You are on page 1of 19

1

BELT CONVEYORS II
Mechanical Engineering Department
Carlos III University
BELT CONVEYORS
TRANSPORTATION
BELT CONVEYORS II
INTRODUCTION
A belt conveyor is rubber or textile structure with a belt shape closed
ring, with a vulcanized or metallic joint, used for material
transportation.
Belt conveyors are the most
used for transport of solid
objects and bulk materials at
great speed, covering great
distances (up to 30 km)
2
BELT CONVEYORS II
COMPONENTS
Driving
pulley
Belt
Unloading
Carrying
idlers
Return idlers
Tail
pulley
Take up
weight
Structural
support
Snub
pulley
Scraper
Bin or hopper
Work run
Free/return run
BELT CONVEYORS II
BELT
Textile belts or smooth textiles
Definition (UNE 18 025):
The width, expressed in mm.
The quality of the cover (standard UNE 18 052).
The number of plies.
The quality of the fabric (standard UNE 18 052).
The thickness of the top cover (tenths of mm).
The thickness of the bottom cover (tenths of mm).
The length of the belt (metres).
500 / A 4 L / 35 15 des 50 UNE 18025
Width of the belt (mm)
Highly resistant to abrasion
Consists of 4 light plies (L type)
Thickness of the top cover (tenth mm)
Thickness of the bottomcover (tenth mm)
Length (m)
3
BELT CONVEYORS II
BELT
Textile belts or smooth textiles
Quality of the covers (UNE 18 052)
Quality of the fabric (UNE 18 052)
350 1050 C
500 2000 B
550 2500 A
Elongation at rupture (%)
Tensile strength
(g/mm
2
)
Quality of the cover
35 20 75 P
30 20 70 LS
25 20 60 L
Elongation at rupture
(%)
Tensile strength
(kgf/cm)
Weft
Tensile strength (kgf/cm)
Warp
Quality of the
fabric
BELT CONVEYORS II
BELT
Textile belts or smooth textiles
Number of plies:
1
100
m
S T
z
B R

=

Safety factor
13 12 11 Safety factor (S)
More than 9 from 6 to 9 from 3to 5 Number of plies (z)
Safety Factors for textile Carcass Belts (DIN 22101 standard)
Belt width
(metres)
Maximumstress
work of the belt (kgf )
Nominal tensile
strength of each
textile ply (kgf/m)
It depends on the time the belt
finishes its travel, which depends on:
The number of flexures on the
pulleys.
The load impacts.
If time travel is above 5 minutes - 2
plies
4
BELT CONVEYORS II
BELT
Belt conveyors for vertical or inclined transport
Drawback of smooth textile belt:
Grade limit : 18 - 20
Different solutions:
Profile belts:
Herringbone profile.
Nasta, Nappula, Ripa and Pyramid profile.
Grip Top profile.
Ripro profile.
U-cleats and V-cleats profiles.
Corrugated edge belt.
BELT CONVEYORS II
PULLEYS
Bigger angle Bigger force transmitted
Driving pulley
Entrusted of transmiting movement by
means of the motor-speed reducer.
Guarantee maximum
adherence Low slip.
Simple pulley
= 180
Simple plulley with snub
pulley
210 230
Tandem motor
350 480
5
BELT CONVEYORS II
TENSION
The tension varies along the belt length.
Depends on:
Belt conveyor arrangement.
The number and arrangement of the drive pulleys.
The drive and brake features.
The type and tension devices arrangement.
Operation phase (start-up, normal operation, braking, etc.).
BELT CONVEYORS II
TENSION
One drive pulley
Most common situation.
Operation conditions:
Peripheral forces applied to the drive pulley have to be transmitted to the
belt by friction without slippage.
The applied tension to the belt has to be adequate to avoid an important sag
(between two pulleys).
Roll angle
6
BELT CONVEYORS II
TENSION
One drive pulley
Euler-Eytelwein (without slip) equation:
1
2
T
e
T

=
1 2 u
T T F = +
1 2
2
1
T T
e
T

=
1 2
2 2
1
u
F T T
e
T T

= =
2 1
1
( 1)
u T u
T F C F
e

= =

1
1
u TS u
e
T F C F
e

= =

BELT CONVEYORS II
PULLEYS
Pulley diameter

0.8
tail pulley tensioning pulley driving pulley
D D D =

0.65
snub pulley driving pulley
D D
2.000 1.800 1.600 1.400 1.250 1.000 800 630 500 400 320 250 200
Standard pulley diameter s/DIN 22101
min
360 F
D
p B

=

Minimumdriving
pulley diameter
proposed for fabric
belts (m)
Action force (kg)
Angle contact
(degrees)
Belt width (m)
Transmission capacity pulley/belt:
1.6002.000 Kg/m
In underground, up to 3.500 kg/m
7
BELT CONVEYORS II
MOBILE COMPONENT WEIGHT
( )
T B R B
M kg M M M = + +
Mobile component weight (kg):
Mobile component weight per unit length (kg/m):
T
T
M
P
L
=
Belt length (m)
Belt weight
(kg):
Idler roller
weight (kg):
Pulley weight
(kg):
BELT CONVEYORS II
MOBILE COMPONENT WEIGHT
219 177 2200
205 168 2100
178 144 1800
160 132 100 1650
143 121 91 1500
127 107 82 70 1350
110 95 71 63 1200
94 82 64 52 1050
79 70 55 45 900
63 57 46 37 750
49 45 36 29 600
33 25 23 450
Steel cable belt
Rollers 152 mm
Heavy belt
Rollers 152 mm
Moderate belt
Rollers 127 mm
Lightweight belt
Rollers 102 mm
Mobile component weight per unit length (kg/m) Belt width
(mm)
8
BELT CONVEYORS II
MOBILE COMPONENT WEIGHT PER UNIT LENGTH
0, 278 [kg/m]
3, 6
G
Q Q
q
v v
= =

Belt capacity
(t/h)
Belt speed (m/s)
BELT CONVEYORS II
RESISTANCE TO MOVEMENT
Classification (UNE 58-204-92):
1. Principal resistances, F
H
2. Secondary resistances, F
N
3. Special principal resistances, F
S1
4. Special secondary resistances, F
S2
5. Resistances due to inclination, F
St
1 2 u H N S S St
F F F F F F = + + + +
In every installation (1) y (2)
In some installations (3) y (4)
Act in all the belt length (1) y (3)
Act in certain regions (2) y (4)
9
BELT CONVEYORS II
RESISTANCE TO MOVEMENT
Turning resistance due to the load idlers rollers, due to friction in the
bearings and joints in rollers.
Belt friction resistance due to the rolling of the belt over the idlers rollers.
Principal resistance
[ ] (2 ) cos
H RO RU B G
F f L g q q q q = + + +
Friction coefficient
Work run roller weight per unit length
(kg/m)
Return rollers weight per unit length
(kg/m)
Belt weight per unit
length (kg/m)
Load weight per
unit length (kg/m)
Angle of the
incline
0,050 Friction
0,023 0,030 Unfavourable
0,020 Normal
0,018 Favourable
Roller
Bearing
f State Type of
bearing
BELT CONVEYORS II
Inertia resistance and friction due to material acceleration in the loading
point:
Material density
(kg/m
3
)
RESISTANCE TO MOVEMENT
Secondary resistances
Material flux (m
3
/s)
0
( )
ba v
F I v v =
Belt speed (m/s)
Feed-in speed (m/s)
Resistance due to material friction with feed-in chute sidewalls.
10
BELT CONVEYORS II
Resistance of pulley bearings safe drive pulleys:
For fabric belts:
For metallic belts:
RESISTANCE TO MOVEMENT
Secondary resistances
Resistance due to rolling belt effect over the pulleys:
1
9 (140 0.01 )
F d
F B
B D
= +
1
12 (200 0.01 )
F d
F B
B D
= +
Belt width
(m)
Mean belt stress
(N)
Belt thickness (m)
Pulley diameter
(m)
0
0.005
t T
d
F F
D
=
Pulley applied forces (N)
Drive axle diameter (m)
BELT CONVEYORS II
When L > 80 m F
N
< F
H
:
RESISTANCE TO MOVEMENT
Secondary resistances
[ ]
[ ]
(2 ) cos
(2 ) cos
H N L RO RU B G
C RO RU B G
F F f C L g q q q q
f L g q q q q

+ = + + + =
= + + +
Friction coefficient
Load weight per
unit length (kg/m)
Incline angle
Belt weight per unit
length (kg/m)
Return run idler rollers weight per unit
length (kg/m)
Work run idler rollers weight per unit
lenght (kg/m)
Corrected belt length (m)
11
BELT CONVEYORS II
LENGTH CORRECTION FACTOR
Shorter belts need more power to overcome friction resistances than
longer belt conveyors.
Corrected belt length (m):
c L
L C L =
1.05 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 2 2.2 C
L
500 400 320 250 200 160 125 100 80 63 50 Belt length(m)
2.4 2.6 2.9 3.2 3.6 4 4.5 5.1 5.9 6.6 5.6 9 C
L
40 32 25 20 16 13 10 8 6 5 4 3 Belt length (m)
Correction factor
BELT CONVEYORS II
RESISTANCE TO MOVEMENT
Special principal resistance
Toe resistance due to oblique belt position because of the loading rollers:
3 roller picking idler of the same length in the work run:

2 roller picking idler for the return run:


( ) cos
o B G
F C L q q g sen

= +
cos cos
o B
F L q g sen

=
Value:
- 0,4 for an angle of 30
- 0,5 for an angle of 45
Friction coefficient between
the belt and the idler rollers : 0,3 0,4
Longitud de la instalacin con rodillos
portantes convergentes (m)
Belt weight per unit length
(kg/m)
Load weight per unit
length (kg/m)
Toe angle (degrees)
12
BELT CONVEYORS II
RESISTANCE TO MOVEMENT
Special principal resistance
Resistance due to friction with feed-in chute sidewalls, or with the
longitudinal guide rails, when they take place along the total belt length:
2
2
2 2
1
v
gL
I e g l
F
v b

=

Friction coefficient
between the material and
the guides: 0,5 0,7
Transported flux (m
3
/s)
Weight volume not tared
(kg/m
3
)
Transport length between
guide rails (m)
Belt width between guide rails (m)
BELT CONVEYORS II
RESISTANCE TO MOVEMENT
Special secondary resistances
Resistance due to friction between the cleaning systems and the belt:
Resistance due to the friction between the chute sidewalls or with guide
rails when they only take place over a limited belt length :
Contact surface between the
belt and the cleaning system
(m
2
)
3 r
F A p =
Pressure between the cleaning
systemand the belt (N/m
2
)
Friction coefficient between the
cleaning systemand the belt
a a
F B k =
Belt width (m)
Scraping factor = 1500 N/m
13
BELT CONVEYORS II
RESISTANCE TO MOVEMENT
Resistance due to slopes
St G
F q H g =
Load weight per unit
lenght (kg/m)
Installation
height (m)
BELT CONVEYORS II
POWER OF THE DRIVE PULLEY
Drive pulley power
Force opposed to
movement (N)
Belt speed (m/s)
A u
P F v =
For powered belts:
1
A
m
P
P

=
14
BELT CONVEYORS II
TRANSPORT CAPACITY
3600 Q v A k =
Transport capacity
(t/hora)
Speed (m/s)
Cross section of material
over the belt (m
2
)
Material specific
weight (t/m
3
)
Reduction capacity coefficient due to incline
0,81 0,85 0,89 0,91 0,93 0,95 0,97 0.,98 0,99 1,0 k
20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2
Incline
(degrees)
BELT CONVEYORS II
Depends on: - material fluidity
- transport conditions
TRANSPORT CAPACITY
Cross section of the material over the belt depends on:
Effective width (b) of the belt is function of the real width B:

The number, arrangement and dimensions of the rollers.


The dynamic built-in shape of the material over the belt is limited by a
parabolic curve, characterised by a dynamic slope angle .
0.9 0.05 for B 2 m b B =
0.2 for B>2 m b B =
One roller Two rollers Three rollers
1 2
S S S = +
( )
2
1 3 3
( ) cos
6
tg
S l b l

= +
( )
3 3
2 3
( ) 1
sin
2 cos 2
b l b l
S l

| | | |
= +
| |
\
\
Picking
angle
15
BELT CONVEYORS II
TRANSPORT CAPACITY
Uniform material size (cereals, granules or milled stones) do not influence
belt width.
Non classified materials (materials obtained in quarries or mines)
influence on belt width:
Maximum material size.
Fine and coarse-grain percentage.
It may occur that for little capacities the belt width is big not
economic
Belt width as a function of the maximum grain size:
5 3 20
10 6 20 30
100 % coarse 10 % coarse, 90 % fines Dynamic slope angle
BELT CONVEYORS II
TRANSPORT CAPACITY
The belt speed has to be as big as possible so that width is short.
Speed depends on material properties:
Fluidity. Dust risk.
Abrasion. Belt cut risk.
Friable. Material split risk.
Size. Great impacts on the belt take place for big sizes and heavy ones, thus
weakening the belt.
1,05 1,68 Any width Non abrasive
2,09
3,35
4,19
5,24
500
650 a 1000
1200 a 1200
1400 a 2400
Coal, clay pan, soft
minerals and soils, grinned
stones of little size
2,62
3,35
4,19
5,24
500
650 y 800
1000 y 1200
1400 y 2400
Grains and other materials
that have a good fluidity
and are not abrasive
V (m/s) B (mm) Material
0,3 a 0,6 Any width
Discharge belts, flat or picking
for fine non abrasive materials
or medially abrasive
1,31 a 2,09 Any width
Prepared cast-iron sands or
compacted
1,68
2,09
3,35
500
650 y 800
1000 a 2400
Minerals with sharp edge, hard
and heavy, grinned stones of
little size
V (m/s) B (mm) Material
16
BELT CONVEYORS II
TRANSPORT CAPACITY
900
0,2536
878
0,2467
840
0,2368
798
0,2240
738
0,2071
680
0,1903
351
0,0980
1400
654
0,1828
638
0,1777
610
0,1705
580
0,1612
537
0,1491
494
0,1370
255
0,0710
1200
445
0,1236
434
0,1205
415
0,1152
394
0,1094
365
0,1013
336
0,0933
173
0,0480
1000
276
0,0766
269
0,0747
258
0,0716
244
0,0677
227
0,0630
208
0,0577
108
0,0300
800
176
0,0488
172
0,0477
164
0,0455
156
0,0433
144
0,0400
133
0,0369
69
0,0191
650
98
0,0272
95
0,0263
91
0,0252
87
0,0241
80
0,0222
74
0,0205
38
0,0105
500
1190
0,3355
45
1160
0,3264
40
1110
0,3134
35
1055
0,2965
30
1600
B\
464
0,1294
0
976
1055
25
898
0,2519
20
Capacity in m
3
/hour
for v = 1 m/s
Cross section in m
2
5,24 4,19 3,35 2,62 2,09 1,68 1,31 1,05 0,84 0,66
Standard speeds in m/s (DIN 22101)
For horizontal belt conveyors:
BELT CONVEYORS II
TRANSPORT CAPACITY
Belt geometry:
L = 805 m, vertical extent = 150 m, incline = 10,73
For the previous incline, the capacity reduction coefficient k = 0,95
Picking angle = 35
Capacity to be transported: 1500 T/hour
EXAMPLE
Limestone
Specific weight = 1,4 T/m
3
Particle size:
10% of coarse, maximum size: 250 mm
Dynamic slope angle: 15
Not abrasive, friable but no reduction in
price, due to a needed later grinding
Speed?
Belt width?
17
BELT CONVEYORS II
TRANSPORT CAPACITY
EXAMPLE
5 3 20
10 6 20 30
100 % coarse 10 % coarse, 90 % fine Dynamic slope angle
=15 =15 =15 =15
Maximumgrain size 250 mm:
B = 3 Maximum size = 3 250 = 750 mm
B=800 mm
0,81 0,85 0,89 0,91 0,93 0,95 0,97 0.,98 0,99 1,0 K
20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2
Slope angle
(degrees)
BELT CONVEYORS II
TRANSPORT CAPACITY
EXAMPLE
900
0,2536
878
0,2467
840
0,2368
798
0,2240
738
0,2071
680
0,1903
351
0,0980
1400
654
0,1828
638
0,1777
610
0,1705
580
0,1612
537
0,1491
494
0,1370
255
0,0710
1200
445
0,1236
434
0,1205
415
0,1152
394
0,1094
365
0,1013
336
0,0933
173
0,0480
1000
276
0,0766
269
0,0747
258
0,0716
244
0,0677
227
0,0630
208
0,0577
108
0,0300
800
176
0,0488
172
0,0477
164
0,0455
156
0,0433
144
0,0400
133
0,0369
69
0,0191
650
98
0,0272
95
0,0263
91
0,0252
87
0,0241
80
0,0222
74
0,0205
38
0,0105
500
1190
0,3355
45
1160
0,3264
40
1110
0,3134
35
1055
0,2965
30
1600
B\
464
0,1294
0
976
1055
25
898
0,2519
20
800 mm B =
35 =
Q
v1
= 258 m
3
/s
For 1 m/s:
18
BELT CONVEYORS II
TRANSPORT CAPACITY
EXAMPLE
[ ]
3
3600 t/h
3600 m /h
v
Q v A k
Q
Q v A k

=
( = =

Because A
v1
= A
v2
:
3 1
2 2 2
1 1
2 2
258
3, 35 0, 95 821m /hou
< 1500 t/ho
r
1 1
1150t/ho r ur u
v
v
v
Q
Q v k
v k
Q Q
= = =

= =
1,05 1,68 Any width Non abrasive
2,09
3,35
4,19
5,24
500
650 a 1000
1200 a 1200
1400 a 2400
Coal, clay pan, soft
minerals and soils, grinned
stones of little size
2,62
3,35
4,19
5,24
500
650 y 800
1000 y 1200
1400 y 2400
Grains and other materials
that have a good fluidity
and are not abrasive
V (m/s) B (mm) Material
BELT CONVEYORS II
TRANSPORT CAPACITY
EXAMPLE
We select B = 1000 mm
900
0,2536
878
0,2467
840
0,2368
798
0,2240
738
0,2071
680
0,1903
351
0,0980
1400
654
0,1828
638
0,1777
610
0,1705
580
0,1612
537
0,1491
494
0,1370
255
0,0710
1200
445
0,1236
434
0,1205
415
0,1152
394
0,1094
365
0,1013
336
0,0933
173
0,0480
1000
276
0,0766
269
0,0747
258
0,0716
244
0,0677
227
0,0630
208
0,0577
108
0,0300
800
176
0,0488
172
0,0477
164
0,0455
156
0,0433
144
0,0400
133
0,0369
69
0,0191
650
98
0,0272
95
0,0263
91
0,0252
87
0,0241
80
0,0222
74
0,0205
38
0,0105
500
1190
0,3355
45
1160
0,3264
40
1110
0,3134
35
1055
0,2965
30
1600
B\
464
0,1294
0
976
1055
25
898
0,2519
20
19
BELT CONVEYORS II
TRANSPORT CAPACITY
EXAMPLE
We select B = 1000 mm
5,24 4,19 3,35 2,62 2,09 1,68 1,31 1,05 0,84 0,66
Standard speeds in m/s (DIN 22101)
v=3,35 m/s
So as not to over design
1,05 1,68 Any width Non abrasive
2,09
3,35
4,19
5,24
500
650 a 1000
1200 a 1200
1400 a 2400
Coal, clay pan, soft
minerals and soils, grinned
stones of little size
2,62
3,35
4,19
5,24
500
650 y 800
1000 y 1200
1400 y 2400
Grains and other materials
that have a good fluidity
and are not abrasive
V (m/s) B (mm) Material
BELT CONVEYORS II
TRANSPORT CAPACITY
EXAMPLE
Selecting B = 1000 mm Q
v1
= 415 m
3
/h y v
2
= 3,35 m/s
3 1
2 2 2
1 1
2 2
415
3, 35 0, 95 1320, 7m /hora
1 1
1849 t/hour
v
v
v
Q
Q v k
v k
Q Q
= = =

= =
OK
B = 1000 mm and v = 3,35 m/s