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Methodology: Shippingefficiency.

orgEfficiencyRatingfor ExistingShips
Summary
TheshipEnergyEfficiencyDesignIndex(EEDI)hasbeenformulatedbytheIMOMarine EnvironmentProtectionCommittee(MEPC)asameasureoftheCO2emissionperformanceofships. TheshipEEDIiscalculatedoncharacteristicsoftheshipatbuild,incorporatingparametersincluding shipcapacity,enginepowerandfuelconsumption. Shippingefficiency.orghasdevelopedamethodtocalculateanEEDIratingoraswehavenamed ourversion,EnergyEfficiencyRatingthatcanbeusedtocomparetheenergyefficiencyofexisting shipsofaparticulartypeaspartoftheShippingefficiency.orgRatingsystem.Theratingsforan individualshiparecalculatedbycomparingtheEEDIvaluesforthatshiptooverallaveragevaluesfor allshipsofthattype(e.g.bulkcarriers)andtoothershipsofasimilarsizewithinthistype.Shiptypes areconsistentwiththoseusedbyIMOMEPC. ThemethodforcalculatingtheGHGemissionratingsisdetailedinthisreport.

Introduction
Warmingoftheclimatesystemisnowconsideredtobeunequivocal,andevidentfromobservations ofincreasesinglobalaverageairandoceantemperatures,widespreadmeltingofsnowandiceand risingglobalaveragesealevel1.Globalgreenhousegas(GHG)emissionsduetohumanactivitieshave grownsincepreindustrialtimes,withanincreaseof70%between1970and2004,andmostofthe observedincreaseinglobalaveragetemperaturessincethemid20thcenturyisconsideredverylikely
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IPPC,2007.ClimateChange2007:SynthesisReport.ContributionofWorkingGroupsI,IIandIIItotheFourth AssessmentReportoftheIntergovernmentalPanelonClimateChange[CoreWritingTeam,Pachauri,R.K.and Reisinger,A.(eds.)].IPCC,Geneva,Switzerland,104pp.

duetotheobservedincreaseinanthropogenicGHGconcentrations1.Discerniblehumaninfluences alsoextendbeyondaveragetemperaturetootheraspectsofclimate.Carbondioxide(CO2)isthe mostimportantanthropogenicGHG. Tomitigateforecastdestructiveclimatechangeconsequenttofurtherglobalwarming, anthropogenicGHGemissionsmustbestabilisedandreduced.Thisisaglobalchallengetobe addressedbyallcountrieswithconsiderationofallsignificantemissionsources.For2007,shipping wasestimatedtohaveemitted3.3%ofglobalCO2emissions,towhichinternationalshipping contributed2.7%,or870milliontonnes2.Althoughinternationalshippingisthemostcarbon efficientmodeofcommercialtransport,totalemissionsarecomparabletothoseofthe6thlargest nationGHGemitter,necessitatingemissionreduction3.Moreover,accordingtotheIMOsGHGStudy (2009)ifunabated,shippingscontributiontoGHGemissionscouldreach18%by2050.

TheShippingefficiency.orgRating
Shippingefficiency.orgprovidesafreeaccess,betaandcomprehensiveassessmentofanominated vesselsecoefficiencycredentials.TheEEDIassessmenthasanAtoGrating,basedonanalysisof datafromIHSFairplayandprocessedandformulatedbyRightship. AspartofitsstrategytoaddressCO2emissionsfromships,IMOMEPChasdevelopedtwoarithmetic measuresoftheenergyefficiencyofindividualships:theEnergyEfficiencyDesignIndex(EEDI),and theEnergyEfficiencyOperationalIndicator(EEOI).TheShippingefficiency.orgAtoGratingisbased oncalculationandanalysisoftheEEDI.

EnergyEfficiencyDesignIndex
TheEEDIwasdevelopedasameasureoftheCO2emissionperformanceof,primarily,newshipsand iscalculatedfromdataontheshipdesignandengineperformance.Theintendedapplicationofthis indexwastostimulateinnovationandtechnicaldevelopmentofallelementsinfluencingtheenergy efficiencyofashipfromitsdesignphase.TheEEDIiscalculatedbythefollowingformula4:

IMO,2009.SecondIMOGHGStudy2009.InternationalMaritimeOrganization(IMO)London,UK.

ICS,2009.Shipping,WorldTradeandtheReductionofCO2Emissions.InternationalChamberofShipping, London,UK.

IMO,2009.InterimGuidelinesontheMethodofCalculationoftheEnergyEfficiencyDesignIndexforNew Ships.CircularMEPC.1/Circ.681.InternationalMaritimeOrganization,London,UK.

inwhich: MEandAE,representMainEngine(s)andAuxiliaryEngine(s); P,thepoweroftheengines(kW); CF,aconversionfactorbetweenfuelconsumptionandCO2basedonfuelcarboncontent; SFC,thecertifiedspecificfuelconsumptionoftheengines(g/kWh); Capacity,thedeadweightorgrosstonnage(tonnes); Vref,theshipspeed(nm/h);and fj,acorrectionfactortoaccountforshipspecificdesignelements(e.g.iceclass) ThecalculatedEEDIisatheoreticalmeasureofthemassofCO2emittedperunitoftransportwork(g CO2/tonne.nm)foraparticularshipdesign.

Shippingefficiency.orgGHGRatingCalculation DataSources
EEDIvaluesarecalculatedfromdataonshipcharacteristicsandperformanceaccessibleto Shippingefficiency.org.TodatetheprimarysourcesofdatahavebeenexistingdatawithinSVIS, LloydsRegisterFairplay(LRFP)database,andownersdata,butthiswillbesupplantedbyship sourceddataasitbecomesavailable.Weencouragethewebsiteuserstoinputtheirdata.

Assumptions
Whereshipspecificdataarenotavailable(e.g.specificfuelconsumption),thevaluesusedinthe Shippingefficiency.orgcalculationofEEDIarebasedonthesameassumptionsusedintheIMOGHG Study2and/ordetailedintheIMOCircularoncalculationoftheenergyefficiencymeasure4,. Theseassumptionsare: SpecificFuelConsumption(MainEngine),SFCME: EngineAge MCRME (kW) >15,000 5,000to15,000 <5000 19842000 >15,000 5,000to15,000 SFCME (g/kWh) 205 215 225 185 195

Pre1983

<5000 >15,000

205 175 185 195

20012007

5,000to15,000 <5000

SpecificFuelConsumption(AuxiliaryEngine),SFCAE: EngineAge Any MCRAE>800kW 220g/kWh Power(MainEngine),PME: Power(AuxiliaryEngine),PAE: MCRME PAE ShipSpeed,Vref: Capacity: o Deadweight,fordrycargocarriers,tankers,gastankers,rorocargoandgeneral cargoships 65%deadweight,forcontainerships Grosstonnageforpassengershipsandroropassengerships =DesignSpeed =0.75MCRME <10,000kW 0.05*MCRME MCRAE<800kW 230g/kWh

>10,000kW =(0.025*MCRME)+250

o o

CO2ConversionFactors,CF: FuelType Diesel/GasOil(DGO) LightFuelOil(LFO) HeavyFuelOil(HFO) LiquifiedPetroleumGas(LPG) Propane CarbonContent 0.875 0.86 0.85 0.819 C F (tCO2/tFuel) 3.206 3.15104 3.1144 3.000

Butane LiquifiedNaturalGas(LNG)

0.827 0.75

3.030 2.750

ShipTypesandSizes
ThecategoriesofshipandshipsizesusedforthederivationofcomparativeGHGratingsfollowthose inIMOdocumentMEPC61/WP.105asfollows: .1 .2 .3 .4a .4b .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 .9bis .10 Passengership Drycargocarrier Gastanker Tanker:Chemical Tanker:Oil6 Containership Rorocargoship:Vehiclecarrier Rorocargoship:Volumecarrier Rorocargoship:Weightcarrier Generalcargoship Refrigeratedcargoship Roropassengership

RatingCalculation
TheEEDIratingsforanindividualshiparecalculatedbyassessingthevaluesforthatshiptooverall averagevaluesforallshipsofthattype(e.g.bulkcarriers)andtoothershipsofasimilarsizewithin thistype.Thesizecomparisonistothe50,100or200shipswithinthetypethatareclosestin capacity(dwt,gt,teuorcbm)totheindividualship(i.e.if100ships,the50shipsinthedatabase withdwt/gt/teu/cbmclosestto,butlessthantheship,andthe50withdwt/gt/teu/cbmclosestto butgreaterthantheship).Thenumberofshipschosenforcomparisonisbasedonthenumberof shipsofthetypeinthedatabaseandtheirsizedistribution.
IMO,2010.ReportoftheWorkingGrouponEnergyEfficiencyMeasuresforShips,Annex2.Guidelinesfor calculationofreferencelinesforusewiththeEnergyEfficiencyDesignIndex.PaperMEPC61/WP.10Annex2. InternationalMaritimeOrganization,London,UK.
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IncludesCombinationCarriers(OBOs)

TheAtoGratingreflectsacomparisontovesselsofsimilarsizewithinatype.The Shippingefficiency.orgAtoGratingisbasedontheEEDI(Size)Rating(detailedlater),whichindicates thenumberofstandarddeviationsavesselvariesfromtheaverageforsimilarlysizedvesselsofthe sameshiptype: A >2.0 IfthedistributionoflogtransformedEEDIvaluesexactlyfittedanormaldistribution,thescore rangeswouldmatchfixedpercentilesofthedataset;i.e.<2=0to2.5%,<1=2.5to16%,<0.5=16 to32%,<0.5=32to68%,<1.0=68to84%,<2.0=84to97.5%and>2.0=97.5to100%.However eachvesselsizegroupisasamplegroupandpercentageswithinasizegroupwillhavesome variabilityfromthesepercentagesandareonlyindicative. EEDIvaluesaretransformedbeforestatisticalcomparisontoovercomethestronglyskewed distributionoftherawdata.Asanexample,thefrequencyofoccurrenceofEEDIvaluesforbulk carriersispresentedinFigure1.Thedistributionofvaluesforallshipsisseentonotfitanormal (bellshaped)curve,withtheaverageofallvaluesnotcentraltothedistribution.Directcomparison ofindividualshipvaluestotheaveragevaluewouldtherforehaveabiasagainstaboveaverage (generallysmaller)ships,bothfortheoveralltypeandwithinshipsizecategorieswithinthetype. B >1.0 C >0.5 D >0.5 E >1.0 F >2.0 G <2.0

Figure1.Frequencydistributionofcalculatedvaluesforallbulkcarriersinthedatabase,andtwosize categories:sizeD(3560,000dwt)andsizeF(<10,000dwt)

ApplyingalogarithmictransformationtothecalculatedEEDIvaluesnormalisesthefrequency distributionforboththeoverallshiptypeandshipsizecategorieswithintheshiptype(Figure2). Thisenablesindividualshipvaluestobevalidlycomparedtotheaverageforshiptypeorsize.

Figure2.Frequencydistributionoflogarithmic(ln)transformedEEDIvaluesforallbulkcarriersinthe database,andtwosizecategories:sizeD(3560,000dwt)andsizeF(<10,000dwt)

ThemethodforcomparinganindividualshipsEEDIvaluetothetypeorsizecategory,andtoderive theEEDIratingsreportedintheShippingefficiency.orgAtoGrating,isbasedoncalculatinga statisticalzscore.Azscoreisastandardmeasureofthevariationofanindividualvaluefromthe average,andiscalculatedbydividingthedifferencebetweentheshipvalueandtheoverallaverage forthetypeorsizegroupbythestandarddeviationforthetypeorsizegroup. zscore=(yi)/s where: yiistheshiplnEEDIvalue, istheaverageoflnEEDIvaluesforthetypeorsizegroup sisthestandarddeviationofthelnEEDIvaluedistributionforthetypeor sizegroup Azscoreisastandardizedvaluethatrepresentsthevalueofthevariablefromanormaldistribution withameanofzeroandastandarddeviationofone.Zscorescanthereforebecomparedacross datasetswithdifferentvaluescoresandranges. ForthepurposeoftheShippingefficiency.orgGHGrating,thenegativezscoreisused;i.e.thesign, positiveornegative,ofthecalculatedzscoreisreversed.Thisisdonebecausethezscorecalculation

willgivepositivenumbersforvaluesabovetheaverage(i.e.highEEDI)andnegativenumbersfor valuesbelowtheaverage(i.e.lowEEDI).BecauselowEEDIvaluesrepresentbetterenergyefficiency, assigningapositivevaluetothescoreisconsideredtobetterrepresentgoodperformance. TheGHGRatingfortheEEDIisachievedbytheadditionoftwoscores:thezscoredetermined relativetothesizeclass((Size)Rating),addedtothezscoredeterminedrelativetotheoverallship type((Type)Rating). GHGRating=zscoreType+zscoreSize Theincorporationofthetwocomponentsisconsideredimportantbecauseitconsidersboththe efficiencyoftheshiprelativetoothershipsofthesametypeandsimilarsize,andtheefficiency withinthetypeoverall.Bydesign,theEEDIgenerallyreturnslowernumbers,indicatingbetter efficiency,forlargercapacityshipsbecausetheamountofCO2emittedperunitoftransportwork dropsasshipsizeincreases.Thisisbecausetheenginepower/fuelconsumptionandcargocapacity donotincreaseina1:1ratio.Althoughinmostsituationscomparisonswillbebetweenshipsof similarsizes,itisimportanttoalsoreflectthevaryingefficiencybetweendifferentsizeclasses. AgainusingtheEEDIcalculationsforbulkcarriersasanexample,Figure3isascattergramofEEDI (Size)Ratingsagainstshipsize,Figure4ofEEDI(Type)Ratingsagainstshipsize,andFigure5ofEEDI Ratingagainstshipsize.

Figure3.ScattergramofEEDISizeRatingsagainstShipSizeforallbulkcarriersinthedatabase


Figure4.ScattergramofEEDITypeRatingsagainstShipSizeforallbulkcarriersinthedatabase

Figure5.ScattergramofEEDIRatingsagainstShipSizeforallbulkcarriersinthedatabase

Whatthesefiguresshowisthat,forthesizerating(Figure3),thereisarelativelyevenspreadof EEDIaboveandbelowzeroacrossallsizes,whereasforthetyperatingmostsmallships(<50,000t) havenegativeratingsandalllargeships(>100,000t)haveapositiverating.Combiningthetwointo atotalrating(Figure5)resultsinamoreevendistributionwithmoresmallshipsstillwithanegative rating,andmorelargeshipsstillwithapositiverating,butwithpositiveandnegativeratingsevident acrossalmostthefullsizerange.

DataPresentation
TheShippingefficiency.orgRatingforanindividualshipispresentedinasnapshotgraphicshowing therelativevalueoftheEEDIintheAtoGRatingscale(Figure6).Adetailedtableisalsoprovided whichincludesdatausedincalculations,thestandardEEDIvalue,andcriticalnumbersusedinthe calculationoftheshipGHGRating.

Figure6.ExampleoftheGHGAtoGRatingsnapshotforanindividualship

RatingDatabase
TheShippingefficiency.orgRatinghasbeencalculatedandanalysedacrosssevenofthemajorship typeswiththenumberofcalculatedvaluesofEEDIforeachselectedmajorshiptypeasfollows: ShipType CrudeOilTankers ProductTankers ChemicalTankers LPGTankers LNGTankers EEDI ~2,900 ~7,300 ~1,300 ~1,300 ~350

BulkCarriers GeneralCargo Containerships VehicleCarriers CruiseShips

~11,000 ~15,000 ~5,800 ~980 ~390

ScattergramsofthecalculatedEEDIvaluesforeachoftheseshiptypesagainstcapacity(dwt,cbm, orteu)showtheEEDI/capacityrelationshiptobebestrepresentedbyapowerregressionline,as recognisedbyIMOMEPCintheirestablishmentofanEEDIreferencelinefornewships.Detailed analysisoftheGHGRatingsacrossshiptypeshasshownthatthemethodusedtodevelopa comparativeratingofEEDIRatings,asacomponentoftheShippingefficiency.orgEnvironmental Rating,isapplicabletoalloftheseshiptypes.Themethodthereforeprovidesameansofcomparing theenergyefficiencyofexistingships. However,itisimportanttonotethatthereliabilityofthecalculatedratingsisadirectfunctionofthe reliabilityofthesourcedata.AnongoingpriorityofShippingefficiency.orgistoeitherverifybase dataorsourceaccuratedata,andthiswillbeusedtocontinuallyupgradeandenhancethe environmentalratingsystem.