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INTISARI

Perkembangan teknologi di bidang material khususnya material keramik berpori akhir-akhir ini telah banyak digunakan sebagai filter gas buang. Sehubungan dengan tujuan tersebut, telah dilakukan pembuatan keramik berpori berbasis limbah padat pulp yang terdiri dari gugusan grit, dreg dan biosludge. Perbandingan ketiga bahan ini divariasikan dan selanjutnya dicampur dengan bahan baku keramik yaitu kaolin. Pencampuran limbah padat pulp dan kaolin dilakukan beberapa variasi berdasarkan % massa bahan, antara lain: limbah padat pulp berbanding kaolin adalah 100 : 0 ; 90 : 10; 80 : 20; 70: 30; 60 : 40; 50 : 50%. Masing-masing campuran ini diaduk dengan menambah air plastisan secukupnya dengan mixer. Setelah homogen dituang ke dalam cetakan dalam bentuk silinder dengan ukuran tinggi 20 cm, diameter luar 1,5 inci dan diameter dalam 0,63 inci, lalu dikeringkan selama 4 hari. Pembakaran dilakukan dengan furnace pada temperatur 1100oC yang ditahan selama 2 jam, kemudian didinginkan selama 12 jam. Terhadap sampel-sampel uji dilakukan pengujian secara fisis maupun mekanik. Dari pengujian fisis diperoleh susut massa 17,37 32,10%; susut bakar 1,97 4,07%; porositas 27,96 54,27%; dan densitas 1,14 1,20 gr/cm3. Sedangkan pengujian mekanik diperoleh : kuat tekan 0,98-69,58 MPa; kuat impak 1,49 x 10-2 4,05 x 10-2 MPa, dan kekerasan 87-127 Mpa. Sebelum dlakukan pengujian emisi gas, juga dilakukan analisis XRD untuk mengetahui komposisi senyawa kimia, dan diperoleh dari yang paling dominan yaitu : Alumina Silicate, Hidroxide, Al2(Si2O5) (OH)4, Alumina Al2O3 dan Silikon Okside SiO2. Untuk mengetahui pengaruh penggunaan filter, maka dilakukan pengujian emisi gas buang dengan peralatan Analyzer Gas , ternyata penggunaan filter memberikan pengaruh yang sangat besar untuk mengurangi pencemaran udara. Pengurangan tersebut mencapai 36,21 97,14% CO; 36,47-87,87% HC; 25,64 95,97% CO2. Dan pertambahan O2 dari 400,72 1264,03%. Untuk pengujian maksimal pada pemakaian filter, terlebih dahulu dipilih campuran 70% limbah padat pulp dan 30% kaolin, dimana campuran ini merupakan komposisi keramik berpori yang terbaik, jika difungsikan sebagai filter emisi gas buang dan selanjutnya diukur emisi gas tanpa filter dan pakai filter. Emisi gas tanpa filter pada 0 km diperoleh konsentrasinya 0,505% CO; 12,88% CO2; 07 ppm HC dan 3,08% O2, Sedangkan dengan memakai filter sampai 6099 km ternyata emisinya mengalami perubahan yaitu 0,398% CO; 11,42% CO2, 123 ppm HC dan 3,91% O2. Dengan demikian filter keramik berpori ini masih layak digunakan untuk jangkauan lintas diatas 6099 kilometer. Hal ini dapat dibandingkan dengan konsentrasi gas, ketika filter gas buang belum dipergunakan. Kata kunci : limbah padat pulp + Kaolin, keramik berpori, filter, keramik, emisi gas buang.

Universitas Sumatera Utara

ABSTRACT

Recently, development and research of technolology based on the phorous ceramic materials have been greatly improved. One of them fabrication of phorous ceramics that are used as filter of emissed gasses from engines. Based on the above purpose, the characterization and fabrication of of phorous ceramics have been performed based in solid pulp waste that consist of grit, dreg and bio sludge. Then those three substances are mixed with a kaolin. The variations of mass percentage of the kaolin an the solid pulp waste and kaolin are as following 100:0; 90:10; 80:20; 70:30; 60:40; 50:50%. Each of the sample was mixed with adequate plastician water. After getting homogenous sample, the sample was poured into a cylindrical dough with a 20 cm of height, 1,5 inch of outer diameter and 0,65 inch of inner diameter, then all the samples were dried for 4 days. All the samples were burned in a furnace at temperature of 1100o C and kept at the temperaturefor 2 hours, then cooled down for 12 hours. After that all the samples were tested physically and mechanically. Based on the experiment, it was found physically that decrease mass as 17,77 32,10%; decrease burning as 1,97 4,07 gram/cm3; phorousity as 27,96 54,27%; and density of 1,14 1,20 gram/cm3. Moreover from the mechanical tese, it was foud that the impact srength of 1,49x10-2 4,05x10-2 MPa and te hardness of 87 127 MPa. Before gas emissed testing was performed, all the samples are analyzed to calculate the chemical composition of the ceramics using X-Ray difraction method. From the experiment, it was seen the dominant phase were hydrooxide alumina silicate Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4, Alumina Al2O3 and oxide silica (SiO2). In order to obtain the influence of the ceramics filter, the emissed gas was performed using a Gas Analyzer with and without the ohorous ceramics. From the test, it was shown that using of ceramic filter reduces a combustion gas significantly. The reduces of the emissed gas were obtained as following 36,21 97,14% of CO; 36,47 87,87% of HC; 25,64 95,97% of CO2 and the increase of O2 from 400,72 1264,03%. The optimum concentration was chosen as 70% solid waste pulp and 30% of kaolin, that was classified as a best phorous ceramics for combusted gas filter. The gas emission without the ceramic filter at a starting point (0 km) was found to be 0,05 % of CO; 12,88% of CO2 ; 207 ppm of HC; and 3,08% of O2. While the gas emission with the ceramic filter after running 6099 km distance was found to be 0,398% of CO; 11,42% of CO2; 123 ppm HC, and 391% of O2. Based on the gas emission test, the ceramics filter are most probably used for more than 6099 km in fistance, then the similar test is needed to performed. Keyword: Solid Pulp Waste, Phorous Ceramics, Ceramics Filter, Gas Emisi.

Universitas Sumatera Utara