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Name

........................................................................................

zefry@sas.edu.my

1.1 Recognize Quadratic Equations and express it in general form

General form

2
ax + bx + c = 0 , where a , b and c are constants , a = 0

Properties
1. Equation must be in one unknown only
2. The highest power of the unknown is 2

Examples
1. 2x
2
+ 3x 1 = 0 is a quadratic equation
2. 4x
2
9 = 0 is a quadratic equation
3. 8x
3
4x
2
= 0 is not a quadratic equation

Activity 1

1. Determine whether each of the following equation is a quadratic equation or not .
(a) x
2
x = 0

Yes
(b) 2x
2
y = 0

(c) 3x + 2 = 0

(d) 2m
2
7m 3 = 0

(e) k
2
4k = 0

(f) y
2
2 = 0

2. Rewrite each of the following quadratic equation in the general form. State the value
of a , b and c .

Quadratic equations Value of a , b and c
(a) 1 + 2x = x(x + 3)
1 + 2x = x
2
+ 3x
x
2
+ x 1 = 0

a = 1
b = 1
c = -1
(b) m
2
= 21 4m

zefry@sas.edu.my
(c) (y + 6)(y 2) = - 7

(d) x
2
=
7 3
2
x +

(e) (x + 1)
2
= 16

Notes
1. The root of a quadratic equation is the value(number) of the unknown(variable)
that satisfy the equation .
2. A quadratic equation has at most two roots only

Exercises

1. Determine which of the values of the variable x given are roots of the respective
(a) x
2
x 2 = 0 ; x = - 1 , 1 , 2 (b) 2x
2
+ 7x + 3 = 0 ; x = - 3, -
1
2
, 1 , 3
2. Determine by inspection which of the values of x are roots of the following quadratic
equations .

(a) (x + 3)(x 2) = 0 ; x = 3 , 2 , - 3 (b) x(x + 4) = 0 ; x = 4 , 0 , - 4

3. If x = 2 is the root of the quadratic equation x
2
3kx -10 = 0 , find the value of k .

zefry@sas.edu.my

A. By Factorization

If a quadratic equation can be factorized into a product of two factors such that
(x p)(x q) = 0 ,
Hence x p = 0 or x q = 0
x = p or x = q
p and q are the roots of the equation .

Notes
1. If p = q the equation have two different roots
2. If p = q the equation have two equal roots (one root only)
3. The equation must be written in general form ax
2
+ bx + c = 0 before
factorization.

Activity 2
Solve the following quadratic equations by factorization .
1. x
2
7x 8 = 0
( x 8 ) ( x + 1 ) = 0
x 8 = 0 or x + 1 = 0
x = 8 or x = -1

2. x
2
4x + 4 = 0
3. x
2
8x = 0

4. 4x
2
9 = 0

5. 6x
2
+ 13x 5 = 0

6. (3x + 1)(x - 1) = 7

7.
40 3
5 2
x
x
x
+
=
+

8. (x + 1)(x 5) = 16
x
2
4x 5 = 16
x
2
4x 21 = 0
( x 7 ) ( x 3 ) = 0
x = 7 or x = 3

zefry@sas.edu.my
9.
16 9
t t
t
=

10. (2p + 1)(p + 1) = 0

Exercise 1
Solve the following quadratic equation by factorisation.
1. x
2
5x 6 = 0 [6,-1] 9. x
2
9x + 20 = 0 [5,4]
2. m
2
+ 5m 24 = 0 [-8,3] 10. 4x
2
13x + 3 = 0 [
3 ,
4
1
]
3. y
2
+ 10y + 24 = 0 [-6,-4] 11. 2x
2
3 = 5x [
3 ,
2
1

]
4. 2x
2
+ 3x 5 = 0 [1,
2
5

] 12. 6x
2
11x = 7 [
3
7
,
2
1

]
5. 16x
2
6x 7 = 0 [
2
1
,
8
7

] 13. (2x 3)
2
= 49 [ 5,-2]
6. 2a
2
+ 4a = 0 [0.-2] 14. (3m + 1)(m 1) = 7 [
3
4
, 2
]
7. 100 9n
2
= 0 [
3
10
,
3
10

] 15. 10x
2
+ 4 = 13x [
5
4
,
2
1 ]
8. (2x + 1)(x + 3 ) = 0 [
3 ,
2
1

## ] 16. x(x + 4) = 21 [ -7,3]

B. By Completing the Square

Notes
1. The expression x
2
2x + 1 can be written in the form (x 1)
2

This is called perfect square.

Example

Solve each of the following quadratic equation
(a) (x + 1)
2
= 9 (b) x
2
= 49
x + 1 = 3
x + 1 = 3 , x + 1 = -3
x = 2 , x = - 4

(c) (x + 2)
2
= 36

zefry@sas.edu.my

2. From the example , note that, if the algebraic expression on the LHS of the quadratic
equation are perfect squares , the roots can be easily obtained by finding the square
roots.

3. To make any quadratic expression x
2
+ hx into a perfect square , we add the term
(
2
)
2
h
to the expression .
And this will make
2 2
2 2
2 2
|
.
|

\
|
+ = |
.
|

\
|
+ + = +
h
x
h
hx x hx x

4. To solve the equation by using completing the square method for quadratic equation
ax
2
+ hx + k = 0 , follow this steps ;
Step 1 : Rewrite the equation in the form ax
2
+ hx = - k
Step 2 : If the coefficient of x
2
is = 1 , reduce the coefficient to 1 (by dividing) .
2
h
)
2
to both sides of the equation.
Step 4 : Write the expression on the LHS as perfect square.
Step 5 : Solve the equation

Examples
1. x
2
+ 6x 9 = 0 2. 2x
2
5x 8 = 0
x
2
+ 6x = 9
x
2
+ 6x +
2
2
6
|
.
|

\
|
= 9 +
2
2
6
|
.
|

\
|

( x + 3 )
2
= 18
x + 3 = 18
x + 3 = 4.243
x = 4.243 3 , x = -4.243 3
x = 1.243 , x = -7.243

Exercise 2
Solve the following equations by completing the square. (Give your answers correct to
four significant figures)

1. x
2
8x + 14 = 0 [5.41 , 2.59]
2. 2x
2
7x 1 = 0 [3.64 , -0.14]
3. x
2
+ 5x + 1 = 0 [-0.209,-4.79]
4. x
2
3x + 5 = 0 [-4.19,1.19]
5. x
2
= 5(x + 4) [7.62 , -2.62]
6. -4x
2
12x + 3 = 0 [-3.23,0.232]
7. 2x
2
3x 4 = 0 [2.35,-0.85]
zefry@sas.edu.my

C. By Using the quadratic formula

2
+ bx + c can be solved by using the quadratic formula

x =
2
4
2
b b ac
a

, where a = 0

Example
2x
2
7x 3 = 0

a = 2 , b = -7 , c = -3

) 2 ( 2
) 3 )( 2 ( 4 ) 7 ( ) 7 (
2

= x

4
5440 . 8 7
4
73 7
=

= x

x = 3.886 , -0.386

Exercise 3

Use the quadratic formula to find the solutions of the following equations. Give your
answers correct to three decimal places .
1. x
2
3x 5 = 0 [4.193 , -1.193]
2. 9x
2
= 24x 16 [1.333 ]
3. 2x
2
+ 5x 1 = 0 [0.186 , -2.686]
4. 3x
2
+ 14x 9 = 0 [2.899 , -6.899]
5. 7 + 5x x
2
= 0 [0.768 , -0.434]
6. m
2
= 20 4m [0.573 , -5.239]
7.
2
1
3
k
k
+
= [-1.140 , 6.140]
8. x(x + 4) = 3 [0.646 , -4.646]

zefry@sas.edu.my
2.2 Forming a quadratic equation from given roots

A. If the roots of a quadratic equation are known, such as x = p and x = q
then, the quadratic equation is (x p)(x q) = 0
x
2
px qx + pq = 0
x
2
(p + q)x + pq = 0

Notice that p + q = sum of roots ( SOR )
and pq = product of roots ( POR )

Hence, the quadratic equation with two given roots can be obtained as follows :-

x
2
(SOR)x + (POR) = 0

Examples
Form the quadratic equations from the given roots.
1. x = 1 , x = 2

Method 1 Method 2
(x 1)(x 2) = 0 SOR = 1 + 2 = 3
x
2
- 2x x + 2 = 0 POR = 1 x 2 = 2
x
2
- 3x + 2 = 0 x
2
3x +2 = 0

2. x = - 2 , x = 3

Exercise 4

Form the quadratic equations with the given roots.

1. x = 3 , x = 2 [x
2
- 5x + 6 = 0]
2. x = - 6 ,
3
1
[3x
2
+17x - 6 = 0 ]
3. x = - 4 , x = - 6 [x
2
+ 10x + 24 = 0]
4. x = -3 , x =
4
5
[5x
2
+ 11x - 12=0 ]
5. x = -7 , 3 [x
2
+ 4x - 21 = 0]

6. x = 5 only [x
2
- 10x + 25 = 0]
zefry@sas.edu.my
7. x = 0 , x =
1
3
[3x
2
- x = 0]
8.
3
1
,
2
1
= = x x [6x
2
- 5x + 1 = 0]

B. To find the S.O.R and P.O.R from the quadratic equation in general form

ax
2
+ bx + c = 0
a , x
2
+
a
c
x
a
b
+ = 0

Compare with x
2
(SOR)x + (POR) = 0

Then , SOR =
a
b

POR =
c
a

Activity 3
1. The roots for each of the following quadratic equations are o and | . Find the value
of o + | and o| for the following equation

Quadratic Equations | o + | o
a. x
2
12x + 4 = 0

12 4
b. x
2
= 4x + 8

If o and | are the roots of the
2
+ bx + c = 0,
then o + | =
a
b

o| =
c
a

zefry@sas.edu.my
c. 3 2x
2
= 10x

d. 3x
2
+ 8x = 10

e. 2x
2
+ 3x + 4 = 0

C. Solving problems involving SOR and POR

Activity 4

1. Given that o and | are the roots of the quadratic equation 2x
2
+ 3x + 4 = 0 . Form a
quadratic equation with roots 2o and 2|.

2x
2
+ 3x + 4 = 0 New roots
0 2
2
3
2
= + + x x SOR = | o 2 2 + = 2 ( | o + ) =
|
.
|

\
|

2
3
2 = -3
| o + =
2
3
POR = = ) 2 ( 2 | o 4o| = 4(2) = 8
| o = 2 x
2
(SOR)x + (POR) = 0
x
2
(-3)x + 8 = 0
x
2
+ 3x + 8 = 0

zefry@sas.edu.my
2. If o and | are the roots of the quadratic equation 2x
2
5x 1 = 0 , form a
quadratic equation with roots 3o and 3|.

3. Given that o and | are the roots of the quadratic equation 2x
2
3x + 4 = 0 . Form a
o
1
and
|
1
.

4. Given that m and n are roots of the quadratic equation 2x
2
3x 5 = 0 , form a quadratic
equation which has the roots
n
m 2
and
m
n 2
.

zefry@sas.edu.my
Exercise 5

1. If o and | are roots of the quadratic equation 2x
2
+ 3x + 1 = 0, form a quadratic
equation for the following roots
a. 2o and 2| [x
2
+ 3x + 2 = 0]

b. 2o + 3 and 2| + 3 [x
2
- 3x + 2 = 0 ]
c.
2
o
and
2
|
[8x
2
+ 6x + 1 = 0 ]
d. 2o - 1 and 2| - 1 [x
2
- 6x - 5 = 0]

2. If o and | are the roots of equation 2x
2
5x 6 = 0 , form a quadratic
equation with roots
2
o
and
2
|
. [ 0 3 5 4
2
= x x ]

3. Given that o and | are the roots of the equation 3x
2
= 4 9x , form a quadratic
equation with roots
2
o and
2
| . [ 0 16 105 9
2
= + x x ]

4. Given m and n are the roots of the equation x
2
+ 10x 2 = 0 , form a quadratic
equation with roots;
(a) 2m + 1 and 2n + 1 [ 0 27 18
2
= + x x ]
(b)
3
m
and
3
n
[ 0 9 30 2
2
= x x ]

5. Given that o and 3o are the roots of the equation x
2
+ 2bx + 3a = 0 , prove that
4a = b
2
.

6. Given one of the root of the quadratic equation x
2
5kx + k = 0 is four times the
other root, find the value of k . [
4
1
= k
]

7. One of the roots of the quadratic equation 2x
2
+ 6x = 2k 1 is twice the value of
the other root whereby k is a constant. Find the roots and the value of k.
[-1, -2 ; k =
2
3

]

zefry@sas.edu.my
3. DISCRIMINANT OF A QUADRATIC EQUATIONS

3.1 Determining the types of roots of quadratic equations

2
+ bx + c = 0 , the value of b
2
4ac will determine the
types of roots.

b
2
4ac is called the discriminant

Condition Type of roots
b
2
4ac > 0 Two different roots
b
2
4ac = 0 Two equal roots
b
2
4ac < 0 No roots

Example
Determine the type of roots for each of the following quadratic equations .

(a) 2x
2
7x + 9 = 0 (b) 2x
2
3x 9 = 0

a = 2 , b = -7 , c = 9
b
2
4ac = (-7)
2
4(2)(9)
= 49 72
= -23
< 0
no roots

Exercise 6

Calculate the discriminant for each of the following quadratic equation and then state the
type of roots for each equation .

1. x
2
8x + 14 = 0

5. x(3x 5) = 2x- 5
2. 2x
2
7x 1 = 0

6. 5(5 4x) = 4x
2

zefry@sas.edu.my
3. 4 + x
2
= 4x

7. x
2
= 2 4x
4. (x 2)
2
= 3

8. 2x
2
+ 3x = 0

3.2 Solving problems involving the use of the discriminant

Activity 5

2
+ 4x 3 = 0 has two equal roots , find the value of k .

2
+ 2kx + (k + 1)
2
= 0 has real roots , find the range of values
of k.

3. Show that the equation x
2
+ m + 1 = 8x has two different roots if m < 15 .

zefry@sas.edu.my

4. The straight line y = tx 2 is a tangent to the graph of a curve y = 2x
2
+ 4x , find
the value of t (t > 0) .

5. Given that the quadratic equation p(x
2
+ 9) = - 5qx has two equal roots , find the ratio
of p : q . Hence, solve those quadratic equation .

6. Show that the quadratic equation x
2
+ kx = 9 3k has real roots for all the value of k .

zefry@sas.edu.my
Exercise 7

1. Find the possible values of m if the quadratic equation (4 2m)x
2
2m = 1 3mx has
two equal roots .
2. The equation x
2
2x +
3
k
= 0 has two different roots , find the range of values of k .
3. Given that the equation (p + 1)x
2
2x + 5 = 0 has no roots , find the range of values
of p .

4. Find the range value of k if the quadratic equation x
2
+ 1 = k 4x has real roots .

5. The quadratic equation 2x(x 3) = k 2x has two distinct roots. Find the range of
values of k.

6. The quadratic equation (m 2)x
2
+ 2x + 3 = 0 has two distinct roots. Find the range
of values of m.

7. A quadratic equation 4x(x + 1) = 4x 5mx 1 has two equal roots. Find the possible
values of m.

8. The straight line y = 2x 1 does not intersect the curve y = 2x
2
+ 3x + p.
Find the range of values of p.

9. The straight line y = 6x + m does not intersect the curve y = 5 + 4x x
2
. Find the
range of values of m.
10. The straight line y = 2x + c intersect the curve y = x
2
x + 1 at two different points,
find the range of values of c.

11. Find the range values of m if the straight line y = mx + 1 does not meet the curve
y
2
= 4x .

12. Show that the quadratic equation kx
2
+ 2(x + 1) = k has real roots for all the values
of k.

1.
4 ,
7
4
= m
2. k < 3 3. p >
5
4

4. 3 > k 5. k > -2 6. m <
3
7

7. m =
5
4

or m =
5
4
8. p >
8
3

9. m > 6 10. . c >
4
5

11. m > 1

zefry@sas.edu.my

2
+ 4x + 3= 0 has two different roots, find the range of
values of k .

2. Find the possible values of k if the quadratic equation x
2
+ (2 + k)x + 2(2 + k) = 0 has
two equal roots.

3. Show that the quadratic equation x
2
+ (2k 1)x + k
2
= 0 has real roots if k
1
4
s .

4. Find the possible values of k if the straight line y = 2x + k is a tangent to the curve
y = x
2
+ x + 1 .

5. Given that o and | are the roots of the quadratic equation 2x
2
8x + 1 = 0 . Form
the quadratic equation with roots 2 o | + and 2o | + .

6. Solve each of the following quadratic equation :-
a. 6x
2
+ 5x 4 = 0
b. y(y + 1) = 10
c. 2x(x + 5) = 7x + 2
d. 16x
2
+ 8x + 1 = 0

7. The roots of the equation 2ax
2
+ x + 3b = 0 are
3
2

and
4
3
. Find the value of a and b.

8. If o and | are the roots of quadratic equation 2x
2
3x 6 = 0 , form the quadratic
equation with roots
3
o
and
3
|
.
9. Given
1
2
and 5 are the roots of the quadratic equation . Write the quadratic equation
in the form of ax
2
+ bx + c = 0 .

10. Given that m + 2 and n 1 are the roots of the equation x
2
+ 5x = - 4 . Find the
possible values of m and n .

11. Given that 2 and m are the roots of the equation (2x 1)(x + 3) = k(x 1) such that
k is a constant . Find the value of m and k .

12. Given one of the root of the equation 2x
2
+ 6x = 2k 1 is twice the other root,
such that k is a constant . Find the value of the roots and the value of k .

13. One of the root of the quadratic equation h + 2x x
2
= 0 is - 1 . Find the value of h.

zefry@sas.edu.my
14. Form the quadratic equation which has the roots -3 and
2
1
form ax
2
+ bx + c = 0 , where a , b and c are constants. (SPM 2004)

15. Solve the quadratic equation x(2x - 5) = 2x 1 . Give your answer correct to three
decimal places .(SPM 2005)

16. The straight line y = 5x 1 does not intersect the curve y = 2x
2
+ x + p . Find the
range of the values of p .(SPM 2005)

2
+ px + 9 = 2x has two equal roots. Find the possible values
of p.(SPM 2006)

1. k <
3
4
2. k = 6 , - 2
4. k =
4
3
5. 0 65 24 2
2
= + x x
6. (a)
2
1
,
3
4
= x (b) y = 2.702 , - 3.702 (c) 2 ,
2
1
= x (d)
4
1
= x

7. a = 3 , b = -4 8. 0 2 3 6
2
= x x
9. 0 5 9 2
2
= + x x 10. n = 0 , - 3 ; m = - 6 , - 3
11. m = 3 , k = 15 12. roots = - 1 , -2 and k =
2
3

13. h = 3 14. 2x
2
+ 5x 3 = 0

15. x = 3.35 , 0.15 16. p > 1

17. p = -8 , 4