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1.

0 RIVER COURSE


LAY OUT
The layout of the project finalized based on various factors, namely
a) the topographical features
b) By projects already conceived on u/s & d/s of the barrage
c) Existing schemes in the river basin


These play important role as the tailwater & head water of the u/s & d/s
schemes govern the FRL/MWL of barrage & its Installed capacity.
The projects is typical hydroelectric project in Himalayan Range. Following
are the major components from water to wire:
a) Cofferdam
b) Barrage
i) Gates & hoists
ii) sluices
iii) Energy Dissipators
iv) Bridge
c) Approach channel to intake
d) Intake structure
e) Desilting Arrangement
f) Head race tunnel
g) Surge Tank
h) Control valves
i) Pressure shafts
j) Power House
k) Tail race Surge Tank
l) Tailrace tunnel
Barrage

The location of the barrage is fixed considering various aspects such as:
a) Availability of straight reach of the river
b) Availability of relatively good foundation & abutments
c) Sufficient area for accommodating desilting units
d) Intake arrangements with least excavation.
e) Wider width of the river for planning diversion arrangements also.
Design:
a) Hydraulic Design:
Features:
Length of barrage: 130m
No. of gates: 11
Size of gate: 10.0m x 9.51m
Width of pier: 2.0m
Barrage is designed based on the guidelines of standard books & also on the
guidelines of following BIS codes:
i) IS 12892 Safety of Barrage and Weir Structures - Guidelines|
ii) IS 11130 : Criteria for structural design of barrages and weirs
iii) IS 6966 : Part 1 Guidelines for hydraulic design of barrages and weirs
iv) IS 11150 : Code of practice for construction of barrages
v) IS 14344 : Design and Construction of Diaphragms for Under-Seepage Control
vi) IS 8408 : 1976 Criteria for river training works for barrages and weirs in alluvium
vii) 13551 Structural Design of Spillway Pier and Crest Criteria
viii) SP55 Design Aid for Anchorages for Spillway Piers, Training Walls and Divide Walls
ix) 12720 Structural Design of Spillway Training Walls and Divide Walls Criteria
x) 11772 Guidelines for Design of Drainage Arrangements of Energy Dissipators and
Training Walls of Spillways
xi) 12200 Code of Practice for Provision of Water stops at Transverse Contraction Joints

The water way available for barrage is examine by standard practice by restricting the
afflux within the permissible limit. Laceys linear waterway is generally considered
for estimation of water way.

Based on the tail water level the design discharge through the bays are computed
based on the formula(for weir under submerged condition)





Where,
L=effective length of spillway(m)
C1=coeff. Of discharge for submerged flow
C2=coeff of discharge for free flow
ha= Head due to velocity of approach (m)

( ) ( )
a a a
h H g LB C h h H g L C Q + +
(
(

+ = 2 2
3
2
2 1
2
3
2
3
In case d/s is not submerged the flow over the crest for fully open gate is given by ,



Where
C=coeff of discharge dependent on u/s & d/s apron/ground levels
H=head over the crest (m)
Ha=Head due to velocity of approach (m)

For partial opening, orifice formula will be applied for discharge computations.
Further the ratio B/H governs the type of crest .i.e broad crested or narrow crested weir.

In case the river carries logs with high velocity then a breast wall may have to be
provided so as to avoid logs striking the gates.

The length of the water way is computed based on the Laceys formula given by,



L= length of water way in m
Q= maximum flood discharge in cumec
Sufficient water way will be ensured in order to avoid degradation of bed due to
constriction and consequential increase in velocity and afflux.
Looseness factor=(Water way provided)/(Laceys water way)
The Looseness factor as per Laceys will vary between 0.85 to 1 for alluvial rivers
and .7 to .80 in bouldery stage. Further restriction of waterway will result in
considerable afflux and increase in water way. With looseness factor more than 1.00
will result in formation of sand/silt dunes in the river and on the banks.
Design Of Cistern:
The design of cistern is carried out for various discharging condition. The maximum
sequent depth will govern the length & sill level of the cistern

STRUCTURAL DESIGN:

The main components of barrage are:
a) Barrage Floor
b) Crest
c) Piers
d) Divide wall
e) Abutment & wing walls
Q L 75 . 4 =
2
3
) (
a
h H CL Q + =
f) Bridge

Barrage Floor:
The design of floor depends on
i) Type of foundation
ii) Permeability of foundation
iii) Maximum head of water
Boreholes taken on the river channel indicate, presence of gravel and sand upto 60 m
depth from the riverbed level and hence the design is based on barrage on permeable
foundation.
The floor of the barrage can be designed by two methods
1. As a gravity floor
2. RCC raft by connecting piers
Ultimately the economy of the two choices governs the design.
The floor of the barrage is designed for uplift due to FRL and MWL
conditions. The pressure gradient at various locations will be estimated
with Khoslas theorem and as per the standard guide lines of BIS.

The depth of cutoff walls on upstream & stream is estimated from the
Laceys formula for scour depth given by:


Where,
d=depth of scour (m) from HFL ; upstream cut off =1.5d
from HFL
depth of scour for d/s cut off =1.25d from max. TWL
The exit gradient finally restricted within the permissible limits and is
given by:


Where,

3
1
2
35 . 1
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
f
q
d
t
d
H
G
E
=
2
1 1
2
o

+ +
=
d
b
= o

b=length of barrage wall(m)
d=Depth of d/s wall (m)
G
E
will be generally <1/5

The surface of the barrage floor shall be provided with 0.5m thick RCC
with grade M25 to resist abrasion against silty water and rolling boulders.
If quartz is predominant in the silty water then special treatment/design
will have to be carried out to resist abrasion.



1.2 SEISMIC FORCES
The proposed project site lies in seismic zone IV of seismic map of India. Design
shall be based on seismic forces corresponding to peak ground acceleration as
under :
Horizontal peak ground acceleration =0.22g
Vertical peak ground acceleration = 0.13 g