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# Theory of Machines and Mechanisms (9050)

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Chapter 1
Fundamental and Types of
Mechanisms

Content-
1.1 Kinematics of Machines: - Definition of Kinematics, Dynamics, Statics,
Kinetics, Kinematic link, Kinematic Pair and its types, constrained motion
and its types, Kinematic chain and its types, Mechanism, inversion,
machine and structure.
1.2 Inversions of Kinematic Chain.
1.2.1 Inversion of four bar chain, coupled wheels of Locomotive &
Pantograph.
1.2.2 Inversion of Single Slider Crank chain- Rotary I.C. Engines mechanism,
Whitworth quick return mechanism, Crank and Slotted lever quick return
mechanism.
1.2.3 Inversion of Double Slider Crank Chain- Scotch Yoke Mechanism &
Oldhams coupling.
1.3 Common Mechanisms
1.3.1 Bicycle free wheel Sprocket mechanism.
1.3.2 Geneva Mechanism.
1.3.3 Ackermans Steering gear mechanism.
1.3.4 Foot operated air pump mechanism.

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Introduction
The subject Theory of Machines is an applied science. Theory of
Machines takes care of motion and strength aspect of a machine and uses
principles from physics, kinematics, static and kinetics.
Machines are mechanical devices used to accomplish work. A mechanism is
a heart of a machine. It is the mechanical portion of the machine that has
the function of transferring motion and forces from a power source to an
output.
Mechanism is a system of rigid elements (linkages) arranged and
connected to transmit motion in a predetermined fashion.
Mechanism consists of linkages and joints.
Kinematics of Machines:-
Kinematics is the branch of Theory of Machines which deals with
relative motion between the various parts of the machine. It is related with
study of motion characteristics i.e. velocity and acceleration.
Dynamics-
Dynamics is the branch of Theory of Machines which deals with
forces acting on the machine parts while in motion.
Force in a machine part can be either from outside or from within
the body.
Statics-
Statics is the branch of Theory of Machines which deals with forces
and their effect while the machine parts are at rest. When dynamics of
machine neglects mass effect and studies only external forces that branch
of Dynamics is known as Statics i.e. mass of the part is assumed to be
negligible
Kinetics
When Dynamics of machine neglects external forces and studies
forces only on account of mass of the machine components, then the force
study is known as Kinetics.

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Each part of the machine which moves relative to some other part is
be a rigid body but must be a resistant body.

i) Rigid link- Rigid link is one which does not undergo any
deformation while transmitting motion. Rigid link do not exists. But
deformation of connecting rod or other element is negligible, so it is
ii) Flexible link- A flexible link is one which is partly deformed in a
manner not to affect the transmission of motion
Example-Belts, ropes, Wires & Chains
iii) Fluid link- A fluid link is one which is formed by having a fluid in a
receptable and the motion is transmitted through fluid by pressure
or compression only.
Example- Hydraulic press, jack etc
Kinematic Pair
There is always a relative motion between existing between two
links. If this relative motion between the pair of links is constrained type
then the pair is called as Kinematic pair.
Types of Kinematic Pair
1. According to type of relative motion between parts
i) Sliding Pair-When two elements of pair are connected in such a way
that one can only slide relative to other the pair is known as sliding
pair...
Example- Piston & Cylinder, Tailstock.
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ii) Turning Pair- When the two elements of pair are connected in such
a way that one can only turn or revolve about a fixed axis of another
link the pair is known as turning pair.
Example- Cycle wheel

iii) Rolling pair- When the two elements of pair are connected in such a
way that one roll over another fixed link, the pair is known as
rolling pair.
Example- Ball Bearing

iv) Screw Pair- When the two elements of pair are connected in such a
way that one element can turn about the other by screw threads,
pair is known as screw pair.
Example- Nut and Bolt
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v) Spherical Pair- When the two elements of pair are connected in
such a way that only one element (with spherical shape) turns or
swivels about other fixed element the pair formed is called as
Spherical pair.
Example-Attachment of car mirror

2. According to type of contact between Elements-
i) Lower pair- When the two elements of pair have surface contact
when relative motion takes place and surface of one element slides
over surface of another the pair formed is Lower pair.
Example- Sliding pair, turning Pair
ii) Higher pair- When the two elements of pair have a line or point
contact when relative motion takes place and the motion between
two elements is partly turning and partly sliding then the pair
formed is known as higher pair.

Example- Belt or rope drive, Cam and Follower
3. According to the type of closure
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i) Self Closed pair- When the two elements of pair are connected
together mechanically in such a way that only required kind of
relative motion occur, it is known as self closed pair.
ii) Force closed pair- When the two elements of pair are connected
mechanically but are kept in contact by the action of external forces
the pair is said to be force closed pair.
Constrained motion and its types-
Two links are connected with each other by various means and this
method of connection decides the type of relative motion between the
links. If this relative motion is one and only type then it is said to be
constrained motion.
i) Completely constrained motion- When the motion between the pair
is limited to a defined direction irrespective of the direction of
force applied, then the motion is said to be completely constrained
motion.

ii) Incompletely constrained motion- When motion between pair can
take place in more than one direction then the motion is called
incompletely constrained motion.
iii) Successfully constrained motion- When the motion between the
elements forming a pair is such that the constrained motion is not
completed by itself but by some other means then the motion is
said to be successfully constrained motion.
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Kinematic chain and its types
Link is the smallest possible member in a machine. When such two
links come together and show constrained motion then they form a
Kinematic pair. When Kinematic pair are coupled in such a way that the
last link is joined to the first link to transmit definite motion, it is called as
Kinematic chain.
then relation between number of pairs (P) forming a chain and number of
L= 2p-4. (i)
In a Kinematic chain each link forms a part of two pairs; therefore there
will be as many links as number of pairs
J=3/2l-2 (ii)
Equation I and ii are applicable to Kinematic chains in which lower pairs
are used.
Types of Kinematic chain
I) Locked Chain-

Number of links l=3; Number of pairs p=3; Number of joints j=3
Equation I gives L= 2p-4
3=2*3-4 = 2
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LHS > RHS
Equation II gives J=3/2l-2
3 = 3/2*3 2 = 2.5
LHS > RHS
As this arrangement does not satisfy Equation I and II, therefore it
is not a Kinematic chain and hence relative motion is not possible.
Such type of chain is called as locked chain.
II) Constrained Kinematic chain-
(Kinematic chain of one degree of freedom)
L = 4; p = 4; j = 4
Equation I gives L= 2p-4
4 = 2*4 -4 = 4
LHS =RHS

Equation Ii gives J=3/2l-2
4 = 3/2 * 4 4 = 4
LHS =RHS
Since this arrangement satisfy Equation I and II this is called
Kinematic chain of one degree of freedom.
Now if link AB is fixed and a definite displacement O is given
to AD then resulting displacement of the two links BC and CD
are also perfectly definite. Thus in four bar chain relative
motion is completely constrained. Hence it may be called as
constrained Kinematic chain.
III) Unconstrained kinematic chain-
L = 5; p = 5; j = 5
Equation I gives L= 2p-4
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5 = 2*5 4 = 6
LHS < RHS

Equation Ii gives J=3/2l-2
5 = 3/2 * 5 2= 5.5
LHS<RHS
Since this arrangement does not satisfy Equation I and II this
is called unconstrained chain i.e. relative motion is not
completely constrained.

Iv) Compound kinematic chain
L = 6; p = 5; j = 7
Equation I gives L= 2p-4
6 = 2*5 4 = 6
LHS =RHS
Equation Ii gives J=3/2l-2
7 = 3/2 * 6 2= 7
LHS =RHS

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As this arrangement satisfies equation I and II therefore it is
kinematic chain.
A chain having more than four links is called as compound kinematic chain
Mechanism
When one of the links of a kinematic chain is fixed then the chain is
known as mechanism.
It may be used for transmitting or transforming the motion.
Mechanism with four links is called simple mechanism and mechanism
with more than four links is called compound mechanism.

Inversion-
In a kinematic chain if one of the link is fixed it is called as
mechanism. So we can obtain as many mechanisms as number of links. This
method of obtaining different mechanisms by fixing different links in a
kinematic chain is called Inversion of mechanism
Machine and structure
Machine-
When a mechanism is required to transmit a power or to do some
particular type of work it then becomes a machine
Structure-
It is an assemblage of a number of resistant bodies (known as
members) having no relative motion between them and meant for carrying
Example- a Railway Bridge, a roof or truss, machine frame, etc
Machine Structure
1 Parts of Machine move
relative to each other
Members of structure do not move
relative to each other
2 A machine transforms No energy is transformed into work in
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available energy into some
useful work
case of structure, energy is stored
within it.
both power and motion
Members of structure transmit forces
only
4 Example-Screw jack, lathe
machine etc
Example- A railway bridge, a roof or
truss, machine frame, etc

Inversions of Kinematic Chain
In a kinematic chain if one of the link is fixed it is called as
mechanism. So we can obtain as many mechanisms as number of links. This
method of obtaining different mechanisms by fixing different links in a
kinematic chain is called Inversion of mechanism
Grashofs law-
For a four bar mechanism the sum of the shortest and the longest
links length should not be greater than the sum of the remaining to links
lengths if there is to be continuous relative motion between two links.

(ROCKER/FOLLOWER)
Connecting rod (link DC) - A link connecting crank and lever (COUPLER)
Inversion of four bar chain,
1. Beam Engine (Crank and lever mechanism)
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center D and end E of lever CDE is connected to piston rod which
reciprocates due to rotation of crank. This mechanism converts
rotary motion into reciprocating motion.

2. coupled wheels of Locomotive (Double crank Mechanism)
CD acts as coupling rod and AB is fixed in order to maintain constant
center to center distance between wheels. Thus this mechanism is
meant to transmit rotary motion from one wheel to another.

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3. Pantograph
A Pantograph is a device based on kinematic chain with turning
pairs used to reproduce a drawing exactly either on an enlarged or
on a reduced scale. It consists of a jointed parallelogram ABCD, Bars
BA and BC are extended to O and E respectively

Thus for all relative motions triangle OAD and OBE are similar and
points O, D, E are in straight line.
For similar triangles OAD and OBE
Point O is fixed and point D and E moves to new positions D and E
Straight line DD is parallel to line EE. Hence if O is fixed to frame of
machine by means of turning pair and D is attached to point in the machine
which has rectilinear motion relative to frame then E will also trace the
straight line path.
Similarly if E is constrained to move in straight line then D will trace
out straight line path parallel to EE.

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Inversion of Single Slider Crank chain-

A single slider crank chain is a modification of a basic four bar chain
mechanism. It consists of one sliding pair and three turning pairs.
As the crank rotates the cross head reciprocates in the guides and thus
the piston reciprocates in the cylinder
Rotary I.C. Engines mechanism-
It consist of seven cylinders in one plane and all revolve about fixed center
D. Crank (link 2) is fixed. When connecting rod (link 4) rotates piston
reciprocates inside cylinder. This engine is used in aviation.

Whitworth quick return mechanism-
This mechanism is used in shaping and slotting machines.
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Link 1-Slotted bar oscillating at pivoted point d;
Link 3- Crank CA, rotating at uniform angular speed
Link 4- slider, slides along slotted bar
Connecting rod carries ram R at which tool is fixed and its motion is
constrained along a line passing through D and perpendicular to CD.

Forward stroke/Cutting stroke-
When the driving crank CA moves from position CA1 to CA2 through
an angle in the clockwise direction, tool moves from left hand end of
stroke to right hand end through distance 2PD.
Return stroke/Idle stroke-
When the driving crank moves from the position CA2 to CA1 through
an angle in the clockwise direction tool moves back from right hand end
of its stroke to left hand end
Time taken during forward stroke is more than time taken during
return stroke.
Time of cutting stroke = =
Time of return stroke 360-
is always greater than 180
Crank and Slotted lever quick return mechanism-
This mechanism is used in shaping and slotting machines.
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In this mechanism the link AC (link 3) forming turning pair is fixed. The
driving crank CB revolves with uniform angular speed about fixed center C.
A sliding block attached to the crank pin at B slides along the slotted bar AP
and thus causes it to oscillate about the pivoted point A. A short link PR
transmits the motion from AP to the ram which carries the tool and
reciprocates along the line of stroke R1R2.

Forward stroke/Cutting stroke-
It occurs when crank rotates from CB1 to CB2 at an angle in the
clockwise direction.
Return stroke/Idle stroke-
It occurs when crank rotates from CB2 to CB1 through an angle in
clockwise direction.
Time of cutting stroke = = 360-
Time of return stroke
is always greater than and since crank rotates with uniform angular
velocity therefore return stroke is completed within short time.
Inversion of Double Slider Crank Chain-
A kinematic chain which consists of two turning pairs and two sliding
pairs is known as double slider crank chain.
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1. Scotch Yoke Mechanism
This mechanism is used for converting rotary motion into a reciprocating
motion. The inversion is obtained by fixing either the lank 1 or link 3.as
shown in figure link 1 is fixed.

In this mechanism when link 2 (which corresponds to crank) rotates
reciprocates. The fixed link 1 guides the frame.

2. Oldhams Coupling-
An Oldhams coupling is used for connecting two parallel
shafts whose axes are at small distance apart. The shafts to be
connected have two flanges rigidly fastened at their ends by forging.
Intermediate piece
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The flanges have diametrical slot cut in their inner faces. The
intermediate piece is a circular disc having two tongues (diametrical
projections at right angle to each other)
The link 4 slides or reciprocates in the slot in flanges. When the
driving shaft A is rotated the flange C (link 1) causes the intermediate piece
every instant.
Common Mechanisms
1. Bicycle free wheel Sprocket mechanism.
Mechanical or automotive engineering, a freewheel or
overrunning clutch is a device in a transmission that disengages the
driveshaft from the driven shaft when the driven shaft rotates faster than
the driveshaft. An overdrive is sometimes mistakenly called a freewheel,
but is otherwise unrelated.
The condition of a driven shaft spinning faster than its driveshaft
exists in most bicycles when the rider holds his or her feet still, no longer
pushing the pedals. Without a freewheel the rear wheel would drive the
pedals around.
In the past, such freewheel mechanisms have included an inner
freewheel body which engages threads on a rear wheel hub, and an outer
freewheel body, including an integral sprocket for engagement with the
roller chain. A pair of pawls, and at least one pawl spring have been
disposed between said inner and outer freewheel bodies, whereby forward
rotation of the outer freewheel body would cause the pawls to engage and
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drive the inner freewheel body and rear wheel. Also, the pawls would allow
the rear wheel to rotate in a forward direction when the outer freewheel
body was rotating more slowly or was stopped.

2. Geneva Mechanism.
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The Geneva mechanism is a timing device.
Geneva mechanism consists of a rotating disk with a pin and another
rotating disk with slots (usually four) into which the pin slides
In the most common arrangement, the driven wheel has four slots
and thus advances for each rotation of the drive wheel by one step of 90. If
the driven wheel has n slots, it advances by 360/n per full rotation of the
drive wheel.
One application of the Geneva drive is in movie projectors. Geneva
wheels having the form of the driven wheel were also used in mechanical
watches. Other applications of the Geneva drive include the pen change
mechanism in plotters, automated sampling devices, indexing tables in
assembly lines, tool changers for CNC machines, and so on.

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The Iron Ring Clock uses a Geneva mechanism to provide intermittent
motion to one of its rings.
3. Ackermans Steering gear mechanism.
The steering gear mechanism is used for changing the direction of
two or more of the wheel axles with reference to the chassis, so as to move
the automobile in any desired path.
When the vehicle takes a turn the front wheels along with the respective
axles turn about the respective pivoted points. The back wheels remain straight
and do not turn. Therefore steering is done by front wheels only.
In order to avoid skidding the two front wheels must turn about the same
Instantaneous center I which lies on the axis of the back axle. If the ICR of the two
front wheels do not coincide with the ICR of the back wheels skidding will take
place, which causes wear and tear of tires.
Thus the condition for correct steering is that all the four wheel
must turn about the same ICR. The axis of the inner wheel makes a larger
turning angle than the angle subtended by the axis of outer wheel.
a= wheel track
b=wheel base
c=distance between the pivots A and b of the front axle
Now from triangle IBP

Cot =BP
IP
And from triangle IAP
Cot = AP = AB + BP = AB + BP = c +cot
IP IP IP IP b
Cot - cot =c/b

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This is the fundamental equation for correct steering. If this condition is
satisfied there will be no skidding of the wheels when vehicle takes a turn.
In Ackerman steering gear the mechanism ABCD is a four bar crank chain.
The shorter link BC and AD are of equal length and are connected by hinge joints
with front wheel axle. The longer link AB and CD are of unequal length. The
following are three positions for correct steering
i) When vehicle moves along a straight path, the longer link AB and
CD are parallel and shorter link BC and AD are equally inclined to
the longitudinal axis of the vehicle.
ii) When the vehicle is steering to the left, the position of the gear as
shown by dotted lines. In this position the lines of the front wheel
axle intersect on the back wheel axle at I for correct steering.
iii) When the vehicle is steering to the right the similar position may be
obtained.

4. Foot operated air pump mechanism.
It consists of a cylinder which can oscillate. A piston is mounted in
the cylinder. The cylinder is connected to the foot rest. The arms connected
to the foot rest can oscillate.
A retrieving spring can bring back the foot rest back to initial
positions the foot rest is pressed the cylinder oscillates.
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It creates reciprocating motion of the piston in the cylinder.
Therefore suction and delivery stroke can be obtained.

This is also called as oscillating cylinder mechanism.

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Chapter 2
Velocity and Acceleration in Mechanism

2.1 Concept of relative velocity and relative acceleration of a
point on link, angular velocity and angular acceleration, inter-
relation between linear and angular velocity and acceleration.
2.2 Drawing of velocity and acceleration diagram of a given
configuration, diagrams of simple mechanisms. Determination
of velocity and acceleration of a point on link by relative velocity
Method [Excluding coriollis components of acceleration].
2.3 Analytical method [no derivation] and Kleins construction
to determine velocity and acceleration of different links in single
slider crank mechanism.

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Introduction-
Kinematics deals with study of relative motion between the various
parts of the machines. Kinematics does not involve study of forces. Thus
motion leads study of displacement, velocity and acceleration of a part of
the machine.
Study of Motions of various parts of a machine is important for
determining their velocities and accelerations at different moments. As
dynamic forces are a function of acceleration and acceleration is a function
of velocities, study of velocity and acceleration will be useful in the design
of mechanism of a machine. The mechanism will be represented by a line
diagram which is known as configuration diagram. The analysis can be
carried out both by graphical method as well as analytical method.
Concept of relative velocity of a point on link
Some important Definitions
Displacement: All particles of a body move in parallel planes and travel by
same distance is known, linear displacement and is denoted by x.
A body rotating about a fired point in such a way that all particular move in
circular path angular displacement and is denoted by u.
Velocity:
Rate of change of displacement is velocity. Velocity can be linear
velocity of angular velocity.
Linear velocity is Rate of change of linear displacement= V =

Angular velocity is Rate of change of angular displacement = e =
u

Relation between linear velocity and angular velocity
x = ru

=r
u

V = re
Acceleration: Rate of change of velocity
Linear Acceleration (Rate of change of linear velocity)
a=

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Absolute velocity: Velocity of a point with respect to a fixed point (zero
velocity point).
Va = e2 x r
Va = e2 x O2 A
Ex: Vao2 is absolute velocity.

Angular Acceleration (Rate of change of angular velocity)
o=
e

Relative velocity: Velocity of a point with respect to another point x

Note: Capital letters are used for configuration diagram. Small letters are
used for
velocity vector diagram.
This is absolute velocity
Velocity of point A with respect to O2 fixed point, zero velocity point.
Vba = or Vab

Vba = or Vab Equal in magnitude but opposite in direction.
Vb Absolute velocity is velocity of B with respect to O4 (fixed point, zero
velocity point
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Vector O a 2 = Va= Absolute velocity
Vector ab = Vab
ba = Va
Vab is equal magnitude with Vba but is apposite in direction
Vector O b 4 = Vb absolute velocity.
To illustrate the difference between absolute velocity and relative velocity.
Let, us consider a simple situation.
A link AB moving in a vertical plane such that the link is inclined at 30o to
the horizontal with point A is moving horizontally at 4 m/s and point B
moving vertically upwards. Find velocity of B.
Va = 4 m/s ab Absolute velocity Horizontal direction (known in
magnitude and directors)
Vb = ? ab Absolute velocity Vertical direction (known in
directors only)
Velocity of B with respect to A is equal in magnitude to velocity of A with
respect to B but opposite in direction.

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Velocity analysis of any mechanism can be carried out by various methods.
1. Graphical method
2. Relative velocity method
3. Instantaneous method
By Graphical Method
The following points are to be considered while solving problems by this
method.
1. Draw the configuration design to a suitable scale.
2. Locate all fixed point in a mechanism as a common point in velocity
diagram.
3. Choose a suitable scale for the vector diagram velocity.
4. The velocity vector of each rotating link is ^r to the link.
5. Velocity of each link in mechanism has both magnitude and direction.
Start from a point whose magnitude and direction is known.
6. The points of the velocity diagram are indicated by small letters.

To explain the method let us take a few specific examples.
1. Four Bar Mechanism: In a four bar chain ABCD link AD is fixed and in 15
cm long. The crank AB is 4 cm long rotates at 180 rpm (cw) while link CD
rotates about D is 8 cm long BC = AD and | BAD = 60o. Find angular velocity

Velocity vector diagram
Vb = er = eba x AB =
H

50.24 cm/sec
Choose a suitable scale
1 cm = 20 m/s = ab
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Vcb = bc
Vc = dc = 38 cm/s = Vcd
We know that V = R
Vcd = eCD x CD
eCD=

2. Slider Crank Mechanism:
In a crank and slotted lover mechanism crank rotates of 300 rpm in a
counter clockwise direction. Find
(i) Angular velocity of connecting rod and
(ii) Velocity of slider.

Step 1: Determine the magnitude and velocity of point A with respect to 0,
VA = eO1A x O2A=
H

Step 2: Choose a suitable scale to draw velocity vector diagram
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Vab = ab =1300mm/sec
eab=

Vb = ob velocity of slider
Note: Velocity of slider is along the line of sliding
Problem 2:
In a slider crank mechanism the crank is 200 mm long and rotates at 40
rad/sec in a CCW direction. The length of the connecting rod is 800 mm.
When the crank turns through 60o from Inner-dead centre.
Determine,
i) The velocity of the slider
ii) Velocity of point E located at a distance of 200 mm on the connecting rod
extended.
iii) The position and velocity of point F on the connecting rod having the
least absolute velocity.
iv) The angular velocity of connecting rod.

Va = Woa x OA
Va = 40 x 0.2
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Va = 8 m/s
Step 2: Choose a suitable scale for velocity vector diagram and draw the
velocity vector diagram.
Mark zero velocity point o, g.
Draw oa ^r to link OA equal to 8 m/s

From a draw a line ^r to AB and from o, g draw a horizontal line
(representing the line of motion of slider B) to Xseet the previously drawn
line at b.
ab give Vba=4.8 m/sec
Step 3: To mark point e since E is on the extension of link AB drawn
be=

Mark the point e on extension of vector ba. Join e to o, g. ge will give
velocity of point E.
Ve = ge =8.4 m/sec
Step 4: To mark point F on link AB such that this has least velocity
(absolute).
Draw a line ^r to ab passing through o, g to cut the vector ab at f. From f to
o, g.
gf will have the least absolute velocity.
To mark the position of F on link AB.
Find BF by using the relation.

BF=

=200mm
Step 5: To determine the angular velocity of connecting rod.
We know that Vab = wab x AB
eab=

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]

Acceleration of a point on a Link-
Acceleration of a point has two components
1. The centripetal or Radial component- It is perpendicular to the
velocity of the particle at the given instant
2. The tangential component- It is parallel to velocity of particle i.e.
The tangential component = * length of link

Angular acceleration=

=

Inter- relation between linear and angular velocity and
acceleration.
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Angular velocity-
It is defined as ratio of change of angular displacement with respect to
time
e=
u

Angular acceleration-
It is defined as rate of change of angular velocity with respect to time.
= =
e

=
u

VELOCITY DIAGRAMS
This section involves the construction of diagrams which needs to be
done accurately and to a suitable scale. Students should use a drawing
board, ruler, compass, protractor and triangles and possess the necessary
drawing skills.
ABSOLUTE AND RELATIVE VELOCITY
An absolute velocity is the velocity of a point measured from a fixed
point (normally the ground or anything rigidly attached to the ground and
not moving). Relative velocity is the velocity of a point measured relative to
another that may itself be moving
TANGENTIAL VELOCITY
Consider a link A B pinned at A and revolving about A at angular
velocity. Point B moves in a circle relative to point A but its velocity is
always tangential and hence at 90 to the link. A convenient method of
denoting this tangential velocity is (vba) meaning the velocity of B relative
to A. This method is not always suitable
CRANK, CONNECTING ROD AND PISTON
Consider this mechanism again. Lets freeze the motion (snap shot) at
the position shown. The diagram is called a space diagram.

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Every point on every link has a velocity through space. First we label
the centre of rotation, often this is the letter O. Point A can only move in a
tangential direction so the velocity of A relative to O is also its absolute
velocity and the vector is normal to the crank and it is designated (vA)O.
(Note the rotation is anticlockwise).
Now suppose that you are sat at point A and everything else moves
relative to you. Looking towards B, it would appear the B is rotating relative
to you (in reality it is you that is rotating) so it has a tangential velocity
denoted (Vba) The direction is not always obvious except that it is normal
Consider the fixed link OC. Since both points are fixed there is no
velocity between them so (vC)O = 0
Next consider that you at point C looking at point B. Point B is a
sliding link and will move in a straight line in the direction fixed by the
slider guides and this is velocity (vB) C. It follows that the velocity of B seen
from O is the same as that seen from C so (vB)C = (vB)O
The absolute velocity of B is (vB) C = (vB) O and this must be the
vector sum of (VA) O and (vB)A and the three vectors must form a closed
triangle as shown. The velocity of the piston must be in the direction in
which it slides (conveniently horizontal here). This is a velocity diagram

Theory of Machines and Mechanisms (9050)
37

METHODOLOGY
First calculate the tangential velocity (vA)O from v = x radius = x
OA
Draw the vector o - a in the correct direction (note lower case letters) We
know that the velocity of B relative to A is to be added so the next vector ab
starts at point a. At point a draw a line in the direction normal to the
connecting rod but of unknown length we know that the velocity of B
relative and absolute to O is horizontal so the vector ob must start at a.
Draw a horizontal line (in this case) through o to intersect with the other
line. This is point b. The vectors ab and ob may be measured or calculated.
Usually it is the velocity of the slider that is required.
Remember that the slider direction is not always horizontal and
the direction of o - b must be the direction of sliding
Numericals-
1. The mechanism shown has a crank 50 mm radius which rotates at
2000 rev/min. Determine the velocity of the piston for the position
Note the diagrams are not drawn to scale. The student should do this using a
suitable scale for example 1 cm = 1 m/s. This is important so that the
direction at 90 to the link AB can be transferred to the velocity diagram
Angular speed of the crank = 2HN/60 = 2H x 2000/60 = 209.4 rad/s
(vA)O = x radius = 209.4 x 0.05 = 10.47 m/s.
First draw vector oa. (Diagram a)
Next add a line in the direction ab (diagram b)
Finally add the line in the direction of ob to find point b and measure ob to
get the velocity (diagram C).
Theory of Machines and Mechanisms (9050)
38

The velocity of B relative to O is 7 m/s
The tangential velocity of B relative to A is the vector ab and this gives 9.2
m/s. The angular velocity of B about A is found by dividing by the radius
(length of AB). For AB is then 9.2/0.09 = 102.2 rad/s. (note this is relative to
A and not an absolute angular velocity)
2. In a four bar chain ABCD, AD is fixed and is 150mm long. The crank
AB is 40mm long and rotates at 120 rpm clockwise. While the link CD
= 80mm oscillates about D. BC and AD are of equal length. Find the

Solution- NAB= 120 rpm or eAB =
H

Since length of link AB is 40mm
VAB = eAB - AB = 12.568 - 0.04 = 0.503 m/sec

Theory of Machines and Mechanisms (9050)
39

Assignment-
1. In the mechanism shown in figure the slider D is constrained to
move on a horizontal path. The crank OA is rotating in counter
clockwise direction at a speed of 180 rpm.
For the given configuration find
i) Velocity of slider
ii) Angular velocity of links AB, CB, BD.

Theory of Machines and Mechanisms (9050)
40

ACCELERATION DIAGRAMS
It is important to determine the acceleration of links because
acceleration produces inertia forces in the link which stress the component
parts of the mechanism. Accelerations may be relative or absolute in the
same way as described for velocity.
CENTRIPETAL ACCELERATION
A point rotating about a centre at radius R has a tangential velocity
v and angular velocity and it is continually accelerating towards the centre
even though it never moves any closer. This is centripetal acceleration and
it is caused by the constant change in direction. It follows that the end of any
rotating link will have a centripetal acceleration towards the opposite end.
ar= v2/AB.
Note the direction is towards the centre of rotation but the vector starts at a
and ends at b
It is very important to get this the right way round otherwise the complete
diagram will be wrong

Theory of Machines and Mechanisms (9050)
41

TANGENTIAL ACCELERATION
Tangential acceleration only occurs if the link has an angular
A. Point B will have both radial and tangential acceleration relative to point
A. The true acceleration of point B relative to A is the vector sum of them.
This will require an extra point. We will use b1 and b on the vector diagram
as shown. Point B is accelerating around a circular path and its direction is
tangential (at right angles to the link). It is designated a
T
and calculated
using aT= ox AB. The vector starts at b1 and ends at b. The choice of letters
and notation are arbitrary but must be logical to aid and relate to the
construction of the diagram
EXAMPLE
1. A piston, connecting rod and crank mechanism is shown in the
diagram. The crank rotates at a constant velocity of 300 rad/s. Find
the acceleration of the piston and the angular acceleration of the link
BC. The diagram is not drawn to scale.

Theory of Machines and Mechanisms (9050)
42

First calculate the tangential velocity of B relative to A.
(vB)A = x radius = 300 x 0.05 = 15 m/s.
Next draw the velocity diagram and determine the velocity of C relative to B
From the velocity diagram (vC)B = 7.8 m/s
Next calculate all accelerations possible and construct the acceleration
diagram to find the acceleration of the piston.
The tangential acceleration of B relative to A is zero in this case since the
link has no angular acceleration (a = 0).
The centripetal acceleration of B relative to A
aR== 2x AB = 3002 x 0.05 = 4500 m/s2.
The tangential acceleration of C relative to B is unknown
The centripetal acceleration of C to B
aR= v2/BC = 7.82 /0.17 = 357.9 m/s2.
The stage by stage construction of the acceleration diagram is as
follows
First draw the centripetal acceleration of link AB (Fig.a). There is no
tangential acceleration so designate it ab. Note the direction is the same as
the direction of the link towards the centre of rotation but is starts at a and
ends at b.

Theory of Machines and Mechanisms (9050)
43

there are two accelerations for point C designate the point c1. Note the
direction is the same as the direction of the link towards the centre of
rotation.
Next add the tangential acceleration of point C relative to B (Figure c).
Designate it c1 c. Note the direction is at right angles to the previous vector
and the length is unknown. Call the line a c line.
Next draw the acceleration of the piston (figure d) which is
constrained to be in the horizontal direction. This vector starts at a and
must intersect the c line. Designate this point c.
The acceleration of the piston is vector ac so (ac)B= 1505 m/s2.
The tangential acceleration of C relative to B is c1 c = 4000 m/s2.
At the position shown the connecting rod has an angular velocity and
acceleration about its end even though the crank moves at constant speed
The angular acceleration of BC is the tangential acceleration divided by the
length BC
a (BC) = 4000 / 0.17 = 23529 rad/s2

Analytical method to determine velocity and acceleration of
different links in single slider crank mechanism

Theory of Machines and Mechanisms (9050)
44

Take r= length of crank
L= length of connecting rod
u= Inclination of crank from Inner dead center
n=

= Obliquity ratio
Vb = Velocity of Piston/slider
ab= Acceleration of slider
eab= angular velocity of connecting rod
oab = angular acceleration of connecting rod
i) Velocity of Piston (Vb)
Vb= e.r ( u
u

)
ii) Acceleration of Piston/Slider (ab)
ab =
e
2 .r (cos u +
u

)
iii) Angular velocity of connecting rod (eab)
eab =
e u

iv) angular acceleration of connecting rod
oab =
e u

Example-
In a slider crank mechanism, the length of crank and connecting rod are
150mm and 600mm respectively. The crank position is 60 from inner
Theory of Machines and Mechanisms (9050)
45

dead centre. The crank shaft speed is 450 rpm (clockwise). Using analytical
method determine
1. Velocity and acceleration of connecting rod and 2. Angular
velocity and angular acceleration of connecting rod.
Solution- Given: r= 150mm= 0.15m; l= 600mm= 0.6m; u= 60; N= 450 rpm
e=
H

=
H

1. Velocity and acceleration of slider
Obliquity ratio n=

= 4
Vb= e.r ( u
u

)
= 47.13*0.15 (sin 60 +

)
= 6.9 m/s
Acceleration of slider
ab =
e
2 .r (cos u +
u

)
= 47.13* 0.15 (cos 60 +

)
= 124.94 m/s
2. Angular velocity and acceleration of connecting rod
eab =
e u

Angular acceleration
oab =
e u

Theory of Machines and Mechanisms (9050)
46

Chapter 3
Cams and Followers

3.1 Concept, definition and application of Cams and Followers.
3.2 Classification of Cams and Followers.
3.3 Different follower motions and their displacement diagrams
like uniform velocity, SHM, uniform acceleration and
Retardation.
3.4 Drawing of profile of radial cam with knife-edge and roller
follower with and without offset with reciprocating motion
(graphical method).

Introduction
Definition
A cam is a mechanical component of a machine that is used to transmit
motion to another component, called the follower, through a prescribed
motion program by direct contact
Concept of cam and follower mechanism
Theory of Machines and Mechanisms (9050)
47

A cam mechanism consists of three elements: the cam, the follower (or
follower system), and the frame. The follower is in direct contact with the
cam. The cam may be of various shapes. The follower system includes all of
the elements to which motion is imparted by the cam. This may be
connected directly to the follower, or connected through linkages and
gearing. The frame of the machine supports the bearing surfaces for the
cam and for the follower.
Uses for cams:
The cam mechanism is a versatile one. It can be designed to produce almost
unlimited types of motioning the follower. It is used to transform a rotary
motion into a translating or oscillating motion. On certain occasions, it is
also used to transform one translating or oscillating motion into a different
translating or oscillating motion.
The cam operated valve system:
Theory of Machines and Mechanisms (9050)
48

Cam follower systems are used in a wide variety of daily applications,
including motor vehicles, moving lawn ornaments, and pumping devices
Classification of Cams and Followers
In radial cams, the follower reciprocates or oscillates in a direction
perpendicular to cam axis.

Theory of Machines and Mechanisms (9050)
49

2. Cylindrical cam
Cylindrical cams are used when motion has to be transmitted
parallel to the axis of rotation of the cam. The cylindrical or barrel
cam consists of a rotating cylinder with a helical (screw shaped)
groove in its curved surface. A follower with a tapered roller end is
located in the groove. As the cylinder turns, the follower moves in a
straight line parallel to the axis of the rotation barrel cam. This type
of cam is often used to guide thread on sewing machines, looms and
fabric making machines.
Classification of Followers
1. According to surface of contact-
a) Knife edge follower-
When the contacting end of the follower has sharp knife edge it is
called knife edge follower.
b) Roller follower-
When the contacting end of the follower is a roller, it is called a
roller follower.
c) Flat faced or mushroom follower-
When the contacting end of the follower is perfectly flat face, it is
called a flat faced follower.
d) Spherical shaped follower-
When the contacting end of the follower is of spherical shape, it is
called a spherical faced follower.

Theory of Machines and Mechanisms (9050)
50

2. According to the motion of the follower-
a) Reciprocating or translating follower-
When the follower reciprocates in guides as cam rotates
uniformly, it is known as reciprocating or translating follower.

b) Oscillating or rotating follower-
When the uniform rotary motion of the cam is converted into
predetermined oscillatory motion of the follower, it is called
oscillating or rotating follower.
3. According to the path of motion of the follower-
a) Radial follower- When the motion of the follower is along an axis
passing through the center of the cam, it is known as radial cam
b) Offset follower- when the motion of the follower is along an axis
away from the axis of the cam center, it is called offset follower.
Following terms are important in drawing the cam profile
a) Base circle- The smallest circle that can be drawn to the cam
profile
b) Trace point- It is the reference point on the follower and it is
used to generate pitch curve. In case of knife edge follower,
knife edge represents it and in case of roller follower it
corresponds to center of roller.
Theory of Machines and Mechanisms (9050)
51

c) Pressure angle- It is the angle between the direction of
follower motion and a normal to the pitch curve.
d) Pitch point- it is the point on the pitch curve having the
maximum pressure angle.
e) Pitch circle- it is the circle drawn from the center of the cam
through the pitch point.
f) Pitch curve- It is the curve generated by the trace point as the
follower moves relative to the cam.
g) Prime circle- It is the smallest circle that can be drawn from
the center of the cam and tangent to the pitch curve.
h) Lift or stroke- It is the maximum travel of the follower from its
lower position to the topmost position.
Motion of the follower-
Displacement diagrams:
Design requirements in the part of the machine under
consideration will dictate the type of movement required in the cam
Theory of Machines and Mechanisms (9050)
52

follower. This is then translated into the profile of a cam, which will
give the follower the required motion. When designing this profile
the movement of the follower is usually considered in four separate
sections: the period when the follower is at the bottom of its
movement, called the bottom dwell; the movement required during
the rise or lift of the follower; the period when the follower remains
at the top of its movement, called the top dwell; and the movement
required when the follower returns to the bottom position. There
are three different types of follower motion in standard use, which
are shown below.
The follower during its travel may have any one of the type of motion
as below
i) Uniform velocity
j) Simple harmonic motion
k) Uniform acceleration and retardation
Displacement diagram and cam profile when follower moves
with uniform velocity-
Uniform (constant) velocity:
Since the velocity is constant, the displacement diagram will be a straight
line with constant slope and the velocity diagram rectangular with zero
acceleration.
However, to achieve this velocity immediately at the commencement
of the motion, and maintain it until the very end of the stroke, would
require infinitely high accelerations and declarations for infinitely short
periods of time at the beginning and end of the stroke. This of course is
impossible. To reduce these peak accelerations and declarations and to
make the motion possible the conditions are modified to include a short
period of uniform acceleration and deceleration at the beginning and end
of the motion. This means that the follower moves with uniform velocity
for most of the stroke, parabolic or circular arcs being introduced at the
beginning and end of the displacement diagram. Despite these
modifications it can be seen that, considering the conditions previously laid
Theory of Machines and Mechanisms (9050)
53

down, the high accelerations, particularly those at the end of the outgoing
stroke and the beginning of the fall stroke, require heavy springing to
ensure continuous contact between edge cam and follower.

Simple harmonic motion
The displacement diagram is a sine curve and if a cam is produced from
this curve only (i.e. devoid of top and bottom dwell) it will have lobes of
circular form. Consideration shows that this type of cam will give the
smoothest change of motion in the follower. An eccentric cam transmits
simple harmonic motion to the follower. Examples of simple harmonic
motion from everyday life are the up and down motion of a cork bobbing
on the waves on a pond, and the oscillating motion of a pendulum weight as
it swings from side to side, as shown below.
Theory of Machines and Mechanisms (9050)
54

Uniform acceleration and retardation
This displacement curve is parabolic. It gives a uniform rate of acceleration
from the start to the midpoint and a similar uniform rate of retardation
from the midpoint to the end of the movement.

Theory of Machines and Mechanisms (9050)
55

Drawing cam profiles
Examples-
1. uniform velocity with a knife-edge follower
Cam data
In-line knife edge follower,
50 mm minimum diameter,
40 mm lift (rise) with uniform velocity,
0 degrees to 90 degrees bottom dwell, 90 degrees to 180 degrees
rise,
180 degrees to 270 degrees top dwell, 270 degrees to 360 fall,
clockwise rotation.

2. simple harmonic motion with a roller follower
Cam data
In-line roller follower, diameter 12 mm,
minimum cam diameter 50 mm,
total rise 42 mm, both rise and fall have simple harmonic motion,
0 to 90 degrees bottom dwell,
90 to 180 degrees rise with simple harmonic motion,
180 to 270 degrees top dwell,
Theory of Machines and Mechanisms (9050)
56

270 to 360 degrees fall with simple harmonic motion,
because this is a symmetrical cam it can rotate in either direction.

3. uniform acceleration and retardation + uniform velocity,
with a knife-edge follower
Cam data,
In-line knife edge follower,
minimum cam diameter 50 mm, rise 42 mm through 180 degrees
with uniform acceleration and retardation, fall 42 mm through 180
degrees with uniform velocity,
clockwise rotation.
Theory of Machines and Mechanisms (9050)
57

4. Uniform velocity with offset roller follower

Follower type = Knife edged, in-line; lift = 50mm; base circle radius =
50mm; out stroke with SHM, for 60 cam rotation; dwell for 45cam
rotation; return stroke with SHM, for 90 cam rotation; dwell for the
remaining period.
Displacement diagram:
Theory of Machines and Mechanisms (9050)
58

Cam profile: Construct base circle. Mark points 1, 2, 3..in direction
opposite to the direction of cam rotation. Transfer points a,b,c..l from
displacement diagram to the cam profile and join them by a smooth free
hand curve. This forms the required cam profile.

(2) Draw the cam profile for the same operating conditions of problem (1),
with the follower offset by 10 mm to the left of cam center.
Displacement diagram: Same as previous case.
Theory of Machines and Mechanisms (9050)
59

Cam profile: Construction is same as previous case, except that the lines
drawn from 1,2,3. are tangential to the offset circle of 10mm dia. as
shown in the fig.

(3) Draw the cam profile for following conditions:
Follower type = roller follower, in-line; lift = 25mm; base circle radius =
20mm; roller radius = 5mm; out stroke with UARM, for 120 cam rotation;
dwell for 60 cam rotation; return stroke with UARM, for 90 cam rotation;
dwell for the remaining period.
Displacement diagram:
Theory of Machines and Mechanisms (9050)
60

Cam profile: Construct base circle and prime circle (25mm radius). Mark
points 1,2,3..in direction opposite to the direction of cam rotation, on
prime circle. Transfer points a,b,c..l from displacement diagram. At each
of these points a,b,c draw circles of 5mm radius, representing rollers.
Starting from the first point of contact between roller and base circle, draw
a smooth free hand curve, tangential to all successive roller positions. This
forms the required cam profile.

(4) Draw the cam profile for conditions same as in (3), with follower off set
to right of cam center by 5mm and cam rotating counter clockwise.
Displacement diagram: Same as previous case.
Theory of Machines and Mechanisms (9050)
61

Cam profile: Construction is same as previous case, except that the lines
drawn from 1,2,3. are tangential to the offset circle of 10mm dia. as
shown in the fig.

(5) Draw the cam profile for following conditions:
Follower type = roller follower, off set to the right of cam axis by 18mm; lift
= 35mm;base circle radius = 50mm; roller radius = 14mm; out stroke with
SHM in 0.05sec; dwell for 0.0125sec; return stroke with UARM, during
0.125sec; dwell for the remaining period. During return stroke,
acceleration is 3/5 times retardation.
Theory of Machines and Mechanisms (9050)
62

(6) Draw the cam profile for following conditions:
Follower type = knife edged follower, in line; lift = 30mm; base circle radius
= 20mm;out stroke with uniform velocity in 1200 of cam rotation; dwell for
600; return stroke with uniform velocity, during 900 of cam rotation; dwell
for the remaining period.

Displacement diagram:
Theory of Machines and Mechanisms (9050)
63

(11) Draw the cam profile for following conditions:
Follower type = roller follower, off-set to the right by 5mm; lift = 30mm;
base circle radius = 25mm; roller radius = 5mm; out stroke with SHM, for
1200 cam rotation; dwell for 600 cam rotation; return stroke during 1200
cam rotation; first half of return stroke with Uniform velocity and second
half with UARM; dwell for the remaining period.

Theory of Machines and Mechanisms (9050)
64

Displacement diagram:

(12) A push rod of valve of an IC engine ascends with UARM, along a path
inclined to the vertical at 600. The same descends with SHM. The base
circle diameter of the cam is 50mm and the push rod has a roller of 60mm
diameter, fitted to its end. The axis of the roller and the cam fall on the
same vertical line. The stroke of the follower is 20mm. The angle of action
Theory of Machines and Mechanisms (9050)
65

for the outstroke and the return stroke is 600 each, interposed by a dwell
period of 600. Draw the profile of the cam.
Displacement diagram:

Theory of Machines and Mechanisms (9050)
66

Chapter 4
Power Transmission
Content
4.1 Types of Drives Belt, Chain, Rope, Gear drives & their
comparison.
4.2 Belt Drives - flat belt, V belt & its applications, material for flat
and V-belt, angle of lap, belt length. Slip and creep. Determination of
velocity ratio, ratio of tight side and slack side tension, centrifugal
tension and initial tension, condition for maximum power
transmission (Simple numericals)
Sprocket wheels, methods of lubrication.
4.4 Gear Drives Spur gear terminology, types of gears and gear
trains, and their selection for different application, train value &
Velocity ratio for compound, reverted and simple epicyclic gear train,
methods of lubrication, Law of gearing.
4.5 Rope Drives Types, applications, advantages & limitations of
Steel ropes.

Introduction
Power transmission is the movement of energy from its place of generation
to a location where it is applied to performing useful work.
Theory of Machines and Mechanisms (9050)
67

Power is defined formally as units of energy per unit time. In SI units:

The great majority of mechanical power transmission applications
involve rotating shafts, since rotation is continuous and the shafts /
mountings are cheap relative to other means of power transmission.
Matching a prime- mover to a load thus involves transformation of power
between shafts - usually from a high speed / low torque drive shaft,
through a speed reducer of ratio R 1, to a low speed / high torque load
shaft.
Ideally, for gears and for belts, the speed reduction ratio and the
torque amplification ratio are each equal to the radius ratio, so that the
output power equals the input power and the efficiency is 100%. The speed
ratio across a real pair of gears always equals the ideal ratio because of the
positive drive, however sliding friction results in a torque ratio which is
less than ideal
Belt Drives
Introduction
A belt drive is a method of transferring rotary motion between two shafts.
A belt drive includes one pulley on each shaft and one or more continuous
belts over the two pulleys. The motion of the driving pulley is, generally,
transferred to the driven pulley via the friction between the belt and the
pulley. Synchronous/timing belts have teeth and therefore do not depend
on friction. Belt drives and gear transmissions have a much greater life
expectancy than belt drives. Belt drives also have relatively high
inspection and maintenance demands
Theory of Machines and Mechanisms (9050)
68

- Easy, flexible equipment design, as tolerances are not important.
- Isolation from shock and vibration between driver and driven system.
- Driven shaft speed conveniently changed by changing pulley sizes.
- Belt drives require no lubrication.
- Maintenance is relatively convenient
- Very quiet compared to chain drives, and direct spur gear drives
Flat Belts-
Flat Belt transfers torque by friction of the belt over a pulley. Traction
related to angle of contact of belt on pulley. It is susceptible to slip.
Material-Belt made from leather, woven cotton, rubber, and balata
V- Belt-

V-belt drives are essentially short centre drives, V-belt drives are
essentially short centre drives Vee belt Better torque transfer possible
compared to flat belt. Generally arranged with a number of matched vee
belts to transmit power. They are Smooth and reliable. Made from hi-text
woven textiles, polyurethane, etc. Vee Belts Poly-Vee Belt is flat on outside
and Vee Grooved along the inside. It Combines advantages of high traction
of the Vee belt and the use of only one belt
flat belt drive:
1. The V-belt drive gives compactness due to the small distance between
centres of pulleys.
Theory of Machines and Mechanisms (9050)
69

2. The drive is positive, because the slip between the belt and the pulley
groove is negligible.
3. Since the V-belts are made endless and there is no joint trouble,
therefore the drive is smooth.
4. It provides longer life, 3 to 5 years.
5. It can be easily installed and removed.
6. The operation of the belt and pulley is quiet.
7. The belts have the ability to cushion the shock when machines are
started.
8. The high velocity ratio (maximum 10) may be obtained.
9. The wedging action of the belt in the groove gives high value of limiting
ratio of tensions. Therefore the power transmitted by V-belts is more than
flat belts for the same coefficient of friction, arc of contact and allowable
tension in the belts.
10. The V-belt may be operated in either direction, with tight side of the
belt at the top or bottom. The centre line may be horizontal, vertical or
inclined.
1. The V-belt drive cannot be used with large centre distances, because of
larger weight per unit length.
2. The V-belts are not as durable as flat belts.
3. The construction of pulleys for V-belts is more complicated than pulleys
of flat belts.
4. Since the V-belts are subjected to certain amount of creep, therefore
these are not suitable for constant speed applications such as synchronous
machines and timing devices.
5. The belt life is greatly influenced with temperature changes, improper
belt tension and mismatching of belt lengths.
6. The centrifugal tension prevents the use of V-belts at speeds below 5 m/
s and above 50 m / s
Typical belt drives
Two types of belt drives, an open belt drive, and a crossed belt
drive are shown. In both the drives, a belt is wrapped around the pulleys.
Let us consider the smaller pulley to be the driving pulley. This pulley will
Theory of Machines and Mechanisms (9050)
70

transmit motion to the belt and the motion of the belt in turn will give a
rotation to the larger driven pulley. In open belt drive system the rotation
of both the pulleys is in the same direction, whereas, for crossed belt drive
system, opposite direction of rotation is observed.

Angle of lap- When the two pulleys of different diameter are connected by
means of an open belt drive, then the angle of contact or lap () at smaller
pulley must be taken into consideration.
Sin =

=(180-2) *
H

Length of belt-
D
1
- Diameter of the larger pulley
d
2
Diameter of the smaller pulley

1
- Angle of wrap of the larger pulley

2
Angle of wrap of the smaller pulley
X- Center distance between the two pulleys

Theory of Machines and Mechanisms (9050)
71

Basic Formulae

1 =
180

+ 2

2 =
180

- 2
Where angle is,

X =

+ 2X +

Similarly length of cross belt drive
X =

+ 2X +

Slip of belt-
It is assumed that there is a firm frictional grip between shaft and
belt. But sometimes this grip is insifficient to carry shaft with it. This may
cause some forward motion iof shaft without carrying belt with it. This may
also cause forward motion of belt without carrying the driven pulley with
it. This is calles slip of belt.
Let S1% = slip between driver and belt
S2% = slip between belt and follower
Velocity of belt passing over the driver pulley /sec
V =

-

*

=

[ ] /100 ..(i)
Velocity of belt passing over follower
V =

-

*

=

[ ] /100 ..(ii)

=

* [ ] /100 *[ ] /100

=

* (1-

)

=

* (1-

) where S = S1 + S2
When thickness of the belt is considered.

=

* (1-

) where S = S1 + S2
Creep of Belt-
When the belt passes from the slack side to tight side, a certain
portion of belt extends and it contracts again when belt passes from tight
Theory of Machines and Mechanisms (9050)
72

side to slack side.Due to these changes of lenghts there is relative motion
between belt and pulley surface. This relative motion is termed as creep.
Presence of friction between pulley and belt causes differential
tension in the belt. This differential tension causes the belt to elongate or
contract and create a relative motion between the belt and the pulley
surface. This relative motion between the belt and the pulley surface is
created due to the phenomena known as elastic creep.
Effect of creep is sligthly reduction in speed.

*

Velocity ratio

D1 = diameter of the driver pulley
D2 = diameter of the driven pulley
N1,N2 = Speed of driver and driven pulley repectively in rpm
Length of belt passing over driver pulley in one revolution = D1
Length of the belt passing over driver pulley in n1 revolution = D1 n1
(i)
Similarly Length of the belt passing over driven pulley in n2 revolution =
D2 n2 .(ii)
Since equation I = Equation ii
D1 n1 = D2 n2
Speed ratio, R = n1 / n2 = D2 / D1 1
If thicknesst of the belt is considered
(n1+ t ) / n2+ t = D2 + t / D+ t
Ratio of tight side and slack side tension
The belt drives primarily operate on the friction principle. i.e. the friction
between the belt and the pulley is responsible for transmitting power from
Theory of Machines and Mechanisms (9050)
73

one pulley to the other. In other words the driving pulley will give a motion
to the belt and the motion of the belt will be transmitted to the driven
pulley. Due to the presence of friction between the pulley and the belt
surfaces, tensions on both the sides of the belt are not equal. So it is
important that one has to identify the higher tension side and the lower
tension side,

It is observed that the slack side of the belt is in the upper
side and the tight side of the belt is in the lower side. The slack side of the
belt, due to self weight, will not be in a straight line but will sag and the
angle of contact will increase. However, the tight side will not sag to that
extent. Hence, the net effect will be an increase of the angle of contact or
angle of wrap. It will be shown later that due to the increase in angle of
contact, the power transmission capacity of the drive system will increase.
On the other hand, if it is other way round, that is, if the slack side is on the
lower side and the tight side is on the upper side, for the same reason as
above, the angle of wrap will decrease and the power transmission capacity
will also decrease. Hence, in case of horizontal drive system the tight side is
on the lower side and the slack side is always on the upper side.
Derivation of relationship between belt tensions
T1, T2 = Tension in tight and slack side respectively
= coefficient of friction between belt and pulley
= angle of lap
R= normal reaction of belt and pulley
Theory of Machines and Mechanisms (9050)
74

Let us consider small element of belt AB subtending angle
T = tension in slack side
T+ T = Tension in tight side
Considering the element AB under equilibrium and resolving forces
vertically
R T * sin (/2) (T + T) * sin (/2) = 0
R = T * sin (/2) + (T + T) * sin (/2)
As is very small
T * /2 + T * /2 + T*/2 = R
T * /2 + T * /2 = R
Neglecting T*
2T*/2 = R
T* = R ..(i)
Now resolving forces horizontally
(T + T)* cos /2 T* cos /2 = R
T*cos /2 + T* cos/2 T cos /2 = R
T * cos/2 = R.
As is very small
T = R (ii)
From equation I and ii
T = T
T/T =
Integrating above equation

[ln T] = []
Ln (T1/T2) = *
T1/T2 =

ii) For V Belts
R = normal Reaction
2 = Angle of groove
R = reaction in the plane grove
= coefficient of friction
Theory of Machines and Mechanisms (9050)
75

Considering equilibrium and resolving forces vertically and horizontally

Centrifugal tension-
As the belt run at uniform speed over an arc of a circle the centrifugal force
acts on the belt due to its mass. To balance this centrifugal force a tension a
tension is generated equally in tight side and slack side of belt. It is called
centrifugal tension.
M= mass of belt per meter length
V= linear velocity of belt
Fc= centrifugal force
Tc= centrifugal tension
Length of element Mn = r*
Mass of MN = m.r.
Fc = m.r. . V/r
Fc = m * *v .(i)
Now considering equilibrium and resolving forces vertically
Tc*sin(/2) + Tc*sin(/2) = fc
Fc = 2 Tc*sin(/2)
As is very small sin(/2) = /2
2Tc * /2 = m. v .
Tc= m.v
Initial Tension
When belt is mounted on pulley it is provided with some initial tension
Let us determine the magnitude of the initial tension in the belt.
Theory of Machines and Mechanisms (9050)
76

Tight side elongation (T
1
T
i
)
Slack side contraction (T
i
T
2
)
Where, T
i
is the initial belt tension.
Since, belt length remains the same, i.e., the elongation is same as the
contraction,

It is to be noted that with the increase in initial tension power transmission
can be increased. If initial tension is gradually increased then T
1
will also
increase and at the same time T
2
will decrease. Thus, if it happens that T
2
is equal to zero, then T
1
= 2T
i
and one can achieve maximum power
transmission.
Power transmission of belt drive
Power transmission of a belt drive is expressed as,
P = (T1

T
2
)v (i)
Where,
P is the power transmission in Watt and v is the belt velocity in m/s.
T1, T2 = Tension in tight side and slack side respectively
T1/T2 =

T2 = T1/

.(ii)
Equation I become
P = (T1 - T1/

) * v
= T1 (1-1/

) * v
= T1 * v* c (iii) where C = (1-1/

)
We know that Tmax = T1 + Tc
T1 = Tmax Tc
Substituting in equation iii
P = (T max - Tc) * v * C
= (Tmax - mv) * v * C
= (Tm.v - mv) * C
Theory of Machines and Mechanisms (9050)
77

For maximum power differentiating above equation with respect to
v and equating to zero.

= 0

= 0
T 3m.v = 0
T 3Tc = 0
T= 3 Tc

Numericals -
i) A pump is driven by an electric motor through a open type flat
belt drive. Determine the belt specifications for the following
data.
Motor pulley diameter (d
S
) = 300 mm, Pump pulley diameter (d
L
)
= 600 mm
Coefficient of friction (
S
) for motor pulley = 0.25
Coefficient of friction (
L
) for pump pulley = 0.20
Center distance between the pulleys=1000 mm; Rotational speed of the
motor=1440 rpm;
Power transmission = 20kW; density of belt material ()= 1000 kg/m
3
;
allowable stress for the belt material () = 2 MPa; thickness of the belt =
5mm.
Theory of Machines and Mechanisms (9050)
78

Theory of Machines and Mechanisms (9050)
79

3. Find the power transmitted by a belt running over a pulley of 600mm
diameter at 200 rpm. The coefficient of friction between the belt and
pulley is 0.25, angle of lap 160 and maximum tension in belt is 2500 N.
4. In a flat belt drive the initial tension is 2000n. the coefficient of friction
between belt and pulley is 0.3 and the angle of lap for smaller pulley is
Theory of Machines and Mechanisms (9050)
80

150. The smaller pulley has a radius of 200mm and rotates at 500 rpm.
Find the power in KW transmitted by belt drive.
5. An open belt drive running over two pulleys 240 mm and 600 mm
diameter connects two parallel shafts 3m apart and transmits 4 KW from
the smaller pulley that rotates at 300 rpm. Coefficient of friction between
belt and pulley is 0.3 and safe working tension is 10 n per mm width.
Determine
a) Maximum width of belt
b) Initial tension in belt
c) Length of belt required

5.

Chain Drives
Introduction
Chain drive is a way of transmitting mechanical power from one place
to another. It is often used to convey power to the wheels of a vehicle,
particularly bicycles and motorcycles. It is also used in a wide variety of
machines besides vehicles.
Most often, the power is conveyed by a roller chain, known as the
drive chain or transmission chain, passing over a sprocket gear, with the
teeth of the gear meshing with the holes in the links of the chain. The gear
is turned, and this pulls the chain putting mechanical force into the system.
A chain is a method of transferring rotary motion between two parallel
shafts. The chain drive is positive, efficient and high torques can be
transmitted. The chain is generally made from steel although plastic chains
have been developed
Theory of Machines and Mechanisms (9050)
81

Power transmission chains can be categorized as roller chain, engineering
steel chain, silent chain, detachable chain, and offset sidebar chain.
Some of the advantages of chain drives over belt drives are:
No slippage between chain and sprocket teeth.
Negligible stretch, allowing chains to carry heavy loads.
Long operating life expectancy because flexure and friction contact occur
between hardened bearing surfaces separated by an oil film.
Operates in hostile environments such as high temperatures, high
moisture or oily areas, dusty, dirty, and corrosive atmospheres, etc.,
especially if high alloy metals and other special materials are used.
Long shelf life because metal chain ordinarily doesnt deteriorate with
age and is unaffected by sun, reasonable ranges of heat, moisture, and oil.
Certain types can be replaced without disturbing other components
mounted on the same shafts as sprockets.
Drawbacks
Noise is usually higher than with belts or gears, but silent chain drives are
relatively quiet.
Chain drives can elongate due to wearing of link and sprocket teeth
contact surfaces.
Chain flexibility is limited to a single plane whereas some belt drives are
not.
Usually limited to somewhat lower-speed applications compared to belts
or gears.
Sprockets usually should be replaced because of wear when worn chain is
replaced. V-belt sheaves exhibit very low wear.
Selection of Chain & Sprocket wheels,
The following data should be taken into consideration while selecting
roller chain drives.
a. Horsepower to be transmitted
b. RPM of the driving and driven sprocket (Speed ratio)
d. Space limitations if any
e. Driven machine
Theory of Machines and Mechanisms (9050)
82

f. Source of power
Methods of lubrication

Gear Drives
Spur gear terminology,

Theory of Machines and Mechanisms (9050)
83

The spur gear terms:
The pitch circle is the circle representing the original cylinder which
transmitted motion by friction, and its diameter the pitch circle diameter.
The center distance of a pair of meshing spur gears is the sum of their
pitch circle radii. One of the advantages of the involute system is that small
variations in the center distance do not affect the correct the correct
working of the gears.
The addendum is the radial height of a tooth above the pitch circle.
The dedendum is the radial depth below the pitch circle.
The clearance is the difference between the addendum and the dedendum.
The whole depth of a tooth is the sum of the addendum and the
dedendum.
The working depth of a tooth is the maximum depth that the tooth extends
into the tooth space of a mating gear. It is the sum of the addenda of the
gear.
The addendum circle is that which contains the tops of the teeth and its
diameter is the outside or blank diameter.
The dedendum or root circle is that which contains the bottoms of the
tooth spaces and its diameter is the root diameter.
Circular tooth thickness is measured on the tooth around the pitch circle,
that is, it is the length of an arc.
Circular pitch is the distance from a point on one tooth to the
corresponding point on the next tooth, measured around the pitch circle.
The module is the pitch circle diameter divided by the number of teeth.
The Diametrical pitch is the number of teeth per inch of pitch circle
diameter. This is a ratio.
The pitch point is the point of contact between the pitch circles of two gears
in mesh.
The line of action. Contact between the teeth of meshing gears takes place
along a line tangential to the two base circles. This line passes through the
pitch point and is called the line of action.
The pressure angle. The angle between the line of action and the common
tangent to the pitch circles at the pitch point is the pressure angle.
Theory of Machines and Mechanisms (9050)
84

The tooth face is the surface of a tooth above the pitch circle, parallel to the
axis of the gear.
The tooth flank is the tooth surface below the pitch circle, parallel to the
axis of the gear. If any part of the flank extends inside the base circle it
cannot have involute form. It may have ant other form, which does not
interfere with mating teeth, and is usually a straight radial line.
Types of gears
The type of gear depends upon the teeth cut on the cylindrical disc and
their use. When the spiral gears are used to connect parallel shafts, they
are called spur gears and when they are used to connect non-parallel
shafts, they are called spiral gears.
Spur gears
A spur gear is one of the most important ways of transmitting a positive
motion between two shafts lying parallel to each other. A gear of this class
may be likened to a cylindrical blank which has a series of equally spaced
grooves around its perimeter so that the projections on one blank may
mesh in the grooves of the second. As the design should be such that the
teeth in the respective gears are always in mesh the revolutions made by
each is definite, regular and in the inverse ratio to the numbers of teeth in
the respective gears. This ability of a pair of well made spur gears to give a
smooth, regular, and positive drive is of the greatest importance in many
engineering designs. An example of two spur gears in mesh are shown
below
Bevel gears
These gears have teeth cut on a cone instead of a cylinder blank. They are
used in pairs to transmit rotary motion and torque where the bevel gear
shafts are at right angles (90 degrees) to each other. An example of two
bevel gears are shown below

Theory of Machines and Mechanisms (9050)
85

Crossed helical gears
These gears also transmit rotary motion and torque through a right angle.
The teeth of a helical gear are inclined at an angle to the axis of rotation of
the gear.
The diagram below shows how the axis of rotation of two helical gears are
crossed at right angles. Helical gears are smoother running than spur gears
and are more suitable for rotation at high velocities. An example of two
crossed helical gears are shown below.
Worm and worm wheel
A gear which has one tooth is called a worm. The tooth is in the form of a
screw thread. A worm wheel meshes with the worm. The worm wheel is a
helical gear with teeth inclined so that they can engage with the thread
like worm. Like the crossed helical gears, the worm and worm wheel
transmit torque and rotary motion through a right angle. The worm always
drives the worm wheel and never the other way round. The mechanism
locks if the worm wheel tries to drive the worm. Worm mechanisms are
very quiet running. An example of a worm and worm wheel is shown on the
right hand side below. An application of the worm and worm wheel used to
open lock gates is shown on the left hand side below.
Theory of Machines and Mechanisms (9050)
86

The helical gear
This gear is used for applications that require very quiet and smooth
running, at high rotational velocities.
Parallel helical gears have their teeth inclined at a small angle to their axis
of rotation. Each tooth is part of a spiral or helix. The helical gears shown
below have splines cut in their center holes. The gears can move along a
splined (grooved) shaft, although they rotate with the shaft. An example of
a helical gear is shown below.
Double helical gears give an efficient transfer of torque and smooth motion
at very high rotational velocities. An example of a double helical gear is
shown below
Rack and pinion
Converting rotary motion to linear motion. A rack and pinion
mechanism is used to transform rotary motion into linear motion and vice
versa. A round spur gear, the pinion, meshes with a spur gear which has
teeth set in a straight line, the rack. The rack and pinion can transform
rotary motion into linear motion and vice versa in three ways:
a. Rotation of the pinion about a fixed center causes the rack to move
in a straight line.
b. Movement of the rack in a straight line causes the pinion to rotate
c. If the rack is fixed and the pinion rotates, then the pinion's center moves in a
straight line taking the pinion with it.
Single helical gear
Theory of Machines and Mechanisms (9050)
87

Gear Trains-
A gear train is a set or system of gears arranged to transfer
rotational torque from one part of a mechanical system to another. A Gear
Train is a combination of two or more than two gears which work together
by engaging their turning and teeth with one another. This combination
works like a single integrated system and utilize to generate torque and
power. The main objective to build a gear train is to create larger gear
ratio. In a gear train, there are multiple gears of different sizes.
Gear trains consists
- Driving gears - attached to the input shaft
- Driven gears/Motor gears - attached to the output shaft
- Idler gears - interposed between the driving and driven gear in
order to maintain the direction of the output shaft the same as the
input shaft or to increase the distance between the drive and driven
gears. A compound gear train refers to two or more gears used to
transmit motion
Types of gear trains include:
- Simple gear train
Theory of Machines and Mechanisms (9050)
88

- Compound gear train
- Epicyclic gear train
- Reverted gear train
i) Speed ratio/ Velocity ratio-
Velocity ratio of gear train is the ratio of the speed of the
driver to the speed of the driven or follower. This ratio of
any pair is inverse of their number of teeth.
Speed or velocity ratio =

ii) Train value-
Ratio of the speed of the driven or follower to the speed of
the driver is known as train value
Train value =

It is reciprocal of speed ratio.
Simple gear train-
This is the simplest kind of Gear Train. The teeth of the gear pair in
this type of Gear Train connecting parallel shafts. The teeth of this type of
Gear Train may either be herringbone, helical or spur. The angular velocity
is inversely related to the tooth ratio. One of the biggest disadvantages of
this type of Gear Train is that its maximum speed change ratio is only 10:1.
To get larger speed change ratio, the Gear Train size has to be enlarged.
This size enhancement may produce imbalance in wear capacities and
strength of the Gear Train.
The typical spur gears as shown in diagram. The direction of rotation
is reversed from one gear to another. The only function of the idler gear is
to change the direction of rotation. It has no affect on the gear ratio. The
teeth on the gears must all be the same size so if gear A advances one tooth,
so does B and C.

Theory of Machines and Mechanisms (9050)
89

.
module
module
mesh would not rwise they gears othe
all e same f or must be th
and

t
D
= m =
in rpm N = speed meter, circle dia D = Pitch
r, on the gea of teeth t = number

r =
D
cle. v = on the cir velocity v = linear
. r velocity = angula
= m t D and = m t D ; = m t D
t
D
=
t
D
=
t
D
m =
C C B B A A
C
C
B
B
A
A
e e
e
2

Theory of Machines and Mechanisms (9050)
90

r =
D
cle. v = on the cir velocity v = linear
. r velocity = angula
= m t D and = m t D ; = m t D
t
D
=
t
D
=
t
D
m =
C C B B A A
C
C
B
B
A
A
e e
e
2

C C B B A A
C C B B A A
C C B B A A
C C B B A A
C
C
B
B
A
A
t N t N t N
rev of terms in or
t t t
t m t m t m
D D D
D D D
v
= =
= =
= =
= =
= = =
min /
2 2 2
e e e
e e e
e e e
e e e

value Train
gear driver of Speed
gear driven of Speed
N
N
If
e Speed valu o Speed rati
t
t
N
N
C A
speed Output
speed Input
GR
A
C
A
C
C
A
the called is
/ as called also GR
output; the is gear and input the is gear If
as defined is ratio gear The
=
= =
=

Application:
a) To connect gears where a large center distance is required
b) To obtain desired direction of motion of the driven gear ( CW or CCW)
c) To obtain high speed ratio
Example- Bicycle chain and sprockets are simple type of Gear Trains. By
pushing the paddle, the front gear is turned and it interstices with the chain
links. The chain continues to move and meshing occurs continuously with
the links in the rear gears that is affixed to the rear wheel. This makes the
bicycle to move.
Compound Gear Train
Compound Gear Train arrangement is preferred when large velocity is
Theory of Machines and Mechanisms (9050)
91

needed. To keep the output and input shafts in a line, two keys are adjusted
to a single shaft. For this type of adjustment, equal distance from the center
for pinions and gears is chosen.

Compound gears are simply a chain of simple gear trains with the input of
the second being the output of the first. A chain of two pairs is shown
below. Gear B is the output of the first pair and gear C is the input of the
second pair. Gears B and C are locked to the same shaft and revolve at the
same speed. For large velocities ratios, compound gear train arrangement
is preferred.
eA tA = eB tB
-as they are simple gears
Likewise for C and D,
Theory of Machines and Mechanisms (9050)
92

eC tC = eD tD
C
D
A
B
D B
C A
C
D D
A
B B
C A
C
D D
C
A
B B
A
C
D
D
C
A
B
B
A
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
T
t
and
t
t
t t
and
t t
=

=
= =
e e
e e
e e
e e
e
e
e
e
e e e e

( )
( )
GR
t
t
t
t
Out N
In N
as written
be may ratio gear The
N Since
GR
t
t
t
t
shaf t same the on are C and B gear Since
C
D
A
B
C
D
A
B
D
A
C B
= =
=
= =
=
:
2 t e
e
e
e e

Speed ratio=

=

Reverted Gear train
The driver and driven axes lies on the same line. These are used in speed
reducers, motion of the first gear and last gear is in same direction.
If R and T=Pitch circle radius
& number of teeth of the gear
RA + RB = RC + RD
And tA + tB = tC + tD
Theory of Machines and Mechanisms (9050)
93

C A
D B
D
A
t t
t t
N
N
GR

= =
Speed ratio =

=

Epicyclic Gear train
Epicyclic means one gear revolving upon and around another. The design
involves planet and sun gears as one typical gear box.
This design can produce large gear ratio orbits the other like a planet
around the sun. Here is a picture of a s in a small space and are used on a
wide range of applications from marine gearboxes to electric screw
drivers.
Theory of Machines and Mechanisms (9050)
94

A small gear at the center called the sun, several medium sized gears called
the planets and a large external gear called the ring gear

Planetary gear trains have several advantages. They have higher gear
ratios. They are popular for automatic transmissions in automobiles. They
are also used in bicycles for controlling power of pedaling automatically or
manually. They are also used for power train between internal combustion
engine and an electric motor
Basic Theory
Suppose the arm is held stationary and gear C is rotated once. B spins about
its own center and the number of revolutions it makes is the ratio:
B will rotate by this number for every complete revolution of C.
Now consider the sun gear C is restricted to rotate and the arm A is
revolved once. Gear B will revolve because of the orbit. It is this extra
rotation that causes confusion. One way to get round this is to imagine that
the whole system is revolved once.
Then identify the gear that is fixed and revolve it back one revolution.
Work out the revolutions of the other gears and add them up. The following
tabular method makes it easy.
Suppose gear C is fixed and the arm A makes one revolution. Determine
how many revolutions the planet gear B makes.
Theory of Machines and Mechanisms (9050)
95

Tabular method of finding Gear ratio
Step 1: revolve all elements once about the center.
Step 2: identify that C should be fixed and rotate it backwards one
revolution keeping the arm fixed as it should only do one revolution in
total. Work out the revolutions of B.
Step 3: add them up and we find the total revolutions of C is zero and for
the arm is 1.
Step Action A B C
1 Revolve all once 1 1 1
2
Revolve C by 1 revolution, keeping
the arm fixed
0
B
C
t
t
+
-1
B
C
t
t
+ 1
0

Rope Drives
The rope drives are widely used where a large amount of power is to be
transmitted, from one pulley to another, over a considerable distance. It
may be noted that the use of flat belts is limited for the transmission of
moderate power from one pulley to another when the two pulleys are not
Theory of Machines and Mechanisms (9050)
96

more than 8 meters apart. If large amounts of power are to be transmitted,
by the flat belt, then it would result in excessive belt cross-section.
The ropes drives use the following two types of ropes:
1. Fiber ropes and 2. *Wire ropes.
The fiber ropes operate successfully when the pulleys are about 60 meters
apart, while the wire ropes are used when the pulleys are up to 150 meters
apart.
Wire Ropes
When a large amount of power is to be transmitted over long
distances from one pulley to another (i.e. when the pulleys are up to 150
meters apart), then wire ropes are used. The wire ropes are widely used in
elevators, mine hoists, cranes, conveyors, hauling devices and suspension
bridges.
The wire ropes run on grooved pulleys but they rest on the bottom of the
grooves and are not wedged between the sides of the grooves.
The wire ropes are made from cold drawn wires in order to have increase
in strength and durability. It may be noted that the strength of the wire
rope increases as its size decreases. The various materials used for wire
ropes in order of increasing strength are wrought iron, cast steel, extra
strong cast steel, plough steel and alloy steel. For certain purposes, the
wire ropes may also be made of copper, bronze, aluminum alloys and
stainless steels.

The wire ropes have the following advantages as compared to fibre ropes.
1. These are lighter in weight,
2. These offer silent operation,
3. These can withstand shock loads,
Theory of Machines and Mechanisms (9050)
97

4. These are more reliable,
5. These are more durable,
6. They do not fail suddenly,
7. The efficiency is high, and
8. The cost is low.
Fibre Ropes
The ropes for transmitting power are usually made from fibrous materials
such as hemp, manila and cotton. Since the hemp and manila fibres are
rough, therefore the ropes made from these fibres are not very flexible and
possesses poor mechanical properties. The hemp ropes have less strength
as compared to manila ropes. When the hemp and manila ropes are bent
over the sheave, there is some sliding of the fibres, causing the rope to wear
and chafe internally. In order to minimize this defect, the rope fibres are
lubricated with a tar, tallow or graphite. The lubrication also makes the
rope moisture proof. The hemp ropes are suitable only for hand operated
hoisting machinery and as tie ropes for lifting tackle, hooks etc.
The cotton ropes are very soft and smooth. The lubrication of cotton ropes
is not necessary. But if it is done, it reduces the external wear between the
rope and the grooves of its sheaves. It may be noted that the manila ropes
are more durable and stronger than cotton ropes. The cotton ropes are
costlier than manila ropes.
The fiber rope drives have the following advantages:
1. They give smooth, steady and quiet service.
2. They are little affected by outdoor conditions.
3. The shafts may be out of strict alignment.
4. The power may be taken off in any direction and in fractional parts of the
whole amount.
5. They give high mechanical efficiency.

Theory of Machines and Mechanisms (9050)
98

Chapter 5
Flywheel and Governors
Content
5.1 Flywheel - Concept, function and application of flywheel with
the help of turning moment diagram for single cylinder 4-Stroke
I.C. Engine (no Numericals). Coefficient of fluctuation of energy,
coefficient of fluctuation of speed and its significance.
5.2 Governors - Types, concept, function and application &
Terminology of Governors.
5.3 Comparison between Flywheel and Governor.

Theory of Machines and Mechanisms (9050)
99

Flywheel-
Introduction-
A flywheel is an inertial energy-storage device. It absorbs mechanical
energy and serves as a reservoir, storing energy during the period when
the supply of energy is more than the requirement and releases it during
the period when the requirement of energy is more than the supply.
Flywheel energy storage (FES) works by accelerating a rotor (flywheel)
to a very high speed and maintaining the energy in the system as rotational
energy. When energy is extracted from the system, the flywheel's rotational
speed is reduced as a consequence of the principle of conservation of
energy; adding energy to the system correspondingly results in an increase
in the speed of the flywheel.
Flywheels-Function need and Operation
The main function of a fly wheel is to smoothen out variations in the
speed of a shaft caused by torque fluctuations. If the source of the driving
torque or load torque is fluctuating in nature, then a flywheel is usually
called for. Many machines have load patterns that cause the torque time
function to vary over the cycle. Internal combustion engines with one or
two cylinders are a typical example. Piston compressors, punch presses,
rock crushers etc. are the other systems that have fly wheel.
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Flywheel absorbs mechanical energy by increasing its angular velocity and
delivers the stored energy by decreasing its velocity

Note: The function of a governor in engine is entirely different from that of
a flywheel. It regulates the mean speed of an engine when there are
variations in the load, e.g. when the load on the engine increases, it
becomes necessary to increase the supply of working fluid. On the other
hand, when the load decreases, less working fluid is required. The
governor automatically controls the supply of working fluid to the engine
with the varying load condition and keeps the mean speed within certain
limits.
In machines where the operation is intermittent like punching
machines, shearing machines, riveting machines, crushers etc., the flywheel
stores energy from the power source during the greater portion of the
operating cycle and gives it up during a small period of the cycle. Thus the
energy from the power source to the machines is supplied practically at a
constant rate throughout the operation.
Turning Moment diagram-
This is also called as crank effort diagram. It is the graphical
representation of the turning moment or crank effort for various positions
of crank.
In case of IC engines, steam engines, pumps, the energy is developed during
one stroke and engine is to run for whole cycle on the energy produced
during one cycle.
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In case of four strokes IC engine energy is produced only during
expansion/power stroke. The excess energy developed during power
stroke is absorbed by flywheel and release it to crankshaft during other
strokes, thus rotating the crankshaft at uniform speed.

Flywheel does not maintain constant speed. It simply reduces fluctuation in
energy.

Where
is the angular velocity, and
I is the moment of inertia of the mass about the center of rotation.
The moment of inertia is the measure resistance to torque applied
on a spinning object (i.e. the higher the moment of inertia, the
slower it will spin after being applied a given force).
- The moment of inertia for a solid-cylinder is
Co-efficient of speed fluctuation
The difference between the maximum and minimum speeds during a cycle
is called the maximum fluctuation of speed. The ratio of the maximum
fluctuation of speed to the mean speed is called coefficient of fluctuation of
speed.
Let N1 = Maximum speed in r.p.m. during the cycle,
N2 = Minimum speed in r.p.m. during the cycle, and
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N = Mean speed in r.p.m. =

Coefficient of fluctuation of speed, Cs =

Cs =
ee
e

ee
ee

The coefficient of fluctuation of speed is a limiting factor in the design of
flywheel. It varies depending upon the nature of service to which the
flywheel is employed.
Where is nominal angular velocity, and
ave
the average or
mean shaft speed desired. This coefficient is a design parameter to be
chosen by the designer.
The smaller this chosen value, the larger the flywheel have to be and more
the cost and weight to be added to the system. However the smaller this
value more smoother the operation of the device
It is typically set to a value between 0.01 to 0.05 for precision machinery
and as high as 0.20 for applications like crusher hammering machinery.
Coefficient of Fluctuation of energy-
It is defined as the ratio of the maximum fluctuation of energy to the
work done per cycle.
CE

Where P = Power
N = Number of working strokes /min
=N, for two stroke cycle
= N/2, for four stroke cycle
E = I *
I = Mass moment of Inertia
= Angular speed

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Governors-
Concept
Governor, automatic device used to regulate and control such
variables as speed or pressure in the functioning of an engine or other
machine. A governor may be an electric, hydraulic, or mechanical device, or
it may employ some combination of electric, hydraulic, and mechanical
components. The constant-speed governor serves to keep the speed of an
engine constant under changes in load and other disturbances. It is very
often a mechanical device, employing centrifugal force. Such a governor
contains weights, called fly balls, each attached to the end of an arm. The
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arms are arranged, like the spokes of wheels, around a central spindle and
are connected to the inlet valve (commonly called the governor valve). The
flyballs are so attached that they move away from the spindle as the speed
increases (decreasing the fuel or steam to the inlet) and come closer to the
spindle as the speed decreases (increasing the fuel or steam), thereby
keeping the speed constant. Varying degrees of closure and the speeds at
which they are to occur can be set in advance. Where changes are required
while an engine is in operation, a variable-speed governor is employed. A
governor-synchronizing device is used to equalize the speed of two or more
engines driving electric generators before they engage the generators. In
order to control the speed of some engines, a governor's output must be
strengthened by connecting the output to a hydraulic amplifier.
In brief governor takes care of the change of speed due to load variation
over periods of the engines running and tends to keep it as close to the
mean speed as possible, where as the flywheel is responsible only in
keeping the speed fluctuations, during each cycle within certain
permissible limits of the mean speed. As such, one cannot be replaced by
the other.
Types of governors
Classification of Governors
Governors are classified based upon two different principles.
These are:
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i) Centrifugal governor
Once a diesel engine is running, the engine speed is monitored and
controlled through a governor. The governor ensures that the engine
speed stays high enough to idle at the right speed and that the engine
speed will not rise too high when full power is demanded. The governor
is a simple mechanical device which first appeared on steam engines. It
operates on a diesel engine as shown in the diagram below.
The governor consists of a rotating shaft, which is driven by the
diesel engine. A pair of flyweights is linked to the shaft and they rotate
as it rotates. The centrifugal force caused by the rotation causes the
weights to be thrown outwards as the speed of the shaft rises. If the
speed falls the weights move inwards.
The flyweights are linked to a collar fitted around the shaft by a pair
of arms. As the weights move out, so the collar rises on the shaft. If the
weights move inwards, the collar moves down the shaft. The movement
of the collar is used to operate the fuel rack lever controlling the
amount of fuel supplied to the engine by the injectors.
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ii) Watt governor
A governor is a device that is found in many
machines where some degree of automation of the engine speed
is needed. There are many methods to achieve this control. In
particular we will investigate the Watts governor invented by
James Watt in the late 1700s. As depicted in Figure 2, Watts
governor is comprised of a rotating vertical shaft which has two
hinged arms connected near the top. At the end of each arm is a
ball of a given mass which is free to swing in a vertical plane.
The speed of the governors rotating shaft is directly linked to
the speed of the engine it is controlling. An increase or decrease
in rotational speed causes the arms to swing up or down
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respectively, thus changing the angle they make with
the vertical axis. Connecting the motion of these arms with a
throttle or brake control will allow the governor to aect the
engine speed as a function of .

iii) Porter Governor
This is modification of Watt governor with central load attached to sleeve.
downward force increases the speed of revolution required to enable the
balls to rise to any pre determined level.
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iv) Proell governor
This is similar to porter governor with some modification. A heavy dead
weight is provided on central spindle and fly balls are mounted on

a)Watt Governor b)Porter Governor c)Proell Governor
v) Hartnell governor
This is spring loaded governor. It consist of two bell crank levers provided
on frame. The frame is attached to governor spindle and therefore rotates
with it.
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Each lever carries balls at end of arm and rollar at end of horizontal arm.
A helical compression spring provided downward force through collar on
sleeve. The spring force may be adjusted by screwing a nut up and down on
sleeve.
vi) Wilson Hartnell governor
This is a type of spring loaded governor. Two bell crank levers are
provided at the end of two arms which rotate with spindle. While rotating
when radius of rotation increases spring exerts inward force(Fs) and
rollers press against sleeves, which is raised closing throttle valve. The
auxiliary spring tends to keep the sleeve down so that is assists each main
spring.
vii) Pickering governor
It is mostly used for driving gramophone. It consists of three leaf springs
arranged at equal angular intervals. Each spring carries a weight at its
centre. The weights moves outward and the spring bends as they rotate
about spindle axis with increasing speed.
The upper end of the spring is attached by a screw to hexagonal nut fixed
to the governor spindle. The lower end of spring is attached to sleeve which
is free to slide on spindle. The sleeve can rise until it reaches a stop, which
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viii) Hartung Governor
In this type of governor the vertical arms at bell crank levers are fitted with
spring balls which compress against the frame of governor. When the
rollers at the horizontal arms press against sleeve.

Difference between flywheel and governor
Sr.No. Flywheel Governor
1 It controls speed variation
caused by engine turning
moment during cycle
It regulate the mean speed of
engine when there is variation in
2
Mathematically

Mathematically N
3 It stores energy and gives up
the energy whenever required
It regulate the speed by
regulating the quantity of charge
4 It regulates speed during one
cycle only.
It regulates speed over period of
time.
5 It has no control over quantity
of charge.
Governor takes care of quantity of
charge.
6 It is not essential if cycle
fluctuation are not present as
in multi cylinder engine
It is very essential element as it
regulates the fuel supply as per
demand.
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Chapter 6
Brakes, Dynamometers, Clutches &
Bearings

Content
6.1 Function of brakes and dynamometer, types of brakes and
Dynamometers, comparison between brakes and dynamometer.
6.2 Construction and working of i) shoe brake, ii) Band Brake,
iii) Internal expanding shoe brake iv)Disc Brake
6.3 Concept of Self Locking & Self energizing brakes.
6.4 Numerical problems to find braking force and braking
torque for shoe & band brake.
6.5 Construction and working of i) Rope Brake Dynamometer,
ii) Hydraulic Dynamometer, iii) Eddy current Dynamometer.
6.6 Clutches- Uniform pressure and Uniform Wear theories.
6.7 Function of Clutch and its application, Construction and
working of i) Single plate clutch, ii) Multiplate clutch, iii)
Centrifugal Clutch iv) Cone clutch v) Diaphragm clutch. (Simple
numericals on single and Multiplate clutch).
6.8 Bearings i) Simple Pivot, ii) Collar Bearing, iii) Conical
pivot. Torque & power lost in friction (no derivation). Simple
numericals.

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Introduction-
Requirement of brakes: The function of brakes is to stop the vehicle within
the required time. The brake of the vehicle absorbs all the energy given by
the engine plus that due to the momentum of the vehicle. This energy must
then be dissipated. In most of the vehicles, the energy is absorbed by the
brakes in the form of heat and dissipated into the stream of air passing
around the vehicle.
Apart from stopping the vehicle the brakes should perform the others
function too like the vehicle should stop without any jerk and the
retardation should be smooth. Also the rate of retardation should be equal
to the pedal effort and the effort applied by the driver to stop the vehicle
should not be excessive. The rate of wear should also be low. The brake
system should not be affected by water, heat, and dust etc. It should require
a very low maintenance and durable.
Classification of brakes:
In automobile generally two types of brakes are used i.e.
Mechanical brakes
2. Air brakes
2. Hydraulic brakes
- Disc brakes
i) Fixed caliper
ii) Floating caliper
- Drum brakes
- Servo brakes
i) Shoe Brakes-
It consists of block shoe which is pressed against the rim of a
revolving brake wheel drum.
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The block is made up of softer material than the rim of the wheel. The
friction between the block and the wheels causes a tangential braking force
to act on the wheels, which retard the reaction of wheels.

The block is pressed against wheels by a force applied to one end of a
lever to which the block is rigidly fixed. The other end of lever is pivoted on
fixed fulcrum O.
ii) Band Brake-

It consists of flexible band of leather, one or more ropes or steel
lined with friction material, which embraces a part of the circumference of
the drum.
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One end of band is attached to the fixed pin or fulcrum of the lever.
While other end attached to lever at distance c. When force Fa is applied to
lever the lever turns about fulcrum pin and tightens the band on the drum
and hence brakes are applied.
iii) Internal expanding shoe brake

Internal expanding brakes are used almost exclusively as wheel
brakes, but can be found on some cranes. This type of brake permits a more
compact and economical construction. The brake shoes and brake
operating mechanism are supported on a backing plate or brake shield
attached to the vehicle axle. The brake drum attached to the rotating
wheel, acts as a cover for the shoe and operating mechanism and furnishes
a frictional surface for the brake shoes. The brake shoe of an internal
expanding brake is forced outward against the drum to produce the
braking action. One end of the shoe is hinged to the backing plate by an
anchor pin, while the other end is unattached and can be moved in its
support by the operating mechanism. When force from the operating
mechanism is applied to the unattached end of the shoe, the shoe expands
and brakes the wheel. A retracting spring returns the shoe to the original
position when braking action is no longer required.
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iv) Disc Brake
Disc Brakes The disc brake has a metal disc (rotor) and a pair of
flat brake pads instead of a drum and curved brake shoes. Figure shows a
sectional view of a disc brake assembly. The two flat pads are on the two
sides of the disc. The assembly in which the flat pads are held is the caliper
assembly. In operation, the pads are forced against the two sides of the disc
by the movement of the pistons in the caliper assembly. The pistons are
actuated by hydraulic pressure from the master cylinder. The effect is to
clamp the rotating disc between the stationary pads, as shown in figure
The main components of a disc brake are the:
- caliper, which contains a piston
- rotor, which is mounted to the hub
The disc brake is a lot like the brakes on a bicycle. Bicycle brakes
have a caliper, which squeezes the brake pads against the wheel. In a disc
brake, the brake pads squeeze the rotor instead of the wheel, and the force

is transmitted hydraulically instead of through a cable. Friction between
the pads and the disc slows the disc down.
Concept of Self Locking & Self energizing brakes

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Dynamometers-
A dynamometer or "dyno" for short is a device for measuring force,
moment of force (torque), or power. For example, the power produced by
an engine, motor or other rotating prime mover can be calculated by
simultaneously measuring torque and rotational speed (rpm). The most
common use of the dynamometer is in determining the power of an electric
motor or engine of a car, truck, or other vehicle. A dynamometer that
connects to the engine crankshaft is an engine dynamometer.
The two types are the transmission dynamometer and the absorption
dynamometer. The transmission dynamometer transmits the force while
measuring the elastic twist of the output shaft. An absorption
dynamometer absorbs the power and dissipates it as heat by restraining
the output shaft mechanically with a friction brake, hydraulically with a
water brake, or electrically with an electromagnetic force.
i) Rope Brake Dynamometer
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It is absorption type of dynamometer. It cinsist of two or three ropes
wound round the fyl wheel or rim fixed rigidly around shaft of engine. The
upper end of the rope is attached to spring balance while lower end is kept
in position by applying dead wieght.
In order to prevent slipping of belt over pulley wooden blocks are
placed at intervals around flywheel. In operatiopn of brakes, engine is
made to run at constant speed. The frictional torque, due to rope must be
equal to torque being transmitted by engine.
Distance moved in one revolution = [ (D+d) m
Work done= (W-S)* = [ (D+d)
Brake power=

ii) Hydraulic Dynamometer
The schematic shows the most common type of water brake, the
variable level type. Water is added until the engine is held at a steady rpm
against the load. Water is then kept at that level and replaced by constant
draining and refilling, which is needed to carry away the heat created by
absorbing the horsepower.
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The housing attempts to rotate in response to the torque produced
but are restrained by the scale or torque metering cell which
measures the torque
iii) Eddy current Dynamometer

An Eddy Current Dynamometer produces braking torque using the
principle of eddy currents induced on a rotating metallic disk, immersed in
a magnetic field.
All of our Eddy Current Dynamometers include a strain gauge
load cell to provide torque measurement capabilities for precise test and
development applications. A variable reluctance (Magnetic Pickup) sensor
Theory of Machines and Mechanisms (9050)
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and 60 tooth gear are provided for sensing speed (rpm). The DE eddy
current dynamometers are built to last. The rugged design of the power
absorbing system ensures a long operating life, even in the most
demanding applications and environments. The long life and ruggedness of
the product is further enhanced by the nickel plating of critical components
in contact with the cooling water.
Eddy current dynamometers require an electrically conductive core,
shaft or disc, moving across a magnetic field to produce resistance to
movement. Iron is a common material, but copper, aluminum and other
conductive materials are usable
Clutches
Clutch Introduction
A clutch is a mechanism for transmitting rotation, which can be
engaged and disengaged. Clutches are useful in devices that have two
rotating shafts. In these devices, one shaft is typically driven by a motor or
pulley, and the other shaft drives another device. The clutch connects the
two shafts so that they can either be locked together and spin at the same
speed (engaged), or be decoupled and spin at different speeds
(disengaged).
A Clutch is ia machine member used to connect the driving shaft to a
driven shaft, so that the driven shaft may be started or stopped at will,
without stopping the driving shaft. A clutch thus provides an interruptible
connection between two rotating shafts. Clutches allow a high inertia load
to be stated with a small power.
A popularly known application of clutch is in automotive vehicles where it
is used to connect the engine and the gear box. Here the clutch enables to
crank and start the engine disengaging the transmission Disengage the
transmission and change the gear to alter the torque on the wheels.
Clutches are also used extensively in production machinery of all types
Uniform Pressure and wear
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However as the time progresses some wear takes place between the
contacting members and this may alter or vary the contact pressure
appropriately and uniform pressure condition may no longer prevail.
Hence the analysis here is based on uniform wear condition
Uniform Wear
When the Rate of wear is uniform
When slipping takes place wear will occur, and over a certain period of
running (in an old bearing) this wear must be uniform for the surfaces to
remain in contact.
The rate of wear is a function of the intensity of pressure p and linear
velocity of sliding vS
Wear is proportional to p, vs.
vS = r
Uniform wear => pr = c (constant)
i) Single plate clutch,

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Basically, the clutch needs three parts. These are the engine
flywheel, a friction disc called the clutch plate and a pressure plate. When
the engine is running and the flywheel is rotating, the pressure plate also
rotates as the pressure plate is attached to the flywheel. The friction disc is
located between the two. When the driver has pushed down the clutch
pedal the clutch is released. This action forces the pressure plate to move
away from the friction disc. There are now air gaps between the flywheel
and the friction disc, and between the friction disc and the pressure plate.
No power can be transmitted through the clutch.
Operation of Clutch
When the driver releases the clutch pedal, power can flow through the
clutch. Springs in the clutch force the pressure plate against the friction
disc. This action clamps the friction disk tightly between the flywheel and
the pressure plate. Now, the pressure plate and friction disc rotate with the
flywheel.
As both side surfaces of the clutch plate is used for transmitting the torque,
a term N is added to include the number of surfaces used for transmitting
the torque
ii) Multiplate clutch
Figure illustrates the layout of a multi-plate spring type clutch,
fitted on early motor cars. A cover, bolted to the flywheel, engages by
means of slots with a series of lugs on the outer plates. These steel
plates may be plain or fitted with cork or friction material inserts and
acts on inner plates, splined to a hub. Thrust springs push the plates
together to form a driver.
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For the clutch disengagement, the end plate is withdrawn to
compress the springs and release the other plates. In this arrangement it is
difficult to ensure the disengagement of all plates. To overcome this
problem the plates are either dished or fitted with small springs to push
the plates apart

iii) Centrifugal Clutch
A centrifugal clutch is a clutch that uses centrifugal force to connect two
concentric shafts, with the driving shaft nested inside the driven shaft.
The input of the clutch is connected to the engine crankshaft while the
output may drive a shaft, chain, or belt. As engine RPM increases, weighted
arms in the clutch swing outward and force the clutch to engage. The most
the inside of the rim of housing. On the center shaft there are an assorted
number of extension springs, which connect to a clutch shoe. When the
center shaft spins fast enough, the springs extend causing the clutch shoes
to engage the friction face. It can be compared to a drum brake in reverse.
This type can be found on most home built karts, lawn and garden
equipment, fuel powered model cars and low power chainsaws. Another
type used in racing karts has friction and clutch disks stacked together like
a motorcycle clutch. The weighted arms force these disks together and
engage the clutch.
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When the engine reaches a certain RPM, the clutch activates, working
almost like a continuously variable transmission. As the load increases the
rpm drops, disengaging the clutch, letting the rpm rise again and
reengaging the clutch. If tuned properly, the clutch will tend to keep the
engine at or near the torque peak of the engine. This results in a fair bit of
waste heat, but over a broad range of speeds it is much more useful than a
direct drive in many applications.

Centrifugal clutches are often used in mopeds, under bones, lawnmowers,
go-karts, chainsaws, and mini bikes to:
- keep the internal combustion engine from stalling when the blade is
stopped abruptly
- disengage load during starting and idle
iv) Cone clutch
This consists of two members, one fixed on the flywheel or other
rotating part of the engine, the other fixed to the transmission shaft. The
latter usually slides upon the shaft so as to allow engagement and
disengagement. A spring holds the two together or apart, according to
the type of clutch used.
When the smaller-diameter member is spoken of, it is usually
called the male member, while the part of larger size is spoken of as the
female member.
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The cone type is found to be made in two different varieties; the
one in which the male member enters the female naturally at the open end
is called the direct cone type. In the other form, the male is set within the
structure of the female and is pressed outward toward the open end to
engage it. This is called the inverted, or

Sometimes the reversed, cone clutch. A great disadvantage of the inverted
form is that the spring must be carried between the two cones, which
means that it is inside where it cannot be reached for adjustment This form
causes trouble in assembling because the male cone A must be put in place
with the spring between it and the flywheel C, before the female B can be
set into its place and bolted up.
v) Diaphragm clutch.
In this type of clutch a diaphragm spring is used instead of coil
spring to produce required pressure. The pressure of spring is
always varying. It increases upto flattening and decreases with
passing of this position.
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Spring is pivoting on the rear pivot rings in its engaged position while
holding itself on clutch cover. In this position the pressure plate is in
contact with outer rim. Therefor sufficient pressure is exerted by the
spring making a firm contact between a pressure plate and clutch plate as
well as flywheel in its natural position.
Now in order to disengage the clutch, pedal is pressed. The throw out
bearing is moved toward flywheel. As spring pivoting on front pivoting,
therefor the bearing contacting inner portion of conical spring moves that
portion forward resulting in rim to move backward.
The clutch disc get released from the contact with both driving
members because pressure on pressure plate is removed.

Numericls

Bearings-When the shaft of machine like turbine, propeller shaft of vehicle
are subjected to axial thrust, then to avoid its displacement from its
original position, this thrusr reaction is taken by an element which is called
as bearing.
i) Simple pivot Bearing/ Flat pivot Bearing

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Chapter 7
Balancing & Vibrations

Content
Balancing & Vibrations
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127

7.1 Concept of balancing. Balancing of single rotating mass. Graphical
method for balancing of several masses revolving in same plane.
7.2 Concept and terminology used in vibration, causes of vibrations in
machines, their harmful effects and remedies.

Vibration-
Vibration refers to mechanical oscillations about an equilibrium
point. The oscillations may be periodic such as the motion of a pendulum or
random such as the movement of a tire on a gravel road. A body is said to
vibrate if it has periodic motion. Mechanical vibration is the study of
oscillatory motions of bodies. Vibrations are harmful for engineering
systems. Sometimes vibrations can be useful. For example, vibratory
compactors are used for compacting concrete during construction work.
Excessive vibration causes discomfort to human beings, damage to
machines and buildings and wear of machine parts such as bearings and
gears.
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Examples of vibration
1. Beating of heart
2. Lungs oscillate in the process of breathing
3. Walking- Oscillation of legs and hands
4. Shivering- Oscillation of body in extreme cold
5. Speaking - Ear receives Vibrations to transmit message to brain
6. Vibration of atoms
7. Mechanical Vibrations
Classification of vibrations
1. Free and forced vibrations
Free vibration occurs when a mechanical system is set off with an
initial input and then allowed to vibrate freely. Examples of this type
of vibration are pulling a child back on a swing and then letting go or
hitting a tuning fork and letting it ring. The mechanical system will
then vibrate at one or more of its "natural frequencies" and damp
down to zero
2. Damped and undamped vibrations.
Forced vibration is when an alternating force or motion is applied to
a mechanical system. Examples of this type of vibration include a
shaking washing machine due to an imbalance, transportation
vibration (caused by truck engine, springs, road, etc), or the
vibration of a building during an earthquake. In forced vibration the
frequency of the vibration is the frequency of the force or motion
applied, with order of magnitude being dependent on the actual
mechanical system
Terms used in Vibration
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X-Displacement
A-amplitude
T-Periodic Time
f- Frequency
f=1/T
t= time
X= A sin wt
ii) Period of vibration or time period-

It is the time interval after which the motion is repeated itself. It
is expressed in seconds.
iii) Cycle-
It is the motion completed during one time period.
iv) Frequency-
It is the number of cycles described in one second. It is expressed in hertz.
Causes of vibrations in machines-
The main causes of vibrations are:
2. Unbalanced inertia forces
3. Poor quality of manufacture
4. Improper bearings (Due to wear & tear or bad quality)
5. Worn out gear teeth
6. External excitation applied on the system
The effects of vibrations are as follows:
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1. Unwanted noise
2. Early failure due to cyclical stress (fatigue failure)
3. Increased wear
4. Poor quality product
5. Difficult to sell a product
6. Vibrations in machine tools can lead to improper machining of parts

Remedies-
v) Balancing of rotating parts can reduce or eliminate
vibrations.
vi) Damping is provided to the machine base to minimize
vibrations.
vii) When an unbalanced machine is installed on the
foundation, it produces vibrations in foundation. In order
to prevent these vibrations the machine is mounted on
springs or some dampers.

Balancing