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THEARDENNESOFFENSIVE IanTrout,RogerKeating,StephenHand,NickStathopolous,SteveFord, GregorWhiley,SteveFawkner TableofContents 1.INTRODUCTION 2.INSTALLATION 3.GETTINGSTARTED 4.THETUTORIAL 5.HOWTOPLAYTHEGAME 6.SCREENLAYOUT 7.UNITS 8.MOVEMENT 9.COMBAT 10.SUPPLY 11.

DATASCREENS 12.GAMEMENUS 13.OTHERGAMEELEMENTS 14.HOWTOWIN 15.DESIGNANDPRODUCTION 16.BATTLEHISTORY 17.BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDICES

1.INTRODUCTION The Ardennes Offensive is the first in a new generation of World War II operationallevelgamesfromSSG.ItisasimulationofthelastgreatGerman offensiveinthewest,commonlyknownastheArdennesOffensiveortheBattle oftheBulge.TheOffensive,whichcommencedinDecember1944,sawthelast exampleofacleanbreakthroughbytheGermanpanzers.Itdemonstratedthe strengthsandweaknessesoftheGermanWehrmachtbutwasultimatelyoneof theUnitedStatesArmysgreatestvictories.Withoutadequateaircoverorsupply and against a battle hardened opponent the plan was doomed to failure but

100,000AmericansandanevengreaternumberofGermanswouldhavetofall beforeHitlerfinallyadmitteddefeat. Thegamesscenarioscoverthemostexcitingaspectsofthebattleincludinga campaign game which allows you to refight the entire conflict. A tutorial scenariocoveringtheinitialGermandrivetoBastognetakesyouthroughthe gamemechanics. ThismanualiswrittenforWINDOWS95computers.Informationoninstalling andstartingthegamecanbefoundinthenextsections. Ifyouhaveanyproblemswiththecomponents,orquestionsaboutthegame, pleasecontactStrategicStudiesGroupatoneoftheaddressesshownbelow. IfyoudliketoofferfeedbackaboutTheArdennesOffensive,orfindoutabout our other games, please contact SSG at the addresses below. For Technical Support,pleaseseeChapter2. INNORTHAMERICA StrategicStudiesGroupInc. P.O.Box30085 Pensacola,FL.325031085 Tel(904)4698880 Fax(904)4698885 ELSEWHERE StrategicStudiesGroupP/L P.O.Box261Drummoyne NSW.2047.AUSTRALIA Tel(02)8197199 Fax(02)8197737

2.INSTALLATION Installation

WhentheTAOCDisinserted,adialogwillappearaskingifyouwishtoInstall TAOorPlaythegame.ChooseInstall.(Ifthisdoesnthappen,runtheprogram SETUP.EXEfromtheCD). Afterthewelcomescreen,theInstallprogrampresentsthreechoices.Theseare: InstallTAOandDirectX3 InstallTAOonly InstallDirectXonly ItisrecommendedthatyouinstallbothTAOandDirectX3.Moreinformationon installationchoicesandtroubleshootingcanbefoundinAppendixAandthe READMEfile. Afterchoosinganinstalloption,youneedtospecifyadestinationdirectory.The defaultisC:\ProgramFiles\SSG\TheArdennesOffensive. Afterspecifyingadestination,theprogramwillthenbeinstalled.Theinstallation willplaceashortcutunderProgramsintheStartmenu. AnUninstalloptionwillbecreatedinAdd/Removeprogramsiteminthe ControlPanel.Theuninstalloptionwon'tremoveanyfilesthattheuserhas created,forinstancesavegamefiles. 3.STARTINGTHEGAME GotostartmenuormakeyourownshortcuttothefileTAO.EXE.TheGame TypeDialogappears,thechoicesareSoloorNetwork.ASologameisplayedon asinglecomputer,althoughmorethanonehumancanplay. ANetworkgameisplayedonmultiplecomputers,andtherearefourconnection methods,IPXConnection,InternetTCP/IP,ModemandSerial(DirectConnect). PleaseseeAppendixBfordetails. TheScenarioScreen Thisscreenallowsscenariochoice,andsetsvariousgameoptions(seefig3.1). Tochooseascenario,clickinthelistbox.Detailsaboutthescenariowillappear inaboxtotheright.MoreinformationisavailablethroughtheHistorybutton.

ButtonsontheleftofthescreenallowstartinganewEmailgame,andloading savegames. Setup Eachsidehasaseriesofsetupchoices.Theseare: Human,Computer,Computer+orComputer++play Hidden,UnknownorExposedunits NormalSupply,Supply+25%,Supply+50% NormalReplacementSteps,Steps+1,Steps+2 NormalAttacks,Attacks+1,Attacks+2 Options MapDisplayChoices LowEndorHighEndMap HexGridOnorOff CityNamesOnorOff UnitDisplayChoices Divisional,RegimentalorIconicGamePlay RandomWeatherOnorOff RandomReinforcementsOnorOff BritishAutoControlOnorOff Time Timelimitforaplayerturnfromnolimitto15minutes. MultipleComputerGames SeeChapter4foranexplanationofthesegameoptions. 4.THETUTORIAL TheArdennesOffensivegivesyoucontroloftheregimentalandsometimes battalionsizedunitswhichfoughtintheBattleoftheBulge.Yourmaincombat unitsareinfantryandarmor.Inanattackyouwillbeabletoaugmenttheir effectivenessbyaddingartillery,airstrikesandtheeffectsofleadership.Inclear weatheryourplaneswillbeabletohindertheenemysmovement.Justasinthe realbattlecombatunitsmustensurethatasupplyrouteexistsorriskbecoming

isolatedwithoutfuelorammunition.TheArdennesOffensiveisplayedina seriesofhalfdayturns.EachturnisseparatedintoaGermanplayerturn followedbyanAmericanplayerturnand,dependingonthescenario,aBritish turn.Duringeachturnaplayermaymoveall,someornoneofhisunitsandmay conductattacksonenemyunits. Readingthroughthismanual,someoftherulesmayseemrathercomplicated andthegamemayappeardauntingbecauseofthis.Inrealitythecomputer handles90%ofthedetailinthegame,leavingyoutodecideontherealtactical questionsofwheretomoveyourdivisionsandwhichenemyunitstocrush.The tutorialscenarioisdesignedtointroduceyoutothegameinunderhalfanhour. TheArdennesOffensiveisaneasygametolearn. Thetutorialscenariocommenceson16December1944anddealswiththe GermanattackonBastogne.Bastognewasavitalroadjunction,andits continuedcontrolbytheAlliesduringthebattlehamperedtheflowofsupplies tothepanzerspearheadasitapproachedtheMeuseRiver.Inthistutorial,your jobwillbetotakeBastognewithin5turns,andthusclearthewayforfurther advances. (a).SelectingTutorialScenario StartthegameusingtheproceduredescribedinChapter3.Thefirstscreenyou willseeafterthegametitleshavefinishedisthescenarioselectscreen(fig.3.1).A scrollingmenuinthetopcenterofthescreenliststhescenarios.Clickonthe tutorialscenariowithinthismenu.Detailsofthescenarioappearinthetopright ofthescreen. Thebottomleftofthescreencontainsthesetupoptions,Alliestotheleft, Germanstotheright.WewanttoplaytheGermanssoclickonceontheword HumanintheAlliedleaderbox.ItwillchangetoComputer. Underneaththeleaderboxesareasetofoptions.Thedefaultsettingisthatunits arehidden,supplyisnormal,replacementsarenormalandattacksarenormal. WedontwantanynastysurprisesfromhiddenAlliedunitssoclickonthe hiddenunitsoptionfortheAllies.KeepclickinguntilyoureachUnitsare Exposed.Keepyourownunitshidden,theresnopointmakingiteasyforthe enemy.NowgototheGermansideandgiveyourselfmaximumsupply, replacementsandattackbonuses.Itsyourfirsttime,begenerous.Inthebottom rightofthescreenareasetofoptionswhichcanalterdisplayorgameplay.At thispointthereisnoreasontochangeanyofthedefaultsettings.ClicktheStart Gamebuttontostartthegame.

(b)TheGermanTurn AstheGermanplayeryougettomovefirst.ClickontheAxisTurn1screento startyourturn.Takeamomenttoexaminethemap.TworegimentsfromtheUS 28thInfantryDivisionconfrontyourforces.Behindthemisaunitfromthe9th ArmoredDivision,andafewstrongpointsandnondivisionalunits. YourforcesconsistofthePanzerLehr,2ndPanzer,116thPanzer,26th Volksgrenadier,andtworegimentsofthe560thVolksgrenadier,alongwith variousengineerandnondivisionalunits. Thisishardlyafairmatchup,butthenthisisatutorial.Also,youhaveafew handicaps.Theterrainisterrible,timeisshort,andsomeofyourunitswillbe orderedawaybyhighercommand,somethingnogeneralenjoys. Allunitshaveadotinthetoprightcorneroftheiricon.Ifitsgreen,thentheunit isinsupply,ifitisredthentheunitisoutofsupply.Areddotwillappearbelow thefirstdotwhenaunithasattacked,indicatingthatitcantattackagainthis turn.Certainotheractionswhichtakeupalotoftimewillcausethisreddotto appearasiftheunithadattacked. Themostimportantobstacleistheunitofthe28thInfantryDivisionwhichhas wantonlydestroyedthebridgejusttotheeastofClervaux.Itisinaratherstrong position,andweneedtotakesomecaretomaximiseouroddsagainstit. Thisunitisthe110thInfantryRegimentofthe28thInfantryDivision,whichwe willwriteastheUS110/28.Movethecursorovertheunit,andclicktheright button.Themappopupwillappearandremainforaslongasyouholddownthe rightmousebutton.Youwillseethattheunithasthreesteps,haslostnone,and thereforehasanattackstrengthof7andadefencestrengthof10.Theunitisalso entrenched,whichcanbeseenfromthewayitappearstobesunkenintothe screen. Oneofyourunits,the39/26startsthegameacrosstheriver.Clickonthisunit. Thehexesitcanreacharehighlighted.MoveittothehexwestoftheUS110/28 bysimplyclickingonthathex. ThenclickonthehexsoutheastoftheUS110/28,containingthe901/Lehrand the78/26.Ashortcuttoselectingnewunitsistomovethecursoroverthenew unitandholddowntheCtrlkeywhileclickingonthenewunit. Weactuallyneedtomovethe78/26acrosstheriver,andmovetheothertwo regimentsofthePzLehrintothishex.Todothis,examinetheinfoareaatthe bottomofthescreen.Itisshowingalltheunitsinthehex,901/Lehrand78/26,

eachinitsownpanel.Thepanelhasalargeroundbutton,whichwillbeeither redorgreen.Greenmeansaunitisincludedinastack,redmeansitisnt. Weneedthe78/26tobegreenandthe901/Lehrtobered,soclickonthe buttonsuntilthisisthecase.Thenclickonehexduesouth,acrosstheriver.The 78/26shouldmoveonehexsouth,andthe901/Lehrshouldntmoveatall.Ifthis doesnthappen,usetheUndobuttonfromthecentralbuttonpalette. Youhavejustusedthestackmechanism.Moveordersapplytoallunitsina stackwithgreenbuttons.Itsveryeasytouse,andtheresalwaystheUndo buttonifmattersdontworkoutasyouwished. NowmovetheothertwoLehrregimentsoverthefirst.Whenyouclickonthese unitsthestackinfowillshowonlyoneunitselected.Hittingthespacebar automaticallygroupsallunitsinahexintothesamegroupsothattheycanbe movedtogether. Havingdonethis,clickonthe77/26whichisimmediatelynortheastoftheUS 110/28.Wewantallthreeregimentsofthe2ndPzDivinthathexandbecause onlythreeunitscanstacktogetherinahexthe77/26mustmoveouttomake way.Moveitacrosstheriverasfaraspossible,andthenassembleallthree regimentsofthe2ndPzDiv(withthetridentsymbol)inthehexadjacenttothe 110/28. Youshouldendupwithallthreeregimentsofthe2ndPzinonehex,all regimentsofthePzLehrinanother,andthe39/26acrosstheriver,allincontact withthe110/28.Fig4.1showshowthescreenshouldlookaftermovingallyour units. Whenthishasbeenaccomplished,clickononeoftheattackingunits,andthen movethecursorovertheUS110/28.Itshouldturnintoacrosshair.Clickto bringupthecombatdialog. Planningacombat. Thereareseveralwaysofallocatingunitstoanattack.Themostbasicistohitthe Maxbuttoninthebottomrightcorner,whichwillthrowineverypossible attackingunitaswellasartillery,airstrikesandleaderbonus.HitMax.The screenwillshowthatyouhavecombatoddsof51,themaximumpossibleodds. Yourstrengthis48tothedefenders15,andyouhavetwooddscolumnshiftsin yourfavour(seefig.4.2).RefertoChapter9forafullerdescriptionofcombat. Fornowallyouhavetoknowisthattherearetwoelementstocombat,strength andshifts.Strengthiseasy,themoremenyouhavethemorestrength,andthe betterthechanceyouwilloverwhelmtheenemy.Combatshiftsaffectthefinal

oddstable,shiftingitupordown.Allocatingartillery,airstrikesortheleader bonusallgiveapositivecolumnshift.Thereisalsoacolumnshiftbonusfor tacticalposition.Basicallythemoredifferenthexesyouattackastackfrom,the greaterthebonus.Finallythedefendergetsa4columnshiftnegativebonusto simulatetheadvantageofdefending. Unitscanbeclickedinandoutofcombatinthesamewaythattheycanwith movementstacks.Youcanclickonotherhexesinthecombatdialogandchoose whichunitswillparticipate.Experimentalittlewiththis,butclicktheMax buttonwhenfinished. Nowthatwerereadyforcombat,hitthelargeredbuttonatthebottomofthe combatplanner.Thiscausestheattacktohappen.Yourereallyhopingforthe resulttoincludearetreatresult. Themostlikelyresultisthattheenemywilltakeasteplossandbeforcedto retreat. HittheDonebuttonwhenyouvefinishedconsideringtheresult.Notethe crateredappearanceofthehexesaroundthebattlehex.Thisindicatesa movementpenaltyforunitsmovingthroughahexthathasjustbeenfought over. BridgeRepair Assumingthattheenemyhasbeenforcedtoretreat,weneedtogetacrossthe river.Youneedtomoveoneofthe2ndPzunitsbackonehexalongtheroad,and bringuptheengineerunitthatstwohexesback.Whenitgetstotheriver,the bluebridgerepairiconwillhighlight.Clickonthaticon.Thehexacrosstheriver willhighlight,soclickinthathex. TheBridgeRepairedmessagewillappear.Whenyouclickonthisthebridgewill berepaired,buttherewillbeaheavycongestionmarkerinthehex.This simulatesthetimedelayasunitswaitforthebridgetoberepaired.Moveas manyofthepanzerunitsasfaracrosstheriveraspossible,andthenmovethe infantryunitsaswell. Anotherattack Thenextobstacleis112Regtofthe28thDivision,atthetopofthemap. Todealwiththisunit,youwillusethethreeregimentsofthe116PzDivandthe tworegimentsofthe560VGDivthatstartclosetoit.Youwanttoattackfromas manydifferenthexsidesaspossible,soastomaximiseyourtacticalshift.

Rightclickonalltheunitstoworkoutwhichiswhich.Startwiththe156 PzGr/116PzDiv,whichisthepanzerregimentfurthestfromthefrontby clickingonit.MovethecursortotheunoccupiedhextothenortheastoftheUS 112/28th,andclick.The156/116willmovetothathex.Clickonthe60/116and moveittothehexoccupiedbythe1130/560,whichisduesouthoftheUS 112/28.Clickonthelast116regiment,andmoveittothehexnorthoftheUS 112/28. Whenyoureready,selectanattackingunitandmovethecursorovertheUS 112/28andbringupthecombatdialog.Youwillgetbetteroddsthanthelast attack,sohittheMaxbuttonandattack. Themostlikelyresultisthatyoullcausesomelossesandforcearetreat. Aftercombat. Evenwithonlytwoopponentstherearemanypossibleoutcomes.Youretrying togetasmanytroopsaspossibleacrosstheriver,sonowisthetimetomove yourflak,artilleryandotherunitsasclosetothefrontaspossible.Dontmove artilleryunitsofftheroad,theylltakeforevertogetanywhere.Moveyour supplytruckclosetothenowrepairedbridge. NextTurn AnyUSunitssurvivingwillprobablyberetreating,leavingyoutodealwiththe strongpoints.Beforeyoudothishowever,youshouldallocatereplacements. Examinethetankandtheinfantryreplacementsymbolontherightofthescreen. Oneorbothofthesemayhaveanorangemarkeronthemindicatingthatnoneof yourunitscanacceptreplacements.Iftheinfantryreplacementisavailableclick onit.Stackscontaininginfantryunitswhichhavesufferedalosswillbe highlighted.Clickononeofthem,thenclickonitspanelatthebottomtodeliver thereplacement.Aunitwhichhastakenareplacementcannotattackthatturn. Nowthatyourarmyisbacktostrengthsendthe116Pz,2ndPzand560VGwest towardsHouffalize,whiletheotherunitsconcentrateonclearingthewayto Bastogne. Trytoattackatthehighestpossibleodds,tominmiselosses.Youwillnoticethat unlessaunitisattackedatoverwhelmingoddsitwillleavebehindastrongpoint whenitisdestroyed.Thisrepresentstheremnantsoftheunit,fightinga rearguardactioninordertoslowyoudown. TurnThree

USunitswillcontinuetoretreat,andBastogneisinsight,buttimeisrunning out.Anyadverseresult,evenjustaRetreat,willdestroyastrongpoint,andyou mayneedtomakesomelowoddsattackstocleartheway. TurnFour Badnews!TheHighCommand,intheirineffablewisdom,havetakenthe116Pz and560VGaway,justwhentheyweregettingbackintothefight.Youlljust havetocarryonwithwhatyouhaveleft.Bastogneisthemostimportanttarget, sothePzLehrand26VGshouldheadstraightforit,alongwithmostofthe artillery.Youshouldstillbetryingtoattacktargetsfromasmanyhexesas possible,butthatistheonlytacticalsubtletyyouneed. TurnFive Lastchance.Bastogneshouldfallthisturn,andyoumaygetHouffalizeaswell. TheEnd IfyoudidntreachBastogne,thenapostingtotheRussianFrontprobably awaits.Tryagain,andseehowyougo. 5.HOWTOPLAYTHEGAME (a).Choosingascenario Afterthetitlescreen,thefirstscreenyouseewillbetheScenarioscreen(fig.3.1). Atthetopofthescreenarebuttonswhichallowyoutostartanewscenarioora newEmailgame.BelowthatarebuttonstoloadsavedgamesandEmailgames. Ascrollingmenuinthetopofthescreenliststhescenarios.Clickonthescenario youwishtoplay.Detailswillappearinaboxatthetopright.HittingtheHistory buttonbringsupatextscreendesignedtogiveyouanideaofwhathappened historically. (b).ScenarioSetup TheSetuppanelcontainschoicesforhoweachsidewillplaythegame.Atthe topofthepanel,youchooseHumanorComputercontrolforeachside. Foreachsideyoucanalsochoosewhethertheirunitswillbehidden,unknown orexposed,whattheirsupplystatuswillbe,howmanyreplacementstheywill receiveandwhethertheywillreceiveanattackbonus. Ifyouropponentsunitsarehiddenthenyouwillnotbeabletoseethemuntil theyarewithinacertainradiusofoneofyourunits.Eventhenyouwillnothave fulldetailsabouttheenemyunituntilyouarequiteclosetoit.Iftheenemyunits

areunknownthenyouwillbeabletoseethematalltimesbutyouwillstillbe unsureastotheiridentityandstrengthuntiltheyarequiteclosetooneofyour units.Iftheenemyunitsareexposedthenyouwillhavefullinformationasto theirstrengthandidentityatalltimes. Supplyisanimportantpartofthegameand,asinmostwarsthroughouthistory themenwhofoughttheBattleoftheBulgedidnotalwaysreceiveasmuchfood, fuelandammunitionastheywouldhaveliked.Dealingwithlackofsupplyis oneoftheaspectsofgoodgeneralship.Wehaveallowedplayerstoincreasetheir supplyleveltotheextentthattheonlysupplyproblemstheyarelikelytohaveis ifunitsbecomesurrounded.Undernormalcircumstancesincreasingthe Americansupplyby25%willrelieveyouofjustaboutallofyoursupply problems.TheGermanshadmoresupplydifficultiesintheArdennesandsoyou willneedtoincreaseGermansupplyby50%tomakeupforthis.Awarning however,adramaticincreaseinGermansupplywillradicallyalterplaybalance intheirfavour. Replacementsaretroopsaddedtounitstomakeupforcombatlosses,allocated inSteps.Ingameterms,however,thetermreplacementsreferstoanyactivity whichmakesanunderstrengthunitstronger.ManyAmericanunitsintheBattle oftheBulgewerescatteredbyGermanattacksbutlaterregainedalarge proportionoftheirstrengthasindividualsandsmallgroupswerereunitedwith theirparentunit.EachreplacementpointinTheArdennesOffensiveis equivalenttoonecombatstepforaunit.Increasingreplacementsviatheoptions menuatthestartofascenarioincreasestheresilienceofanarmyincombat.It canhaveastrongeffectonplaybalance. Attackplusoneorplustwoaddsoneortwotothefinaldierollincombats.This isanextremelypowerfulmodifierbecauseeachcombatresultstableismadeup ofonebadresult,fouraverageresultsandonegoodresult.Evenaplusone modifiermeansthatyouwillalwaysgetatleastanaveragecombatresult. ClickingontheHuman/Computercontrolrevealstwospecialoptionsfor computercontrolledforces. Computer+ AtthislevelcomputerforcesgetSupply+25%,Replacements+1,Attacks+1and reinforcements1turnearlierthannormal. Computer++ AtthislevelcomputerforcesgetSupply+50%,Replacements+2,Attacks+2and reinforcements2turnsearlier.Thissettingisonlyforthosefeelingsupremely confident.

(c).GameOptions MapDisplay Thehexgrid,lowendmapandcitynamescanallbeturnedonoroffthrough thisscreen. UnitDisplay Divisional:Unitsshowthenameoftheirparentdivision. Regimental:Unitsshowtheirownregimentalnames. Iconic:Uniticonsshowunittypesratherthannames. GamePlay Randomweatherislikelytobesimilartothehistoricalconditions,justdont countonit. Randomreinforcementscouldshowupslightlyearlierorslightlylaterthantheir historicalarrivaltime. BritishAutocontrol Britishunitsinthegameareunderspecialrestrictions,andtheirturnscanbe uneventful.Thisoptionallowsthecomputertodoallthatsnecessary. (d).Youcanspecifyatimelimitforeachside,fromnolimitupto15minutes. (e)UsingtheTacticalMap Thetacticalmapiswhereyoumoveyourforcesandengageinattacks.Themap showsacloseupofasectionofthetotalmap(seefig5.1). Asyoumoveyourcursoroverthemap,itchangesinresponsetodifferent conditionsorkeypresses. Thepossiblecursorsareexplainedbelow Arrow:Thisisthestandardcursor. Circlewithdot:Thisistheunitselectioncursor.Itappearsoverfriendlyunits. Clickingonastackwillselectaunitorunitsformovementandbringupthe stackpalettebelowthemap. GunSight:Thisisthecombatcursor.Itappearsoverenemyunitsthatyoucan attack.Clickingwillopenthecombatdisplay RunningSoldier:Thisisthemovementcursor.Itappearswhenaunitorstackis selected.Clickingonthemapwillmovetheselectedunit(s)totheselectedhexor asclosetotheselectedhexastheunitscurrentmovementwillallow. RunningSoldierwithStroke:Thisistheillegalmovementcursor.Itappears whenaunitisselectedandthemouseisplacedoverahexwhichtheunit(s) couldnotmoveto,forinstanceahexoccupiedbyanenemyunit.

Binoculars:Thisisthedeselectcursor.Thiswillappearoveraselectedunit. Clickingwilldeselecttheunit,allowingyoutoselectanewunit. TheControlKey Oftenyouwillwanttomoveaunitandthenimmediatelymoveanotherunit withoutgoingtothetroubleofdeselectingthefirstunit.Holdingdownthe controlkeywillcausethecursortochangetotheunitselectioncursor. TheRightMouseButton Holdingdowntherightmousebuttonoverahexwillbringupthemappopup containinginformationaboutthehexandanyunitsoccupyingit(fig.5.2).The toplineofthedialogshowsthehexbeingexaminedandanyunitsoccupying thathex.Toexaminethehexmovethemouseoverit.Similarlytoexamineany unitmovethemouseoverthatunit. Theotherlinesofthedialogcontaininformationaboutthehexand/ortheunits init.FormoredetailsonthecontentsoftheinformationdialogseeAppendixF. (f)UsingtheStrategicMap TheStrategicMap(seefig.5.1)showstheentireareausedinthegameata reducedscale.Terrain,riversandcitiesareshown.ClickingontheStrategicMap willscrolltheTacticalMaptothehexselectedontheStrategicMap.The exceptiontothisisifascenarioisbeingplayedwhichdoesnotusetheentire StrategicMaparea.ClickingoutsidethescenariomapareawillscrolltheTactical MaptotheedgeofthescenariomapclosesttothepointselectedontheStrategic Map. 6.SCREENLAYOUT ThescreeninTheArdennesOffensiveisdividedintoanumberofareas.Thefirst andlargestisthetacticalmap.Belowthatistheunitdisplay.Thisareacontains informationabouttheunit(s)currentlyselected(seeChapter7).Therearea numberofdistinctareasdowntherighthandsideofthescreen.Atthetopisthe turnindicationarea.Thiswilltellyoutheturnnumberandtheweather.Below thisisthestrategicmap.Clickingonanypointonthestrategicmapwillcenter themainmaponthatpoint.Onthelefthandsideofthestrategicmapisaflag showingwhichsideiscurrentlyactive.Underneaththestrategicmapareaseries ofboxesshowingGreifTeamsorinterdiction,supply,motorpooland replacements.Clickingontheiconsintheseboxescanchangethecursorand

allowmissions,motorisedcapacityorreplacementstobeallocated.Inthebottom righthandcornerofthescreenarebuttonswhichbringupscreeninformation andtheEndTurnbutton. (a)Thetacticalmap Thetacticalmapisarepresentationoftheactualterrainoverwhichthebattle wasfought. Variouschangescanbemadetothetacticalmapbykeystrokes. Typing1willoverlayahexgridonthemap.Thehexgridcanberemovedby typing1again. Hittingthe2keywillremovethetownnamesfromthemap.Thenamescanbe replacedbytyping2again. Themapexistsintwoversions,lowandhighresolution.Thelowresolution graphicsusealotlessmemoryandmayresultinsignificantlyfastergameplay onsomemachines.ThiscanbechangedintheOptionssectionoftheMenu dialog. (b)Themovementicons Theninebuttonsatthebottomcenterofthemaingamescreen(seefig6.1)are mainlytohelpinmovingunitsaround. DoubleArrow Whenaunitisselectedthisbuttonshowswhereitcanmovetoandhowmany operationspointsitwillexpend(seeChapter8). CenteringButton Thisbuttonwillcenterthemaponthecurrentlyselectedunit. SingleArrow Deselectsthecurrentunitandselectsthenextunit.Ifyouhavefinishedwitha unitfortheturnusethecrossbutton. Note:Whenthemotorpoolorreplacementsareselected,hittingtheSingle Arroworthe[ENTER]keywillcyclethroughthoseunitswhichcantakeatruck orreplacement. RunningSoldier Movestheunitalongamovementpath. CrossedRunningSoldier Erasesthecurrentmovementpath Undo

Undoesthelastmovement.Thisisusefulifyouaccidentallymoveaunittothe wrongspot.Notethatifyouexposeahiddenenemyunitoraccessthecombat screenimmediatelyaftermovingthenyouwillnotbeallowedtoundothemove. UndoalsoreversestheallocationofGreif/Interdiction,trucksandreplacements. Binoculars Deselectsallunits.Thisisausefulfunctiontoavoidaccidentallymovingone unitontothetopofthenextunityouwanttoselect. Cross Deselectsthecurrentunitandselectsthenextunit.Unlikethearrowbuttonthis deselectsthecurrentunitfortherestoftheturn. PickandShovel Deselectsthecurrentunitandselectsthenextunit.Unlikethecrossbutton,this deselectsthecurrentunitfortherestoftheturnandforallsubsequentturns.The unitcanalwaysbeselectedmanually. (c)TheControlButtons Thesixcontrolbuttonswhichappearinthebottomrightofthescreenreplicate commonlyusedmenufunctions(seefig6.2). TwoFlags TheSideControlButton.Displaysthecurrentfrontlineonboththetacticalmap andthestrategicmap.AlliedcontrolisindicatedbyUSflagsandGermancontrol byamodifiedWehrmachtflag.Onthestrategicmapthefrontlinesareshownby twolines,yellowforAlliedandblackforGerman.Clickingasecondtimeonthis buttonremovesthesidecontroliconsonthetacticalmap.Clickingathirdtime removesthefrontlinesonthestrategicmapaswell. CamouflageTile TheUnitRemovalButton.Removestheunitgraphicsfromthemap.Clickinga secondtimerestoresthem. TrafficCop ThePenaltyButton.Showsthemovementpenalties,ifany,ineveryhex.The movementpenaltyappearsasanumber.Thehigherthepenaltythewarmerthe colorisusedtodisplayitsoitispossibletogetagoodideaofpenaltiesjustby thecolor.Clickingasecondtimeremovesthehexpenalties. DrumandCrates

TheSupplyButton.Allhexeswhichbegantheturnoutsidethecurrentsupply networkareshaded.Anyunitwhichoccupiesanunshadedhexatanytime duringtheturncandrawsupply.Clickingasecondtimeremovestheshading. RedAttackArrow Clickingonthisdarkensallunitsthathavealreadyattackedthisturn, highlightingthosethathavent.Clickingasecondtimeremovestheshading. YellowMovementArrow Clickingonthisdarkensallunitsthathavealreadymovedthisturn,highlighting thosethathavent.Clickingasecondtimeremovestheshading. (d)TheEndTurnButton Thisendstheturn.Thereisnogoingback,sobecareful. 7.UNITS TheiconsinTheArdennesOffensiverepresenttheactualunitswhichfoughtin thebattle.Themajorityofunitsinthegameareregimentsalthoughsome brigadesandbattalionsareincluded.Strongpointsareshownbyaroundor squareiconwithasilhouetteofoneortwosoldiers.Strongpointsrepresentthe manyplatoonandcompanysizeunitsscatteredacrossthebattlefield, particularlythoserearareasupporttroopswhowerecalledupontodefend againstsuddenattack. (a)TheUnitIconsontheMap Unitsareeithercomponentsofadivisionornondivisionalassets.Thedefaultis fordivisionalunitstodisplaythedivisionalinsignia,forinstancethe101st AirborneDivisionseagleorthe2ndPanzerDivisionstrident.Nondivisional assetshaveamilitarysymbolshowingthesizeandtypeoftheunit.Theunit modecanbechangedviatheOptionsdialogintheGamemenu.Theunitscan alsobechangedtoshowmilitarysymbolsorgraphicalicons. Belowtheunitsymboliseitheranumericalunitdesignationortwoorthree boxes.Iftwoorthreeunitsarestackedtogetherinthesamehexthisisshownby anappropriatenumberofboxes.Blueboxesindicateaunitwhichhasnotbeen moved,Red,indicatesonewhichhas.Notethataunitwhichhasbeenmoved maystillhaveOperationsPointsremainingandthereforemaybeabletomove furtherthisturn. Attherighthandsideoftheunitareoneortwocoloreddots.Iftheuppermost dotisgreenthentheunitiscurrentlyinsupply.Redmeansoutofsupply.

Theremaybeasecond,red,dotbeneaththefirst.Thismeansthattheunithas expendeditscombatcapability(seeChapter9)andwillbeunabletoparticipate inanymoreattacksduringthecurrentturn. (b)TheUnitDisplay Atthebottomofthemainscreenistheunitdisplaywhereextrainformation aboutunitsisdisplayed.Wheneveryouclickonaunit,thatunitbecomesthe currentlyselectedunit.Ifyouclickonastack,thenthatbecomesthecurrently selectedstack.Informationisdisplayedaboutthecurrentlyselectedunitsbelow themainmapscreen.Fig.7.1showsatypicalunitdisplaywithinformation aboutastackofthreeGermanunits.Atthetopleftofthedisplayistheuniticon preciselyasitappearsonthemap.Inthiscasewehaveallthreeunitsfromthe 2ndSSPanzerDivision. UnderneaththeunitsarerowsofheadsinGermanuniform.Theseshowthe numberofstepsineachunit,oneheadperstep.Everyunitinthegamehas betweenoneandthreestepsrepresentingacombinationofmanpowerandthe abilitytotakecasualties.Aloststepisshownbyaskull.Unitscantake replacementswhichrebuildloststeps(seebelow). Ifaunitlosesallitsstepsincombatitisdestroyed.Twoorthreestepunitscan takelossesandstillfunctionascombatunits,albeitatareducedeffectiveness. Underneaththestepsiconisaniconshowingthedominantmodeoftransport usedbytheunit.Therearefourdifferentmodes,tracked,wheeled,horseandleg. Thesemodesaffectmovementcostsindifferenttypesofterrain. Underneaththeuniticonisagreenorredbutton.Thisisusedtogroupor ungroupunits.Unitswhichhavebeengroupedtogetherwillmoveandfightasif theywereasingleunit.Theircombatvalueswilladdtogetherbuttheir movementvaluewillbethatoftheunitwiththelowestnumberofOPs. Theunitswithagreenbuttonbelongtothecurrentlyselectedgroup.Thosewith aredbuttondonot.Toaddaunittoagroupclickontheredbutton.Thered buttonwillbecomegreenindicatingthattheunithasbeenaddedtothecurrent group.Toremoveaunitfromthecurrentlyselectedgroupclickonthegreen button.Thegreenbuttonwillbecomeredindicatingthattheunithasbeen removedfromthecurrentgroup.Notethatthelastunitinagroupcannotbe deselected.Hittingthespacebarwillgroupallunitsinthecurrentlyselected hex.Hittingthebackspacekeywillungrouptheunits. Atthebottomleftoftheunitdisplayandunderneaththeuniticonaretwo valuesrepresentingtheattackanddefencestrengthsoftheunit.Thenumber

insidetheredorgrayarrowistheattackstrengthoftheunitandthenumber insidetheblueboxisthedefencestrengthoftheunit.Aredarrowmeansthe unitcanstillattackthisturn,graymeansitcant. Somehaveasymbolinsteadofanattackvalue.Artilleryunitsdonotattacklike otherunits.Artilleryhasagunsightsymbol.Ifanartilleryunithasalreadyfired duringthecurrentturnthegunsightwillhaveagraybackground.Engineers willhaveanengineersymbol(thetippedoverE).Supplyunits(thetrucks)have asupplysymbol(ahalffilledcircle). Inthebottomrightoftheunitdisplayisanumberinabrowndoublearrow showingthenumberofoperationspoints(OPs)whichaunithasremaining.OPs areexpendedasaunitmoves,themoreharshtheterrain,thegreatertherateof expenditure.Thehigherthenumberofoperationspointsavailabletoaunitthe furtheritwillbeabletomove.Ingeneralmechanisedunitshaveagreater numberofOPsthaninfantryandartillery.Wheneveryoumoveaunitthe computerwillautomaticallyreduceitsOPsbytheappropriateamount. Totherightoftheunitdisplayisasimilardisplayshowingthestatisticsofthe totalstack.Thestrengthsofallunitsinthestackaretotaled.ThenumberofOPs isthelowestofallunitsinthestack,iftheymovetogethertheygoatthepaceof theslowestman.Itisnotalwayssensibletomoveunitsasastack. (c)UnitInformation Unitinformationcanbegainedbyseveraldifferentmethods.Thefirstoftheseis viaarightmouseclick.Fig7.2showsathemappopupforthesameunitswe examinedinfig7.1. Movingthemouseacrossthetoplineofthedialogueshowsdetailsontheunits inthehexandthehexitself.Thesecondlineofthedialoguegivestheclassand nameofthehighlightedunit.Thethirdlineofthedialogueshowsthetwoother waysinwhichtheunitmaybedisplayed,inthiscasewithstandardmilitary symbolforarmororwithalittletanksymbol.Totherightofthesesymbolsare thestrengthsoftheunitateachofitsthreesteps. Theoildrumandcratessymbolindicatesthatthisunitisinsupply.Ifthesupply symbolhadaredslashacrossitthentheunitwouldbeoutofsupply.The bottomofthedialogshowstheOPstatus. (d)Strongpoints Strongpointsrepresentmainlyrearechelontroopsroundedupfordesperate defenceoftownsandroadjunctions.Strongpointsarestationaryandcannot

attack.Theydefendwithastrengthofeitherone(onefigureontheiricon)ortwo (twofigures).Ifastrongpointsuffersanyadversecombatresult,asteplossora retreat,itisdestroyed.Essentiallystrongpointsarejustdelayingforces. Somestrongpointsarealreadypresentatthestartofthegameandsomeappear asthegameprogresses.Strongpointswillappearinfriendlycontrolledtowns withanenemyunitwithin6hexes.Townswhichhavebeenunderfriendly controlforsixturnsormoregeneratetwostrengthpointstrongpoints.Towns whichhavebeenunderfriendlycontrolforthreetofiveturnsgenerateone strengthstrongpointsandtownswhichhavebeenunderfriendlycontrolforless thanthreeturnsareunabletogeneratestrongpointsatall. Strongpointsarealsogeneratedwhentwoorthreestepunitsaredestroyedin combatunlesstheyareattackedatoverwhelmingodds.Wheneveraunitwhich beganthegamewithtwoorthreestepsisdestroyedwhiledefendingalight strongpointappearsonthespottheunitwasdestroyed.Thisrepresentsthe remnantsofthedestroyedunitwhichwillcontinuetohampertheattacker. Strongpointsthatstartthegamewilldisappearafterseventurnsifnotalready destroyedbytheenemy.Thosegeneratedbycombatwilldisappearafterthree turns,ortwoifintheopen.Unitsattackedat8:1orbetteroddswillnotgenerate strongpoints,norwillFlak,AntiTankoranyBritishunit. 8.MOVEMENT UnitsmoveinTheArdennesOffensivebyexpendingOperationsPoints(OPs) whichrepresenttheabilityofaunittomove.Aunitsnativeabilitytomove(by walking,pushingvehicles,revealingthatlasthoardedcanofgasetc.)is representedbythatunitsBasicOPs(BOPs).BOPsarerenewedatthestartof eachturnandarenotaffectedbysupplystatus.InadditiontoBOPsaunitcan receiveOPsthroughthesupplynetworkuptoamaximumlevelreferredtoas MaximumOPs(MOPs).SupplyisdealtwithmorefullyinChapter9.TypicalOP valuesformechanisedunitsareBOP/MOP=8/24andforleginfantryare BOP/MOP=8/12.Mechanisedunitscantheoreticallymoveagreatdealfurther inaturnbutarealotmoredependentonthesupplynetworktokeeptheirfuel tanksfull.Infantryontheotherhandcanmovealmostasfarwithoutfuelasthey canwhensuppliesaregettingthrough. (a)Howunitsmove MovingaunitinTheArdennesOffensiveissimple.Clickontheunityouwishto move.Anyhextowhichtheunitmaybemovedinthisturnwillbehighlighted.

Clickwhereyouwanttheunittomove.Notethatthismaybeoutsidethe highlightedarea.Theautomaticmovementroutineswillmovetheasfaralong themovementpathaspossible.Aunitmayremainstationary,bemovedonceor anumberoftimesinanyoneturn.Aunitwhichcanmove10hexescanmove10 hexesallatonceorcanmoveonehextentimes.Itcanstoptofightatanystage andcontinuemovementafterwards. Unitsmaybemovedsinglyoraspartofagroup.Notethatwhenagroupof unitsisselectedmanyhexeswhichthegrouppossessesenoughOPstomoveto arenothighlighted.Thisindicatesthatifthegroupmovedtothathexitwould beinviolationofstackinglimitsi.e.therewouldbemorethanthreeunitsinthe hex.Ahexwhichisnothighlightedcanstillbeselectedasthedestinationfora group,theywillmoveascloseasthecomputercangetthem. NOTE:Whenunitswithdissimilarmovementmodesarestackedtogether,they paythehighestpossiblecostforeachhex.Dissimilarmovemodeunitsshouldbe movedseparately. (b)FactorsaffectingOperationsPointsExpenditure ThemapforTheArdennesOffensiveisdividedintohexes.Eachhexhasabase OPcost.TheOPcosttoenteranyhexisthesumoftheOPcostofthehex departedandthecostofthehexentered,dividedbytwo.Thereforeitisas expensivetomovefromthewoodsontoaroadasitistomovebacktheother way.ThebaseOPcostforeachhexdiffersdependingonthemovementtypeof unit(tracked,wheeled,horseorleg). Youcantellaunitsmovementtypebylookingattheunitdisplay.Trackedunits arerepresentedbyatankorahalftrack,wheeledbyatrucketc.Eachmovement typehasitsstrengthsandweaknesses.Obviouslytrucksaregreatforzooming alongroadsbutareprettylimitedindensewoods. UnmovednonmechanisedunitsmayacquireextraOPsbyusingatruckfrom themotorpool.ThisconvertstheunittoawheeledunitandgivesitextraOPs aboveandbeyondthosegainedthroughthesupplynetwork.Toassignatruckto aunit,clickonthetruckinthemotorpoolontherighthandsideofthegame screen.Anystackcontainingauniteligibletobecomemotorisedwillbe highlighted.Clickonahighlightedstackanditwillappearintheunitdisplayat thebottomofthescreen.Clickonthetransportationiconoftheunityouwantto becomemotorisedandasilhouetteofatruckiconwillappear.Notethatthe furtheraunitisfromthefrontlinethemoreadditionalOPsitwillreceivefrom

theallocationofatruck.Ifaunitisclosetotheenemylinesitisusuallynot worthgivingitatruck.Alsonotethatoffroadmovementcostsformotorised unitsaregreaterthanfornonmotorised.Thismeansthatinextremecases allocatingatrucktoaunitmayresultinthenumberofhexesitcanmovebeing reduced. Assigningaunitatruckfromthemotorpoolmustbedonebeforethatunithas moved,andtheunitlosesitsattackcapacityforthatturn.Nounitcanmovein twodifferentmodesduringthesameturn.NotethattheBritishdonothavea truckpoolasalltheirinfantryarealreadymotorised. OtherfactorsaffectOPexpenditure.ThesefactorsresultinOPpenaltieswhich increasethecosttomoveintoahex.OPpenaltiescanrangefrom09andhave thefollowingcauses. (i).ZonesofControl(ZOCs) AunitexertsaninfluenceorZOCintoalladjacenthexesincludingthose containingenemyunits.AnOPpenaltyappliesonmovementintoanyhexwhich containsanenemyZOC.Thesizeofthepenaltyisdependentonthetypeand numberofenemyunitsexertingaZOCintothehextobeentered. UnitType OPPenalty Supply 0 Art/Rocket 1 AT/Eng 2 Others 5(7ifhexisalsoenemycontrolled) TheZOCpenaltyreflectshowmuchmoredifficultitisforaunittomovewhenit isneartheenemy.Movingintoanenemycontrolledhexconvertsthathexintoa contestedhex.Attheendofeachplayerturnallcontestedhexeschangetothe controlofthatplayer.ZOCOPcostsarecalculatedastheyapply.Atthe beginningofthephasingplayersturnanyenemycontrolledhexwhichis adjacenttofriendlyunitsbutnottoenemyunitsisconvertedtofriendlycontrol. Anyunoccupiedenemyhexautomaticallyhasapenaltyof+1,roadsare+3. Thesepenaltiesreflectthedifficultyofmovingintoanareawhichmayormay notcontainenemyunits.Historicallytherateofmovementofunitsinenemy territorywasonlyafractionofthatpossibleintheirownrearareas.Themain problemwasuncertainty.Nobodyknewwhatmightliearoundthenextcorner, anopenstretchofroadoranantitankgun. (ii).CombatResidue

AnOPpenaltyisgeneratedbyseveralaspectsofcombat.SpecificallyanOP penaltyisappliedwheneveraunitisdestroyedorforcedtoretreatorwhenever anartilleryorairshiftisusedinacombat(seeChapter8).Combatresidueina hexcaneitherbeheavy(4OP)orlight(2OP).Penaltiesreducebyonelevelper turnsothatafteroneturnheavycombatresiduegoestolightandlighttonone. Combatresidueappearsasaseriesofshellcratersintheaffectedhexes. Ifaonestepunitisdestroyedinahex,thathexacquiresalightresiduepenalty. Ifatwoorthreestepunitisdestroyedinahex,thathexacquiresaheavyresidue penalty.IftheunitisArtillery,Rocket,SupplyoraStrongpointthentheOP penaltyappliesonlytothehexvacatedbythedeadunit.IftheunitwasArmor, TankDestroyer,ReconorAntiTankthentheOPpenaltyappliestothehex vacatedbythedeadunitandalladjacentroadhexes.Iftheunitwasofanyother typethentheOPpenaltyappliestothehexvacatedbythedeadunitandall adjacenthexes.AdjacentheavyforesthexeshavetheOPpenaltyreducedbyone level(heavygoestolightandlightgoesto0)asdoadjacenthexesoccupiedby enemyunits.Hexesseparatedfromthebattlesitebyanonbridgedriver/stream receivenoOPpenalty. Thisruleallowssimultaneousmovementtooccurwithoutallowingunitsnot involvedinthecombattosimplyracethroughthegapleftbyadestroyedunit. Thepenaltyreflectsboththetimetakenforthecombattooccuraswellasthe addedphysicaldifficultyofcrossinganarearecentlyfoughtover. Ifaunitisforcedtoretreatfromahex,thathexacquiresalightpenalty.Ifunits aredestroyedandotherunitsfromthesamestackretreataspartofasingle combatthenonlytheOPpenaltyresultingfromthedestructionoftheunit(s)is applied.Aunitcannotexpecttobeabletofollowupacombatwithnopenalty. Ifanartilleryand/orairshiftisusedagainstahexthereisalightpenaltyagainst thathexandalladjacenthexes.Theuseofartillerywillpreventanyfriendly movementintotheareaduringthebombardmentandalsomaketheground moredifficulttomovethroughafterthecombathastakenplace. (iii).AirInterdiction

AirmissionsincludeinterdictionstrikesonroadhexeswhichaddtotheOPcosts ofmovingthroughthathex.OPpenaltiesfrommultipleinterdictionmissionsare notcumulative. Interdictionisappliedtoanyroadhexandappliesacongestionpenalty(3OP)to thathexandtoalladjacentconnectedroadhexes. InterdictionOPcostspersistforthedurationoftheenemyturnfollowingthe turninwhichtheyweregenerated.Interdictioncannotbeappliedtoroads underfriendlycontrol. Thewayaplayerinterdictsenemyroadhexesistoplaceanairinterdiction markeronaroadhexduringhisplayerturn.Thiswillhavenoeffectuntilthe enemyplayerturn.Atthestartoftheenemyplayerturntheairinterdiction markerisremoved.Lightcongestionsymbolsarethenplacedonallaffectedroad hexesandmovementisadverselyaffectedfortheremainderoftheenemyplayer turn.Thecongestionsymbolsareremovedattheendoftheenemyplayerturn unlessthehexiscontestedinwhichcasetheyremain. (iv).GreifTeamActivity Thisfunctionsinexactlythesamewayasairinterdiction(definedabove).The GermanshaveaGreifteamscreeninplaceofanairinterdictionscreen.The GermanssentanumberofsquadsofEnglishspeakingcommandosdressedin AmericanuniformsbehindAlliedlines.Thesemencreatedtrafficcongestion, suspicionandplainconfusionoutofallproportiontotheirnumbers.Anyhex subjecttoGreifteamactivitywillhaveanadditional3OPmovementpenalty. Movementcosts Open Leg 2 Horse /Whe 3 Track 2

Forest Hvy 3 4 8 12 6 10

BuiltupMinorR.MajorR.MinorRdMajorRd 1 +1 +4 2 2 2 +3 N/A 3 2 1 +8 N/A 2 2

(c)OperationsPointsandCombat OperationsPointsarenotexpendedincombat.Rathereachunitisprovidedwith twovalues,anattackingcombatcapability(ACC)andadefendingcombat capability(DCC).

9.COMBAT

Theaimofwarfareistodestroytheopposingarmywhilekeepingyourown armyintact.Inordertodothisyoumustattacktheenemy.Tolaunchanattack theunitswhicharetoconducttheattackmustbeadjacenttothedefending enemyunit(artilleryisanexception).Toinitiateacombatselectaunitadjacent toanenemyandthenclickontheenemyunit.Thiswillbringupthecombat screen.Someunits,suchassupplytrucks,engineersandunitswhichhave expendedtheirattackingcombatcapabilitywillbeunabletoinitiateor contributetheirstrengthstoacombat. Combatresultsinthelossofaproportionofaunitsfightingpower(steps) and/orunitsbeingforcedtoretreat.Attackingunitsareneverforcedtoretreat, alllossesincurredbytheattackerareinsteps.Anyunitwhichlosesallitsstepsis destroyedandremovedfromthegame.Aunitwhichisremovedfromthegame isnotconsideredtohavelostallitsmenand/orvehicles.Itisconsideredtohave beenrendereduselessasafightingforce.Normallyaunitwhichtook30%or higherlosseswasunabletocontinuefighting. TheCombatScreenBasic Thecombatscreenisshowninfig.4.2. Thereisalotofinformationonthescreen,butitallresolvesdowntoatableof oddsandarollofthedice.Allyouhavetodoisdecidewhichunitsandassetsto allocatetothefight. Youshouldprobablyreadthefollowingdetaileddescriptionofthecombat screenatsomestagebutitisnotnecessarytoplaythegame.Basicallythemore unitsyoucommittoanattackthebetteryourchancesofsuccess.Themore directionsyouattackyourenemyfrom,thebetteryourchancesofsuccessand themoreartillery,airsupportandleadershipthatiscommittedtoanattack,the morechanceithasofsucceeding. Indefencethebestformationisacontinuouslineofunits.Youarefarbetteroff placingoneunitineachofthreehexesthanstackingthreeunitsinonehex.The basicruleofthumbisdontlettheenemygetaroundbehindyou. TheCombatScreenDetail Atthetopofthescreenaretheforcesinvolvedinthecombat.Thecurrently selectedstackisshownattheleftandthedefendingunit(s)areshownatthe right.Unitsadjacenttothedefendingunitdonothavetobecommittedtothe attack.Unitswhichareattackinghaveagreenbuttonbelowthem,unitswhich

arenothavearedone.Unitswhichcannotattackhaveagraybutton.Ifyouwant aunittotakepartinthecurrentattackclickontheredbutton,(orhitthe spacebar);itwillchangetogreen. Atthetopcenterofthescreenisaplaneiconand,justbelowitanartilleryicon. Nexttotheplaneiconisanumbershowinghowmanyairstrikesareavailable inthecurrentturn,inthiscasenone.Ifairstrikesareavailablethenthereisa numberinbracketsshowinghowmanyairstrikescanbeusedinanygiven combat.Similarlybesidetheartilleryiconisanumbershowinghowmany artilleryunitsareinrangeofthetargetunit.Thebracketednumberisthe maximumnumberofartilleryunitswhichcanbeallocatedtoagivencombat.At thestartofthebattletheGermanshadanexcellentideaoftheAmerican positionsandsowereabletoconcentrateamassiveamountofartilleryin supportofindividualattacks.Lateroninthebattletheabilityofbothsidesto supportcombatswithartillerywasreduced. Theleftsideofthecombatscreenisdividedintothreeboxes,thestrengthbox, theshiftsboxandtheoddsbox.Atthetopofthestrengthboxthebasicstrengths oftheopposingsidesinthecombatareshown,inthiscase65strengthpointsof GermansareattackinganAmericanunitwithadefencestrengthof10. Immediatelybelowthisaretwoshields.Theseindicatetheadditionsfor divisionalintegrity(seebelow).TheGermanshavea14strengthpointdivisional integritybonusandtheallieshavenobonus. Thethirdlineofthestrengthboxshowsriverpenaltiesandentrenchment bonuses.Unitsattackingacrossariversufferapenalty,representingthe difficultyofsuchoperations.InthiscombattheGermanshavetwopanzer divisionsattackingfromacrossariverandconsequentlysufferapenaltyof31 strengthpoints.TheAmericanunitbeingattackedisentrenched,soithasa bonusofhalfitsrawstrength,inthiscase5strengthpoints.Unitswhichspend anentireturninthesamehexwithoutdoinganythingwillbeentrenchedatthe startofthenextturn.Someunits,liketankscannotentrench. Thefourthlineofthestrengthboxshowssupplypenalties.Ifthedefendingunit isoutofsupplyandhasnodefendingcombatcapabilitythenitsstrengthis halved.Thetotalstrengthsoftheattackinganddefendingforcesareshownat thebottomofthestrengthbox,inthiscase48attackingstrengthpointsand15 defendingstrengthpoints. Thefinalstrengthsofthetwosidesinacombatareusedtocalculatecombat odds.Theattackersstrengthisdividedbythedefendersstrengthwiththe quotientbeingroundeddowntothenearestsimpleoddsratio,inthiscase31.So

iftheoddsare31thenhowdowegettothe51shownintheOddsbox?The missingfactoriscombatshifts.Severalfactorsshifttheoddscolumninfavourof theattackerordefender.Theseincludetacticalposition,artillery,airstrikesand leadership. ThetoplineoftheShiftsboxshowstacticalshifts.Putsimplythemoredirections fromwhichyousimultaneouslyattackanenemyunitthemoreoddsshiftsyou getinyourfavour.Defendingunitsautomaticallygetanegativetacticalshiftof fouroddscolumns.Thisrepresentstheenormousadvantagesaccruingtoa defender.Theattackercanpotentiallyreceiveapositiveoddsshiftforeachhex fromwhichheisattacking.Notethatstacksattackingacrossariverdonot contributeatacticalshift.Attackingstackswhichareadjacenttoenemyunits (otherthanthedefendingstack)contributeashift,ifthenumberofattacking stepsisgreaterthanthenumberofadjacentenemysteps(excludingthetarget unit). Foreachofthefirsttwocontributinghexestheattackerreceivesatwocolumn shift.Foreachsubsequentcontributinghextheattackerreceivesanadditional onecolumnshift. Attackingacontinuouslineofunitsorattackingacrossarivercanbevery difficult. Belowthetacticalshiftsaretheartilleryshifts.Eachartilleryunitshiftsthe combatoddsbyonecolumn.Theattackercanallocateanumberofartilleryunits toeachcombatuptothemaximumnumberallowedforthatturn.Eachartillery unitmustbeinrangeofthetargethextobeallocated.RangeforAlliedartillery variesbetweenfourandeight.RangeforGermanartilleryvariesbetweenthree andfive.IngeneralthroughoutWorldWarIIartillerycouldonlybeeffectively concentratedagainststaticpositions.Itsuseinmobilebreakthroughswasmore limited.ThereforetheGermanscanallocateuptothreeartilleryunitspercombat atthestartofthebattlebutonlyonelateron.Thedefenderautomatically receivessupportfromasingleartilleryunitifoneisinrange.Inthiscombatthe GermanshaveallocatedthreeartilleryunitstotheAmericansnone. ThethirdlineoftheShiftsboxshowsairstrikes.Airstrikescanonlybeusedby theattackerandfunctionexactlythesameasartillery,eachairstrikecontributing oneshiftinfavouroftheattacker.Infig.4.2theairstrikesbuttonisnotactive indicatingthatnoairstrikesareavailabletotheGermansatthisstage. Directlyunderneaththeairstrikesbuttonistheleadershipbonusbutton.This buttonrepresentstheeffectsofaharddriving,inspirationalleaderataparticular

pointonthebattlefield.Theleadercanonlybecommittedtoonecombatevery turnandcontributesonecolumnshiftintheattackersfavour. ThetotaloddscolumnshiftsarelistedatthebottomoftheShiftsbox.Apositive numberindicatesthatnumberofshiftsinfavouroftheattackerandanegative numberindicatesthattheshiftsareinfavourofthedefender.Inthecombat beinginitiatedinfig.4.2therearetwoshiftsinfavouroftheattacker.Therefore thefinaloddsareincreasedfrom31to51.TheOddsboxgivessomeideaofthe likelyoutcomeifanattackiscarriedoutatthecurrentodds.Atthetopofthebox isanimageofthehexbeingattacked,inthiscaseaforesthex.Atanygivenodds ratioyoucanexpectmorefavorableresultsfortheattackerastheterrain becomesmoreopen.Roughlyspeakingthe71oddstableinforestterrainis equivalenttothe61tableinclearterrain,the81tableinheavyterrainandthe9 1tableinUrbanterrain.Therearesixresultslistedintheoddsboxandifthe attackislaunchedthecomputerwillrandomlychooseoneoftheseresults.Each resultincludesattackerlossesfollowedbydefenderlosses.ForexampleA1 D2Rmeansthattheattackerlosesonestep,thedefenderlosestwoandisforced toretreat.Undersomecircumstancesthedefendermaylosemoremen(steps) duringhisretreat(seebelow). Theremainderofthecombatscreenisacirculardisplaycenteredonthecurrent battle.Clickingonanyfriendlystackadjacenttothedefendingunitwilldisplay thatstackatthetopofthecombatscreen.Unitscanbecommittedtothecombat bysimplyclickingontheredbuttonbeneaththemsothatitchangestogreen. Artilleryunitswhichareinrangemaybeoutsidethedisplayofthecombat. ClickingtheViewbuttonbringsupaportionofthestrategicmap,againcentered onthecurrentattack.Thecurrentlyselectedfriendlystackisshownasagreenor graysquare,allotherunitsassquareswithamilitarysymbol.Artilleryunitsare thosewithasinglelargedot.Usingthestrategicmapview,artilleryunitscanbe selectedandcommittedtothecurrentbattle.Thesixarrowsaroundthedisplay aretoindicatetacticalshifts.Hexesfromwhichoneormoreunitsareattacking whicharecontributingatacticalshiftareshownbyagreenarrow.Hexesfrom whichoneormoreunitsareattackingbutwhicharenotcontributingatactical shiftareshownbyaredarrow.Inthiscaseonlytheunitwhichhascrossedthe riveriscontributingatacticalshift. Incaseyoudontfeellikecommittingunitsonebyone,clickingtheMaxbutton commitsallpossibleunitstogivethemaximumpossibleodds.Evenifyoudont wanttocommiteverythingitisofteneasiertohitMaxandthentakeacoupleof unitsoutofthefight.Ifyouwanttostartagainallunitsmaybeuncommitted

usingtheResetbutton.Onceyouaresatisfiedthatthecombathasbeensetup exactlyrightmovethemouseoverthelargeredbutton.Clickingnowwilllaunch theattack. Adiewillappearatthetopofthescreenwithanumberdisplayed(wherealarge stackofdefendersisbeingattackedtwodicemayappear).Theresultequivalent tothenumber(s)willbehighlightedintheOddsbox.Anylossesincurredbythe defenderswillappearasredskullsbelowtheiricon.Thedefendersmayalso retreat.Ifalosshasbeentakenbyoneormoreoftheattackersitwillappearasa redskullwhentheappropriatestackisexamined. CombatReport Whenyouarebeingattacked,acombatreportisdisplayedatthebottomofthe screen.Thetophalfofthereportshowstheattackersdetails,whilethebottom showsdefenders.Theiconsusedaresmallversionofthoseshowninthecombat dialog,andconveythesameinformation. Themiddlepanelshowsthedicerollforthatcombat,andtheresultsforboth sides.Thefarpanelshowsthedefendingunits,ifany,thatcasualtiesareapplied to. WhenUnitsareAbletoAttack Basic Anyunitwhichstartsafriendlyturnwithinthesupplynetreceivesthecapacity toattack.Thisisexpendedwhentheunitattacks(orperformsanumberofother significantactionsseebelow)andisnotreneweduntilthestartofthenext friendlyturn.Iftheunitdoesntattackinthatturnandgoesoutsidethesupply netitwillstillbeabletoattackinasubsequentturnbutitwillnothaveitsattack capabilityreneweduntilitmovesbackintosupply. Defendingunitswhichareattackedwhiletheyareoutofsupplylosepartof theirdefensivecapabilityandsufferadditionallosseswhenattackedin subsequentturns.Theseisolatedunitsappearonaredbackgroundinthecombat screenandtheunitpopuponthemap.Itisusuallyworthattackingisolatedunits evenatnormallyunfavorableodds. MoreDetail EachunitinTheArdennesOffensiveisprovidedwithtwovalues,anattacking combatcapability(ACC)andadefendingcombatcapability(DCC).By definition,unitswithACCcanattackandunitswithDCCdefendatfullvalue;

unitswithoutACCcannotattack.UnitswithoutDCCdefendathalfstrength (roundedup)andtakeadditionalcombatlosses.Unitswhichhaveexpended theirACCaremarkedwithanreddotbelowthesupplystatusdot(seeChapter 9).WhenastackinwhichalldefendingunitshavenoDCCisattackedthe defendersaredisplayedonaredbackgroundandwilltakeadditionallosses. Atthebeginningofeachplayerturn,allenemyandfriendlyunitsarechecked forcombatcapabilityandthosewithoutitareupgradedimmediatelyiftheyare withinthesupplynet(seeChapter10).OnTurn1ofanyscenarioallenemyunits areinsupplyandhaveACCandDCCunlessotherwisedefinedbythescenario designer.Unitsoftheattacking(phasing)playercanonlyreceiveACCandDCC onceinthecourseoftheturn.AlsonotethataunitdoesnotloseitsACCuntilit engagesinanactionwhichexpendsitsACC.Thefollowingactionsexpenda unitsACC. A.Attacking B.Takingreplacements C.BridgeBlowing/Repairing D.Usingatruck Thereforeunitswhichareoutofsupplyatthebeginningofaturnmaystillhave ACCandmaythereforeattack.Theywillnot,howeverbeabletoregainACC whileoutofsupply.Thissimulatestheabilityofunitstobreakoutof encirclements.Aunitwhichattemptstobreakoutofanencirclementandfailsis inbigtrouble. DCCisnotexpendedbyanyactionunlessaunitisoutofsupply.Aunitwilllose itsDCCif,atthebeginningofitsturn,itisoutofsupplyandwasattackedlast turn.Notethatunitcouldhavebeenattackedwhileinsupplyorfornoresult, butifitgoesthewholeturnwithoutreceivingsupply,itwillbevulnerable duringthenextopposingplayerturn. IfitisattackedwithoutDCC,thefollowingresultsapply.Iftherewerenolosses andnoretreat,theunitstillretreats.Iftherewasaretreat,thenanadditionalloss isapplied.Iftherewerealsolosses,thentheseareincreasedbyone.Sinceunits aremostlikelytobeinthisstatethroughbeingsurrounded,theresultscanbe catastrophic. 10.SUPPLY SupplyisavitalfunctionofthegameandtheTLBsystemaccuratelysimulates theproblemsofgettingsupplytocombatunitsandisalsoeasytovisualiseand requirestheminimumofplayerinput.

Unitswhichareinsupplyhaveagreendotinthetoprighthandcorneroftheir icon.Unitswhichareoutofsupplyhaveareddot.AmericanandBritishunits havetheirownseparatesupplytruckssoanareamaybeinthesupplynetofone allyandbeoutsidethenetoftheother. Supplyisusedtorenewcombatcapability(ACCandDCCseeChapter9)and toaddOperationsPoints(OP)tounits,enablingthemtomove.Allunitsareable tomoveasmallamounteveniftheyareoutofsupply.Howmuchdependson theunit.InordertoreceiveadditionalOPaunitmustbeginaturninthefriendly supplynetworkormoveintothesupplynetatsomepointduringaturn.The amountofadditionalOPallocatedtounitsinthesupplynetdependsonthetype ofunitandthecurrentlevelofsupply.Forinstanceifasideiscurrentlyon100% supplyanaveragetankunitwillreceive8OPfreeand16throughthesupplynet. Ifthesideison50%supplythesametankunitwillstillreceive8OPfreebutwill onlyreceive8OP(50%x16)throughthesupplynet.Infantryunitsareless dependentthanmotorisedormechanisedunitsfortheirmovementcapability butarejustasvulnerabletoexpendingtheirammunition(i.e.losingtheircombat capability). Anysupplytruckwhichisdestroyedwillreappearatthestartofthenextturnin thefriendlycontrolledtownnearesttothepointatwhichitwasdestroyed.The enemyplayerwillreceivevictorypointsforitsdestruction. Asupplytruckoutofsupplylastturn,andwhichwouldbestilloutofsupply,is immediatelyrelocatedasifithadbeendestroyed,buttheopposingplayergets nopointsforthisrelocation. SupplySummary Themajorityofyourunitswillbedrawingsupplyfromsupplytrucks.These supplytrucksmustthemselvestracesupplytoasupplyheadonthemapedge. Youneedtokeepyoursupplytrucksclosetoyourleadelements,andtomake movingyoursupplytrucksanimportantpartofyourturn.AstheGermans,you alsoneedtobeawarethatUSairpowercaninterdictroadhexesbehindyour trucks,andpossiblyputthemoutofsupply. SupplyDetails SupplyTrucks Asupplytruckinsupplyatthestartofaturnwillprovidessupplytohexes withinacertainrange.ThisrangeisexpressedinOP.Typicalrangesare30OP forUSand24OPforGermans.Allhexeswithinthisrange(usingtheLeg

movementrates)areinsupply.Ahexsuppliedatthestartoftheturnremainsin supplyforthewholeturn. SupplyDumps IfatownhasaSupplyDump,itwillsupplyallunitswithinatwohexradiusthat cantracelineoffriendlycontrolledhexestothattown.Thiswillonlyhappenif thetowncantraceasupplylinetoasupplysourceasifitwereasupplytruck. Ifthesupplydumpcannottraceasupplyline,thenitssupplystateis decrementedbyoneperturn,andtheunitsarestillsupplied.Thisistosimulate reservesheldinthetownitself.Townscanstartwithasupplystateof1(Light) or2(Heavy).Thisnumberisneverincreased. TownsasSupplyDumps Ifatownhasbeenownedforsixturnsitcanactassourceofsupply,justlikea SupplyDump.Itcanonlydothisifitisitselfabletotraceasupplylinetoa SupplyHead.Ifitcannotdothis,itdoesnotsupplyanything. SupplyHeads Supplytrucksortownscanonlyfunctionassourcesofsupplyiftheythemselves cantraceasupplylinetoaSupplyHead(theoildrumsymbolontheedgeofthe map),usingamaximumof24OPs.Roadsdonotcostwhileallterraincosts4 OPs,MinorRiverare4andMajorRiverare8,andallmovementpenaltiesareat theirnormalcost. Themappopupwillshowthecostthatasupplytruckincurredthatturnin reachingaSupplyHead.Ifthisfiguregetsover20,thenthesupplytruckisclose tobeingoutofsupply. Germanscapturingsupply TheGermanscancaptureaUSsupplydump.IfitisaHeavysupplydump,then allunitswithin5hexesgettheirOPsincreasedtomaximum.ForLightsupply dumps,thisradiusis3.Additionally,thetwohexesaroundthetownare consideredtobesuppliedhexes,andthusotherunitsmaymovethroughthose hexesandgetsupply. Onceused,thesupplystateisdecremented,andHeavybecomesLight,and Lightwillhavenoeffectnextturn. Westwall Westwallhexesarealwayssupplied(forGermans,ofcourse).

11.DATASCREENS

TheVictoryScreen ClickingontheVbuttonbringsuptheVictoryDisplay(seefig11.1).Thisdisplay showsvictorypointsgainedfordestroyingenemyunitsandoccupyingtowns. Ontherighthandsideofthescreenaresidesymbols.Belowthesearefour buttons.Thetoptwobuttonsarefordisplayingcasualties.Clickingonthe GermanbuttondisplaystheAlliedunitsdestroyedbytheGermanplayerand clickingontheAlliedbuttondisplaystheGermanunitsdestroyedbythe AmericanandBritishplayer. Destroyedunitsareshowninfourcolumns,oneeachfortracked,wheeled, horsedrawnandlegunits.Withineachcolumntheunitisshownontheleftand itsdivisionalsymbolisshownontheright,alongwiththepointsgainedforits destruction.Ifmorethantwelveunitsofanyonetypearedestroyedthescroll buttonsbecomeactive. Belowthecasualtybuttonsaretheobjectivebuttons.Clickingontheobjective buttonschangesthelefthandportionofthedisplaytoshowthepointsgained foroccupyingobjectivetowns(seefig11.2).Thelistcanbescrolled,oryoucan clickonthetownlistoronthemaptoselectatown. Thepointsallocatedforcontrolofeachobjectiveareshownaswellasthetotal numberofturnstheobjectivewasheldforandthetotalnumberofpointsgained. Atthebottomofthescreenaretwomaps.Thelefthandmapshowstheposition ofeachtownwithaflagoftheowningnationality.Therighthandmapshows theGermancontrolledportionofthemapingrayandtheAmericancontrolled portioningold. Beloweachbuttonontherighthandsideofthedisplayarethepointsgainedfor destructionofunitsoroccupationofobjectives.Thetotalnumberofvictory pointsareshownatthebottomofthescreen. TheOBScreens ThetwobuttonswiththeAmericanandGermanflagsbringuptheOrderof Battledisplay(seefig.11.3).Inthetoppartofthescreenaresymbols representingthearmies,corpsanddivisionswhichtookpartintheBattleofthe Bulgewithredlinesconnectingheadquarterswiththeirsubordinateunits.Units notappearinginthecurrentscenarioareshaded.Clickingonanysymbolwill bringupinformationonthatformation.Theinformationisdisplayedinthe portionofthescreenbelowtheorderofbattle.Inthecaseofarmygroups,armies andcorpsaphotographofthecommandingofficerappearsontheleftofthe screen.Thisisaccompaniedbythenameoftheformationandofitscommander.

Belowthecommandersnameareanynondivisionalunitsattachedtothat headquarters.Inthecaseoffig11.3thereareninesubordinateunitsaswellas thecorpssupplyunit.Whenadivisionisselecteditsdivisionalinsigniaisshown atthebottomleftofthescreenandtheunitsshownarethecomponentregiments orbrigadesofthatdivision.Inadditiontotheinformationonthescreenthereare twobuttons,HistoryandDone.ClickingontheHistorybuttonbringsupa dialogcontainingashorthistoryofthecurrentlyselectedunit.ClickingDone willreturnyoutothegame. TheStrategicMap Itisimportant,particularlywhenplayingfullmapscenariostogetanoverview oftheentirebattlefield.ThiscanbedonebyexaminingtheStrategicMap.The StrategicMap(seefig.11.4)showstheentirebattlefieldarea.Theunitsare representedbyolive,khakiorgraysquaresshowingthecorrectmilitarysymbol. Thebuttonsdowntherighthandsideofthestrategicmapallowtheplayerto replaythebattleinvariousways.TheCombatbuttonshowsalltheattacksmade inthecurrentturn.Attacksappearassmallexplosionsonthescreen.Belowthis arethetwoflagswiththecurrentnumberofvictorypointsgainedbyeachside. ThePlaybuttonreplaystheentirescenarioshowingthepositionofunitsatthe startofeachturnandanyattacksmade.Ifaplayerwishestolookatthepositions ofunitsatanygiventurntheycandosousingtheNextandPrev(ious)buttons. Thiscanalsobedonewiththescrollbarunderneaththemap.ClickingtheDone buttonreturnsyoutothegame. TheEquipmentScreen HittingtheEquipmenticonbringsuptheequipmentdialog.Thecombatants usedavarietyofequipment,whichislistedinfourcolumns.Clickingonan equipmenttypebringsupapictureofthatequipmentandinformationaboutit. HittingtheDonebuttonexitsthedialog. TheCalendar Thecalendarshowsdetailsoftheweather,replacements,Grief/interdiction, reinforcements,supplyandairstrikes(seefig11.5). Thecalendarshowsaperiodof14turns.Clickingonaturnshowsasummaryof thatturnatthebottomofthescreen.Clickingonthesummarybuttonswill changethetypeofinformationdisplayedonthemaincalendarscreen.

Iflookingatreinforcements,theactualreinforcingunitsareshowninascrolling list,andthelocationofthereinforcementsareshownonthestrategicmapinthe bottomleftcornerofthescreen. HittingtheDonebuttonwillexitthescreen. TheReinforcementsIcon Theiconnexttothecalendarbuttonwilllightonanyturninwhichyoureceive reinforcements.Youcanthengotothecalendarscreentocheckouttheirnature andlocation. TheMessageScreen Thisscreenallowsplayerstosendmessagestoeachotherduringemailor networkgames.SimplytypethemessageandclicktheSendButton.Messages willdisplaythesidesymboloftheplayerwhosentthemaswellastheturn numbertheyweresenton.ClickingontheDoneButtonreturnsyoutothegame. TheMessageIcon TheiconnexttotheMessagebuttonwilllightonanyturninwhichyoureceivea message. 12.GAMEMENU ClickingontheGamebuttongivesaccesstoarangeofgamefunctions. SaveGame TosaveagameyoumustclickontheSaveGamemenuitemwhichwillbringup theSaveGamedialog.Tosaveagameinanewslotclickinthetextfieldand typeinanameforthesavedgame.ThenclicktheSavebutton.Tosaveagame overapreviouslysavedgamedoubleclickonasavedgameinthelistbelowthe textfieldandeditthenameasdesiredbeforeclickingSave.YoucanalsoDelete filesfromthedialog.Thereisalimitof99savegames. LoadGame ToloadasavedgameclickontheLoadGamemenuitem.Clickonthegameyou wishtoloadandclicktheLoadbutton. NewGame TostartanewGameclicktheNewGamebutton.Thiswilltakeyoutothe scenarioselectscreen.

Options ClickingontheOptionsbuttonopenstheOptionsscreen.Thisallowsyoutoset theoptionsforthisandsubsequentgames.ClickingontheLowEndMapbutton substitutesthelowresmapforthehiresmap.Themaindifferencebetweenthe twomapsisthattheroadsandriversonthelowendmapareanoverlaywhile onthehighendmaptheyarepaintedon.Thelowendmapalsousesless memoryandonsomemachinesusingthelowendmapresultsinthegame runningsignificantlyfaster. Althoughthemapisdividedintohexagonsformovementpurposesthehighend maphasbeendeliberatelypaintedtoreducethehexagonalappearance.Some playersthereforeprefertoplaywithahexagonaloverlaywhichcanbebrought upbyclickingontheHexgridbutton. Mostplayersprefercitynamestobepresentonthemapatalltimes.Ifyoudont youmayremovethecitynamesbyclickingontheCityNamesbutton. ClickingontheBritishAutoControlledbuttonplacestheBritishundercomputer controlwhentheAmericansarehumancontrolled.InscenarioswheretheBritish unitsareinactiveuntilapproachedbyGermanunitsthissavesthehumanplayer time.Itisalsogoodforaplayerwhowishestosimulatethelackofcoordination betweenthetwoAllies. ThebottomthreebuttonsintheOptionsscreendeterminethewayinwhichunits aredisplayed.Normallyunitswhicharepartofadivisiondisplaythedivisional symbolwhilenondivisionalunitsdisplayastandardmilitarysymbol.Clicking ontheRegimentalUnitsbuttonaltersdivisionalunitstodisplayastandard militarysymbolratherthantheirdivisionalflash.ClickingontheIconicUnits buttonchangesallunitssothattheyhaveasilhouetteofaman,avehicleora gunwhichrepresentstheunittype. QuitGame ClickingtheQuitGamebuttonwillbringupascreenaskingyoutoconfirmyour request.Bewarnedthatthegameisnotautomaticallysavedbeforeexiting. ContinueGame Returnsyoutothegame. Sound SoundEffectsandMusiccanbeswitchedonoroff.ThevolumeforSoundeffects canalteredinthisdialog,butMusicvolumemustbecontrolledthroughthe Windowssystem. Scenario

Thisdisplaysasidespecificbriefingforthescenario. About Thisdisplayspertinentdetailsaboutthegame. 13.OTHERGAMEELEMENTS Exposure UnlikesomegamesnotallunitsinTheArdennesOffensivearevisibleatall times.Therearefourstatesofunitexposureinthegame.TheseareHidden, nationalityexposure,divisionalexposureandfullyexposed.Ifaunitishiddenit cannotbeseenbytheopposingplayer.Ifaunitisinastateofnationality exposuretheopposingplayerseestheunitbackground(GrayWehrmacht, BlackSS,GreenUS,BrownBritish)withanappropriatenationalsymbol (GermanMalteseCross,USStar,BritishRoundel). Ifaunitisinastateofdivisionalexposuretheopposingplayerseesthe appropriatedivisionalsymbolorthefullunitdetailsiftheunitisanon divisionalunit.Ifaunitisfullyexposedtheopposingplayerseesthefulldetails ofthatunit.Supplyunitsonlyhavethreestatesofexposure,hidden,divisional andfullyexposed.Thereforetheyremainhiddenuntilthecriteriafordivisional exposurearemet. Thecloseraunitapproaches,orisapproachedbyanenemyunit,themore exposedthatenemyunitwillbecome.Similarly,thefurtherawayanenemyunit moves,thelessexposeditwillbecomeuntilitishidden.Thisallowsreservesto bemovedinyourrearareaswithoutyouropponentbeingawareofit.Forafull explanationofunitexposureseeAppendixE. TheBritish TheBritishareineffectathirdsideinthegameandinfacttheyhaveseparate turnsfromtheAmericanplayer.Britishunitsmoveandattackseparately,have theirownsupplysourcesandcannotstackwithAmericanunits.Furthermorethe majorityofBritishunitsareinactiveuntilaGermanunitmoveswithinthree hexesofthem.WheneverthisoccurstheaffectedBritishunit,anyotherunitsin thesamedivisionandthenearestartilleryunitwillbeabletomovefreelyfrom thebeginningofthenextBritishturn.ActivatingtheBritishinthisfashionmay seemasillythingfortheGermanstodobutforeachthreeBritishunitactivated OKWwillreleaseafreshdivisiontoassistwiththebreakthrough. IntheBattleoftheBulgetheBritishpositionedthemselvessothattheycould backuptheAmericansifthingsgotreallybad.TheAmericanswereabletostop

theGermanadvancewithoutBritishhelpandonlyafewBritishunitswere releasedintothebattleinthelaterstages. BridgeBlowingandRepairing AnyunitwithAttackingCombatCapabilitycanattempttoblowabridge.In ordertoattempttoblowabridgeaunitmustbeadjacenttothebridgeandmust notbeadjacenttoanyenemyunits.Forthepurposesofbridgeblowingenemy strongpointsdonotcountasunits.Toattempttoblowabridgewithaunitfirst selectthatunitandthenclickonthebridgeblowingbutton.Selectwhich adjacentbridgetoblowbyclickinginoneofthehighlightedhexes.Amessage willappeartellingyouwhetheryouhavesucceededorfailed.Engineershavea 66%chanceofblowingabridge,otherunits50%.Theunitwhichmadethe attemptwillloseitsACCwhetherornottheattemptwassuccessful. Onlyengineerscanrepairbridgesandtheycannotbeadjacenttoanyenemy units.Repairingabridgeisdonebyselectingtheengineerandclickingonthe bridgerepairingbutton.Clickinoneofthehighlightedhexestoselectwhich bridgetorepair.RepairingabridgeisalwayssuccessfulandexpendstheACCof therepairingengineerunit.Bridgesareconsideredrebuiltimmediatelybuta largemovementpenaltyisimposedonanyunitcrossingtherepairedbridge duringtheturnthebridgeisrepairedandonthefollowingturn. Replacements Anyunitwhichisinsupplycantakeoneandonlyonereplacementstepper turn.Thiswillexpenditsattackcapacity.Therearetwotypesofreplacements. Armoredreplacementscanbeusedbyanytrackedunitandlegreplacementscan beusedbyanyotherunit.Steplossesrepresentareductioninfightingcapability ratherthanthelossthroughdeathorinjuryofathirdormoreofaunitsmen. Similarlyreplacementsrepresentanumberofreorganisationalactivitiessuchas thecollectionofstragglersandtherepairofvehiclesaswellastheadditionof freshmentoaunit. Replacementsarerepresentedonthemaingamemapasacolumnoftanksanda columnofinfantryfiguresontherighthandsideofthescreen.Toexpenda replacement,clickonthetankorinfantryfigure.Aredcirclewillappearover eachstackcontainingoneormoreunitswhichareeligibletotakereplacements ofthattype.Toplacethereplacementstepclickonthestackwhichwillappearin theunitselectionareaatthebottomofthescreen.Decidewhichunityouwantto givethereplacementtoandclickonit.

Iftheunithaslostastepthenoneoftheskullmarkersindicatingaloststepwill bereplacedbyasoldiershead.Areddotwillalsoappearindicatingthatthe unithaslostitsACC.Thelossofattackcapabilityrepresentsthefactthatunits areunabletoperformtwomajoradministrativetasks,i.e.fightingand reorganisationatonce. TheUndobuttonwillreversethereplacement. Ifreplacementsareavailableandnounitsareabletoacceptthemthenanot allowedsignwillappearonthereplacements.Oftenthisisduetoaplayer havingusedhisunderstrengthunitsinattacksbeforeworryingabout replacements.Ofcoursetheseunitsarenowineligibletoacceptreplacements (havingexpendedtheirACC).Thereforeitisalwaysagoodideatoassign replacementsatthestartoftheturn.Notethattheenemyplayeronlyreceives victorypointsforunitsifthoseunitsarecompletelydestroyed. HighCommandDirective Incertainscenarios,theHighCommandwillunilaterallyordercertainunits fromthebattlefield,inordertofulfillmilitaryrequirementselsewhere.These unitswilljustevaporateatthestartoftheturn,althoughamessagewillappear announcingthis.ThiswillbementionedintheScenarioBriefing,soit'sagood ideatoreadthese! TheMotorPool TheMotorPoolrepresentseachsidesabilitytomotoriseinfantryunitsand therebyincreasetheirrateofmovement.ToassignatruckfromtheMotorPool clickonthetruckicon.Allstackscontainingunitseligibletobegivenmotorised capabilitywillbehighlighted.Toassignatrucktoanindividualunitclickona highlightedstack.Theunitsinthestackwillappearintheunitselectionareaat thebottomofthescreen.Anyunitwithalegmovementsymbol(three infantrymen)canbegivenatrucksimplybyclickingonthatunit.Itsmovement symbolwillchangetoatruckindicatingthattheunitisnowmotorised.Theunit alsousesthemovementcostsformotorisedunitsratherthanthecostsforleg units.Insomecircumstancesthismayresultintheunitbeingabletomovefewer hexesasthecostofsometerraintypesisgreaterformotorisedunitsthanitisfor legunits.Dontmotoriseaunitwhichisabouttoslogthroughaforest,savethe truckfortheunitwhichisgoingtowhizdownaroad. Onlylegunitswhichhavenotalreadymovedinthecurrentturnmaybe assignedmotorisedcapacity.

AnyunitwhichisassignedmotorisedcapacitylosesitsACCforthatturn.The Undobuttoncanbeusedtodeallocateatruckupuntilthemomenttheunitis movedoranewunitisselected. Westwall TheWestwallwasaspecialdefensivelineontheGermanborder.Westwallhexes areshownbyapillboxsymbol.Theyarealwaysasourceofsupply,evenif surrounded,anyGermanunitonaWestwallhexwillalwaysbeinsupply. Westwallhexesareeitheractiveornonactive.Westwallhexesbecomeactiveif anyAlliedunitmoveswithin6hexes.Westwallhexesareequivalenttoa10 defencepointstrongpoint. 13.HOWTOWIN ThereisnomagicsolutiontoachievingvictoryandinTheArdennesOffensive, asinwar,victorywilloftengototheplayerwhomakestheleastmistakes.Here areafewtips. 1.Concentratetoattack,dispersetodefend(butnottoofar). Becauseofthewaycombatisstructuredyouwillneedtomassunitsinattack. However,thebestdefenceisacontinuouslinesoifyouclumpyourunits togetherbutleavegreatyawningchasmsinyourlinetodosothenyoucan expecttobecounterattackedstrongly. Attackingcanbeillusory,justaboutanyforcewillbebigenoughtobeableto putinausefulattackbutifitstripstherestofyourlinebarethenyouwillhave enteredadeadlygameofattritionthatyouareunlikelytowin.TheGerman playerinparticulartendstokeepattackingforlongerthanheshould.The Americansreceivesomanyreinforcementsthatitisalmostimpossibletokeep attackingrighttilltheendofthelongerscenarios,howevergoodyouare. Itisveryeasytokeeptheattackgoingjustoneortwoturnstoolongonlytofind thatyourunderstrengthunitscannotresisttheAmericans.Itisfarbettertopass upafewattackingopportunities,formadefensivelineandtrytoboostyour unitsbackuptosomethingnearfullstrengthwithreplacements. 2.Keepyourdivisionstogether. Gooddivisionsreceivegenerousstrengthbonuseswheneveralldivisionalunits takepartinanattackorwhenallunitsareinsupportingrangeofeachotherin defence.Thissimulatesthedivisionalassets,artillery,tankdestroyers,engineers etc.,whichweredesignedtobeusedtogether,notseparately.Thereforethereisa

realreasontokeepdivisionalunitsclosetoeachother,unlessthereare exceptionalcircumstances.Evenifoneregimentisdestroyeddivisionsstill receiveaKampfgruppebonuswhentheremainingtwoorthreeregimentsare actingtogether. 3.Useunitsintheirhistoricalrole. Thestrengthsandmovementvaluesofunitshavebeensetsuchthatthebest unitsinattackaretanksandthebestunitsindefenceareinfantryandantitank guns.Ifyouwanttoattack,dontusetheinfantrydivisionthathasjustarrived asareinforcement,putitintothelineandusethatarmoreddivisionthatyou havebeenforcedtousedefensivelyinstead.Thesesortofswapsare inconvenientbutmoreoftenthannotwillpayoffintermsofbetterresults. 4.Makesuretheressomecannonfodderforattacks. Whenasteplossiscalledforinanattackthelosswillbetakenbytheunitwith thehighestnumberofsteps.Ifunitshaveequalstepstheweakestunitwilllose thestep.Soifyouwanttokeepyourarmoredspearheadintopshapeitisuseful tohavesomefullstrengthinfantryunitsalsoparticipatinginanybigattacks. Bewarnedthattheconverseistrueindefence.Thatis,thefirststepislostbythe unitwiththelowestdefencestrength.Oftenthiswillbeanarmoredunit.Using armorfordefenceisawaste(butoftenyouwillhavenochoice). 5.Penetrate,butnottoofar. Thekeytobreakingalineistopushunitsthroughgaps.However,ifyoupush unitstoofarthroughagaptheywillbecutoffanddestroyedeasily.Themiddle groundistocreateasolidfingerofunitsintoandthroughthegap.Supplywill thenbeabletobetracedbackthroughtheseunits.Thedownsideisthatthissort ofpenetrationismoreeasilysealedoffandittakesmoreunitsthanjustbarreling throughintotherearareas. 6.Reinforcesuccessbutnotattheexpenseofdisasterelsewhere. Alotofgameswillseetheattackingplayerprobingallthewaydownaline. Whenagapisformed,driveintoitwitheverythingyoucanspare.Thewayto killunitsinthisgameistosurroundthem.Thebestwaytodothatistobreak linesandnotallowthemtoreform.

Ifyouarenearparity,oractuallydefendingyouneedtowatcheveryenemy successandpreventitbecomingafullscalebreakthrough.Ifawholelineis beingworndownitcandisappearveryquickly. 7.MovethoseSupplyTrucks! Thereisnothingmorefrustratingthanhavingasuccessfulbreakthroughgrindto ahaltthroughlackofsupply,becausesloppystaffworkfailedtomovethe supplytrucksforward.TheGermanshavefewertrucksandarevulnerableto Alliedairinterdictionoftheirsupplylines,sotheymustpayparticularattention tothispoint.Keepthetrucksclosetothebreakthroughpoints. 8.CheckandmoveReinforcements Sloppystaffworkcanalsocausereinforcementstopileupastheypatiently awaitorderstoadvance.Usethecalendartopinpointtheexactlocationofall reinforcementsinaturn,anddontforgettomovetheminsubsequentturns. 15.DESIGNANDPRODUCTION 16.BATTLEHISTORY TheBattleoftheBulge OnJune6th1944thelongawaitedsecondfrontbecamearealityasAlliedtroops cameashoreontheNormandybeaches.ForthenextmonthandahalftheAllies inchedforwarduntil,withthelaunchingofOperation"Cobra"onthe25thof July,AmericanforcesbrokeoutofNormandy.ExactlyamonthlaterPariswas liberated.WiththecaptureoftheFrenchCapitalandtheclosureoftheFalaise Pocket, German resistance crumbled. The race across Northern France was dramatic,butcouldnotbesustainedassupplylineslengthened.Asthefront began to stabilise near the German Border, Hitler perceived he had one last chancetoturnthetideoftheWar.On16thSeptember,duringabriefingatOKW HeadquarterstheFuhrerwastoldofsomelocalsuccessesintheArdennes.His reactionwasimmediate,"Ihavejustmadeamomentousdecision,Ishallgoover tothecounterattack.Thatistosay,here,outoftheArdennes,withtheobjective Antwerp." THEPLANS

TheoutlookforGermanyatthetimeofHitler'sdecisionwasdire.Theirarmies were collapsing east and west and their allies were leaving the sinking ship. FollowingthedestructionofArmyGroupCenterintheSovietSpringOffensive, RomaniaandBulgariahaddeclaredwaronGermany,andFinlandhadsigned anarmisticeagreementwiththeUSSR.OnlyHungaryandJapanremainedas Germany'sallies. Germany was being forced back to its prewar frontiers. The resultant contraction ofthe German frontage,however, coupled with theallied supply difficulties brought on by their own advances, resulted in a stabilisation of Germandefences.Asallsidesregrouped,Hitlerwasfacedbytherealitythathe couldnolongerhopetowinthewarpurelybydefendingagainstfutureallied attacks.TheonlyalternativetothisscenarioofinevitabledefeatwasforHitlerto commitallhisreservesintoonefinaloffensivetoknockoutoneorotherofthe Allies.Itwasahugegamble,butHitlerwasastudentofClauswitziantheory.He realisedthathehadcometothepointinthewarwhenagreatgamble,beingthe onlyalternativetocertaindefeat,wasreallynogambleatall. Oncethedecisionhadbeenmadetolaunchagreatcounterattack,itremainedto be decided where theattackwouldstandthegreatestchance ofsuccess.The Eastern Front was the decisive front of the Second World War, just as the WesternFronthadbeeninWorldWarOne.ItwasestimatedthattheRussians had555divisionsfacingtheGermans.Hitlercalculatedthathecouldfreeup between30and40divisionsforhiscounterattack.Evenifthesemencouldhave destroyeddoubletheirnumberofRussians,theoddsagainsttheGermanswould stillhavebeenoverwhelming. Italywasanotherpossibility.However,thenumbersfightingthereweresosmall andtheterrainsofavorabletothedefencethatnosignificantadvantagecouldbe gainedbyanoffensivethere.TheonlyalternativewastheWesternFront.The oddsherewerefarbetterthaninRussiaandtheterrain,astheGermansknew from1940,wasamenabletoanarmoredbreakthrough. At thetimeHitlersettled on theArdennes Offensive,theWestern Frontwas beingheldbytheAllieswith38divisions(althoughonSeptember1sttheallies had2millionmenin38combatdivisionsfacingonly700000Germansin41 divisions:Thisgivessomeideaoftherelativesizesofthelogistical"tails"ofthe two armies). A successful attack by 30 to 40 German divisions could totally change the complexion of the war in the West. Just as Hitler had no valid

militaryalternativebuttothrowallhisreservesintoafinalcounterattack,the onlyfrontonwhichitcouldbeeffectivewastheWesternFront. ThedecisiontoattackoutoftheArdenneswithAntwerpasanobjectivewas intendedtoachievetwoaims.FirstlythecaptureofAntwerpwoulddenythis vital port to the Allies and force them to continue trucking supplies from Normandy across most of Northern France. Secondly, it would threaten to pocketthebulkofMontgomery's21stArmyGroup. Hitler'sgeneralsarguedagainsttheplanandofferedseveralalternatives.Mostof theseweremorelimitedinscopeandinvolvedatwoprongedattackatsome pointofthelinetocreateapocket.Hitlerrefusedallalternativeplansandfell backtohisoriginalideaofasinglebreakthrough,callinghisplan"Wachtam Rhein" (Watch on the Rhine). His subordinates felt that this was beyond the abilitiesoftheWehrmachtinlate1944.Iftheoffensivesucceededinreachingthe coastitwouldcreateagiantpocket,ifitfaileditwouldresultinasalient.This wouldbeworsethanuselessasitwouldgivethealliestheopportunitytocreate theirownpocket.AsvonRundstedtaccuratelypredicted,Shouldtheattackbe stoppedattheMeuseduetolackofreserves,theonlyresultwillbeabulgeinthe line.ModelwasmorebluntwhenhesaidThisplandoesnthaveadamnedleg tostandon!...Ifitsucceeds,itwillbeamiracle. InrealitybothHitlerandhisgeneralswererightabout WachtamRhein andin anothersensetheywerebothwrong.Hitlerwasrightthattheplansputforward byhisstaff,althoughpractical,wouldhavelittleeffectontheoveralloutcomeof thewar.Howeverthegeneralswererightinstatingthataplanofthescopeof WachtamRheinwastoooptimisticandwouldnotsucceed. Germanywasatthestagewherenothinginthemilitaryspherecouldsavethem fromdefeat.Hitlershouldhaverealisedthisandbeenatthenegotiatingtable beforeheeverthoughtaboutacounterattack.Butofcoursebythatstageofthe warHitler'scapacityforselfdelusionwassogreatthatpeacewouldonlybe gainedbythetotaldestructionofGermany. OnthealliedsidesupplywasstillbeingtruckedinfromNormandy,theonly other suitable Alliedheld port being Antwerp. Although the Allies held AntwerptheydidnotholdtheestuaryoftheScheldt,theport'soutlettothesea. At the time when the capture of the Scheldt estuary should have taken top priority,MontgomerywaslaunchinghisabortiveattempttocrosstheRhineat Arnhem.

As German divisions were transferred from the eastern front the German strengthintheweststeadilyincreased.AtthesametimetheAlliedcasualtiesat Aachen, Hurtgen Forest and in Lorraine were greater than the number of replacements.Inordertomaintaintheoffensivesagainsttheindustrialregionsof theRuhrandtheSaaritwasnecessaryfortheAlliestothinoutotherpartsofthe line. TheArdenneswasaquietportionofthefrontandwasconsidered,despitethe Blitzkriegof1940,tobeunsuitableforoffensiveoperations.Itwasthereforeheld extremelylightly.ConsequentlythemostthinlyheldportionoftheAlliedline waspreciselywheretheGermansintendedtoattack. The Ardennes was held by the men of General Hodges' 1st Army, part of Bradley's12thArmyGroup.Theyhadlittlewarningoftheimpendingattackdue tothestrictsecurityunderwhichpreparationswerecarriedout.Whenhewas warned by an intelligenceofficer ofapossible counterattack in theArdennes Bradleyoverconfidentlyreplied"Letthemcome". THEOPPOSINGFORCES The attacking German force was made up of three armies. The Sixth SS PanzerArmee wascommanded by Josef"Sepp" Dietrich, anardent Nazi,the Fifth PanzerArmee was under Hasso von Manteuffel, an efficient East Front veteranandtheSeventhArmeewascommandedbyErichBrandenberger.The mostpowerfularmywastheSixthwhichcontainedfiveinfantryandfourSS Panzer divisions. The Sixth SS PanzerArmee was to cross the Meuse in the vicinityofLiegeandwasresponsibleforbreakingthroughinanareabetween MonschauandStVith. SouthoftheSixth,Manteuffel'sFifthPanzerArmeeconsistedoffourinfantryand threePanzerdivisions.Manteuffelwasfacingthemostweaklyheldportionof the US line and was probably the most competent of the three army commanders.HismissionwastocapturethevitalroadjunctionsofStVithand BastogneandcrosstheMeusebetweenNamurandDinant. Brandenberger'sSeventhArmeewasbyfartheweakestofthethree.Containing fourinfantrydivisionsthearmywasalsoweakinartillery.Thejobassignedto Seventh Armee was one of flank protection. After making an initial breakthroughBrandenbergerwasto"peeloff"hisdivisionsonebyonetoprotect thevulnerablesouthernflankofthesalient.

TheGermanshadamassedagreatenoughsuperiorityingroundtroopsbutthey were lacking one vital ingredient of Blitzkrieg warfare, air superiority. Since Normandythishadbeen theAllies'trumpcard.Ithaddecisivelyslowedthe movementofreserves andsuppliestomeettheAlliedinvasion,makingroad movementduringdaylightalmostimpossible. AbovealltheGermansneededunhamperedroadmovementintheArdennes. Their offensive plans relied on speed. There was no way that German air superiority could be obtained for Wacht am Rhein. The best that could be achievedwasfortheattacktotakeplaceinweatherconditionswhichrendered air operations impossible. Such conditions existed as the offensive opened at dawnonthe16thofDecember. THEFIRSTDAY AttheNorthernendofthelinetheLXVIIKorpswasheavilyrepulsedfromin frontofMonschau.Thearmorwasnottobecommittedinthissectoruntilan infantry breakthrough had been made. ISS PanzerKorps, south of Monschau made slow progress, but the hoped for breakthrough eluded them as well. Duringthenightofthe16thfiercefightingcontinuedaroundthevitalLosheim Gap.IntheearlyhoursofDecember17ththewaywasclearedfortheadvanceof KampfgruppesPeiperandHansen,thespearheadofthe1stSSPanzerDivision. The northernmost formation of Manteuffel's 5th PanzerArmee was the under strengthLXVIKorps.TheirobjectivewasthecrossroadsofStVith.Facingthem weretworegimentsoftheUS106thInfantryDivision.Thesetwounitswerein an exposed position and vulnerable to being pocketed. The encirclement operation was successfully carried out on the 16th. Despite this success the expectedbreakthroughtothesouthofthepocketwasstoppedbytheresistance ofthethirdregimentofthe106th.ConsequentlyStVithremainedinUShandsat nightfallonthe16th. LVIIIPanzerKorps,attackingbetweenStVithandBastognewasfacingonlyone regimentoftheUS28thInfantryDivision.TheGIshowever,wereoccupyinga particularlystrongportionoftheWestwall.Despitetheirnumericalsuperiority theGermansmadeonlyminorgainsatthecostofheavycasualties. Von Luttwitz's powerful XLVII PanzerKorps had the greatest numerical superiority at any point in the Ardennes. Their objective was to overrun the singleinfantryregimentopposingthemanddriveforthecriticalroadjunctionof Bastogne. Here, as elsewhere, resistance was surprisingly strong. It was only

neartheendoftheday,whenthetanksofthe2ndPanzerDivisionmovedacross atemporarybridge,thattheAmericandefencecollapsed. Brandenberger'sSeventhArmeewasattackingsouthofBastogne.LXXXVKorps made slow but steady progress during the day against an understrength regimentofHurtgenForestveterans.LXXXKorps,thesouthernmostformation ofWachtamRheinfacedaninfantryregimentandacombatcommandofthe9th armoreddivision.Reasonablegainsweremade,theonlysignificantresultbeing thebypassingofEchternachanditsgarrison. THEAMERICANREACTION At the end of the first day of Wacht am Rhein the brilliant breakthroughs anticipatedbyHitlerhadnotmaterialised.Steadyprogresshadbeenmadeand severalUS.unitswereonthevergeofcollapsebuttheoverallresultoftheday wasthatthestaunchresistanceofthefrontlinetroopshadgainedtheAlliesthe timetheyneededtoreacttotheoffensive. InitiallytheAllieswereslowtoreact.Hodgeswasnotoverlyconcernedandin any case only had two combat commands of the 9th Armored Division in immediatereserve.CCBwasreleasedandorderedtoStVithwhereacollapseof theLosheimGapdefencesseemedimminent. Bradleysuspectedthatitwasaspoilingattackratherthanamajoroffensivebut Eisenhower was more troubled. He ordered the transfer of the 7th and 10th Armored divisions to 1st Army. The 7th, from 9th Army to the north, was ordered to StVith and the 10th,from Patton's third Army to the south,was orderedtoLuxembourg. Onthemorningofthe17thofDecembertheGermansresumedtheirattemptto break through the US positions around Monschau. The US 2nd and 99th Divisionswereforcedtoretreatbutthiswasmorebecauseofthebreakthrough intheLosheimGapthanpressureontheirownfront.IfanythingtheAmerican positionwasbecomingstrongerasabattalionofRangersandCCRofthe5th Armored Division moved into the area. The 12SS Panzer Division was committed to try to break the deadlock but merely contributed to mounting casualtiesonbothsides. AroundLosheimGapthe422ndand423rdRegimentsofthe106thDivisionhad been pocketed and Kampfgruppe Peiper had pushed through to Malmedy, northwestofStVith.Peiper hadcaptured 50000gallonsoffuel andpushed

ahead. The other two Kampfgruppes of 1st SS Panzer Division were moving towardsStVithfromthenorth. Hodgesintendedtouse7thArmoredDivisiontobreakintothe106thDivision pocketbuttheproximityoftheGermanspearheadsnorthandsouthsuggested thattodosowouldsimplybetoplacethemselvesintothesamepocket.The unitsweredeployedforthedefenceofStVith. As the 110th Regiment of the US 28th Division collapsed in front of von Luttwitz'sXLVIIPanzerKorpstheGermanssurgedforwardinthedirectionof Bastogne. Unable to make any progress on its own front the 116th Panzer DivisionwasdirectedsouthtofollowinvonLuttwitz'swake. ThenorthernunitsofSeventhArmeewereabletomakeuseofthesuccessesto theirnorthandoutflankedthe109thRegimentofthe28th.Thisunitwasforced toretiresouthwards.ElsewhereBrandenbergermetwithlimitedsuccesswhich prompted Allied leaders to bring two combat commands of 10th Armored DivisionintoactiontoshoreuptheAmericanline. Theothercombatcommandof10thArmoredwasdispatchedtoBastogne.This decisionwastoprovevitaltothedefeatofWachtamRhein. AsthesituationbecamemoreseriousEisenhowerreleasedpracticallyhisonly strategic reserve, the 82nd and 101st Airborne Divisions. The 82nd moved towardsthenoseofPeiper'ssalientinthenorthandthe101stmovedtowards Bastogne. THEGERMANSBREAKOUT Asthe18thofDecemberdawnedKampfgruppePeiperwasinpositiontoget acrosstheMeuseasscheduled.However,thedestructionofavitalbridgeacross theAmbleveRiverforcedPeipertomovesouth. TherewasheavyfightingasKampfgruppeHansenpenetratedtowithinacouple of miles of St Vith before being repulsed by units of 7th Armored. Frontal attacksbyLXVIKorpsonStVithweresimilarlythrownback.Hitlerconsented tothecommittaloftheFuhrerBegleitBrigadeintothefightforStVith. As von Luttwitz's panzers approached Bastogne they ran into several hastily thrownuproadblocks.Thetownwasbeingheldbyascratchforceofengineers andarmor.Despitedesperateresistance,unitsofthePanzerLehrDivisionunder Fritz Bayerlein, Rommel's ex chiefofstaff, reached to within three miles of

Bastogne.WithreportscomingintohimofstrongUSforcesupahead,Bayerlein losthisnerveandhaltedhisspearheadtoregrouptheDivision. 116thPanzerDivision,aftercrossingtheOurinthewakeofXLVIIPanzerKorps widenedthebreakthrough,meetingnoresistanceandcapturingHouffalize. SeventhArmeeonceagainmadeslowprogressonthe18th.Whatprogressthey didmakewasduemainlytothe5thPanzerArmeebreakthroughtotheirnorth. WiththeirleftflankintheairtheunitsopposingSeventhArmeechosetopull back,refusingtheirflankratherthanriskingenvelopment. Althoughbytheeveningofthe18ththefirstbreakthroughshadoccurredand Manteuffel'sPanzerswereonthemove,ithadbecomecleartobothModeland von Rundstedt that the offensive had failed. Both commanders made Hitler awareoftheirviewsandbothwereaccusedofdefeatism.Hitlerdid,however cancel a subsidiary operation, "Spatlese", an attack by 15th Armee north of Aachen.ThreedivisionsweretransferredtotheArdennes. Hitler'sreinforcementswerematchedbythoseoftheAllies.1stand30thInfantry DivisionsmovedsouthtotakeuppositionsonthenorthernshoulderofPeiper's breakthrough. Just as the Allied frontline was crumbling, troops were being broughtuptofillthegaps.Thenarrownorthernbreakthroughwasindangerof beingcutoff.Thesouthernbreakthrough,however,consistedoffourdivisions. Racingtoopposethemwasthe101stAirborne,onedivision.Therecouldnot havebeenabetterformationtoopposevonLuttwitz. Themorningofthe19thsawaconferenceofallthemajorAlliedcommanders. Eisenhower informed those attending that The present situation is to be regardedasoneofopportunityforusandnotofdisaster.Therewillbeonly cheerful faces at this table. George Patton typically went further than his commanderwiththeextravagantstatementHell,letshavethegutstoletthe sonsofbitchesgoallthewaytoParis.Thenwellreallycutthemoffandchew emup! Ignoring Pattons suggestion it was decided that the textbook approach to a breakthroughwastobeused.Theshouldersofthesalientweretobereinforced channeling the enemy advance into an ever shrinking frontage. Key road junctions like St Vith and Bastogne were to be held strongly, slowing the advance.Patton,whosethirdarmywastothesouthofthebreakthroughwasto counterattack intheBastogneareawiththreedivisions.Heestimated thathe couldhavethesemenonthebattlefieldbythemorningofthe21st.Themajority of observers considered this just another piece of Patton exaggeration but

preparationshadalreadybeenmadeforjustsuchamoveevenbeforeWachtam Rhein commenced.ThistimetheKrauthasstuckhisheadinameatgrinder saidPattonandthistimeIvegotholdofthehandle. ThefailureofGermanunitstofollowupKampfgruppePeiper'sbreakthrough led to the isolation of that unit near Stavelot. Outnumbered and with severe supplyproblems,Peipermovedovertothedefence.Attemptstobreakthrough tothespearheadweredefeatedbytheUS30thDivision. TheIISSPanzerCorpsconsistingofthe2ndand9thSSPanzerDivisionswas earmarkedtoexploitthebreakthroughbegunbytheISS.ThefailureofDietrich's Army,however,resultedinthe2ndSSbeingswitchedtoFifthPanzerArmee front.Althoughstillpartofthe6ththedivisionwastoadvanceinthewakeof Manteuffel'stroops. As the pocketed 422nd and 423rd Regiments of the US 106th Division surrendered,thepositionofthe7thArmoredDivisioninStVithbecamemore tenuous.Practicallysurrounded,thedefenderscontinuedtoholdout. BASTOGNE:THESPEARHEADISBLUNTED AtBastognethe101stAirbornehadnotarrivedandthetwocombatcommands ofthe10thArmoreddefendingtheapproachestothetownwerebadlymauled bythePanzerLehrDivision.The2ndPanzerDivisionwasclosinginonBastogne fromthenorthandwasonthepointofbreakingthroughthelightdefenceswhen the US tanks were reinforced by the first regiment of the 101st. The 10th ArmoredDivisionhadvirtuallyceasedtoexistbuttheyhadboughtenoughtime forBastognetoberelieved. ThefirstphaseoftheBastognebattlewasover.Threedivisionswerealigned againsttheparatroopsinthetown.Theadvancescheduledidnotallowforthe reductionofstrongpointsbymechanisedforcesandconsequentlythe2ndPanzer andthebulkofthePanzerLehrbegantoflowaroundBastogneleavingthe26th Volksgrenadierstomopup. The116thPanzerDivisionwhichhadbecomethedefactospearheadoftheentire offensive was poised to cross the Ourthe River north of Bastogne when the bridgetheywereabouttocrosswasblown.Hadtheygotacrosstheywouldhave beenopposedbyonlyafewengineers.ThewaytotheMeusewouldhavebeen open.Asitwas,theDivisionwasforcedtotakealongdetourtothenorth.Here theywereopposedbyCCRofthe3rdArmoredDivision.

Thedelaytothepanzersgavetimeforthe560thVolksgrenadierstomoveupto thefrontalongsidethem. TothesouthofBastognethe5thFallschirmjagerDivisionmovedtosurround Bastognefromthesouth.ElsewhereontheSeventhArmeefrontprogresswas slowornonexistent.TwoUScombatcommandshadbeenshiftedintothepath oftheGermanadvanceandinplacesthesetanksevenregainedground. MONTGOMERYSTEPSIN By the end of the 20th there was a command crisis in Bradley's 12th Army Group.Headquarterswasonthesouthernflankofthesalientandcontrolhad largelybeenlostwiththosetroopsonthenorthernflank. ConsequentlyEisenhowertransferredcontrolofthebulkofHodges'1stArmyto Montgomery.IkehopedbythismovetodrawBritishreservesintothefightand takesomepressureofftheAmericans.Whathegainedwasbadfeelingbetween USandBritishcommanders.WithinafewminutesofarrivingatHodges'HQ Montyhadsucceededinoffendingeveryonepresent. Eisenhowerdid,however,gethisreinforcements,innameanyway.XXXCorps wastobemoveduptotheMeuseasasecondlineofdefence.Thereweretobe noBritishlivesrisked,butifarealdisasterthreatened,theBritsweretobeready toplaytheroleofthecavalryandcometotherescueoftheirunfortunateallies. BythemorningofDecember21stthe2ndPanzerDivisionwasacrosstheOurthe andwouldhavebeenacrosstheMeusebythatafternoonhaditnotbeenforone thing;theywereoutoffuel.TheDivisiondidnotresumeitsforwardmovement untillateintheday. In the norththe12SSPanzer Divisionassaultedthe1stUSDivisionandwas repulsed with heavy losses. A similar advance by the 3rd Panzergrenadier Divisionmetalikefate. KampfgruppePeiperwasstillisolatedfromthebulkoftheGermanforcesand, underconstantattacks,itsperimeterwasshrinkingfast.The9SSPanzerDivision attackedjustnorthofStVithinanattempttobreakthroughandcreateanew spearheadforSixthSSPanzerArmee.Thisattackwasrepulsedthesameasthe others. AsGermanunitsbothnorthandsouthofStVithpushedwestwardtheAmerican holdonthetownbecameincreasinglytenuous.Onthenightofthe21st,after takingheavycasualties,the7thArmoredDivisionpulledoutofStVith.Evenso,

theareawestofStVithwasstillindangerofbecomingapocket.Itwasonlylack offuelthatpreventedthe2ndSSPanzerDivisionfromdrivingnorthtocomplete theencirclement. St Vith had held for six days and had put the Germans three days behind schedule.IthadgiventheAmericansenoughtimetobringupreservesandhalt theoneGermanbreakthroughinthenorthernsector. PATTONCOUNTERATTACKS On the 21st and 22nd of December the 116th Panzer Division made steady progresswestagainstincreasinglystiffopposition.Theimpetusofthespearhead wasdyingawayasunitswererushedintoextendthenorthernshoulderofthe "Bulge".The84thInfantryDivisionwasmovedupandplacedsquarelyacross theGermanlineofadvance,defendingthemajorhighwaytotheMeuse. Withthe101stAirbornefirmlyensconcedinBastogne,thePanzerLehrDivision movedsoutharoundthetownandcontinuedwestwardtowardstheMeuse.The encirclement ofBastognewas complete. The26th Volksgrenadiers could now begintoreducethepocket.Initialattacksmadegroundbutwerecostlytoboth sides.Itbecameclearthatthetownwasgoingtotakeseveraldaystocapture.In the meantime all supplies to the lead German units would have to take a circuitousrouteviabackroadsaroundBastogne.Thismeantmoredelayforthe GermansandgainedmoretimefortheAmericanstosealoffthebreakthrough. As Patton prepared his counteroffensive from the south, Brandenberger's SeventhArmeepreparedtodefenditsgains.Arequestforreinforcementswas metbythereleaseofthe79thVolksgrenadiersandtheeliteFuhrerGrenadier Brigade. Pattonhadaseriesofobjectivesforhis22ndofDecembercounterattack.Firstly hehadtofeedunitsintothelinefacingSeventhArmeetoshoreuptheexhausted defendersoftheshoulder.Thefirstoftheseunitswasthe5thInfantryDivision. Patton'ssecondandthirdobjectivesweretorelieveBastogneandtocutoffthe German spearhead. To achieve this he attacked with one armored and two infantry divisions. Steady progress was made against tough opposition and Pattonorderedtheattacktocontinuethroughoutthenight. AsThirdArmy'sattackcontinued,thefinaldecisionwasmadebyMontgomery toretirefromthepositionsaroundStVith.Althoughthecommandersonthe spotarguedwiththedecisionitwasagreedtobyGeneralHodges.Theposition,

whichhadbecomeknownasthefortifiedgooseegg,containedaround20,000 men.Withdrawalwasnotgoingtobeasimpleaffair. InsideBastognethe101stwerecutofffromoutsidesupply.Ammunitionwas runninglowand,knowingthis,GeneralvonLuttwitzcalledontheAmericansto surrender.HearingoftheofferGeneral McAuliffe's responsewasAwnuts. Aftersomediscussionthisbecametheofficialresponseandaletterwasdrafted whichread"TotheGermanCommander:NUTS!TheAmericanCommander". WhenthiswashandedtotheGermanstheywereconfusedaboutitsmeaning. ColonelHarperofthe327thRegimentexplainedIfyoudon'tunderstandwhat NUTSmeans,inplainEnglishitisthesameas'GotoHell'.AndIwilltellyou somethingelse:ifyoucontinuetoattack,wewillkilleverygoddamnedGerman whotriestobreakintothiscity. THEWEATHERCLEARS Onthemorningofthe23rdtheGermanspearheadwaspoisedtopushoverthe MeusenearDinant.Onefactorchangedthatmorningalteringtheentirenature oftheArdennesbattle.TheweatherclearedallowingtheAlliedairforcestogain controloverthebattlefield.TheLuftwaffeflew800sortiesonthe23rdbutwas overwhelmedbytheAllieswhoflewthousands. TheaircovercamejustintimeforthedefendersofBastognewhoreceivedtons ofsuppliesfromtheair.AlsogratefulweretheforcesretreatingfromtheStVith pocket.Itwaslateafternoonbeforetheairactivitydieddownandthe2ndSS PanzerDivisioncouldstartanattacktosealofftheretreatpath.Evenallowing for their late start the fresh division sliced into the American line and made significant gains. Not significant enough, however, to prevent the successful retirementofthebulkoftheoccupantsofthefortifiedgooseegg. Throughoutthe23rdand24ththe2ndPanzerandthePanzerLehrpushedwest towardstheMeuse.Onthe24thadvanceelementsofthe2ndclashedwiththe British29tharmoredbrigade. OnChristmasEvetheleadelementsoftheUSVIICorpscameupontheright flankofthenorthernshoulder.Montgomeryexpectedtheleadtwodivisionsto assumeadefensiverolebutGeneralLightningJoeCollinshadearmarkedhis elite2ndArmoreddivisiontocutofftheGermanspearhead. At Bastogne the attacks continued with little to show on either side except casualties.Patton's4thArmoredDivisiongotclosertorelievingtheparatroopers butwerebeingforcedtofightalltheway.The80thDivisionwasstoppeddead

bythefreshFuhrerGrenadierBrigadeand79thVolksgrenadiers.OntheGerman sidetheprospectsofbreakingintothetownwereraisedbythearrivalofthe15th PanzergrenadierDivision. AllthoughtsthatSeppDietrichmayhavehadaboutarenewedbreakthrough northofStVithmusthaveevaporatedontheeveningofthe24thofDecemberas the 800 survivors of Kampfgruppe Peiper staggered back into German lines. Mostoftheirheavyequipmenthadbeenabandoned. AsChristmasEvepassedintoChristmasDaythe2ndPanzerDivisionwasthree milesfromtheMeuse.Itwasmeanttohavebeensupportedbythe9thPanzer Division, but lack of fuel and American air interdiction saw that formation boggeddownwelltotherear. GeneralJoeCollinswasinlittledoubtthatMontgomerywouldrefusehisrequest to attack with theoverstrength 2ndArmored so hesimply didn'tconsulthis conservativesuperior.Collinshadintelligencereports thattheGermans were experiencingextremesupplyproblems.The2ndlaunchedanenvelopingattack onitsGermancounterpartandpocketedtwoKampfgruppes.Acounterattackby thePanzerLehrDivisionwasrepulsedandthepocketstayedclosed. The15thPanzergrenadierslaunchedanalloutassaultonBastogneonChristmas morning.Thefirstlineofdefencewaspiercedandtheattackwasonlyhaltedby aseconddefensivelineontheoutskirtsofthetown.SouthofBastognePatton wasboggeddowninfrontofthestubborn5thFallschirmjagers.SwingingCCR ofthe4thArmoredDivisionaroundthewesternflankofthemainfightinghe foundalargelyunguardedroad.Theattackwaspressedintothenight,gaining considerableground. Patton also commenced an attack at the base of the salientwith 4th and 5th Divisions.TheGermans were forcedto pullback fromEchternach across the Sauer River. In one day the Americans had rubbed out the bulk of Seventh Armee'sgainsfortheentirebattle. Further withdrawals west of St Vith stabilised the American line along the northern shoulder. The two divisions of IISS Panzer Korps fought their opponentstoastandstillinsomeofthemostdesperatefightingofthecampaign. InfactmostoftheUScommandersonthegroundwerereticentaboutretiring butwereorderedtodosobyMontgomery.Ontopofhisretrogrademovements MontgomeryconfidentlytoldPattonthat1stArmywouldbeunabletoattackfor threemonths.Hewasevidentlyunawareofthesuccessfulcounterattacktaking placeonhisrightflankatthisverymoment.

9thPanzerDivisionarrivedatthetipofthebulgeonthe26thintimetojoinwith PanzerLehrinanotherabortiveattempttorescuethetrappedelementsof2nd Panzer.WiththefailureofthisassaultthemenofVIICorpswerefreetoreduce thepocketwhichtheylargelysucceededindoingbytheendoftheday. BASTOGNERELIEVED Theotherpocket,Bastognewasfinallyrelievedinthelateafternoonofthe26th. CCR of the 4th Armored had pushed through to the town but had suffered extremecasualties.ThetwolatestdivisionsstrippedfromThirdArmyfront,the 35thandthe6thArmoredweredetailedtoexpandthecorridorandholditopen. 5thFallschirmjagerwasonthepointofcollapseanditappearedasiftheentire southernfrontwasabouttoburstopen. TheGermanscouldnotcompetewiththeAlliedmasteryoftheair.3,500planes were flying multiple sorties every day and as well as being unable to move troopsandsuppliestheaverageGermansoldierwaslosingmoralefastunder constantaerialbombardment. WiththereliefofBastogneandthedestructionofthe2ndPanzerDivisionitwas cleartothemorecapableAlliedcommanderslikePattonandBradleythatthe Germanshadshottheirbolt.Thetimetocounterattackwasthepresentandthe attacksshouldbeatthebaseofthesalientinordertonipofftheentirebulge. Eisenhower,however,wasswayedbythepessimisticargumentsofMontgomery andHodgesandsettledonacompromiseplan.Inthisplanattackswouldbe madehalfwayupthebulge,fromBastogne,nowasalientofitsown,andfrom anequivalentareaonthenorthernsideofthebulge. WithoutknowingtheAlliedintentionsHitlercoincidentallyorderedmostofhis armoreddivisionstoconcentratearoundBastogne.Havingfinallyacceptedthat the operation was a failure Hitler petulantly decided that the defenders of Bastognemustbewipedouttoaman. AllalongthelineGermancommandersdecidedonthe27thtosuspendoffensive operations.TheexceptionwasatBastognewheretheFuhrerBegleitBrigade,just arrivedinthearea,launchedanassaultonthecorridorintothetown.Theassault wasrepulsedbutHitlerdemandedmoreattacksandformedanewKorps,with thesolejoboftakingBastogne. Pattoncommittedthe4thArmoredDivisiontokeepingcommunicationsopen withBastognebutmovedhisotherreserveunitsfurthereast.Intheareajustto

theeastofBastognefreshinfantrydivisionsmadegains,pushingbackthetired unitsofBrandenberger'sseventhArmee. By the 29th of December Hitler had formed an ad hoc army purely for the purpose of reducing Bastogne. Von Luttwitz, whose XLVII Panzerkorps had made the deepest penetration was made commander of Armeegruppe von Luttwitz.OnthatdayfivedivisionsattackedtheBastognecorridor.Thecrucial BastogneArlon highway was cut for a time before being recaptured by Americanarmor.TherawUS11thArmoredDivisiontookheavycasualtiesbut wasabletothrowbackthemoreexperiencedGermans. Theattackscontinuedforthenextfewdayswithbothsideslosingheavily.The oneresultofallthefightingaroundBastognewasthatHodges1stArmyhada chancetotakereplacementsandrecoverfromtheconstantfightingofthelast twoweeks.ByJanuary1sttherewere38AlliedDivisionsintheArdennes,the samenumberastherehadbeenontheentirefrontwhenWachtamRheinhad beeninitiated! EisenhowerwasnodoubtregrettinghisdecisiontoputAmericantroopsunder Montgomery. The British commander had sent Ike a letter demanding to be madesupremelandcommanderinnorthwestEurope.Eisenhowerwasfurious andwasintendingtowritetothecombinedchiefsofstaffgivingthemachoiceof himorMonty.IntheendMontgomery'schiefofstaffDeGuingandpersuaded his boss that it wouldn't be Ike who was sacked and Montgomery signed a preparedletterofapology.HenceHitler'sprofessedaimofsplittingtheAnglo Americanalliancewasnearlyrealised,thoughnotinthewayheenvisaged. OnJanuary3rdMontgomerywasfinallypersuadedtoattackalongthe1stArmy frontnorthofBastogne.ForthefirsttimeBritishunitscameintoactionasthe 53rd and 6th Airborne Divisions attacked the nose of the salient. German resistance wasinitiallylightbut,as thedirection ofthemainthrust,towards HouffalizeandalinkupwithPatton,becameapparentthedefenceshardened. Despite the general advance to the north the Germans continued to attack Bastogne,thistimefrontallyattackingthetownitself.Inabattlewhichdrew praise from each side for the other the panzers were finally thrown back. A counterattackbythe17thAirborneDivisionranintopreparedpositionsmanned bytheFuhrerBegleitBrigade.Thehorrendouscasualtieswhichfollowedshook mostoftheUScommanders.TheGermansweredown,buttheywerecertainly notout.BetweenJanuary1stand8thahugeartillerydueltookplacearound Bastogneandthecasualtylistsroseandrose.

TherewastobeonefinalGermanattackonBastogne,bythefanaticalchildrenof theHitlerJugendDivisionandtheveteransofthe15thPanzergrenadiersonthe fourthofJanuary.Itwasanotherbloodbath,withnothingtoshowfortheattack butahugebutchersbilloneitherside.ThiswastobethelastGermanattackof theArdennesOffensive. FromJanuary5thto11ththeAlliespushedslowlyforwardwiththeGermans doggedly givingground.Hitlergavepermissionforthe5thPanzerArmee to retireabouthalfwaytoHouffalizeinordertoreducetheriskofencirclement. Bothsideslookedtobesettlinginforanagonisingbattleofattritionbeforethe SovietwinteroffensiveforcedHitlertopullmenoutoftheArdennes forthe easternfront.ThesixthSSPanzerArmeewastobepulledoutoftheline.On January11ththelastunitofthe5thFallschirmjagerswaspocketedsoutheastof Bastogne.TheGermanlinewasbeginningtocrumble. AgainstdiminishingresistancetheAlliedadvancepickeduppacewithunitsof 1stand3rdArmieslinkingupnearHouffalizeonthe16th.Eisenhowerusedthis asanexcusetoremove1stArmyfromMontgomeryandreturnittoBradley.The Britishwerenolongerneeded,XXXCorpshadcommenceditsretirementfrom theArdennesonJanuary14th. Having fulfilled Eisenhower's orders Patton changed the axis of his advance. Ratherthanturningeastfromthejunctionhebeganattacksatthebaseofthe remainingsalientinanattempttopocketwhatremainedoftheGermanforcesin the Ardennes. Progress was rapid and despite failing to create his hoped for pocket,PattonsattackmadetheGermanpositionstothewestuntenable. Bythe22nd,withcontinuedwithdrawalofunitsfortheeastfronttheGerman positionwasdeteriorating.Hitleruncharacteristicallyallowedhisforcestopull backtotheWestwall.Withmoraleatrockbottomandportionsoftheretreat routeblockedbytheadvanceof4thand5thinfantrydivisionsfromthesouth, whatwasplannedasanorderlyretreatbecamearout.IttookuntilJanuary28th beforethebulgewasfinallyerased. TheBattleoftheBulgestartedasagreatbreakthroughofthetypethathadgiven Germanyvictoryin1940.Thistime,however,theopponentsweretougher,better ledandhadanoverwhelmingmaterialsuperiority.Thefailureoftheoffensive was predicted by both von Rundstedt and Model, the men responsible for executing it. A Blitzkrieg required an efficient supply network and air superiority.TheGermanshadneither.TheAlliedairpowermadedeliveryofthe meagresuppliesavailablealmostimpossible.

Both sides lost around 80,000 men in the Bulge. More importantly for the Germanwareffort,theirtanklossesamountedtonearly25%oftotalstocks.Ten percentofallLuftwaffeplaneshadbeenlostand700irreplaceablepilotswere gone. TheArdennesdestroyedGermany'slastreservesofmanpower,munitionsand fuel.AftertheBattleoftheBulgeGermanywasnolongercapableofoffensive action.TheWesternAllies,however,werenotinapositiontoquicklyexploit Germany'sweakness.Infantrylosseshadbeenextremeandsupplies thathad beenstockpiledfortheassaultonGermanyhadbeenconsumedintheArdennes. The Russians were the only protagonist able to take real advantage of the GermanweaknessbroughtonbytheBattleoftheBulge.Theylaunchedtheir winteroffensiveagainstapaperthindefenceandwerespectacularlysuccessful. ItwastheywhoultimatelygainedthemostfromHitler'slastgamble. 17.SELECTBIBLIOGRAPHY Arnold,J.R.1990,Ardennes1944:HitlersLastGambleintheWest.Osprey Publishing,London Chamberlain,P.andDoyle,H.EncyclopediaofGermanTanksofWorldWar Two.ArmsandArmourPress,London Crookenden,N.1980,BattleoftheBulge1944.BookClubAssociates,London. Elstob,P.1968,Bastogne:TheRoadBlock.McDonaldandCo.London Goolrick,W.K.andTanner,O.1979,TheBattleoftheBulge.TimeLifeBooks, Alexandria McDonald,C.P.1984,TheBattleoftheBulge.WeidenfeldandNicholson, London Pallud,J.P.1984,BattleoftheBulge:ThenandNow.BattleofBritainPrints, London Pallud,J.P.1987,Ardennes1944:PeiperandSkorzeny.OspreyPublishing, London Parker,D.S.1991,BattleoftheBulge:HitlersArdennesOffensive19441945. GreenhillBooks,London Pimlott,J.1981,BattleoftheBulge.BisonBooks,London Whiting,C.1994,TheLastAssault:TheBattleoftheBulgeReassessed.Sarpedon, NewYork ActiveKeys

Therearecurrentlyanumberofactivekeysinthegamewhichhavethe followingeffectsonthegame. 1 Hexgridon/off 2 Nameson/off d Changesthemodeofunitdisplayfromsymboltoicontodivisional display. u Clearsunitsfromthescreenorreturnsthem. c Showscurrenthexcontrol p Showshexpenalties. space Selectallunitsinastack backspace Ungroupsastackofunits s Showsthecurrentsupplynet o centerthescreenontheselectedunit

APPENDIXA:InstallationandTroubleShooting DirectX TLBusesMicrosoftsDirectXroutinesinordertorun.Theroutinesweuseare DirectDrawforgraphics,DirectSoundforsoundandDirectPlayfornetworks. DirectXrequiresthatyourhardware,especiallythevideocard,havedrivers compatiblewithDirectX,andyoumayneedtogetandinstallthelatestversion ofthedriversinordertorunthegame. OthergamesmayalreadyhaveinstalledDirectXonyoursystem.TLBwillnot installitsversionofDirectXoveralaterversionoftheseroutines. IfyoudonthaveDirectXinstalled,thenitmustbeinstalledbeforeTLBcanrun. VideoProblems Byfarthemostlikelycauseofvideoproblemsisanincompatibilitybetween yourvideocard/drivercombinationandDirectDraw.Somecardsarenot compatible,butformostcardsthesolutionistogetandinstallthelatestversion ofthevideocarddriver. SoundProblems Yoursoundcardneedstobea100%Windows95compatiblesoundcard, runningthecorrectWindows95drivers.Ifthisisnotthecase,thenyouwillneed toupgradethesoundcarddrivers.

APPENDIXB:StartingMultipleComputer(Network)games Toplayamultiplecomputergame,chooseNetworkGamefromtheGameType dialog.YoushouldspecifyaNetIDandanameinthisdialog. Sincethereareonlytwoplayersinthegame,therearetwogamepositions, CreatorandConnector.TheCreatorstartsthegame,andgetstochoosethegame optionsandsetup.TheConnectorjoinsthegame. Therearefourswaysofconductingamultiplecomputergame.Theconnection methodsaredescribedbelow. NetworkGame(IPXConnectionForDirectPlay) Creator:HittheCreatebutton.(Thisshoulddonefirst). Connector:HittheJoinbutton.Thegamewilllookforgamestojoinandpresent alistshowingtheNetIDofanygamecreatorsfoundintheChoosegamesection. ChoosethegameyouwishtojoinandhittheJoinGamebutton.Amessage statingthatyouhavejoinedthegamewillappear.WaitfortheCreatortostart thegame. Creator:YouwillseetheNetIDofthepersonwhohasjoinedthegame.Hitthe StartGamebutton. Connector:OncetheCreatorstartsthegame,yourgamewillalsostart.The Scenariosscreenwillappear,butmostchoiceswillbedimmed,astheCreator hascontrol.YoucanchangetheMapandUnitDisplayoptions. Creator:Youhavecontrolofallthegameoptions.Makeyourchoicesandhitthe StartGamebutton.Youwillhavetospecifyanetworksavegamename. DirectConnect(SerialConnectionForDirectPlay) Creator:HittheCreatebutton.(Thisshoulddonefirst).AdialogofSerialPort Settingswillappear.ChoosetheCOMportthattheserialcableisconnectedto. Thedefaultsettingsfortheotherchoicesshouldwork. Connector:HittheJoinbutton.AdialogofSerialPortSettingswillappear. ChoosetheCOMportthattheserialcableisconnectedto.Thedefaultsettings fortheotherchoicesshouldwork.WaitfortheCreatortostartthegame. Creator:YouwillseetheNetIDofthepersonwhohasjoinedthegame.Hitthe StartGamebutton. Connector:OncetheCreatorstartsthegame,yourgamewillalsostart.The Scenariosscreenwillappear,butmostchoiceswillbedimmed,astheCreator hascontrol.YoucanchangetheMapandUnitDisplayoptions.

Creator:Youhavecontrolofallthegameoptions.Makeyourchoicesandhitthe StartGamebutton.Youwillhavetospecifyanetworksavegamename. ModemConnectionForDirectPlay Creator:HittheCreatebutton.(Thisshoulddonefirst).Adialogshowingyour installedmodemwillappear.HittheAnswerbutton,youwillseeamessage statingthatyouarewaitingforaconnection. Connector:HittheConnectbutton.Adialogshowingyourinstalledmodemwill appear.HittheConnectbutton.Adialogappearsshowingyourinstalled modem,andwithaboxforthephonenumberoftheCreator.Enterthephone numberandhittheConnectbutton.Adialogshowingcallstatuswillappear. Creator:OncetheConnectorhasdialed,yourmodemshouldanswer.The networkdialogwillshowthatyouhavejoinedthegame,andarewaitingfor otherstojoin. Connector:YouwillseetheagamehasbeenstartedbytheCreator,sohitthe Joinbutton.YouwillnowbewaitingfortheCreatortostartthegame. Creator:YouwillseeamessagestatingthattheConnectorhasjoined.Hitthe StartGamebutton. Connector:OncetheCreatorstartsthegame,yourgamewillalsostart.The Scenariosscreenwillappear,butmostchoiceswillbedimmed,astheCreator hascontrol.YoucanchangetheMapandUnitDisplayoptions. Creator:Youhavecontrolofallthegameoptions.Makeyourchoicesandhitthe StartGamebutton.Youwillhavetospecifyanetworksavegamename. InternetGame(InternetTCP/IPConnectionforDirectPlay) Creator:ConnecttoyourInternetServiceProviderbeforestartingthegame. Connector:ConnecttoyourInternetServiceProviderbeforestartingthegame. Creator:HittheCreatebutton.YouarenowwaitingfortheConnector. Connector:HittheConnectbutton.EntertheIPaddressoftheCreator.Whenthe nameofthegameappearsinthedialog,hittheJoinbutton. Creator:WhentheConnectorhasjoined,hittheStartGamebutton. Connector:OncetheCreatorstartsthegame,yourgamewillalsostart.The Scenariosscreenwillappear,butmostchoiceswillbedimmed,astheCreator hascontrol.YoucanchangetheMapandUnitDisplayoptions. Creator:Youhavecontrolofallthegameoptions.Makeyourchoicesandhitthe StartGamebutton.Youwillhavetospecifyanetworksavegamename.

APPENDIXC:CombatMechanics AllAresultsapplytoattacker AllDresultsapplytodefender 1,2,3etcequalsnumberofsteplossestakenbyattackerordefender. R=retreat.Onlythedefenderisrequiredtoretreat.Aretreatisalwaysone hex.Ifnolegalretreathexisavailable,thedefenderlosesoneadditionalstepand remainsinplace.Ifthehexretreatedtoisadjacenttoanenemyunitandisnot eitheroccupiedoradjacenttoafriendlyunitthentheretreatingunitlosesone additionalstepduringtheretreat. Unitswillattempttoretreattothemostfavourablehex.Ahierarchyhasbeen defineddefiningpreciselywhatmostfavourableis.Aunitwillattempttolocate avalidretreathexpossessingthecriteriaoutlinedinthefirstlineofthehierarchy below.Iftheunitfailstofindavalidretreathexmeetingthosecriteriaitwill examinethecriteriaonthesecondlineofthehierarchyetc. 1.Notoccupiedbyafriendlyunit,containingnoenemyZOCs,notacrossan interveningriver/stream(nonbridge) 2.Notoccupiedbyafriendlyunit,containingnoenemyZOCs,acrossan interveningriver/stream(nonbridge) 3.Occupiedbyafriendlyunit,containingnoenemyZOCs,notacrossan interveningriver/stream(nonbridge) 4.Occupiedbyafriendlyunit,containingnoenemyZOCs,acrossanintervening river/stream(nonbridge) 5.Notoccupiedbyafriendlyunit,containingenemyZOCs,notacrossan interveningriver/stream(nonbridge) 6.Notoccupiedbyafriendlyunit,containingenemyZOCs,acrossan interveningriver/stream(nonbridge) 7.Occupiedbyafriendlyunit,containingenemyZOCs,notacrossan interveningriver/stream(nonbridge) 8.Occupiedbyafriendlyunit,containingenemyZOCs,acrossanintervening river/stream(nonbridge) Ifthereare2ormorepossibleretreathexesthecomputerwillchoosetheone whichwillbeclosertothenearestfriendlycontrolledtown.Theunitwiththe greatestnumberofstepswillretreatfirst.Whereunitshaveequalnumbersof stepslegunitswillretreatbeforehorseunitswhichwillretreatbeforewheeled unitswhichwillretreatbeforetrackedunitswhichwillretreatbeforesupply

units.Unitswhichcannotretreat,orthosewhosepathofretreattakesthem adjacenttoanenemyunitwillsufferanadditionalcombatlossofonestep. Ifastackisrequiredtotakelossesthefirstlossissufferedbytheunitwiththe greatestnumberofsteps,thesecondlossbytheunitwiththesecondgreatest numberofstepsetc.Iftwoormoreunitshaveequalnumbersofstepsthenthe unitwiththelowestattackvalue(inthecaseofanattackingstack)ordefence value(inthecaseofadefendingstack)losesthefirststep,secondlowestloses thesecondstepetc.Ifallunitshavetakenonesteplossandthenumberofstep lossesrequiredbythecombatresulthasnotbeenmetthentheaboveprocessis repeateduntiltherequirednumberofstepshavebeenremoved. Nodefendingunitmaytakemorethan2steplossesinasinglecombat.This doesnotincludelossesincurredasaresultofbeingunabletoretreat. Thereisnoformaladvanceaftercombat.Attackingunitscankeepmovingif theyhaveenoughOPs. IfallunitsinagrouphavenoACCorDCCthenall()resultsbecomeR,all D#resultsbecomeD#+1RandallD#RresultsbecomeD#+1R. Unitswith0OPremainingarestillcapableofattackingiftheyhaveACC. TacticalShift.Alldefendersreceivea3Oddscolumnshiftwhichmaybeoffset bytheattackers.Theattackermayreceiveapositiveoddscolumnshiftforeach stackcontributingtotheattack.Thefirststackinanyparticularattackcontribute +1Oddscolumnshifts,thesecond+2andsubsequentstacks+1.Thereforeaunit beingattackedbystacksfromthemaximumsixadjacenthexeswillhavea+5 Oddscolumnshiftagainstit(2x2)+(4x1)3=5.Stackswhichattackfromacross nonbridgeriverorstreamhexsidesdonotcontributeapositiveoddscolumn shift.Stackswhichareadjacenttoanenemystack,otherthantheonebeing attackeddonotcontributeapositiveoddscolumnshift. Unitsattackingacrossariverhexsidehavetheircombatstrengthhalved. Bridgesdonotnegatethis. Divisionalcombatbonuses Adivisionalattackbonusisappliedtoanycombatwhereallunitsofthedivision areadjacenttothedefenderi.e.stacked,inaline,etc.Adivisionaldefencebonus isappliedtoanycombatwhereallunitsofthedivisionareseparatedfrom anotherunitofthedivisionbynomorethanonehex.Thisrepresentsthe divisionalassetsbeingappliedtothecombat,withtheattackingordefending unit(s).Thebonusappliestotheunitsofthatdivision.Thereforeif9PzDivision

withadivisionalattackbonusof50%and246VGDivisionwithadivisional attackbonusof20%areattackingtogetherintwostacksthestrengthof9Pz wouldbe39=(12+8+6)x150%andthestrengthof246VGwouldbe15=(4+ 4+4)x120%=14.4roundedupto15 KampfgruppeBonuses AKampfgruppebonusisapplicableinbothattackanddefence,beingthesame foreither.TheKampfgruppebonusisappliedinanattackwhenadivisionhas lostoneormoreregimentsbutallsurvivingregimentsofthatdivisionare adjacenttothedefender.TheKampfgruppebonusisappliedindefencewhen thedivisionhaslostoneormoreofitsregimentsbutallsurvivingregimentsof thedivisionareseparatedbynomorethanonehex. Ifthereisanartilleryunitwithinrangeofadefendingunitthenthatunitgetsa 1columnshiftinitsfavour. Entrenchments Anyunitwiththeexceptionofarmorandsupplyunitswhichdoesnotmoveand doesnotexpendACCduringafriendlyplayerturnwillbeentrenchedatthe beginningofthenextfriendlyplayerturn.Entrenchmentsgiveunitsa150% multipletotheirdefensivecombatstrength.Anyentrenchedunitwhichexpends ACCormovesautomaticallylosesitsentrenchmentbonus.Unitsmaybe entrenchedatthestartofascenario.

APPENDIXD:SupplyMechanics OPcanbeclassifiedintofourcategories,BasicOP(BOP),MaximumOP(MOP), AdditionalOP(AOP)andReserveOP(ROP).BOPiswhatyougetfree.It recognisesthefactthatallunitsareabletomovealittlebitregardlessoftheir supplystatus.ThemajorityofthecombatregimentsinthegamehaveaBOPof8. MOPisthemaximumnumberofOPaunitcanexpendinoneturn.Forthe averageinfantryregimentMOPis12andfortheaveragetankregimentitis24. Thereforeinfantrygettwothirdsoftheirsupplyfreewhilearmoronlygetsone third.Thisrepresentsthegreaterrelianceofmotorisedunitsonthesupply network.AOPistheproportionofyoursupplyreceivedthroughthesupply network.AOP=MOPBOP.TheaverageinfantryregimenthasanAOPoffour (128)andtheaveragetankunithasanAOPof16(248).ROPisthereserveof OPbuiltupbyunitswhichdonotexpendtheirfullmovementinaturn.Any unusedOParetransferredintoROP.Whenaunitssupplyisreduced,OPare transferredfromROPandcanbeusedbytheunit.ROPisshowninthemap

popupunderthesupplyicon.Allthesenumbersmightseemalittlecomplexbut readon,theyallhavetheirpurpose. Atthestartofeachplayerturnsupplyisjudged.Allunitswhichareinsupply havetheirACCandDCC(seeChapter8)renewed.AllunitsreceivetheirBasic OperationsPoints(BOP)regardlessoftheirsupplystatus.Dependingonthe overallsupplysituationunitsintheSupplyNetworkreceiveaproportionof theirAOPbetween0%and100%.BecauseAOPisthedifferencebetweenMOP (whatyoucanuse)andBOP(whatyougetfree)0%supplymeansthatunits receiveonlytheirBOPand100%supplymeansthatunitsreceivealltheirAOP, takingthemuptotheirMOP.Hereareacoupleofexamples.UnitAisan infantryunitwithBOPof8andMOPof12.ItsAOPistherefore4(MOPBOP: 128).IfSupplyisat0%thenunitAreceivesitsBOP(8)plus0%ofitsAOP(0). UnitAreceives8OP.Ifsupplyisat75%thenunitAreceivesitsBOP(8)plus 75%ofitsAOP(75%x4=3).UnitAwillreceiveatotalof11OP. AnadditionalcomplicationtotheabovemechanismisReserveOP(ROP).Each unitcanholdanumberofOPuptotwiceitsMOPalthoughitcanonlyexpend itsMOPinanyoneturn.AttheendofaturnanyunusedOPgointoROP.If ROPisequaltoMOPthenanyadditionalOParelost.Inanysubsequentturnin whichthetotalnumberofOPallocatedislessthanMOPextrasupply,uptoa totalofMOPwillbedrawnfromROP.Forexample,anarmoredunit (BOP/MOP=8/24)hasnosupply.OnturnXitreceives100%AOPfromthe mobilesupplynetwork(i.e.100%x(MOPBOP)or16OP).Thistakestheunitto 24totalOP.Onthatsameturntheunitexpends8OP.Thereforetheunused16 OPbecomeROP.Attheendoftheturntheunithas16ROP.InturnX+1theunit receives50%AOPor8OPfromthemobilesupplynetwork.Addedtothe8BOP ithas16OP.Theunitwouldthenbeabletoreceive8OPfromROPgivingitan MOPof24andleaving8ROP.Iftheunitusesonly6OPduringtheturnthen18 OPwouldbetransferredtoROP.Howeverthiswouldmake26ROPexceeding thepermissibletotalof24ROPandsotheadditionaltwoOParelost. Thesupplynetworkexistsforthedurationofthefriendlyplayerturnandcannot bemodifiedduringtheturn,evenifsupplyunitsmove.Unitsmaybecome suppliedatanytimeduringaturnbyenteringthesupplynetwork.Thisisan exceptiontotherulethatallunitsreceivesupplyatthestartoftheturn.Insome situationsaunitmaybeabletomovefurtherbyfirstmovingbackintothe supplynetwork

NounitwhichbeginsascenarioonthemaphasanyOPsonthefirstturnbut mustreceivethesefromoneofthesourcesmentionedabove.Allunitsstarta scenariowithACCandDCC.Reinforcementsareconsideredtoenterthegame withACC,DCCandanumberofOPequaltotheirmaximum. ThesupplysystemreflectsthedifficultiesencounteredbytheGermansin movingtheirenormousstockpileofsuppliesuptothespearheadoftheattack. WithadequatepetrolindumpsbehindtheDecember16startlinethepetrol tanksof2ndPanzerDivisionatthetipoftheBulgerandry.ReserveOPallows unitstohoardpetrolandmeansthatallunitswillnotrunoutofmovement simultaneously.However,withamaximumofoneturnsmovementinreservea fewturnsof50%supplyorlesswillcoaxouteventhemostjealouslyguarded hoardsofgasoline. APPENDIXE:UnitExposure IfafriendlyunitcomeswithinthreeorfourhexesofaHiddenenemyunitthat unit(X)becomesNationalityExposed.However,forenemyunitXtobecome hiddenonceagainnofriendlyunitmaybewithin6hexesofit(howeversee detailsbelow).ThisrecognisesthefactthatitiseasierforaHiddenunitto remainhiddenthanforanexposedunittodisappearfromviewonceithasbeen spotted. IfafriendlyunitcomeswithintwohexesofaNationalityExposedenemyunit thatunit(Y)becomesDivisionalExposed.However,forenemyunitYtobecome NationalityExposedonceagainnofriendlyunitmaybewithin4hexesofit. IfafriendlyunitcomesadjacenttoaDivisionalExposedenemyunitthatunit(Z) becomesFullyExposed.However,forenemyunitZtobecomeDivisional Exposedonceagainnofriendlyunitmaybewithin3hexesofit.Unitsbecome moreexposedtotheenemyduringaturnastheyareapproachedbyenemy units.Unitsonlybecomelessexposedattheendofaplayerturn. Attheendofeachplayerturntheexposureofallunitsischecked.Unitsbecome lessexposedaccordingtothemechanicssetoutabove.However,unitscanonly becomeamaximumof2statesofexposuremorehiddenperfullturn(inovercast weatherseebelow).Thereforeifafriendlyunitwasfullyexposedtotheenemy duringthelastenemyplayerturnanditsubsequentlymoves6+hexesaway fromthenearestenemyunititwillbecomeNationalityexposed(2statesless exposed)beforethestartofthenextenemyplayerturnratherthanfullyhidden. Thiswillmakeitdifficultforplayerstoinstantlyswitchtroopsfromonefrontto

anotherwithouttheknowledgeoftheotherplayer.Playerswillbeforcedtokeep areserveiftheywanttosurprisetheiropponentwithhiddentroops. Asalargeportionofreconnaissanceisperformedfromtheairthemaximumrate ofchangeofexposurestate(frommoretolessexposed)dependsontheweather. InBleakweatherturnsthemaximumrateatwhichunitsbecomehiddenis3 statesofexposure(i.e.unitsmaymovefromfullyexposedtofullyhiddeninone turn).Inovercastweatherturnsthemaximumrateatwhichunitsbecomehidden is2statesofexposure.InclearweatherturnsthemaximumrateatwhichAllied unitsbecomehiddenis2statesofexposureandforGermanunits1stateof exposure.ThisrepresentstheAlliedairsupremacyandthefactthatinclear weatheritwasalmostimpossibleforaGermanunittoavoidbeingseenfromthe air. APPENDIXF:RightMouseClickDialogs Holdingdowntherightmousebuttonoverahexwillbringupadialog containinginformationaboutthehexandanyunitsoccupyingit.Thetoplineof thedialogshowsthehexbeingexaminedandanyunitsoccupyingthathex.To examinethehexmovethemouseoverit.Similarlytoexamineanyunitmovethe mouseoverthatunit. Thesecondlineofthedialoggivestheterraintype,inthiscaseforest,andthe hexnumber,33,31.Therearefourdistinctterraintypes,Open,Forest,Heavy andUrban.Eachoftheseterraintypeshasdifferenteffectsonmovementand combat.Openterrainistheeasiestterraintomovethroughandprovidesthe leastdefensivebenefit.Forest,HeavyandUrbanterrainareeachmoredifficult tomovethroughandprovideaprogressivelyhigherbenefittounitsdefending inthatterrain.VillagescanexistinanyterrainexceptUrban. Thethirdlineofthedialogshowsapictureoftheweather,aGermancrossoran Americanstartoindicatewhichsidecontrolsthehex,anoildrumsymbolifthe hexiscurrentlywithinthesupplynetwork.Therearethreedifferenttypesof weather,Clear,OvercastandBleakindecreasingorderofpleasantness. Thefourthlineofthedialogcontainsthehexpenalties.Hexpenaltiesareavalue addedtothemovementcostofahextoreflectthedifficultyofenteringthathex aboveandbeyondtheruggednessoftheterrain.Penaltiesarecumulativeand canbetheresultofenemycontrolofthehex,thepresenceofanenemyunit adjacenttothehex,airorGreifTeaminterdictionofmovementorcombathaving occurredinthehexoradjacenthexes.

Thefifthlineofthedialogshowsthemovementcostsforunitsmovingintothat hex.Thecostdependsonwhetheraunitsdominantmodeoftransportationisby leg,horseormechanised.Thenumbernexttotheappropriatesymbolgivesthe movementcost(inOperationsPoints)forthehex.Notethatthecostofenteringa hexistheaverageofthecostofthehexbeingenteredandthehextheunitis vacating. Thefinallineofthehexdialogstateswhetherthehexcontainsamajororminor roadandthepositionofthehexinrelationtovictorypointobjectivetowns. Roadsfacilitatemovementthroughruggedterrain.