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# AXIAL-FLOW MACHINES

further concepts
Euler Turbine Equations Axial Flow Gas Turbines Axial Flow Compressors Losses / Zweifel Free-Vortex Flow Blade Stresses Re: Peng Ch. #8 & #7

Stator

Rotor

Stator

TURBINE STAGE

STATOR

STAGE

V1

W1

ROTOR

V2

W2

STATOR

AXIAL TURBINE

V2

W2

V1

W1

100

percent reaction

U
stator rotor

TURBINE STAGE FLOW ANGLE TERMINOLOGY ALPHA () ~ STATOR ANGLES BETA () ~ ROTOR ANGLES

AXIAL DIRECTION
STATOR

Negative Angle V1
U

W1

Positive Angle 0o
ROTOR

V2

W2

STATOR

Torque

## T = m ( VU1 r1 VU2 r2) / gc

Power

W = m ( VU1U1 VU2U2) / gc
Energy per unit mass

## E = W / m = ( VU1U1 VU2U2 ) /gc

E = h = change in specific enthalpy

Right end: free wheeling , runaway condition. No torque on rotor.no power no use. Left end: Lots of torque but rotor velocity goes to zero. Since power = torque x angular velocity = 0 7

## Parsons Turbines (RN = 50% ) each with =

V2

W2

V1

W1

U
V2

W2

V1

W1

MAXIMUM UTILIZATION Work per unit mass = W / m = U (VU1 - VU2 ) For maximum work per unit mass: i.e. V2 is in axial direction only VU2 = 0

MAXIMUM UTILIZATION
Work per unit mass = W / m = U (VU1 - VU2 )

W2 V2 = Vx

V1

W1

U S R

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V2

W2

V1

W1

U
MAXIMUM UTILIZATION AXIAL TURBINE

## (W/m) = 2U2 / gc V2 = Vx = Va = axial direction cos = 2U / V1

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EXAMPLE
An axial-flow turbine has a mean diameter of 40 cm and a flow coefficient ( = Va/U) of one-half. Flow enters the stator in the axial direction with a velocity of 50 m/s and exits the stator with a nozzle angle (, measured between V1 and U) of 17 degrees. The fluid flows through the stage with constant axial velocity and produces an output torque of 1600 Nm. a) Sketch the velocity vector diagram for this stage. b) Calculate the power output of the turbine stage. c) What is the degree of reaction?

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V2 = 50

W2
= 17o

V1

W1

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SOLVING FOR VELOCITY VECTORS: = Va/U = VU1 = 50 tan 73o = 164 m/s WU1 = VU1 U U = 100 m/s VU1 = 164 m/s V1 = 171 m/s VU2 = 0 WU2 = U = 100 m/s W2 = 112 m/s W1 = 80.85 m/s EULER EQNS: Torque = m (VU1 R1 VU2R2) m = 1600 / (164)(0.2) = 49 kg/s

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COMPRESSOR STAGE
STATOR

STAGE

V1 W1 U ROTOR

W2 V2 STATOR V1

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AXIAL COMPRESSOR

V1
100

V2 W1
percent reaction

W2
0

U
stator rotor

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V1
100

V2

W1
percent reaction

W2
0

U
stator rotor

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V2 V1
100

W2 W2
0

V2

W1
percent reaction

U
stator rotor

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## Turbine and Compressor Performance

Unrecoverable Pressure Losses

Allied Signal ASE120 Gas Turbine Engine Phoenix, AZ Designed for cogeneration, emergency power and mechanical drive. ~35% thermal efficiency ~10 MW m-dot~34kg/s Texhaust ~500oC NOx ~ 10-25 ppm Weight ~ 5,000 lb

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16,000

Power
8,000

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## Inlet Air Temperature (oC)

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(NOT RELATED TO UNRECOVERABLE PRESSURE LOSSES LECTURE) ASE120 engine performance as a function of inlet air temperature Notice that maximum output power decreases about 50% when the air let increases from ~ -20C to +50C (~16,000hp to 8,000 hp)

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## Unrecoverable Pressure Losses

Profile drag (and fluid friction) across blades Annular skin friction Secondary drag / losses Tip leakage Seal leakage

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IDEAL TURBINE

V2

V1

W2

W1

U S R

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IDEAL

ACTUAL

CU

Actual performance is always less than the ideal theoretical performance due to un-recoverable losses

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## Turbine Performance: Turbine Flow ~ Nozzle Flow

P = C2 / gc

m = A 2Pgc
discharge coefficient

CD

CD =

CD

Turbine performance follows the general behavior of ideal flow through a nozzleTot max delP ~ den x sq vel (Eqn W 2.12) Incompressible flow, conservation of energy-ss, no change in PE P = Po Pst = total static = dynamic pressure Dont forget gc when using USCS units. Notice the total maximum pressure drop ~ density x velocity2 Mass flow ~ flow area x rho x delP CD ~ discharge coefficient: correction coefficient for real fluids with viscosity, friction losses. Usually empirically based, rooted in experiment.

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CD =

2FD V2A

In addition to classic profile / skin friction drag.. VIBRATIONS: fluttering / vortex shedding esp. problem w/ thin bladesfans, some compressors

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## Flow Separation over Compressor Rotor Blades

FLOW

High Reaction
(no separation)

Low Reaction
(separated flow)

Separation leads to COMPRESSOR LOSSES STALL losses in efficiency. Separation leads to losses in pressure, enthalpy It is very complicated to accurately predict the conditions in which B.L separation occurs. Therefore, empirically-based rules-of-thumb have been developed. As well see, flow separation can be minimized with a cascade of blades..i.e. form flow passages

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## ANNULAR SKIN FRICTION LOSS s = spacing

CD ~ 0.02 (s/h)

Due to boundary layer formation within the annular flow passage. Empirical correlation.

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## SECONDARY DRAG / LOSSES

End wall boundary layers are convected inward along the suction side of the blades. Secondary currents are set up in a plane transverse to the flow, dissipating energy. Results in un-favorable flow redistribution, competing vortices, and loss in stagnation pressure. Can be a significant fraction of total P-loss. These currents also take place in the wake regions down stream from the trailing edges of the blades.

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## Secondary Flow in Blade Passages

CD = 0.018CL2

The constant 0.018 stems from a complex relationship between flow acceleration, aspect ratio (h/c), spacing & pitch. RE: Logan Ch 6 Because the trailing vortices are similar to wing vortices, it is expected that the corresponding drag is proportional to the LIFT COEFFICIENT CL.

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## Wilson Text Effect of aspect ratio (h/c or h/b) on secondary losses.

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TIP LEAKAGE

TIP LEAKAGE

CD = 0.29 (k/h)CL3/2

The difference in pressure on the two sides of the moving blades results in leakage around the tip. Shroud reduces leakage ~50% k=clearance gap = f(T, rpm, loading) h= blade length CL=lift coefficient

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## LOSSES FROM SEALS

GENERATOR

LPT1

LPT2

HPT

Pressure changes across casing boundaries are another source of losses. Each place where the rotor penetrates a pressure boundary needs a seal. Typically LABYRINTH SEALS.

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LABYRINTH SEALS

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LABYRINTH SEALS

CD = f(P, h, , D, .)

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Clearances change with thermal expansion, radial stresses, axial stresses, fluid loadings, rotor flex, rotor unbalance, startup/shutdown transients,. Rotor alignment is critical for rotor seals.

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## UNRECOVERABLE PRESSURE LOSSES

(PROFILE, SKIN FRICTION & SECONDARY) COMPRESSORS, PUMPS & FANS

stage

= U2

## stage = Pactual / Pideal =

= (R - ) / (+ R) + (1 R - ) / ( + (1 R))

rotor

stator

= flow coefficient = Cx / U = blade loading coefficient = Cu / U R =degree of reaction = drag to lift ratio U = rotor velocity P = pressure gain
LOGAN38 P115

## = drag to lift ratio = CD / CL = (CD + CD + CD + CD + CD) / CL

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EXAMPLE: Axial compressor with Rn=50% and the velocity vectors shown. The lift and drag coefficients are the same for the rotor and stator and are 1.4 and 0.1, respectively. CD includes all losses. Calculate the stage pressure rise and required energy input if the entering air has a density of 1.2 kg/m3. Each square corresponds to 50 m/s x 50 m/s

50 m/s

V1

V2

W1

W2

U stator rotor

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EXAMPLE (cont)

stage

= U2 = Pactual
Vx = 150 m/s VU2 = 250 m/s

## = drag/lift = 0.1/1.4 = 0.071

= (R - ) / (+ R) + (1 R - ) / ( + (1 R)) =
(0.5-0.5x0.071)/(0.5 + 0.071x0.5) + (1-0.5-0.5x0.071)/ (0.5+0.071(1-0.5))

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EXAMPLE (cont)

stage

= U2 = Pactual
2 2

## Pactual = (1.2)(300) (0.5) (0.66)(1.7) = 60.6 kN/m = 60.6 kPa

stage
= Pactual / Pideal = = (0.5)(1.7) = 0.85

## Pideal = 71.3 kPa

Energy per unit mass (Euler Turbine Equation)

## [W /m]ideal = ( Vu1U1 - Vu2U2 ) / gc

=(300)m/s [50-250]m/s = -60 kJ/kg

## [W /m]actual = [W /m]ideal / stage

= (-60)/(0.85) = -70 kJ/kg

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FLOW SEPARATION

de Haller Number: dH
dH = Wexit / Win = W2 / W1 dH > 0.72 No Separation

Swiss engineer Established criterion for flow separation in compressor cascades (for compressor cascades, RE: Wilson, Ch#4 p.182) Butalso sometimes applied to turbine blades as well using V1 & V2

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V1

V2

W1

W2

U S R

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V1

V2

W1

W2

U S R

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## Cpr = (Pst,ex Pst,in)/(Po,in Pst,in)

= rise in static pressure / inlet dynamic pressure

## For an ideal compressor Cpr = 1 (Wex / Win)2 Cpr < 0.5

Consider each stage of a compressor as a compressor The pressure rise at each stage can only increase so much, Limits on pressure rise Cpr ~< 0.5

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## Axial Flow Compressor and Turbine

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DEGREE OF REACTION Rn = hrotor / hstage = (h2 h3) / (h1 h3) = Protor / Pstage = (P2 P3) / (P1 P3) = 1 (Vu1 + Vu2) / 2U
(Text eqn 5.8)

Vu2

Vu1

V2

V1

W2

W1

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Stator

Rotor

Stator

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## Lift and Drag Forces

FL = CL

(AV2) / 2gc

FD = CD

(AV2) / 2gc

Comments on LIFT and DRAG forces: Lift and drag forces are difficult to model exactly due to complex flow phenomena including: viscous effects, boundary layer separation, etc. Hence, empirically determined correction coefficient is typically used. CL and CD are lift and drag coefficients, usually determined empirically. CD typically accounts for both pressure and skin friction drag. A is some characteristic area. V is some representative velocity: free stream, average or mean velocity, etc.

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## Isolated Flat Plate CL = 2sin

CLcas=K(CL)
S C K=cascade coefficient = f(beta, s/c) S= pitch or spacing C = chord

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## BLADE SPACING / SOLIDITY ( = c / s)

Is there an option spacing?

c
Low solidity Losses by separation High solidity ~No separation Losses by skin friction

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1 2

Wilson 7.4

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## Zweifel (Peng Text, Ch 8 p 227) (Brown Boveri, Swiss, 1945)

CL,op ~ 0.8

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EXAMPLE The spacing (pitch) between turbine or compressor blades influences the machines performance. Shown below is a cascade of blades for an axial compressor.

- 30o

Flow in

c = 12 cm b = 10 cm
Optimum Spacing

= + 60o

## Flow out (a) Determine the optimum blade spacing, s = ?

Zweifel Correlation

(b/s)

opt

2

## thus, s = b/1.44 = 6.94 cm

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AXIAL TURBINES NUMBER OF BLADES Wind: Water: Gas / Steam: 1-24 3-30 11-110

Rotors usually have an even number of blades (for balance) Stators usually have an odd number of blades (for vibration)

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VORTEX FLOW

## UF6 Axial Compressor

A tornado is natures efficient vortex flow. Characteristic of air / gas at higher velocities (200+ mph ~ 300 ft/s ~ 100 m/s) It pumps air from the higher pressure ground to overhead cloud. We can capture that flow characteristic in the design of axial compressor (and turbine) blade design that encourage free vortex flow.

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Velocity Distribution

## Forced Vortex (rotational) r<R

Vu = r Vurn = constant

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## Pressure Distribution in a tornado

Patm

R -P

Minimum pressure is in center of eye. The entire field pressure is sub-atmospheric pressure (AKA Under-pressure)

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Fc

## Uniform Circular Motion

Fc = mac = mv2/r
Fc = centripetal force (in +) ac = centripetal acceleration v = tangential speed = vu

F = ma

= angular position (rad) = angular velocity (rad/s) ac = centripetal acceleration (m/s2) 2 radians = d/dt = time for one revolution 2 = 2r/v = v/r

ac = d2/dt2 = v2/r

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## Radial Pressure Forces on Fluid Element (F=PA) P + dP

P + dP P r d

P + dP dr

Fc

For Radial Equilibrium: The radial components of the pressure forces (F=PA) must be balanced by the centrifugal force on the fluid mass.

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Free-Vortex Flow:

Vur = constant

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TIP

HUB

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TIP

Vu1

HUB

Constant axial velocity Axial V2 = maximum utilization Cur = const rVu = const

## Dont want hub to fall below 0% rxn

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TIP (RXN)

HUB (IMP)

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Station A is entry to nozzle / stator Station B is entry to blade / rotor Station C is exit from blade Nozzle blade is twisted to give overall free vortex flow. The Blade is straight. Nozzle sets up flow in radial decreasing velocity profile.upon passage over uniform rotor blade, reestablishes uniform vel profile. Illustrates other losses: Wall friction losses (skin friction) and tipclearance leakage (PsB > PsC)
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Torque

## T = m ( Vu1 r1 - Vu2 r2) / gc

Power

W = m ( Vu1U1 - Vu2U2) / gc
Energy per unit mass

W / m = ( Vu1U1 - Vu2U2 ) / gc

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TURBINE

V2

V1 W2 W1

U S R

W ~ Vu1U1 - Vu2U2

V2

V1

W2

W1

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## FORCES & STRESS ON BLADES

frozen isochromatic fringes on three-dimensional photoelastic model of gas turbine blade hub.

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## Forces acting on turbine & compressor blades

Fluid forces: Lift & Drag Centrifugal forces Thermal forces / stresses

Fluid forces: Lift & Drag Of special interest are the tangential components of the lift and drag forces since these forces directly affect the power and efficiency. Produce bending forces / stresses due to changes in fluid pressure and momentum. Total Drag force = pressure drag (form drag, shape drag) + Viscous Drag (viscous drag) Due to complex flows, losses occur. Excitation and vibrations may result from fluctuating pressure gradients. Centrifugal forces Produces radial & bending stresses (bending when centroids of all cross sections do not lie along a radial line) Limits the design length and rpm Easiest force to model Thermal forces / stresses When its not at a uniform temperature, thermal stresses arise.

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LIFT

AXIAL

DRAG V1

Vm

V2

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## Lift and Drag Forces

FL = CL

(AV2) / 2gc

FD = CD

(AV2) / 2gc

Comments on LIFT and DRAG forces: Lift and drag forces are difficult to model exactly due to complex flow phenomena including: viscous effects, boundary layer separation, etc. Hence, empirically determined correction coefficient is typically used. CL and CD are lift and drag coefficients, usually determined empirically. CD typically accounts for both pressure and skin friction drag. A is some characteristic area. V is some representative velocity: free stream, average or mean velocity, etc.

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## Isolated Flat Plate CL = 2sin

CLcas=K(CL)
S C K=cascade coefficient = f(beta, s/c) S= pitch or spacing C = chord

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## Fluid Forces: Vibration & Excitation

Upstream variations in the flow can lead to blade vibrations. Can lead to high frequency, high cycle fatigue.

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## Vibration & Excitation

Campbell diagram illustrating example of natural frequencies of a rotor blade. Centrifugal forces on the blade causes the blade to stiffen, centrifugal stiffening and increase the natural vibration frequency with rotor rpm.

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h R

HUB HUB

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## EXAMPLE: Centrifugal Stress Given: ~ 8,000 kg/m3 ~ 650 lbm / ft3

Uniform density and cross-section

h= length of blade = 20 inches = 1.67 ft N= rate of rotation = 1800 rpm r= hub radius = 1.5 ft

## max = h (2N/60)2 (r + R) / 2gc max = 19,400 psi

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CENTRIFUGAL FORCE: Liberated Blade If a blade broke loose - liberated, how high could it go? N = 1800 rpm

K.E

P.E.

m V2 = mgH
V = centroid velocity

## =2(r+h/2)N/60 = 440 ft/sec = 645 mph H = V2 /g = 3,006 ft

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Thermal Stresses

=E L/L= T

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thermal & corrosion protection

Materials: NiCrAlY alloy ( nickel, chromium, aluminum, yttium) Zirconia (ceramic, ZrO2) Alumina (Al2O3)
Silicon carbide

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## HOW COATINGS ARE APPLIED

Electroplating Plasma spray Vapor-phase deposition Electron beam depositio

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SUBSTRATE

## FOR THERMAL AND CORRESION CONTROL

BOND COAT

TOP COAT HOT COMBUSTION GASES OPERATING TEMPERATURE SUBSTRATE MELTING TEMPERATURE

TEMPERATURE

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## HIGH TEMPERATURE MATERIALS

MATERIAL
Nickel Nickel-Chromium Alloy Cobalt Chromium Alloy Titanium Titanium-6Al-4V Alloy

~MELTING TEMPERATURE o o F C
2650 2100 2300 2400 2550 3035 3000 1450 1150 1260 1315 1400 1668 1650

For most metals used in blades, creep becomes significant at about one-half the melting point.

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