now the converter can

function at a speed less than the rated speed.The rotor side converter (RSC) us ually provides active and reactive power control of the machine is provided by the rotor side converter (RSC) while the grid-side converter (GSC) keeps the voltage of the DC-link constant.

3.1.1 Comparision of the models using MATLAB-SIMPACK Interface


Wind turbines are subject to various mechanical loads. The tower effect, shear effect, gyroscopic effect and the impact of sudden wind speed variations put high fatigue loads on the turbine and the drive train. The turbine needs to be well designed for these loads. Most research on turbine design focuses on the estimation of the loads on the turbine side of the drive train.

But also at the generator side of the drive train, possible sources for fluctuating torques are present. These are due to the fact that the generator electromagnetic torque is, function of the generator type, more or less dependent on the grid voltage and frequency. Deteriorated power quality, for instance voltage fluctuations or voltage dips, may lead to fluctuating electromagnetic torques, causing high loads on the drive train.The doubly fed generator is simulated using MATLAB and the the interaction with Turbine with various loads are done in SIMPACK .

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Simulation and analysis of generator and Grid Intereactions


The grid model includes the electric components in the wind farm power collection system and the substation, and uses equivalents for the remaining grid.The individual wind turbine model includes electrical, mechanical and aerodynamic sub- models such as the electrical sub-model which includes an induction generator ,a capacitor bank for reactive power compensation ,a soft starter and a step up transformer .The dynamics of the drive train are elaborated by the mechanical sub- model. The aerodynamic sub model is a standard Cp based model with stall effects. The interactions between these models are taken into account. The changes in the various interactions with various load are observed and compared with MATLAB-SIMULINK.

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LITERATURE AND CONTACTS


DYNAMIC MODELLING OF WIND FARMGRID INTERACTION Anca D. Hansen , Poul Srensen , Frede Blaabjerg and John Becho (DIGSILENT GMBH)

Dynamic Modeling and Control of Doubly Fed Induction Generators Driven by Wind Turbines -Wei Qia Dynamic modeling of doubly fed induction generator wind turbines Ekanayake, J.B.; Holdsworth, L.; XueGuang Wu; Jenkins, N.

Induction generator in Dynamic Simulation Tools Hans Knudsen and Vladislav Akhmatov

Grid Integration of Wind Energy Conversion Systems Siegfried Heier ISBN:-0-471-97143-X

WIND TURBINE TECHNOLOGY DAVID.A.SPERA ISBN: 0-7918-1205-7

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TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT ACKNOWLEDEMENTS CHAPTER 1

1.1 1.2 1.3

WIND TURBINE TECHNOLOGY MOTIVATION AND OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT THESIS OUTLINE

CHAPTER 2
2. SIMULATION OF BASIC ASYNCHRONOUS GENERATOR 2.1 2.2 2.3 ASYNCHRONOUS GENERATOR DEFINTION MODELING OF BASIC ASYNCHRONOUS GENERATOR COMPARISION OF EXISTING SIMPACK USER-ROUTINE

CHAPTER 3
2 INDUCTION MACHINE MODELS AND CONTROL

3.1 GENERAL EQUATIONS OF ABC/abc REFERENCE FRAME 3.1.1 Complex space Vector representation 3.1.2 Using space vector for the general machine equations 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 THE PRINCIPLE OF DFIG CONTROL THE DFIG ROTOR CONVERTER CONTROL THE DFIG GRID CONVERTER CONTROL SIMULATIONS OF THE ROTOR AND GRID CONTROLLER 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 SIMULATION OF POWER STEP DIFFERENT LOADS SIMULATION OF SPEED STEP DISCUSSION AND SIMULATION OF RESULTS

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CHAPTER 4
4. WIND TURBINE MODELLING 4.1 AERODYNAMIC MODELLING 4.2 PITCH MODEL 4.3 MECHANICAL MODEL

CHAPTER 5
5. POWER SYSTEM MODELLING IN MATLAB AND SIMPACK 5.1 DYNAMIC NODE TECHNIQUE 5.2 POWER SYSTEM ELEMENTS 5.2.1 5.2.2 5.2.3 General modelling Transmission line modelling Model implementation in Matlab/Simulink

5.3 Modelling in SIMPACK 5.3.1 5.3.2 5.3.3 5.3.4 5.3.5 Modelling of different loads using Simpack MATLAB and SIMPACK Interface Influence of the machine coupling Comparision of models using existing user-routines Discussion of the simulated results

CHAPTER 6
6. CONCLUSION 6.1 SUMMARY OF THE WORK 6.2 RESULTS OBTAINED IN THE THESIS 6.3 FUTURE WORK

CHAPTER 7
7. APPENDIX 7.1 REFERENCES 7.2 GLOSSARY OF SYMBOLS

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Formalities
The thesis is carried out under Stiftungslehrstuhl Windenergie am Institut fur Flugzeugbau (SWE).The supervisor at the Otto Von Guericke University(OVGU) will be

Dr.Zbigniew Styczynski and the tutor at the Endowed Chair of Wind Energy (SWE) at the University of Stuttgart will be Mr.Stefan Hauptmann .

The scheduled timeframe for the thesis is 7.02.2012 until 07.08.2012. A complete written report and conference/journal paper of the thesis will be provided at the end of the timeframe and the work will be presented orally at the University of Magdeburg and the SWE. Confidentiality and contract issues will be dealt with at the be gin of the work directly at SWE. The oral presentation and the written report will be evaluated and marked by a committee of the supervisors at OVGU and the SWE.

_____________________________ DEEBAN MATHIVANAN

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