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KWAME NKRUMAH UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE AND NATURAL RESOURCES FACULTY OF RENEWABLE NATURAL RESOURCES

DEPARTMENT OF WILDLIFE AND RANGE MANAGEMENT

THE INFLUENCE OF PLANT SPECIES ON DISTRIBUTION OF KOB AT THE HEADQUARTERS AREA OF MOLE NATIONAL PARK.

HOWARD HENRY ABUAKU MAY, 2012

KWAME NKRUMAH UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE AND NATURAL RESOURCES FACULTY OF RENEWABLE NATURAL RESOURCES DEPARTMENT OF WILDLIFE AND RANGE MANAGEMENT

THE INFLUENCE OF PLANT SPECIES ON DISTRIBUTION OF KOB AT THE HEADQUARTERS AREA OF MOLE NATIONAL PARK.

A THESIS SUBMITTED TO FACULTY OF RENEWABLE NATURAL RESOURCES IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE AWARD OF THE DEGREE OF BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN NATURAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT.

HOWARD HENRY ABUAKU MAY, 2012

CHAPTER ONE 1 1.1 Background INTRODUCTION

The number of plant species in an area might be expected to influence the number of animal species, and at small spatial scales such positive associations have been widely found in both experimental and observational studies (Siemann et al., 1998; Knops et al., 1999; Haddad et al., 2001). Such associations have also been used to argue that one of the ecosystem functions provided by diverse plant communities is the maintenance of rich animal communities (Knops et al., 1999). However, whether or not this function operates at larger extents or for all animal groups is less certain.

At some very gross level plant and animal richness patterns must be congruent, since both increase from the poles to the tropics. But even if true, it begs the more interesting ecological question of the extent that this covariation is causal or coincidental. If plant diversity strongly influences animal diversity at broad scal es , then it follows that to understand animal diversity gradients we need only know what drives plant diversity and then explain total biotic diversity as a special case of resourceconsumer interactions, whereas if links between plant and animal diversity are non-causal, then we need to understand what aspects of the environment can drive both patterns simultaneously.

Given that there is widespread evidence that elements of climate influence both plant and animal diversity gradients at broad spatial scales (Wright et al., 1993; Hawkins et al., 2003), the key to answering this question is not simply to correlate plant and animal richness gradients, but to include simultaneously both plant richness data and climatic variables in analyses of animal diversity patterns to determine how they covary in concert.

Plant-animal interactions and their effects on ecosystem properties assume particular importance in protected areas where management decisions have to be taken according to vegetation status and animal distribution and density. Browsing impact on vegetation communities assumes particular importance in protected areas where management decisions have to be taken according to vegetation status, and animal distribution and density.

The headquarters area of the Mole National Park (Mole) was selected for this study because the high visitor influx in the area has resulted in substantial variation in the level of anthropogenic disturbance, making it an ideal setting to test the joint effects of vegetation modifications on species distributions. The study focused on kob (Kobus kob) that have been widely used as indicators of forest fragmentation and habitat disturbance due to their close relationships with forest cover and vegetative complexity (Chiarello, 2000; Laidlaw, 2000; Lopes and Ferrari, 2000) and can be sampled with relatively simple methods like transects (Conroy and Nichols, 1996; Carrillo et al., 2000). Another reason for the study of kob was that they serve as important sources of food for indigenous people and are the focus on many ongoing conservation efforts in the region (Palminteri et al., 1999).

1.2

Justification

Effective conservation of kob in Mole National Park requires scientific knowledge underpinning management decisions and on-ground actions. Yet, there is general lack of ecological research on kob in Ghana which limits our ability to make even generalizations about the habitat requirements of the species living in such landscapes, and hence suggest management recommendations. A further complication is the large variation in habitat requirements among species (Jellinek et al., 2004; Monamy and Fox, 2005). Hence, conservation managers face significant uncertainty regarding the most appropriate management strategies for achieving long-term conservation outcomes for kob and the diversity of native fauna species in Mole. If kob are to be conserved in Mole, it is vital that we understand the habitat requirements and sensitivities of the species. This requires understanding how both species density is influenced by local-level habitat factors like vegetation type and its implications for tourism.

1.3

Aim and Objectives

The study provides some of the first quantitative data on kob species composition and density in the headquarters area of the Mole National Park (MNP), and one of the first comparisons across vegetation types. Specifically, the objectives of the study are to; 1. 2. 3. Estimate kob sign density (encounter rate) at the headquarters area of MNP. Estimate the density of plant species in the study area. Determine the influence of plant species density on kob sign density.

CHAPTER TWO 2 LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1

Kob Traits and Ecology

The Kob (Kobus kob) is a medium sized antelope in which only males are about 50-100% heavier than females standing approximately 92cm high at the shoulder, Kobus kob has a short reddish brown coat with a white throat-patch and white underparts. The male kob is robustly built and has a muscular neck and thick, lyrate horns. Females are more slender and lack horns (Kingdon, 1982). Males are 90-100 cm long and have an average weight of 94 kg. Females are 82-92 cm long and weigh on average 63 kg (Kingdon, 1982) (Estes, 1991).The bushy tail is white underneath and terminates with a black tip with a length of 20-40 cm. The kob has a scattered and patchy distribution ranging from Senegal and Guinea-Bissau to Uganda, southern Sudan, and south-east Ethiopia (IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group (2008). It requires low-lying flats or gently rolling country close to permanent water with no severe seasonal extremes (Kingdon, 1982). Having likely evolved from a reedbuck-like ancestor, the kob is largely tied to floodplain grasslands. However, it is not cover-dependent and avoids flooded ground and steep slopes (Estes, 1991). Kob are herbivores and its preference for perennial grasses in early, palatable stages and its need to drink daily makes it tied to green pastures that are well watered (Kingdon,1982). During the rainy season, kob concentrate in areas of short grass and higher, dry ground and keep these pastures short while ungrazed grassland grow tall and rank (Estes, 1991). Due to its dependence on water, any extension of ecological range into drier habitats stops short of the point where there is no more access to moist green growth, or adequate water (Kingdon, 1982). Kob are able to congregate and move from one resource to another. These
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movements follow seasonal changes in pasture (Kingdon, 1982). In areas with extensive flooding, traveling can involve many hundreds of kilometres. Daily treks to water in the dry season may require a walk of 10 km or more (Kingdon, 1982).

2.2

Kob Social Behaviour

Kob have few strong social bonds; however females live in herds of which can reach thousands. The females also tend to be more mobile and more social than territorial males which remain attached to their static territories as long as possible (Kingdon, 1982). It is the females that lead the daily movements to water regardless of the length of time, scale or proximity. Individual young kob learn their routines from their mothers. However, the higher the density of individuals the more females will take their cues from other females (Kingdon, 1982). Males follow the females and may be an integral part of their herds. All-males herds that number up to several hundred individuals may associate with females during the dry season marches. The social and reproductive organization of kob can vary. At average or low population densities, males establish conventional territories that are spaced at least 100-200 m apart (Estes, 1991). Adult males try to establish their territories in the best habitat available which are inhabited by herds of females and their young. These herds are loosely structured and have open, changing composition and size as the animals move about their range searching for greener pastures. Nonterritorial males, particularly young males, live in bachelor herds and are segregated from the females by the territorial males. On floodplains, where kob live in high population densities, around two thirds of the territorial males defend conventional territories while the rest live in clustered territories known as leks (Estes, 1991). These clusters may be no larger than a single conventional territory. Lek clusters are located on short grass and bare ground and are surrounded
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by taller grassland. As such, these territories have litter to no value other than the males that reside in them. 8-9 of every 10 females visit leks to mate which makes it worth it for males to forego space and food for greater reproductive success (Estes, 1991). Females and bachelor males live in large herds of up to 2000 and circulate around a lek. Where are in the middle of the best pastureland and are near waterholes and well-travelled routes.

Females visit these leks only to breed, and males provide no parental care. This mating system may have evolved because males cannot defend the widely-dispersed food resources or the dynamic and temporary female herds (Deutsch, 1994a).

Within a lek, 20 to 200 males defend territories 15 to 200 meters in diameter (Nowak, 1991). Male territories are smallest and most highly-contested in the center of the lek, where most mating occurs. These territories maintain their popularity among females despite rapid male turnover (Deutsch, 1994a). In areas of lower population density, males are spaced farther apart and hold their territories for longer periods of time (Nowak, 1991).

Each lek is associated with a female herd of about 100 individuals.

2.3

Reproduction in Kob

Females begin to mate at the age of one, but males must normally wait for several more years (Nowak, 1991). Larger numbers of females associate with larger leks, possibly because females stay on the lek longer when more males and other females are present (Deutsch, 1994b).

Females begin to ovulate at 13-14 months and come into oestrous every 20-26 days until they are inseminated. Courtship by males differs between males of conventional territories and lek

territories. Males of conventional territories will try to prevent females from leaving and will chase and herd them (Estes, 1991). Lek males are unable to keep females from escaping, although they try. Kob courtship may last as little as 2-3 minutes and copulation may only last 1-2 seconds (Buechner and Schleoth, 1965). At leks, a female may copulative up to 20 times by one or more of the central males. Gestation lasts 261271 days after which a calf is usually dropped, with a sex ratio of about 1:1 (Haltenorth and Diller, 1994, pp. 7374). For their first month, calves lie concealed in high grass. Mothers and their calves use their noses to identify one another. When they pass the hiding stage, calves join crches and rarely go into tall grass. They rest together in available shades. When they are 3-4 months old, the young join the female herds and associate with their mothers until they are weaned at 6-7 months. When they mature, males join bachelors groups (Estes, 1991).

2.4

Predation

The kob is preyed upon by several species, including common jackal Canis aureus, spotted hyena Crocuta crocuta, olive baboon Papio anubis and lion Panthera leo (Wanzie, 1986; Kingdon,1982).

2.5

Plants

Plants include family organisms such as trees, flowers, herbs, shrubs, grasses, vines, ferns, mosses and green algae. The group is also called Green Plant or Viridiplantae in Latin (Lewis, 2004).They obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis using chlorophyll contained in chloroplasts, which gives them their green colour. The plant kingdoms comprises about 260,000 known species of mosses, liverworts, fern, herbaceous and woody plants, shrub,
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vines, trees and various other forms that mantle the earth and are also found in its waters (Raven, 2008).

2.6

Trees

Trees are woody plant with distinct main stem or trunk. At maturity, trees are usually the tallest of plants and their height and single main stem differentiate them from shrub which are shorter and have many stems. Trees are perennial woody plants that live for at least three years. A minimum height specification at maturity varies from 3m to 6m. They are an important component of the natural landscape because of their prevention of erosion and provision of weather-sheltered ecosystem in and under their foliage. They also play an important role in producing oxygen and reducing carbon dioxide in the atmosphere as well as moderating ground temperature (Tudge, 2005). 2.7 Plant Nutrition

Just as animals need certain nutrients, such as carbohydrates, amino acids, and vitamins to survive, plants also need various nutrients to remain alive and healthy. Lack of important nutrient may slow a plants growth or make the plant more susceptible to disease or even death. Plants acquire these nutrients primarily from soil through their roots; although some take a more direct approach example, the carnivorous plants are able to obtain some nutrients directly from small animals. Plants require a number of inorganic nutrients. Some of these are macro nutrients which the plants need in relatively large amount and others are micro nutrients, which are required in trace amounts. There are nine macronutrients, carbon, hydrogen and oxygen the three elements found in all organic compounds as well as nitrogen, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and sulphur
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( Kirkby, 1982). Each of these nutrients approaches or, as in the case with carbon, may greatly exceed 1% of the dry weight of a healthy plant. The seven micronutrients elements are iron, chlorine, copper, manganese, zinc, molybdenum, and boron which constitute from less than one to several hundred parts per million in most plants.

2.8

Plant and Animal interactions

Large mammalian herbivores not only depend on plant communities for their existence but cause major changes in plant community composition and structure (Augustine and McNaughton, 1998) The effect ungulates exert on plant communities depends on the balance between feeding

selectivity of herbivores thus the degree to which different plant species or ecotypes experience different levels of tissue loss, and differences among plant species in their ability to recover from tissue loss (Augustine and McNaughton, 1998). The selectivity of ungulate herbivory leads to the dominance of unpalatable chemically defended plant species in communities. However, studies have also demonstrated that intensive long-term herbivory does not lead to the invasion of unpalatable species into the community, and can even increase the dominance of highly palatable species (Augustine and McNaughton, 1998). High levels of nutrient inputs or recycling and an intermittent temporal pattern of herbivory (often due to migration) are key factors increasing the regrowth capacity of palatable species and hence maintaining their dominance in plant communities and supports abundant herbivores. Key factors limiting ungulate foraging selectivity, again limiting herbivore-induced dominance of slow-growing, unpalatable species, include herding behaviour, early growing season and post-fire

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herbivory, asynchronous phenology of palatable versus unpalatable species, and low relative abundance of unpalatable species (Augustine and McNaughton, 1998).

2.9

Density

Density is the number of individuals per unit area (Wayne and James 1986, Sanford, 1980). According to Wayne and James (1986), density determination is useful when one is more interested in the number individuals rather than the cover or biomass, such as in evaluation of trees or shrub stand. It can also provide an indication of the structure of a habitat and the amount of wildlife food and cover (Sanford, 1980)

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CHAPTER THREE 3 3.1 Materials MATERIALS AND METHOD

3.1.1 Study area description

Mole National Park is Ghanas largest protected area and covers about 4,590 km. It is almost entirely located in the Northern Region and includes parts of West Gonja, Sawla Tuna - Kalaba, Wa East and West Mamprusi Districts. It lies between 9 11 and 10 10 N, and between 1 22 and 2 13 W, between Wa and Tamale (Fig 3.1).

Fig. 3.1 Map of Study area


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Most of the 742 plant species found in Mole are widespread throughout the savannah zone. However, the species of conservation value (4 endemic, 12 disjunct and 24 species which are rare or have a very limited distribution) is relatively high. Their abundance is generally low and they are often confined to small areas (Wildlife Department, Ghana, 1994).

3.1.2

Climate

The average annual rainfall is about 1100 mm, decreasing to 1000 mm in the north of the park. More than 90% of the rain falls in the rainy season from April to October, with peaks in July and September. The dry season lasts from November to March. The mean annual temperature of 28C varies from 26C in December to 31C in March. The average range from day to night is 13C. It can be unpleasantly hot in March and April, with temperatures sometimes in the 40s. The Harmattan - the dry wind from the Sahara may blow during December to February bringing dusty, hazy weather. The relative humidity reaches 90% at night in the rains and falls to about 70% in the afternoons. In the dry season the figures are 50% and 20% respectively.

3.1.3 Vegetation

The vegetation of Mole National Park can be grouped into eight broad vegetation types. Their distribution is mainly determined by soil depth and drainage (Schmitt and Adu-Nsiah, 1993).

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3.1.3.1 Open savannah woodland

This is the dominant vegetation type. The tree cover varies from 5% to 65%, with an average of 30%. The average tree height is 11 m with individuals reaching 22m. The ground cover, which can reach up to 100%, is dominated by grasses up to 3m tall. The main grasses are species of Andropogon and scattered herbs are found between them. The savannah woodland is divided into three main groups: The Burkea - Terminalia savannah woodland with Vitellaria paradoxa (the shea-nut tree) comprises all savannah woodland on well-drained and often deep soils. The Burkea - Terminalia savannah woodland with Detarium microcarpum is confined to shallow and rocky soils. Anogeissus with Vitellaria paradoxa is found on the granite outcrops.

3.1.3.2 Boval (open grassland)

The boval vegetation (Loudetiopsis kerstingii - Polycarpaea tenuifolia community) comprises all plant communities on flat iron pans with patches of shallow soil. Only annual species can compete on such sites which are flooded and species-rich during the rains and subject to extreme water-stress during the dry season.

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3.1.3.3 Riverine forest

This is found along most of the rivers in the park. It often forms bands of generally dense and species-rich forests of up to 38m in height. The width of these bands varies from a few metres to more than 100 m on either side of the river and is mainly determined by topography and geology.

3.1.3.4 Flood plain grassland and swamps

This vegetation type comprises four plant communities of seasonally water-logged valley bottoms and badly-drained depressions and areas around water-holes which are mainly dominated by grasses and sedges.

3.1.3.5 Communities covering small areas

These are sites with special vegetation such as old termite mounds or depressions in the sandstone plateau on top of the Konkori escarpment, which are water-filled during the rainy season. There is also a scarp forest along the foot of the Konkori escarpment.

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3.2
3.2.1

Methods
Data collection procedures

3.2.1.1 Reconnaissance survey

Two-day reconnaissance survey was conducted in the study area. This was done to determine the condition of the area and was assisted by the head ranger at Mole National Park.

3.2.1.2 Sampling techniques

Quadrats and transects were used to sample the plants and animals in the area respectively. The map of the area was gridded and 8 transects of 1000m was systematically laid to sample the area (Fig. 3.2). Three quadrats of 10m x 10m was systematically laid on each transect to sample animals and plants (William, 2000).

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Fig. 3.2 Map of study area showing transects origins.

3.2.1.3 Field survey

The coordinates of sampling points on the map were entered into the Global Positioning System (GPS) device to locate the sampling points on the ground. From the gridded map a reference transect was established and all other transects according to its direction. All quadrats were established to the right of each transect. In each quadrat plants were identified and their numbers recorded.

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3.2.2

Data analysis

3.2.2.1 Estimate of plant density

The density of plants was calculated using the formula,

, (Wayne and James, 1986)

3.2.2.2 Estimate of Kob sign density

The kob sign density was calculated using the formula,

, (Wayne and James, 1986)

In all cases, the statistics package StatView 5.0.1 was used. The goal was to build mathematical models that described the distribution of kob species.

3.2.2.3 Influence of Plant Species on Kob Density

The influence of plants species on kob density was analysed in two stages. Firstly, a correlation matrix using correlation coefficient (r) was performed to access the strength of a general relationship or influence of each plant species on kob density. Secondly, based the on the results, regression analysis was performed on the plant that had significant influence on kob density to further investigate the trends in these relationships. Descriptive analysis was used to present the results in tables and figures.
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CHAPTER FOUR 4 RESULTS

4.1

Estimate of Plant Density

In all 46 plant species were encountered and identified in the quadrats laid on the transects (Appendix 1).

Major plant species recorded were Nauclea latifolia (0.005833 per m2), Piliostigma thonningii (0.0125 m2), Afrormorsia laxiflora (0.002083 per m2), Vitellaria paradoxa (0.0775 per m2) Daniellia oliveri (0.002917 m2), Daniellia macrocarpa (0.007917 m2), Annona senegalensis (0.00375 per m2), Crossopteryx febrifuga (0.00125 per m2) and Burkea africana (0.011667 per m2).

4.2

Estimate of kob sign density

Kob sign density in each cell ranged from 3 to 27 species. The spatial patterns show a north- east to south-west gradient with most species occurring in the north-east direction and south-west direction with fewer species occurring around the Headquarters and Dam areas and most occurring further away (fig.3.2). Kob sign density was approximately 10 signs per kilometre.

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Fig.3.2. Spatial pattern of kob signs distribution in Mole National Park

4.3

Influence of Plant Species on Kob Sign Density

In the study 47 plants species were identified but only 9 had significant correlation with kob density (Table 4.1). When the plants species were considered individually, Nauclea latifolia was the best predictor of kob distribution pattern followed by Piliostigma thonningii, Afrormorsia laxiflora, Vitellaria paradoxa and Daniellia oliveri and had a positive influence on kob distribution pattern. However Daniellia macrocarpa, Annona senegalensis, Crossopteryx febrifuga, and Burkea africana all had an inverse influence on kob distribution pattern.

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Table 4.1. Correlation coefficients (r) between kob signs per km and a suite of plants species recorded on transects. Sample size is 8 transects.
Description of Plant species Nauclea latifolia, Piliostigma thonningii Vitellaria paradoxa Afrormosia laxiflora Daniellia oliveri Daniellia macrocarpa Annona senegalensis Crossopteryx febrifuga Burkea africana 4.3.1 Regressional analysis Each plant species was regressed against kob sign densities. Kob density was positively influenced by r 0.996 0.982 0.975 0.971 0.943 - 0.982 - 0.873 - 0.861 - 0.825 P < 0.01 < 0.01 > 0.05 < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01

the Nauclea latifolia (r2=0.996, P<0.01; Fig. 4.2A), Piliostigma thonningii (r2=0.982, P<0.01; Fig. 4.2B), Vitellaria paradoxa (r2=0.975, P>0.05 Fig. 4.2C), Afrormosia latiflora (r2=0.971, P<0.01; Fig. 4.2D) and Daniellia oliveri (r2=0.943, P<0.01; Fig. 4.2E).

(A)
27.5 25
No. of Kob signs per km

(B)

22.5 20 17.5 15 12.5 10 7.5 5 2.5 -2 2 4 6 8 10 12 No. of Nauclea latifolia per metre Y = 3.209 + 2.027 * X - .023 * X^2; R^2 = .994 0 14 16

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(C)

(D)

(E)

Figure 4.2 Relationships between kob signs per km and Nauclea latifolia (r2=0.996, P<0.01) Piliostigma thonningii (r2=0.982, P<0.01), Vitellaria paradoxa (r2=0.975, P>0.05), Afrormosia latiflora (r2=0.971, P<0.01), Daniellia oliveri (r2=0.943, P<0.0061), in a polynomial regression model.

The regression models showed increasing kob abundance with an increasing plant density per metre. On the other hand kob density was inversely influenced by Daniellia macrocarpa (r2=-0.982, P<0.01; Fig. 4.3A), Annona senegalensis (r2=-0.873, P<0.01; Fig. 4.3B), Crossopteryx febrifuga
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(r2=-0.861, P<0.01; Fig. 4.3C), and Burkea africana (r2=-0.825, P<0.01; Fig. 4.3D). (A) (B)
27.5 25
No. of Kob signs per km

22.5 20 17.5 15 12.5 10 7.5 5 2.5 -.5 .5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 No. of Annona senegalensis per metre Y = 26.889 - 16.111 * X + 2.889 * X^2; R^2 = .893 0 3.5

(C)

(D)

Figure 4.3 Relationships between kob signs per km and the plant species in a polynomial regression model.

The regression models showed that highest kob abundance occurred at lowest plant densities per hectare. These models allow us to calculate the number of kob signs expected given the number of
available water sources and length of forest traversed in a particular area.

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5 5.1 Kob densities

DISCUSSION

The generally high record of kob signs in the study area corresponds well to established increased activity levels (Mr. Zakaria Alhassan). Ungulates may be adapted to the habitat conditions in MNP, thereby persisting or increasing and do not appear to have suffered to the same extent as other species groups like primates or larger carnivores due to human activities. Most kpopulations have also been assessed as stable or increasing in Ghanaian forests (Table 6-3; IUCN/SSC, 1996). In addition, most antelopes, especially kob, can probably withstand hunting pressure to a greater degree than the more susceptible primate species. Nevertheless, hunting activities might have reduced the large ungulate populations in comparison to past levels of abundance.

Summary of status of key plant species Nauclea latifolia Nauclea latifolia is an evergreen multi-stemmed shrub or a tree; it grows up to an altitude of 200 m. It is widespread in the humid tropical rainforest zone or in savannah woodlands of West and Central Africa Nauclea latifolia has an open canopy and terminal spherical head lined cymes of white flowers. The flowers are joined with their calyces. The fruit is syncarp. The tree is flowering from April to June. The fruits are ripening from July to September. Baboons and other livestock feed on them and they serve as medicinal to rural folks.

Piliostigma thonningii Piliostigma thonningii is a tree 4-15 m in height with a rounded crown and a short but often crooked bole with rusty-hairy twigs. The bark is rough and longitudinally fissured, being creamy25

brown when fresh and grey-brown later. Leathery green leaves up to 15 x 17 cm, bi-lobed one eighth to one third the way down with a small bristle in the notch, glossy above and heavily veined and somewhat rusty-hairy below. Flowers with 5 white to pink petals, pendulous, unisexual with male and female usually on separate trees; ovary topped by a thick flattenedglobose stigma. The leaves are edible and chewed to relieve thirst. The fruit and seeds are edible. The pods are nutritious and relished by cattle and antelopes. This is a preferred browse species of the African elephant (Loxodonta africana), the fruits are also taken in considerable quantities.

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APPENDIX 1: Plant Species Plant species Gardenia tomatosa Burkea africana Vitellaria paradoxa Terminalia avicennoides Hanila acida Piliostigma thonningii Gardenia aquala Combrentum senegalen Maytenus senegalensis Piliostigma polyendra Combrentum mole Crossopteryx febrifuga Bridelia ferogina Parinari crotifolia Tericarpus erinacius Lania acida Annona senegalensis Sicuridata longicudata C. spps Aflagyl peninculata Daniellia olivera Azilia africana Grunia mole Daniellia macrocarpa Hanila ungulata Tericarpus erinacius Afrormosia laxiflora Xymenia americana TRAN1 TRANS 2 TRANS 3 TRANS 4 TRANS 5 TRANS 6 TRANS 7 TRANS 8 TOTAL 10 9 3 1 1 0 0 1 25 3 4 4 2 1 0 9 5 28 28 19 11 83 2 0 25 18 186 33 6 70 53 15 0 23 22 222 1 0 2 2 0 0 0 1 6 2 0 0 7 2 0 0 3 14 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 2 4 14 2 9 5 23 18 2 10 83 8 0 0 0 0 0 3 1 12 4 17 7 2 0 0 0 0 30 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 12 14 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 3 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 3 2 5 1 1 0 0 0 0 9 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 4 1 0 0 0 1 2 9 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 8 0 0 0 0 5 2 15 0 4 1 0 0 0 0 1 6 0 1 0 2 3 0 0 1 7 0 12 0 0 0 0 0 0 12 0 8 1 0 0 0 0 0 9 0 6 3 0 0 0 3 7 19 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 1 1 2 0 0 0 1 5 0 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 3 28 DENSITY 0.010417 0.011667 0.0775 0.0925 0.0025 0.005833 0.001667 0.034583 0.005 0.0125 0.005833 0.00125 0.00125 0.00375 0.000417 0.000417 0.00375 0.001667 0.00625 0.0025 0.002917 0.005 0.00375 0.007917 0.000833 0.00125 0.002083 0.00125

Trigilia roca Tilopsis subanopsa Cocosp. Continum Sodioli kochai Nauclea latifolia Maligyina inermis Terminalia microcarpa Cidio ceduella Anogaysis leocarpus Acasia spp. Diasparos spp. Metrogina inermis Electrofolium acida Sicuridata longicudata Asobelinilia doka Garmenia amerio

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

6 2 1 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

2 0 0 0 14 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 1 1 3 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 24 2 1 18 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 1

10 2 1 4 14 1 1 3 28 2 1 18 3 1 2 1

0.004167 0.000833 0.000417 0.001667 0.005833 0.000417 0.000417 0.00125 0.011667 0.000833 0.000417 0.0075 0.00125 0.000417 0.000833 0.000417

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