You are on page 1of 45

ASEAN PORTS ASSOCIATION

BEST PRACTICES MANUAL ON

BULK HANDLING

June 2005 Prepared by the Permanent Secretariat of the ASEAN Ports Association

ASEAN PORTS ASSOCIATION

BEST PRACTICES MANUAL ON BULK HANDLING

The information contained in this document is solely for the use of the ASEAN Ports Association (APA) for the purpose for which it was prepared. The APA Permanent Secretariat takes no responsibility for inaccurate or incomplete information that may have been submitted to it. The facts published indicate the result of inquiries conducted and no warranty as to their accuracy is given by the APA Permanent Secretariat.

Best Practices Manual on Bulk Handling

Page i

Published by the Permanent Secretariat of the ASEAN Ports Association, Philippine Ports Authority, Marsman Building, South Harbor, Port Area, Manila, Philippines 2005 APA Permanent Secretariat

Best Practices Manual on Bulk Handling

Page ii

FOREWORD

This reference material, one in a series of APA port practices manuals, is the fruition of the collaborative efforts of the 25th APA Main Meeting held in 1999 in Bali, Indonesia. It is APAs intent to draft a manual that would provide yardsticks on efficiency and productivity, particularly in bulk handling operations, as they are adopted and applied in APA member-ports. Responses indicated on the customized survey questionnaire, which underwent several amendments to address identified survey lapses, served as groundwork in the preparation of the manual. A total of 57 respondent ports/terminals from the seven APA member-countries, namely: Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam, took pains in providing the needed data inputs. The survey focused on bulk handling arrangements between the port operator and the port user for handling liquid and dry bulk, bulk handling equipment and facilities provided by the port operator and by the port user, planned bulk handling equipment and facilities, liquid and dry bulk cargo volumes handled in the port (in 2003), types and characteristics of bulk vessels calling at the port (in 2003), documentation requirements for bulk handling by cargo owner and shipping company, training of port workers in handling bulk cargo, qualifications and skills requirements for port workers for handling dangerous liquid and dry bulk cargo, duties and responsibilities of port workers handling bulk cargo, port handling rates and other port charges for bulk cargo levied on cargo owner and shipping line, standard procedure for handling bulk cargo (documented or undocumented), port operational standards for handling bulk cargo, sanctions and penalties, and assessment of efficiency in bulk handling operations. At hindsight, the survey returns did not yield any definitive standards or hard and fast rules on the how-to of quality port management and/or service delivery, taking into mind a singular ASEAN perspective. It is to be emphasized that the benchmarks of efficiency and productivity are the result of the interplay of resources and capabilities peculiar to a given locale and influenced by idiosyncrasies of the stakeholders concerned. In view of the foregoing, it was, thus, decided and agreed upon during the 28th APA Main Meeting, held in 2002 in Singapore, for the APA Permanent Secretariat to just proceed for the time being with the compilation, analysis and presentation of the canvassed results as captured through the latest survey instrument. The Permanent Secretariat, however, committed to come up with a more refined and comprehensive manual, which may provide a general reference for a wide range of users/readers, especially those affiliated with the maritime industry. The benefit this manual can offer could only be something relative, depending on the objectives of the user. Further improvements can be incorporated into this text to gradually and eventually fully satisfy the port information needs of APA Best Practices Manual on Bulk Handling Page iii

member-ports. For the moment, this manual can serve as a starting point of an undertaking which is expected to be a continuing process to document the best and the exemplary in ASEAN bulk handling practices.

Best Practices Manual on Bulk Handling

Page iv

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This report which was prepared by the Permanent Secretariat of the ASEAN Ports Association would like to acknowledge all those who contributed in making this manual possible from the following respondent organizations:

BRUNEI DARUSSALAM 1. Ports Department 2. Heidelberger Zement Sdn. INDONESIA 1. IPC I - Indonesia 2. IPC II Indonesia 3. IPC III Indonesia 4. Port of Tanjung Perak 5. Palembang Port 6. Panjang 7. Teluk Bayur 8. Jambi 9. Pontianak 10. Tanjung Priok MALAYSIA 1. Johor 2. Johore Port Berhad (JPB) 3. Bintulu Port Sdn. 4. Kuching Port 5. Northport 6. Miri Port 7. Penang 8. Rajang 9. Sabah Liquid Bulk 10. Sabah Dry Bulk 11. Westport 12. Sapangar Bay 13. Kuantan Port Con. SDN PHILIPPINES 1. Manila International Container Terminal
Best Practices Manual on Bulk Handling Page v

2. SMC Malt 3. Batangas 4. Tacloban 5. Iloilo Commercial Port Complex 6. Cagayan de Oro 7. Davao 8. Butuan 9. Masao 10. Nasipit 11. Hema Port, Mariveles 12. SMC, Bataan Malt Terminal 13. Currimao 14. General Santos 15. Legazpi 16. Mariveles Terminal 17. Masbate 18. Foremost Milling Corp. NH 19. NH Taiwan Cement Corporation 20. South Harbor 21. Limay 22. Planters Products, Inc. (Limay) 23. Surigao 24. Tabaco 25. Zamboanga PHIDCO 26. Philippine Mining Service Corp. SINGAPORE 1. Jurong THAILAND
1. Laem Chabang Port A4

VIETNAM 1. 2. 3. 4. Danang Port Saigon PHU MY Haiphong

Best Practices Manual on Bulk Handling

Page vi

TABLE OF CONTENTS

I. INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND .. 1 II. DEFINITION OF BEST PRACTICE . 2 III. BEST PRACTICES .. 3 1. Entity Responsible For Bulk Cargo Handling Operations 3 2. Port Equipment And Facilities For Bulk Handling....3 3. Bulk Handling Equipment/Facilities Planned For Acquisition...... 5 4. Types Of Bulk Commodities 6 5. Types And Characteristics Of Bulk Vessels 9 Documentation Of Bulk Handling Operations. 13 Training On Bulk Handling For Port Workers .... 15 Duties And Responsibilities Of Portworkers.. 18 Bulk Cargo Handling Rates .. 21 Other Rates Charged On Bulk Cargo. 24 11. Standard Procedures For Processing Bulk Cargo.. 27 12. Written Guidelines.. 29 Port Operations Standards For Bulk Handling.. 29 Sanctions And Penalties Pertaining To Bulk Handling 31 Assessment Of Factors/Conditions Affecting Bulk Handling. 32 Dedicated Berths For Bulk Cargo.. 33

6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 13. 14. 15. 16.

IV. APPENDICES A. B. Questionnaire On Bulk Handling Results Of Questionnaires On Bulk Handling Operations

Best Practices Manual on Bulk Handling

Page vii

ABBREVIATIONS / ACRONYMS

1. APA 2. ASEAN 3. ATI 4. BOC 5. CBA 6. CPO 7. DWT 8. EDI 9. GRT 10. GT 11. HP 12. ID 13. KPH 14. LOA 15. MARINA 16. MICT 17. MT 18. NGH 19. NRT 20. PCG 21. PPA 22. PSA 23. PUNNS 24. PVOER 25. VOC

- ASEAN Ports Association - Association of Southeast Asian Nations - Asian Terminals, Incorporated - Bureau of Customs - Collective Bargaining Agreement - Crude Palm Oil - Deadweight Tonnage - Electronic Data Interchange - Gross Registered Tonnage - Gross Tonnage - Horse Power Identification - Kilometer per Hour - Length Over-all - Maritime Industry Authority - Manila International Container Terminal - Metric Ton - Net Gang Hour - Net Registered Tonnage - Philippine Coast Guard - Philippine Ports Authority - Port of Singapore Authority - Port Users Needs and Satisfaction Survey - Port Vessel Operations Evaluation Report - Vessel Operations Commitment

Best Practices Manual on Bulk Handling

Page viii

DEFINITION OF TERMS

1.

Port Authority

the port management body that is vested by the State with the authority to oversee the ports within a specified area of jurisdiction. any government or private entity, individual or company that is granted by the State or Port Authority, as the case may be, with the permit or license to provide services in a port, usually related to infrastructure development. any government or private entity, individual or company that is granted by the State or Port Authority, as the case may be, with the permit or license to operate the port and provide other related services. any government or private entity, individual or company that has the legal entitlement or proprietorship of the port. any government or private entity, individual or company that is granted by the State or Port Authority, as the case may be, with the permit or license to operate the terminal in a port and provide other related services.

3.

Port Contractor

4.

Port Operator

5.

Port Owner

6.

Terminal Operator -

Best Practices Manual on Bulk Handling

Page ix

BEST PRACTICES MANUAL ON PORT OPERATIONS


I. INTRODUCTION Background In its 25th Main Meeting held on December 1-3, 1999 in Bali, Indonesia, the ASEAN Ports Association (APA) identified a number of projects designed to establish standards of efficiency and productivity in member-ports. One such project was intended to come up with a manual on best practices on Bulk Handling designed to provide benchmarks for productivity on liquid and dry bulk cargo handling operations. A draft survey questionnaire was prepared in early 2000 to generate the information necessary for the preparation of the manual. After undergoing several revisions/amendments, the finalized form of the questionnaire was disseminated to ports of APA member-countries in February 2001. The accomplished forms were processed by the APA Permanent Secretariat in May of the same year. The survey did not yield sufficient data needed for the manual. Among the major problems encountered in the analysis of the responses were dissimilarities in the units of measurement being used by member ports, incomplete or unrelated responses, and unanswered questions. The results of the February 2001 Survey were presented and discussed in the 22nd APA Technical Committee Meeting held in Cebu City, Philippines on January 2224, 2002. Further amendments were made on the questionnaire to address the identified deficiencies. The revised questionnaire (Annex A) was subsequently redistributed to concerned member-ports in February 2002. The questionnaire focused on bulk handling arrangements between the port operator and the port user for handling liquid and dry bulk, bulk handling equipment and facilities provided by the port operator and by the port user, planned bulk handling equipment and facilities, liquid and dry bulk cargo volumes handled in the port (in 2003), types and characteristics of bulk vessels calling at the port (in 2003), documentation requirements for bulk handling by cargo owner and shipping company, training of port workers in handling bulk cargo, qualifications and skills requirements for port workers for handling dangerous liquid and dry bulk cargo, duties and responsibilities of port workers handling bulk cargo, port handling rates and other port charges for bulk cargo levied on cargo owner and shipping line, standard procedure for handling bulk cargo (documented or undocumented), port operational standards for handling bulk cargo, sanctions and penalties, and assessment of efficiency in bulk handling operations.

Best Practices Manual on Bulk Handling

Page 1

Fifty-eight ports/terminals from the following seven APA member-countries responded to the January 2002 survey questionnaire: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Brunei Darussalam 2 Indonesia Malaysia Philippines Singapore Thailand Vietnam Total 10 13 26 1 2 4 --58

As with the results of previous surveys, the following problems were encountered: 1. Deviation from the uniform units of measurement for productivity standards, cargo volume, capacity and rates specified in the questionnaire; 2. Unclear or incomplete responses; 3. Unanswered questions; 4. Use of acronyms; 5. Names of the same port documents differed from port to port; 6. Poor response in submission of relevant reference materials on policies, guidelines and flowcharts as requested in the questionnaire to substantiate the information/data entered in the survey forms. 7. Submitted reference materials were prepared in the language of the country of the respondent. II. DEFINITION OF BEST PRACTICE The term Best Practice is derived from various phrases now being used to refer generally to processes, procedures and measures designed to improve performance, in this case, in port operations. There are no generally accepted criteria by which to judge which is and which is not best practice. In addition, best practices could be applied only to cases where similar sets of operating conditions and characteristics prevail. Hence, the same operating standard would have meaning only in one kind of operating environment and would be totally meaningless in another. Best practice also depends on ones viewpoint. A port user such as a shipping line, a shipper or a consignee would have more stringent measures of performance compared to, say, a cargo handling operator who must deal with various constraints such as physical limitations in the port, equipment limitations, labor laws and policies, port authority regulations, institutional and other concerns as well as meeting his own profit targets. The major respondent categories preBest Practices Manual on Bulk Handling Page 2

identified in the Survey are as follows: port authority, terminal operator, port operator, port contractor, port owner/operator and port owner. Hence, these shall constitute the main perspective for assessing best practices in the ASEAN ports. One perspective that would be an important subject for a separate study that may be integrated in this manual on best practices is that of the port users (shipping lines, shippers, consignees). A move in this direction was the Port Users Needs and Satisfaction Survey (PUNSS) conducted by the Philippine Ports Authority (PPA) in 2001. The Phase II of PUNSS which was completed in July 2004 expanded the coverage to include terminals not included in Phase I. An APA-wide diagnostic survey should yield results that would be informative and provide some blueprint for documenting best practices in the ASEAN region. III. BEST PRACTICES 1. Entity Responsible For Bulk Cargo Handling Operations The survey indicated a variety of responses regarding the entity responsible for liquid and dry bulk cargo handling which includes the port authority, port operator, private port owner/operator, port operator that must register before loading/unloading, private terminal operator, private cargo handling operator, private company, private contractor, private contractor engaged by ships, cargo owner, shipper, consignee, port user, private supplier/carrier, oil company, private stevedores, port workers, installation operator (liquid bulk) and bulk handlers. The common denominator appears to be the liberal participation of the private sector in bulk handling services and facilities as allowed by the government or by the port authority. 2. Port Equipment And Facilities For Bulk Handling 1) Supplied By Port Bulk handling equipment and facilities provided by the port vary from port to port depending on the types of bulk commodity being handled. Bulk cargo, liquid or dry, by its nature dictates the use of mechanized equipment and specialized facilities which appears to be the general practice. The survey yielded information on the following equipment and facilities which ports provided in various combinations:

Best Practices Manual on Bulk Handling

Page 3

Bagging Machines Barge, Mobile Berths Berth (multi-purpose for dry bulk Bobcats Booster Pumps Bucket Elevators Bulk Terminal Bulldozers Cement unloaders Clamshell grab buckets Conveyor Conveyor, belt Conveyor, cement Conveyor, cereal Conveyor, chain Conveyor, fertilizer Conveyor, pipe Crane, gantry Crane, jib Crane, lattice Crane, level-luffing Crane, mobile Crane, quay Dedicated Berth Forklifts Hopper scale Hoppers Hoppers, Grab Hoses Hoses, manifold Hover (belt conveyors) Jetty, oil 2) Supplied By Port User

Loading Points Minidozer Open Storage Areas Payloaders Pipe Pipelines Pneumatic Loaders Pneumatic receiving system Pump for molasses Pumping Machines Reservoir for bulk liquids Sheds (for bulk cargo) Sheds, Transit Silos Silos, concrete Stitching Machines Suction Machine Tank Farm Tanks Tanks, Asphalt Tanks, CPO Tanks, Receiving Tanks, Shore Tanks, Storage Trailers Trucks, Dump Unloaders Warehouses Weighing Scales Wharf for dry bulk Wharf for liquid bulk Wharf, multi-purpose

Bulk handling equipment and facilities are also provided by the port user depending on the specific bulk commodity being handled and depending on what is already available at the port. Port users either provide all of the required equipment or in combination with those provided by the port. In a number of instances especially in the Philippines, the private port owner is also the port operator and the port user. Hence, certain responses were viewed in this light.

Best Practices Manual on Bulk Handling

Page 4

The following equipment and facilities are provided in various combinations (Equipment and facilities with asterisks are also provided by the port while equipment in italics was not indicated in the responses of those provided by the port and may have been provided only by the port user.) Backhoe Bagging Machines* Bagging Scale Barge Berth* Bobcats* Buckets* Bulldozers* Cement unloaders* Clamshell grab buckets* Conveyor* Conveyor, cement* Conveyor, mobile Conveyor, pneumatic Crane* Crane, crawler Crane, gantry Crane, mobile* Crane, quay* Crane, shore* Dedicated Berth* Excavator* Forklifts* Hoppers* Hoses* Multi-purpose berth for dry bulk* Payloaders* Pier, concrete Pier, conveyor-type for limestone Pipelines* Pneumatic loaders/unloaders* Prime movers Pump, hydraulic Reach stackers Scrap unloader Shelter storage Shovels Silo for cement Silo, cement Spreaders Tank Farm* Tank, Bitumen Tank, skid Tanks* Tanks, Storage* Trailers* Truck with mounted crane Trucks, Dump* Truck-tankers Unloaders, ship* Warehouses*

3. Bulk Handling Equipment and Facilities Planned For Acquisition Based on their assessment of bulk operations in their respective ports, respondents were requested to indicate bulk handling equipment and facilities that they planned to acquire. It was deduced that acquisitions were planned based on present and future demand. In some cases, some machinery were planned just to beef up the existing the inventory. In other cases, entire terminals (e.g. oil jetties) are planned.

A summary of the information gathered is shown below: Best Practices Manual on Bulk Handling Page 5

Backhoe Bagging machine, automatic Bagging Scale Bagging shed Berth with shore crane Berth, dedicated Bobcat Bucket, grab Buoys for mooring Clamshell Conveyor Conveyor, portable system Crane, bulk Crane, gantry Crane, quay Crane, shore Discharger for dry bulk Forklift 4. Types Of Bulk Commodities Liquid Bulk:

Generator Hopper Oil jetty (2 berths) Oil pump engine Oil terminal Payloader Pump, booster Silo Stacker, head Storage area Storage for bulk cargo Storage for bulk fertilizer Tank for liquid cargo Truck-trailers Unloader Warehouse Weighing scale

Shown below is a summary of liquid bulk commodities handled by survey subjects that provided cargo data. Topping the list are LNG, Petroleum Products, Palm Oil and Edible and Non-edible Liquids, Crude Palm Oil and Chemicals. Each of commodities requires specialized handling equipment, storage facilities and transport machinery. It is unlikely that they would be handled in multi-purpose bulk terminals except for instance in the case of edible oils. What can be deduced as a common practice is that where there is sustained high volume in a particular bulk commodity, efficiencies can be achieved in using specialized vessels and specialized bulk terminals.

Best Practices Manual on Bulk Handling

Page 6

Liquid Bulk (in metric tons) LNG 17,202,607.00 Petroleum Prods. 12,483,137.91 Palm Oil 9,501,708.00 Liquid-non edible 8,983,763.00 Liquid-edible 4,005,120.00 CPO (Crude Palm Oil) 1,922,815.00 Chemical 1,217,909.00 Soya Bean Oil 383,900.00 Molasses 354,015.00 LPG 300,000.00 Others 220,600.00 Ethanol 43,932.00 Coconut Oil 43,560.00 Asphalt 21,299.00 Caustic soda 17,973.00 Bitumen 12,391.00 Sulfuric acid 8,800.00 Not specified 3,368,133.00 Dry Bulk: Shown below is a summary of dry bulk commodities handled by survey subjects that provided cargo data. Topping the list are Cement/Clinker/Limestone, Dry-non-edible, Fertilizer, Logs/Lumber, Dry-edible, Wheat, Sugar, Corn/Maize and Soy Beans. In constrast to liquid bulk, dry bulk commodities with homogeneous characteristics such as wheat and corn can be handled by a multi-use bulk facility such as a grain silo. Each commodity classification requires specialized handling equipment, storage facilities and transport machinery. As with liquid bulk, cost, handling and transport efficiencies can be derived from using specialized vessels and specialized bulk terminals where high-volumes are sustained on a long-term basis.

Best Practices Manual on Bulk Handling

Page 7

Dry Bulk (in metric tons) Cement/Clinker/Limestone Dry, non-edible Fertilizer Logs/timber Dry-edible Wheat Sugar Corn/Maize Soy Beans Soya Meal Clinker Grains & Fertilizer Palm kerner Clinker/Slug Others PKE Coal Urea Lubi based oil Gypsum Copper slag Scrap/Pig iron Malt Animal Feed Wood Chip Copra/Copra cake/meal Agri-Prods. Sand Industrial chemical Industrial Mineral Others Copra Expeller Coke Obsidian Sulfur Salt Soda/soda ash Sand & gravel Soya meal Not specified

13,337,458.00 5,905,375.00 5,597,068.00 3,036,968.00 2,209,103.00 1,901,889.17 1,560,000.00 1,189,248.00 1,187,969.00 865,161.88 634,968.00 631,619.00 611,856.00 600,000.00 538,700.00 515,604.00 499,912.00 422,753.00 387,500.00 321,089.00 283,500.00 263,000.00 250,000.00 215,906.00 210,000.00 188,669.34 141,200.00 114,028.00 105,000.00 54,800.00 43,600.00 27,665.37 25,000.00 20,732.00 17,801.00 5,235.00 3,000.00 1,555.75 1,200.00 7,071,137.00

Best Practices Manual on Bulk Handling

Page 8

5. Types And Characteristics Of Bulk Vessels Liquid Bulk Vessels: Data received from respondents on the types and characteristics of liquid bulk vessels were widely varied and some data are not consistent with those of liquid bulk ships. Nonetheless, the vessel particulars shown below are for all responses as processed. It could be deduced that some of these vessels are not really liquid bulk vessels but only carry liquid bulk commodities. In terms of DWT which for purposes of this analysis will be taken as a general measure of vessel size, it can be seen that liquid bulk vessels range from a small one of 300 DWT to a mammoth of 72,083 DWT. Averages would have limited value here. But the median size for a liquid bulk vessel plying the ASEAN sailing routes would be 5,000 DWT. (Note: There were 23 responses for DWT data.) The median is the 12th vessel.) For other vessel characteristics, the median for GRT is 4,007.00 (based on 30 responses), LOA, 100.00 meters (based on 32 responses) and Draft, 6.00 meters (based on 28 responses). This is, therefore, what appears to be the average liquid bulk vessel currently calling at ASEAN ports. Maximum characteristics, based on the processed responses, for liquid bulk vessels would be as follows: DWT 72,083; GRT 80,346; LOA 200 meters; and Draft 13.00 meters. This would probably describe the large oil tankers calling at the large oil terminals of the ASEAN.

Best Practices Manual on Bulk Handling

Page 9

Liquid Bulk Vessels GRT 250.00 296.00 498.00 1280.00 1444.00 1808.00 1851.00 2020.00 2390.00 2700.00 2705.00 3000.00 3220.00 3728.00 4007.00 4386.00 4500.00 4711.00 6000.00 6800.00 7753.00 9444.00 15000.00 19355.00 20000.00 20000.00 24000.00 30000.00 30000.00 80346.00 NRT 50.00 1316.00 1500.00 1560.00 3700.00 15000.00 DWT 300.00 441.00 622.53 1801.00 2013.00 2600.00 2750.00 2889.00 4000.00 4780.00 5000.00 5000.00 5209.00 7582.00 10000.00 12000.00 18000.00 20000.00 20000.00 34500.00 35000.00 35000.00 72083.00 LOA 4.80 36.00 58.00 67.30 75.00 77.00 80.00 80.00 86.78 90.00 90.00 92.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 105.00 106.00 108.00 110.00 113.00 113.31 114.00 116.00 125.00 130.00 150.00 150.00 150.00 163.00 165.00 200.00

Best Practices Manual on Bulk Handling

Page 10

DRAFT 1.72 2.80 3.40 3.60 4.15

4.57 5.00 5.00 5.20 5.50 5.54 6.00 6.00

6.00 6.00 6.40 6.50 7.00 7.50 7.50 8.00

8.00 8.60 9.00 9.00 11.40 11.76 13.00

Best Practices Manual on Bulk Handling

Page 11

Dry Bulk Vessels: As with liquid bulk vessels, data received from respondents on the types and characteristics of dry bulk vessels were widely varied and some data are not consistent with those of dry bulk ships. Nonetheless, the vessel particulars shown below are for all responses as processed. It could be deduced that some of these vessels are not really dry bulk vessels but only carry bulk commodities. In terms of DWT which for purposes of this analysis will be taken as a general measure of vessel size, it can be seen that dry bulk vessels range from a small one of 1,000 DWT to a mammoth of 65,000 DWT. As with liquid bulk vessels, averages would have limited value here. But the median size for a dry bulk vessel plying the ASEAN sailing routes would be 21,000 DWT. (Note: There were 30 responses for DWT data.) The median is the 15th vessel.) For other vessel characteristics, the median for GRT is 11,647.00 (based on 40 responses), LOA, 150.00 meters (based on 43 responses) and Draft, 9.00 meters (based on 39 responses). This is, therefore, what appears to be the average dry bulk vessel currently calling at ASEAN ports. Maximum characteristics, based on the processed responses, for dry bulk vessels would be as follows: DWT 65,000; GRT 25,000; LOA 225 meters; and Draft 13.00 meters. This would probably describe the large bulk carriers bearing cement/clinker/limestone calling at the bulk terminals of the ASEAN.

Best Practices Manual on Bulk Handling

Page 12

Dry Bulk Vessels: GRT 449.00 616.00 656.23 1250.00 1500.00 1801.00 4000.00 5990.00 6430.00 7433.00 7941.00 8000.00 10000.00 10000.00 10100.00 10156.00 10334.00 10500.00 11643.00 11647.00 12000.00 13000.00 14169.00 15000.00 19952.00 22000.00 22000.00 23376.00 25000.00 25000.00 25000.00 25865.30 25895.00 27000.00 27104.00 30000.00 30000.00 35000.00 40000.00 63000.00 NRT 50.00 1600.00 4576.00 4692.00 7000.00 7800.00 12000.00 13673.00 20000.00 25000.00 DWT 1000.00 1210.00 1580.00 2786.00 6000.00 6100.00 10000.00 10000.00 12274.00 13711.61 15000.00 15000.00 16000.00 17000.00 18527.95 21000.00 25000.00 27815.00 30000.00 30000.00 30000.00 35000.00 35000.00 35000.00 39000.00 43598.00 43700.00 44000.00 45000.00 65000.00 LOA 12.00 40.28 62.32 67.35 72.00 78.00 80.00 100.00 110.00 120.00 120.00 123.00 124.62 129.36 140.00 141.00 148.00 148.00 150.00 150.00 150.00 150.00 151.00 167.00 175.00 180.00 180.00 180.00 180.00 182.00 182.00 183.00 184.00 185.00 185.84 189.00 190.00 200.00 201.00 215.00 225.00 225.00 225.00 DRAFT 2.28 3.27 3.50 4.35 4.50 5.77 6.80 7.00 7.00 7.50 7.50 7.60 8.00 8.50 9.00 9.00 9.00 9.50 10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00 10.50 10.50 11.00 11.00 11.00 11.00 11.00 11.00 11.20 11.50 12.00 13.00

Best Practices Manual on Bulk Handling

Page 13

6. Documentation Of Bulk Handling Operations Documents Required From Cargo Owner and Shipping Line A variety of documents, as shown in the long list below, was indicated by the respondents pertaining to the processing of bulk cargo and commodities most of which are being implemented in the conduct of general shipping and port operations. The common areas where documentation was required included the following: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. Berthing Vessel Information Cargo Recording Cargo Movement (within and to/from the port) Billing for Charges Customs Procedures Dangerous Cargo Exportation/Importation

As with general port operations, appropriate documentation is useful for efficient operation providing information and data to effectively monitor, manage and administer the bulk terminal particularly where a substantial portion of the bulk traffic require specialized handling whether these are dangerous or non-dangerous cargo. In some responses, bulk handling operations have advanced with the use of automation, electronic and computerized systems, particularly when handling dangerous cargo. The consensus is that documentation is a critical function for bulk handling operations. DOCUMENT REQUIRED Agricultural Approval Application For Berth Application of Bulk Application For Direct Delivery Berthing Permit Bill of Lading Billing Bunkering Permit Cargo Entry/Withdrawal Permit Cargo Handling Contract Cargo List Export Cargo Withdrawal Permit Commercial Invoice Convoy Note Crew List Best Practices Manual on Bulk Handling CARGO OWNER Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes SHIPPING LINE Yes Yes Yes Yes

Yes Page 14

Customs Clearance Customs Declaration Form Customs Documentation Customs Import/Export Licenses Daily Report Delivery Note Delivery Order Delivery Order Import Delivery Plan Delivery Receipt DG Declaration Form Draft Survey Report Electronic Delivery Order Electronic Shipping Note ETA Advice Export License Export Shipping Order Import Delivery Order Import Entry Integrated Export Document Integrated Import Document Integrated Import/Export Document Integrated Shipping Document Invoicing Advice Letter of Import/Export Lorry Chit Lorry Convoy Notice Manifest Manifest, Cargo Manifest, Coasting Manifest, Inward Manifest, Outward Miscellaneous Ship Voucher Notice of Advice Outturn Statement/Certificate, Final Outward Booking Reference Packing/Hatch List Permit To Discharge Permit To Transfer Permit To Unload Dangerous/Inflammable Cargo Permits Port Charges Best Practices Manual on Bulk Handling

Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Yes Yes

Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Yes Yes Yes Yes

Yes Page 15

Product Transfer Slip Ship Advice Voucher Ship Arrival Notice Ship/Vessel Particulars Shipping Instruction Import/Export Documents Shipping Note Split Charge Agreement Statement of Facts Statistical Report Statistical Supplement Stevedoring Contract Stowage Plan Surveyor Report Tax Declaration Vessel Information Sheet Unloading Advice Usage Fee Wharfage Clearance Certificate ZB Form

Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Yes Yes Yes Yes

7. Training On Bulk Handling For Port Workers A variety of training courses and programs were also indicated by respondents mentioning which entity is conducting or responsible for the training whether by port, the port operator, private cargo handling operator or some other company or group. The common areas for skills development, whether on-the-job or formal sessions included the following: a. b. c. d. e. f. Cargo Handling Safety Equipment Operation Specialized Programs for Handling of Dangerous Cargo Pollution Prevention and Control Supervisory Skills

Generally, port personnel who would have direct contact with bulk cargo and require training can be divided into the following categories: a. b. c. d. Stevedores/Deckhands Equipment Operators Security Personnel Technicians Page 16

Best Practices Manual on Bulk Handling

e. Foremen/Supervisors Training On Liquid Bulk Handling: Liquid bulk handling requires training in the handling, operation, maintenance and repair of pipelines, pipes, hoses, pumps, valves, switches, tanks and tankers as well as in the use of pollution prevention and control equipment, fire-fighting equipment and implementation of emergency procedures. These are then complemented with training in supervisory skills. The list below was consolidated from the various responses and indicates a general appreciation of the usefulness of training: 1) All-safe Cargo Handling 2) Clerk Basic Training 3) Contractor Basic Safety and Handling Procedures 4) Crew Operator Special Training 5) Dangerous Cargo 6) Drivers Handling of Mobile Crane 7) English Ability 8) Equipment Operator Orientation/Training 9) Executive Ship-To-Shore Safety Checklist 10) Fire Prevention 11) Foreman and Checker Cargo Handling 12) Hose Fixer/Fixing 13) IMO/MARPOL 73/78 14) Oil Spillage Prevention 15) Pipe Worker Training 16) Port Workers Basic Safety and Handling Procedures 17) Pump Operator Handling of Crude Palm Oil 18) Safe Cargo Handling for Foremen/Supervisors 19) Safe Cargo Handling for Security Personnel 20) Safe Cargo Handling for Technicians 21) Safety Procedures 22) Stevedore Fire-Fighting and Safety 23) Stevedoring Pipe/Hose Fitting 24) Supervisor Safety Awareness 25) Surveyor-Surveying Workshop 26) Tank Farm Pipeline and Task Safety Operation 27) Tanker Operator 28) Terminal Operator Handling of Dangerous Cargo 29) Training in Cargo Handling for Port Labor 30) Worker Quayside Pipeline Safety Operation 31) Workers Emergency Response Procedures, Safety Rules and Precautions

Best Practices Manual on Bulk Handling

Page 17

Training On Dry Bulk Handling: Handling dry bulk cargo requires the same level and intensity of training as with liquid bulk handling. In this case, this involves the handling, operation, maintenance and repair of clamshells (grab buckets), forklifts, bobcats, payloaders, loaders/unloaders, winches, bagging machines, trimming machines, bulldozers, cranes, conveyor systems, silos, as well as in the use of pollution prevention and control equipment, fire-fighting equipment and implementation of emergency procedures. These are then complemented with training of supervisory skills. 1) All Safety. Team Building and First Aid 2) Bagging Crew (Bag filling and stitching) 3) Basic Port Operations Safety Training 4) Cargo Handling for Stevedores 5) Checkers Orientation 6) Clamshell Operator Multi-skill Training 7) Clerk (Clerical)-English Ability 8) Crane Operator 9) Crane Operator Bulk Crane 10) Deckhand and wheel loader 11) Equipment Operator Winch/Signalman Training and Defensive Driving 12) Equipment Operator (Forklifts, bulldozers, etc.) 13) Equipment Operator for Unloader and Silo 14) Foreman and Checker Cargo Handling 15) Forklift Operator- Palletized Piling 16) Gang Boss, Supervisory and Safety 17) Maintenance Technician 18) Operations Personnel Safety 19) Operations Personnel Safety, Proper Handling of Bulk Materials and Pollution Control 20) Payloader Operator 21) Port Worker Operation Work Procedure and Cargo Handling 22) Safety Device Use 23) Stevedore Operation/Hooking/Safety/Trimming 24) Trimming Machine Operator 25) Truck Loader- Truck Piling 26) Winch Operator, Fire-fighting and SOLAS 27) Winchman/Deckhand Handling Of Ship Crane 28) Winchman/Bagger/Cargo Hold Workers Safety

Best Practices Manual on Bulk Handling

Page 18

Training On Dangerous Cargo Handling Responses to questions regarding training in the handling of dangerous cargo largely overlap with other training programs for liquid and dry bulk handling with specific emphasis on dangerous cargo. The information submitted mention basic and general courses on dangerous cargo handling although in some instances courses are specific for oil pollution, oil spills and explosives. The list below is a consolidation of responses. 1) Basic Safety Course on Dangerous Cargo Handling Operations 2) Dangerous Cargo Classification and Safety Measures 3) Dangerous Cargo Handling 4) Emergency Response on Accidents 5) Fire Prevention 6) Fire-fighting 7) Forklift/Welding Operation and Maintenance 8) IMO/MARPOL 73/78 9) International Safety Standards and Requirements 10) Multi-Skill Training on Safety 11) Pollution Control 12) Port Safety 13) Proper Handling and Storage of Bulk Materials 14) Safety Measures for Explosives Handling 15) Special Skills Berthing/Unmooring of Bulk Carriers and Ship-toShore Cargo Handling (for Dangerous Liquid Bulk) 16) Training on Handling Dry Bulk Cargo 17) Training on Oil Spillage Protection 18) Training Requirement Competency in Ship-to-Shore Safety Procedures 19) Warehouse Management 8. Duties And Responsibilities Of Portworkers Responses to the questions on the duties and responsibilities of each group or category of workers or entity handling bulk cargo ranged from the general to the specific, most of which were routine tasks that the port worker was trained to do, in any case. The information received and processed was consolidated as follows:

Best Practices Manual on Bulk Handling

Page 19

1) Arrastre (a) Handles cargo from hauler to vessel (b) Receives cargo 2) Bagger (a) Fills up sacks with bulk fertilizer and sews before piling into trucks (b) Measures and seals bagged bulk cargo 3) Cargo Hold Worker Gathers and piles bulk cargo using backhoe or bobcat for transfer through clamshell or unloader 4) Checker Documents and records the cargo 5) Clamshell Operator Transfers cargo to hoppers 6) Crane Operator Operates bulk handler 7) Deckhand Operates hydraulic grab 8) Equipment Operator (a) Operates crane, payloader, winch, forklift, mobile and other handling equipment; discharges cargo (b) Ensures safe and efficient operation of machines 9) Foreman/Gang Boss/Supervisor/Gang Leader (a) Supervises stevedoring operation (b) Supervises cargo handling (c) Arranges cargo handling (d) Monitors port workers (e) Leads group in performing tasks 10) Inspection Team Conducts ship-to-shore safety inspection 11) Line Tender Secures nozzles to marathon hose to the intake manifold 12) Maintenance Technician Attends to breakdown of equipment; carries out maintenance 13) Mooring Gang Performs berthing of tanker/vessel 14) Operations Clerk Monitors pump progress, in charge of receipt/delivery at yard/warehouse/wharf

Best Practices Manual on Bulk Handling

Page 20

15) Operations Assistant (a) Operates unloader; stores cargo in silo (b) Tallies and documents 16) Operators Operates crane and equipment on three shifts and attends to breakdown 17) Payloader Operator Loads cargo to dump trucks 18) Pipeline Operator Watches for leaks 19) Pump Operator (a) In charge of pipeline (b) akes charge of loading CPO from storage tank to vessel 20) Signalman Assists winchman 21) Stevedore /Dockworker/Port Laborer (a) Handles cargo in hatch of vessels or on land side where labor is needed (b) Handles cargo on vessel (c) In charge of ship stability; arranges cargo (d) Marshalls traffic; loads cargo; bags cargo; operates winch (e) Performs bagging and sewing operations (f) Pumps cargo from tank storage to ships (g) Unloads bulk fertilizer into hopper (h) Performs trimming of cargo on dump trucks (i) Connects pipe from loading point to manifold (j) Works on board vessel and on dock (k) Carries bagged sugar 22) Supervisor (a) Coordinates shifting (b) Ensure safe, smooth and efficient operation (c) Monitors and supervises operations/safety 23) Surveyor Conducts sounding and cargo checking of quality and quantity 24) Tallyman (a) Accounts for the volume (b) Counts and records cargo 25) Technician (a) Aligns rubber hose; tightens bolts (b) Performs minor repair of equipment Best Practices Manual on Bulk Handling Page 21

26) Terminal Operator (a) Administers port (b) Supervises cargo handling 27) Trimmer Implements stowage plan 28) Trimming Gang Ensures cleanliness of hatch 29) Trimming Machine Driver Trims cargo towards end of discharging 30) Warehouse Worker Arranges cargo space 31) Wharf Assistant Locks/unlocks valve 32) Wheel Loader trims cargo hold 33) Winchman/Deckhand (a) Handles ships crane on board vessel (b) Transfers cargo from hold to hoppers 9. Bulk Cargo Handling Rates Information on rates charged for the handling of bulk cargo was generally on a category basis except for a few specific commodities which required a category of their own such as asphalt, bunker, clinker/gypsum, fertilizer, grains, palm oil, petroleum and soya meal. The general impression is that unless a specific tariff was needed, the rate was prescribed for a catch-all classification. Another observation was that the rate base or unit of quantity was in most cases the ton or metric ton. CARGO TYPE All DG, liquid All non-DG, liquid All types, indirect All types, bulk, handling at buoy All types, bulk, ship-to-shed/yard All types, bulk, ship-totruck/barge Arrastre RATE (COUNTRY) RM 3.00 (Malaysia Northport) RM 1.80 (Malaysia Northport) Rp. 51,000-53,000 (Indonesia) US$2.30/ton (Vietnam Saigon) US$2.00/ton (Vietnam Saigon) US$2.00/ton (Vietnam Saigon) Php 87.30/mt (Philippines General Santos) Php 33.10/mt (Philippines Tabaco) Rp. 26,850/ton (Indonesia Panjang) Page 22

Asphalt Best Practices Manual on Bulk Handling

Bunker Clinker/Gypsum Dry Truck Loading Dry Bulk

Dry Cargo

Dry, edible Dry, not edible Fertilizer

Fertilizer/Coal Grains

Liquid Truck Loading Best Practices Manual on Bulk Handling

Rp. 985/ton/cu.m. (Indonesia Pontianak) RM 4.00 (Malaysia Sabah) RM 1.05 (Malaysia Sapangar Bay) US$0.50/ton (Brunei) US$2.60/ton (Vietnam Danang) Rp. 7,418.50 (Indonesia IPC III) RM 5-9.50 (Malaysia Johor) Php 107.75/ton (Philippines Davao) Php 74.08/mt (Philippines Masbate) Php 38.12 shipside (Philippines Foremost Milling Corp.) Php 172/mt (Philippines Limay) RM 8.50/ton (Malaysia Northport) $1.30 wharfage/$1.00 service for manual handling (Singapore Jurong) $1.30 wharfage/$3.90 using unloader/$2.30 using conveyor (Singapore Jurong) BHT 148/mt (Thailand Laem Chabang) Rp. 33,410 (Indonesia Tanjung Perak) Php 79.20 plus Php 24.40 for bagging (Philippines Iloilo Commercial Port Complex) Php 69.70/mt (Philippines Legazpi) RM 0.92/ton (Malaysia Sapangar Bay) RM 6-9.50 (Malaysia Johor) RM 9.50 (Malaysia Johore Port) Rp. 6,433 (Indonesia IPC I) Rp. 10,968 (Indonesia IPC III) Rp. 18,213 (Indonesia - Panjang) RM 1.00 (Malaysia Bintulu) US$2.60/ton (Vietnam Danang) Php 128.90 arrastre/stevedoring (Philippines - Batangas) US$5.50/mt terminal handling (Philippines Mariveles Terminal) Rp. 9,611 (Indonesia) Page 23

Liquid (per ton)

Liquid, edible Liquid, non-edible Palm Kernel Oil (per ton) Palm Oil (per ton)

Petroleum, liquid

Sand and Gravel Silica Sand Soya Meal Stevedoring

Rp. 501/ton (Indonesia IPC I) Rp. 14,125/ton (Indonesia IPC III) Rp. 3,140/ton (Indonesia Tanjung Perak) Php 59-64/mt (Philippines (South Harbor) RM 6.00 (Malaysia Sabah) RM 1.58 (Malaysia Sapangar Bay) $1.30 wharfage/$1.00 service (Singapore Jurong) BHT 45/mt (Thailand Laem Chabang) RM 2.50 (Malaysia Johor) RM 2.00 (Malaysia Johore Port) RM 3-4 (Malaysia Johor) Rp. 10,900.ton (Indonesia IPC I) US$1.50/ton (Indonesia IPC I) Php 5.00/mt wharfage (Philippines Butuan) RM 0.50 (Malaysia Bintulu) RM 2.50-3.50 (Malaysia Johore) RM 2.00 (Malaysia Kuantan Port) RM 0.50/ton (Malaysia Bintulu ) RM 2.00 (Malaysia Rajang) RM 2.50-3.50 (Malaysia Johore) RM 2.50 (Malaysia Kuantan Port) Php 67.70/revenue ton arrastre (Philippines Masao) US$2.00/ton (Vietnam Danang) Php 6.50/mt terminal handling (Philippines Mariveles Terminal) Php 20.45/mt (Philippines General Santos) Php 51.95/mt (Philippines Tabaco)

Best Practices Manual on Bulk Handling

Page 24

10. Other Rates Charged On Bulk Cargo The table below is a consolidation of individual responses regarding information on other rates charged for the handling of bulk cargo. It can be seen that payment by either cargo owner or by shipping line can vary from port to port. For instance, out of 7 responses regarding dockage fee, 6 reported that this was paid by the shipping line. In another instance, out of 23 responses regarding wharfage dues, 21 disclosed that this was paid by the cargo owner. In general, based on the results of the survey, the following charges are paid by the cargo owner: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. Barging Customs duties Equipment rental Handling charge Permit to discharge Storage Trimming Charge Use of port crane Wharfage

On the other hand, in general, the following charges are paid by the shipping line: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. k. l. m. n. o. p. Ancillary services/permits Berth occupancy Berth/anchorage Berthing Dockage Harbor dues Maintenance fee Mooring fee Pilotage Port dues Port usage fee Stevedorage Throughput charge Towage Tug assistance Vessel charge

Best Practices Manual on Bulk Handling

Page 25

OTHER CHARGES LEVIED FOR BULK HANDLING


Rate/Charge Ancillary services/permits Bagging and sewing P55/ton Barging Berth occupancy Berth/anchorage Berth/anchorage Berthing Berthing fee Berthing fees Berthing/anchorage Berthing/Unberthing $175$300/vessel call Customs duties Dockage Dockage Dockage Dockage Dockage fee Dockage fee Dockage-$30.00 1st 100 Eqpt. Rental Extra labor General charge General charge Handling charge Harbor dues Harbor fees Light fee LOA & @$2.00>each m >100 Maintenance fee Mooring fee Mooring fees Mooring/unmooring Mooring/unmooring Mooring/unmooring No. Of days x 1.10 vat) Palletizing charge Permit to discharge Pier maintenance fee Pilotage Pilotage Pilotage Pilotage Pilotage fee Pilotage service Pilotage/dockage Port dues Port dues Port dues Port dues Port dues Paid by Cargo owner: Shipping line Shipping line Shipping line Shipping line Shipping line Shipping line Shipping line Cargo owner: Cargo owner: Shipping line Shipping line Shipping line Shipping line Shipping line Shipping line Cargo owner: Cargo owner: Cargo owner: Cargo owner: Cargo owner: Cargo owner: Shipping line Shipping line Shipping line Cargo owner: Shipping line Shipping line Shipping line Shipping line Shipping line Shipping line Shipping line Cargo owner: Shipping line Shipping line Shipping line Shipping line Shipping line Shipping line Shipping line Shipping line Shipping line Shipping line Shipping line Shipping line Shipping line Paid by Shipping line

Best Practices Manual on Bulk Handling

Page 26

Port dues Port dues Port dues Port dues Port dues Port dues Port dues/usage fee Port indirect Port usage fee Rs&d RM2.00 (Local)RM2.50 (foreign) Rm2.0-shipping Rm2.30-shipping Space rental Standby charge Stevedorage Storage Storage Storage Storage Storage Temporary vehicle pass Throughput charge Towage Towage/pilotage Trimming charge Trimming charge Tug assistance Tug boat Tugboat services US$0.03/GRT-shipping US$0.6/ton-shipping US$9.21-36.84/operation Usage Usage fee Usage fee Usage fee (GRT x 0.50 x Use of port crane Vessel charge Wharfage Wharfage Wharfage Wharfage Wharfage Wharfage Wharfage Wharfage Wharfage Wharfage Wharfage Wharfage Wharfage Wharfage

Shipping line Shipping line Shipping line Shipping line Shipping line Shipping line Shipping line Cargo owner: Shipping line Shipping line

Cargo owner: Cargo owner: Shipping line Cargo owner: Cargo owner: Cargo owner: Cargo owner: Cargo owner: Cargo owner: Shipping line Shipping line Shipping line Cargo owner: Cargo owner: Shipping line Shipping line Shipping line

Shipping line Shipping line Shipping line Shipping line Cargo owner: Shipping line Cargo owner: Cargo owner: Cargo owner: Cargo owner: Cargo owner: Cargo owner: Cargo owner: Cargo owner: Cargo owner: Cargo owner: Cargo owner: Cargo owner: Cargo owner: Cargo owner:

Best Practices Manual on Bulk Handling

Page 27

Wharfage Wharfage Wharfage Wharfage Wharfage Wharfage Wharfage Wharfage (P5.0/m.t.) Wharfage dues

Cargo owner: Cargo owner: Cargo owner: Cargo owner: Cargo owner: Shipping line Shipping line Cargo owner: Cargo owner:

11. Standard Procedures For Processing Bulk Cargo Descriptions of the standard procedures for the processing of bulk cargo submitted by the respondents are generally brief and telegraphic. What could be deduced is the following pattern: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. Application for berth Clearances from the Customs agency Payment of permits Performance of actual bulk handling Billing Payment of charges Documentation at each step

For comparison, various descriptions are presented below as gathered from responses. For Liquid Bulk (various practices): a. In the case of CPO, the operator takes charge of pumping/loading CPO to vessel from the storage tank. After loading, the operator submits the loading report to the office which prepares the Product Transfer Slip to record the volume loaded. b. Berth planning; Submission of documents; Hose connection; Sampling; Commencement; Completion; Calculation of productivity and Documentation. c. Connection of the vessel to the pipelines by hoses and monitoring for leaks. d. Operator connects the hose, pumps cargo from source to ship, and disconnects hose afterwards. e. Berth application; Berth allocation; Discharging operation by cargo owner; Billing. Best Practices Manual on Bulk Handling Page 28

f. In another response, no laborers are used for liquid bulk handling. Vessel workers simply connect the pipe from the depot to vessel For Dry Bulk (various practices): a. Grab buckets are positioned and fitted to the vessel. Hoppers are positioned with spouts. Cargo is bagged and bags are stitched. In the case of palletized cargo, cargo is piled onto pallets which are stacked in sheds or stockpiling areas. In the case of fertilizers, stevedores unload from the vessel by ships crane onto hopper with baggers at the dockside to put into sacks, sewn and piled onto trucks. b. Cargo on vessel is transferred to hoppers and the arrastre group places bags at mouth of the hoppers to catch cargo. Another group headed by a gang boss does the bagging and sewing. c. Rubber pipe is aligned and attached to the vessel. Air is blown through the pipes from vessel transferring bulk cement from vessel to silo. d. Pertinent documents like Bill of Lading and manifests are submitted. Cargo entry/withdrawal permit is filled up and wharfage is paid. The port authority then approves the workers schedule and cargo operation begins upon approval. e. Cargo handler operates payloader, brings cargo to vessel, discharges cargo and trims/levels cargo. f. Submission of manifest; Preparation of logistics and manpower requirements; Application for mooring of equipment to port (excavator). g. Berth planning; Submission of documents including ISPS checklist; Discharging/loading. h. Dump trucks roll on board the LCT or barge. Payloader operator loads cargo on dump trucks. Workers trim cargoes on board with dump trucks which are covered with tarpaulin. Dump trucks roll off the vessel. i. For copra, cargo is loaded in buckets inside trucks, lifted by crane to the hatch of vessel.

Best Practices Manual on Bulk Handling

Page 29

j. Incoming cargo: Pneumatic ship unloading is used and transported through the pier intake mechanical conveyor. Bulk weighing and pre-cleaning are done and cargo is mechanically conveyed to silos or warehouse. k. Outgoing cargo: Cargo is discharged from the silo/warehouse and mechanically conveyed to the scale. l. Consignee submits the Notice Of Arrival and receives approved berth assignment. He then prepares safety equipment with gears for discharging. He then pays the wharfage dues. 12. Written Guidelines On this item, five of the survey subjects responded that they had written guidelines or instructions prescribed for handling bulk cargo. 13. Port Operations Standards For Bulk Handling Some respondents submitted complete information on the operations standards that they have adopted in their respective bulk terminals presumably based on the requirements of their clients. Samples are shown below. (1) Liquid Bulk - Operations Standards Liquid Bulk Handling Standards (Indonesia IPC I) Labor Complement 4 Foreman/20 workers Equipment Complement 48 untis flexible hose 20 units fire extinguisher 3 units fire brigade Productivity 1.200T/S/H 50 gloves/50 helmets/50 Safety Devices mask Liquid Bulk Handling Standards (Indonesia Tanjung Perak) Labor Complement 1 foreman/1 checker Equipment Complement Pipe Productivity 100 T/H Safety Devices 1 helmet, 1 shoes 1 mask/person (2) Dry Bulk - Operations Standards Dry Bulk Handling Standards (Brunei Heidelberger) Best Practices Manual on Bulk Handling Page 30

Labor Complement Equipment Complement Productivity Safety Devices

1 Superintendent 1 Supv./12 operators 4-hydraulic grab 3-hoppers conveyor belts 450T/H alarms & helmet

Dry Bulk Handling Standards (Indonesia IPC I) Labor Complement 4 foreman/24 worker Equipment Complement 6 portable conveyor 2 fixed conveyor 1 pneumatic conveyor Productivity 800T/S/H Safety Devices 50 safety,50 helment 50 masks, 50 gloves 8 fire extinguisher 3 fire brigades Dry Bulk Handling Standards (Indonesia Tanjung Perak) Labor Complement 1 foreman,1checker, 1 tallyman Equipment Complement conveyor, grab bagging machine Productivity 300 T/H Safety Devices 1-helmet, 1-shoes Dry Bulk Handling Standards (Philippines Iloilo Commercial Port Complex) 50 stevedores/100 Labor Complement baggers Equipment Complement 4 hoppers 1 unloader 125 mt-bulk wheat/50 Productivity mt for bulk fertilizer safety shoes/boots & Safety Devices mask per worker

Best Practices Manual on Bulk Handling

Page 31

Dry Bulk Handling Standards (Philippines Davao) 1 gang of arrastre & Labor Complement stevedoresr per hatch 3 ship's crane, 3 Equipment Complement forklift 1 hopper/hatch 1 clamshell/ship's crane Productivity 1,000 m.t. per day Safety Devices gloves/worker

Dry Bulk Handling Standards (Philippines Planters Products, Inc.) operations personnelLabor Complement 13/shift, stevedores-15/shift Equipment Complement 2-3 TCM 45 payloaders Productivity 4,000-6,000 mt/day hard hat, safety sheet, Safety Devices gloves, dusk mask, safety goggles, working clothes Dry Bulk Handling Standards (Philippines Limay) Labor Complement 20 persons Equipment Complement Unloader/Loader/Payloader Productivity 4000-5000 mt/day goggles, mask, gloves, hard Safety Devices hat 14. Sanctions And Penalties Pertaining To Bulk Handling Various practices are implemented with regard to sanctions and penalties for violations or non-compliance with policies, rules and regulations governing bulk handling operations. The responses are summarized below: a. b. c. d. e. f. Vessel is unberthed if productivity is low (taken to anchorage) Suspension of operation Reprimand Reprimand for first offense Reprimand to suspension Permit to operate is revoked. Page 32

Best Practices Manual on Bulk Handling

g. Issuances on Port Rules and Regulation (PPA AO 13-77, PD 857) h. Payment of demurrage i. Payment of demurrage and payment of full cargo losses that exceed standards j. Minimum of 3 months suspension from work of an erring worker k. BPA Port By-laws 1981 Terms and Conditions of business 1993 (Bintulu Port Authority) l. Cargo handling operations are ordered stopped. m. Layoff, deductions from salary,etc. 15. Assessment Of Factors/Conditions Affecting Bulk Handling As with responses requiring further elaboration and explanation, the information provided under this item was abbreviated and telegraphic. However, the following generally describes the concerns faced by the port, port user, cargo owner, shipping line and other stakeholders some of which are beyond human control: 1) Capability (inability) of cargo owner to arrange for land transport 2) Cargo volume (lack of) 3) Cargo which hardened at the lower hold (damaged cargo) 4) Condition of dry bulk cargo 5) Coordination/cooperation (Poor) 6) Discharging/loading sequence 7) Equipment (poor condition, non-availability, pipeline leaks, inadequate) 8) Facilities (inadequate) 9) Fortuituous events 10) Geography 11) Inefficiency of installation operator for loading and ship pumps for discharging (liquid bulk) 12) Labor (non-availability) 13) Lack of back-up storage area 14) Manpower (lack of) 15) Market demand (poor) 16) Mechanical breakdown 17) Mode of transfer to vessel hold 18) Non purpose built vessels and lack of supply of truck (dry bulk) 19) Non-availability of hauler 20) Non-availability of stocks from source 21) Non-specialized haulage equipment 22) Old and inefficient dry bulk equipment/facilities 23) Pipeline leakage Best Practices Manual on Bulk Handling Page 33

24) Port equipment breakdown 25) Presence of squatters near the pipeline 26) Readiness of cargo 27) Seasons affecting ships and cargo handling operation 28) Ship's gear 29) Size of vessel 30) Skill of labor 31) System breakdown 32) Transport (lack of) 33) Transport agreement 34) Transportation (cycle time port to warehouse) 35) Type of cargo 36) Type of vessel 37) Unavailability of trucks/barge 38) User's equipment 39) Vessel/equipment 40) Waiting for cargo 41) Weather (inclement, monsoon, temperature) 16. Dedicated Berths For Bulk Cargo Out of the 58 respondents, 12 reported having dedicated berths equipped with handling equipment for certain types of bulk commodity. These are listed below. COUNTRY/PORT Brunei Heidelberger Indonesia IPC I DEDICATED BERTH FOR BULK CARGO Jetty for discharging and one berth Crude Palm Oil (CPO) - 350 m.; Cement - 250 m.; Fertilizer - 250 m.; Note: Include equipment and facilities. NILAM Berth (for private company) Pipeline for liquid bulk; Conveyor for dry bulk Liquid Bulk Wharf 22-23 - Liquid bulk berth; Wharf 24-25 - Dry bulk berth For fuel oil at Sq. Merah wharf For liquid bulk with dedicated oil jetty at Sapangar Pipeline for liquid bulk; Conveyor for dry bulk Imbedded pipeline at the south berth of the port which runs up to Page 34

Indonesia Tanjung Perak Malaysia Bintulu Malaysia Kuantan Port Malaysia Northport Malaysia Rajang Malaysia Sapangar Bay Philippines Currimao Philippines - Nasipit Best Practices Manual on Bulk Handling

Singapore - Jurong Vietnam - Haiphong

plant site some 300 meters away; Intake manifold at south berth 3 dedicated berths for cement; 2 dedicated berths for other cargo Dedicated berth for bulk handling located at main port

Best Practices Manual on Bulk Handling

Page 35