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E4-E5 Civil (Technica l)

Rev date : 20-04-11

Chapter-1

STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF RCC BUILDING COMPONENTS

Raje ndra Mat hur Dy. Dir(BS-C) 09412739 232(M) e-mailmathur_raje ndra@rediffmail.com

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Structural Design of RCC Building Components


1.0 Introduction The procedure fo r ana lysis and design of a given building wil l depend on t he t ype of building, its comple xit y, t he number of storie s et c. F irst the arc hitectural draw ings of t he building are studied , stru ctural s yst em is fina lized sizes of stru ctural members are decided and brought to the kno wledge of the co ncer ned arc hitect. T he p ro cedure for structural design will invo lve some steps whic h will depend on t he t ype of build ing and also its co mplexit y and the time ava ilable for structural design. Oft e n, the work is required to start soon, so t he steps in design are to b e arranged in such a wa y t he foundation d rawings c an be take n up in ha nd wit hin a reasonable period of time. Further, before start ing t he structural design, t he fo llowing informat ion o f data are requ ired: ( i) A set of arc hitectural drawings;( ii) Soil Inve st igatio n rep ort (S IR) of soil data in lieu thereof; ( iii) Locat ion o f t he place o r cit y in order to d ecide on wind and seismic lo adings;( iv) Data fo r lift s, water t ank c apacit ies on top, special roof featu res o r loadings, etc. Choic e of an appropriate structural s ys tem for a give n build ing is vital for its eco nom y and safet y. T here are two t yp e of build ing s ys te ms :(a) Load Bearing Maso nr y Buildings. (b) Framed Buildings. (a) Load Bearing Maso nry Buildings:Small build ings like ho uses w it h small sp ans of b eams, s labs ge nera ll y co nstructed as load b earing brick walls wit h r einforced co ncrete slab beams. This s ys tem is su ita ble for building up to four or les s stories.(a s s hown in fig. belo w). In such build ings crushing stre ngt h of bricks shall be 10 0 kg/ cm 2 mi n i mu m for fou r stories. This s ystem is adequate for vert ic al load s it also serves to res ists ho rizontal loads like w ind & eart hquake b y box act ion. Further, to ensu re its act ion a gainst earthquake , it is neces sar y to provide RCC Bands in horizo ntal & vertica l re inforcement in brick w all as per IS: 4326-1967( Ind ia n Sta ndards Code o f Practice fo r Earthquak e Resistant Construction of Buildings.) . In some

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Buildings, 115 mm thic k bric k wa lls are provided s ince t hese wa lls are incapable of su pporting vert ica l lo ads, beams ha ve to b e provid e alo ng t he ir lengt hs to sup port adjo ining s lab & t he we ight of 115mm thick b ric k w all of upp er storey. These b eams are to rest on 230 mm thic k b ric k w alls or reinforced concr ete columns if required. The des ign of Load Bearing Ma so nr y Build ings are d one as per IS:1905-1980 (Indian Standards Code of Practice for Structura l S afety of Bu ilding s: Masonry W alls(Second Revision).

Load bearing brick wall Structural syste m (b) Framed Buildings:In t hes e t yp es o f bu ildings re inforced concrete fram es are provided in both p rincipal dir ect ions to re sist vertical loads a nd t he vertica l

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loads are tra nsmitt ed to vert ical fr am ing s ys tem i.e colu mns a nd Fou ndatio ns. This t yp e of s ystem is e ffect ive in res ist ing b oth vertical & horizo ntal lo ads. The brick walls are to be regarded as no n load bearing filler w alls onl y. T his s ystem is suitable for mu ltistoried build ing which is also effective in res ist ing horizo nta l loads due to earthquake. In this

s ystem t he floor slabs, generall y 1 00-150 mm thick w it h spans ranging from 3.0 m to 7.0 m. In certa in eart hquake prone areas, even s ingle or double store y bu ildings a re mad e framed stru ctures for sa fet y reaso ns. Also t he s ingle storey bu ildings of large sto re y he ight s (5 .0m o r more ) ,like electric su bstation etc. are mad e framed structure as brick wa lls of lar ge heights are sle nder a nd load carrying capacit y of such wa lls redu ces du e to slend er ness.

Fra med Structu ra l system

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2.0 Ba sic Codes for Desig n. The des ign s hould b e carried so as to co nform to the follow ing Indian code for reinforced concrete d es ign, publis hed b y the Bu reau o f Indian St a ndard s, New Delhi: Purpose of Co des Nat iona l build ing co des ha ve b een formulated in differe nt co untries to la y down gu ideline s for the design a nd constructio n of stru cture. The cod es ha ve evo lved fro m the co llect ive wisdom of expert structural engineers, ga ined o ver the years. These cod es are perio dica lly re vised to bring them in line with current r es earch, a nd often, current trends. The codes s erve at lea st four distinct functions. First l y, t he y e nsure ad equate stru ctural safet y, b y spec ifying certai n es sent ia l minimu m requ ireme nt for design. Secondl y, t he y r ender t he t ask of t he designer relat ivel y simple; often, the result o f sophist icate a nal yses is mad e a va ilable in the form of a simple formu la or chart. Thirdl y, t he codes e nsure a measure of cons istenc y among different designers. Fina lly, t he y have so me le gal validit y in t hat t he y protect the stru ctural designer from any liab ilit y d ue to structural failures that are caused b y inadequ ate sup ervis io n a nd/or fau lt y mater ial a nd co nstruct ion. (i)IS 456 : 2000 Plain a nd rein forced con crete co de of practice (fourth revision) (ii) Loa ding Standards The se loads to be considered fo r structural design are specified i n the fo llowing load ing sta ndards: IS 875 (Part 1 -5 ) : 1987 Cod e of practice fo r desig n loads (other than ea rthquak e) for building s an d structures (s econd re vi sion) Part 1 : Dea d loads Part 2 : Impo sed (live) loads Part 3 : W ind loa ds

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Part 4 : Snow loads Part 5 : Special loads and load combinatio ns IS 1893 : 2002 Criteria for earthquak e resi sta nt design of structur e (fo urth revision). IS 1 3920 : 1993 Ductile deta iling o f reinforced co ncrete structur e subject to seis mic forces. Design Han dbook s The Bureau of Indian sta ndard s has als o publis hed t he follow ing ha ndbooks, which ser ve as u se fu l sup plement to the 1978 vers ion of the codes. Alt hou gh t he handboo ks need to be updated to bring t hem in line w ith t he rece nt l y revised (2000 versio n) o f t he Cod e, many of the p rovisio ns continue to be va lid (especiall y wit h regard to stru ctural design provis io ns). SP 16 : 1980 Design Aids (fo r Reinforced Concret e) to IS 456 : 1978 SP 24 : 1983 Exp lanatory handbook on IS 456 : 1978 SP 34 : 1987 Handbook s on Concrete Reinforced and Detailing.

General Design Consideration of IS: 456-2000.


The general design and construction of reinforced concrete buildings shall be governed by the provisions of IS 456 2000 AIM OF DESIGN The aim of design is achievement of an acceptable probability that structures being designed shall, with an appropriate degree of safety Perform satisfactorily during their intended life. Sustain all loads and deformations of normal construction & use Have adequate durability Have adequate resistance to the effects of misuse and fire.

METHOD OF DESIGN Structure and structural elements shall normally be designed by Limit State Method. Where the Limit State Method cannot be conveniently adopted, Working Stress Method may be used

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E4-E5 Civil (Technica l) MINIMUM GRADE OF CONCRETE

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The minimum grade of concrete for plain & reinforced concrete shall be as per table below

26.4 Nominal Cover to Reinforcement 26.4.1 Nominal Cover Nominal cover is the design depth of concrete cover to all steel reinforcements, including links. It is the dimension used in design and indicated in the drawings. It shall be not less than the diameter of the bar. 26.4.2 Nominal Covers to Meet Durability Requirement Minimum values for the nominal cover of normal weight aggregate concrete which should be provided to all reinforcement, including links depending on the condition of exposure described in 8.2.3 shall be as given in Table 16. Table 16 Nominal Cover to Meet Durability Requirements (Clause 26.4.2) Exposure Nominal Concrete Cover in mm not Less Than Mild Moderate Severe 20 30 45

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E4-E5 Civil (Technica l) Very Severe Extreme NOTES 1. 2. 3. 50 75

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For main reinforcement up to 12 mm diameter bar for mild exposure the nominal cover may be reduced by 5 mm. Unless specified otherwise, actual concrete cover should not deviate from the required nominal cover by + 10 mm For exposure condition severe and very severe, reduction of 5 mm may be made, where concrete grade is M35 and above.

26.4.2.1 However for a longitudinal reinforcing bar in a column nominal cover shall in any case not be less than 40 mm, or less than the diameter of such bar. In the case of columns of minimum dimension of 200 mm or under, whose reinforcing bars do not exceed 12 mm, a nominal cover of 25 mm may be used.

26.4.2.2 For footing minimum cover shall be 50 mm.

26.4.3 Nominal Cover to Meet Specified Period of Fire Resistance Minimum values of nominal cover of normal-weight aggregate concrete to be provided to all reinforcement including links to meet specified period of fire resistance shall be as given in Table 16A.

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21.4 Minimum Dimensions of RC members for specified Period of Fire Resistance

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DESIGN LOAD Design load is the load to be taken for use in appropriate method of design. It is Characteristic load in case of working stress method & Characteristic load with appropriate partial safety factors for limit state design.

LOAD COMBINATIONS As per IS 1893 (Part 1): 2002 Clause no. 6.3.1.2, the following load cases have to be considered for analysis: 1.5 (DL + IL) 1.2 (DL + IL EL) 1.5 (DL EL) 0.9 DL 1.5 EL Earthquake load must be considered for +X, -X, +Z and Z directions. Moreover, accidental eccentricity during earthquake can be such that it causes clockwise or anticlockwise moments. So both clockwise & anticlockwise torsion is to be considered. Thus, EL above implies 8 cases, and in all, 25 cases must be considered. It is possible to reduce the load combinations to 13 instead of 25 by not using negative torsion considering the symmetry of the building.

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STIFFNESS 22.3.1 Relative Stiffness: The relative stiffness of the members may be based on the moment of inertia of the section determined on the basis of any one of the following definitions: a) b) Gross Section Transformed Section Cracked Section The cross-section of the member ignoring reinforcement The concrete cross-section plus the area of reinforcement transformed on the basis of modular ratio The area of concrete in compression plus the area of reinforcement transformed on the basis of modular ratio

c)

The assumptions made shall be consistent for all the numbers of the structure throughout any analysis. 22.3.2 For deflection calculations, appropriate values of moment of inertia as specified in Annexure of IS 456-2000 should be used.

STRUCTURAL FRAMES 22.4 The simplifying assumptions as given in 22.4.1 to 22.4.3 may be used in the analysis of frames.

ARRANGEMENT OF LIVE LOAD 22.4.1 a) Consideration may be limited to combinations of: 1) Design dead load on all spans with full design live load on two adjacent spans; and 2) Design dead load on all spans with dull design live load on alternate spans. 22.4.1 b) When design live load does not exceed three-fourths of the design dead load, the load arrangement may be design dead load and design live load on all the spans. Note: For beams continuous over support 22.4.1 (a) may be assumed. 22.4.2 Substitute Frame: For determining the moments and shears at any floor or roof level due to gravity loads, the beams at that level together with columns above and below with their far ends fixed may be considered to constitute the frame. For lateral loads, simplified methods may be used to obtain the moments and shears for structures that are symmetrical. For

22.4.3

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unsymmetrical or very tall structures, more rigorous methods should be used. MOMENT AND SHEAR COFFICIENTS FOR CONTINUOUS BEAMS 22.5.1 Unless more exact estimates are made, for beams of uniform crosssection which support substantially uniformly distributed load over three or more spans which do not differ by more than 15 percent of the longest, the bending moments and shear forces used in design may be obtained using the coefficients given in Tables below. For moments at supports where two unequal spans meet or in case where the spans are not equally loaded, the average of the two values for the negative moment at the support may be taken for design. Where coefficients given in Table below are used for calculation of bending moments, redistribution referred to in 22.7 shall not be permitted. 22.5.2 Beams Over Free End Supports Where a member is built into a masonry wall which develops only partial restraint, the member shall be designed to resist a negative moment at the face of the support of W1/24 where W is the total design load and 1 is the effective span, or such other restraining moment as may be shown to be applicable. For such a condition shear coefficient given in Table below at the end support may be increased by 0.05. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------BENDING MOMENT COFFICIENTS -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Span Moments Support Moments -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------Types of Load Near Middle At Middle At Support At Other of End Span of interior next to the Interior span end support Supports -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Dead load and 1 1 1 1 imposed load +-+-(- )-(- )-(fixed) 12 16 10 12

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Imposed load (not fixed)

1 +-10

1 +-12

1 (- )-9

1 (- )-9

Note:For obtaining the bending moment, the coefficient shall be multiplied by the total design load and effective span. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------SHEAR FORCE COFFICIENTS -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Type of Load At End At Support Next At All Other Support to the end Support Interior Support Outer side Inner Side -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Dead load and imposed load 0.40 0.60 0.55 0.50 (fixed) Imposed load (not fixed) Note: 0.45 0.60 0.60 0.60

For obtaining the shear force, the coefficient shall be multiplied by the total design load. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------CRITICAL SECTIONS FOR MOMENT AND SHEAR 22.6.1 For monolithic construction, the moments computed at the face of the supports shall be used in the design of the members at those sections. For non-monolithic construction the design of the member shall be done keeping in view 22.2. Critical Section for Shear The shears computed at the face of the Support shall be used in the design of the member at that section except as in 22.6.2.1 When the reaction in the direction of the applied shear introduces compression into the end region of the member, sections located at a

22.6.2

22.6.2.1

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distance less than d from the face of the support may be designed for the same shear as that computed at distance d. REDISTRIBUTION OF MOMENTS 22.7 Redistribution of moments may be done in accordance with 37.1.1 for limit state method and in accordance with B-1.2 for working stress method. However, where simplified analysis using coefficients is adopted, redistribution of moments shall not be done.

EFFECTIVE DEPTH 23.0 Effective depth of a beam is the distance between the centroid of the area of tension reinforcement and the maximum compression fibre, excluding the thickness of finishing material not placed monolithically with the member and the thickness of any concrete provided to allow for wear. This will not apply to deep beams.

CONTROL OF DEFLECTION 23.2 The deflection of a structure or part thereof shall not adversely affect the appearance or efficiency of the structure or finishes or partitions. The deflection shall generally be limited to the following: a) The final deflection due to all loads including the effects of temperature, creep and shrinkage and measured from the as-cast level of the supports of floors, roofs and all other horizontal members should not normally exceed span/250. b) The deflection including the effects of temperature, creep and shrinkage occurring after erection of partitions and the application of finishes should not normally exceed span/350 or 20mm whichever is less. 23.2.1 For beams, the vertical deflection limits may generally be assumed to be satisfied provided that the span to depth ratio are not greater than the value obtained as below: a) Basic values of span to effective depth ratios for spans up to 10m: Cantilever Simply supported Continuous 7 20 26

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b) For spans above 10m, the values in (a) may be multiplied by 10/span in metres, except for cantilever in which case deflection calculations should be made. c) Depending on the area and the type of steel for tension reinforcement, the value in (a) or (b) shall be modified as per Fig. 4 d) Depending on the area of compression reinforcement, the value of span to depth ratio be further modified as per Fig. 5 e) For flanged beams, the value of (a) or (b) be modified as per Fig. 6 and the reinforcement percentage for use in fig. 4 and 5 should be based on area of section equal to bf d.

Note: When deflections are required to be calculated, the method given Annexure C of IS 456-2000 may be used.

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CONTROL OF DEFLECTION SOLID SLABS 24.1 General The provisions of 32.2 for beams apply to slabs also. NOTES 1. For slabs spanning in two directions, the shorter of the two spans should be used for calculating the span to effective depth rations. 2. For two-way slabs of shorter spans (up to 3.5 m) with mild steel reinforcement, the span to overall depth rations given below may generally be assumed to satisfy vertical deflection limits for loading class up to 3 kN/m2. Simply supported slab 35 Continuous slabs 40 For high strength deformed bars of grade Fe 415,the values given above should be multiplied by 0.8. Simply supported slab 28 Continuous slabs 32 23.3 Slabs Continuous Over Supports Slabs spanning in one direction and continuous over supports shall be designed according to the provisions applicable to continuous beams.

23.4 Slabs Monolithic with Supports Bending moments in slabs (except flat slabs) constructed monolithically with the supports shall be calculated by taking such slabs either as continuous over supports and capable of free, or as

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members of a continuous frame work with the supports, taking into account the stiffness of such support. If such supports are formed due to beams which justify fixity at the support of slabs, then the effects on the supporting beam, such as, the bending of the web in the transverse direction of the beam, wherever applicable, shall also be considered in the design of the beams. 23.4.1 For the purpose of calculation of moment in slabs in a monolithic structure, it will generally be sufficiently accurate to assumed direct members connected to the ends of such slab are fixed in position and direction at the end remote from their connection with the slab. 26.5 REQUIREMENT OF REINFORCEMENT FOR STRUCTURAL MEMBER 26.5.1 Beams 26.5.1.1 Tension reinforcement (a) Minimum reinforcement:- The minimum area of tension reinforcement shall not be less than that given by the following:As = 0.85 bd fy where As = minimum area of tension reinforcement. b = breadth of beam or the breadth of the web of T-beam. d = effective depth, and fy = characteristic strength of reinforcement in M/mm2 (b) Maximum reinforcement:- the maximum area of tension reinforcement shall not exceed 0.04bD. 26.5.1.2 Compression reinforcement The maximum area of comparison reinforcement shall not exceed 0.04 bd. Comparison reinforcement in beams shall be enclosed by stirrups for effective lateral restraint. 26.5.1.3 Side face reinforcement Where the depth of the web in the beam exceeds 750mm, side face reinforcement shall be provided along the two faces. The total area of such reinforcement shall be not less than 0.1 % of the web area and shall be distributed on the equally on the two face at spacing not exceeding 300mm or web thickness whichever is less. 26.5.1.4 Transverse reinforcement in beam for shear torsion

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The transverse reinforcement in beam shall be taken around the outer most tension & compression bars. In T-beams and I-beams, such reinforcement shall pass around longitudinal bars located close to the outer face of the flange. 26.5.1.5 Maximum spacing of shear reinforcement Maximum spacing of shear reinforcement means long by axis of the member shall not exceed 0.75 d for vertical stirrups and d for inclined stirrups at 45 where d is the effective depth on the section under consideration. In no case shall be spacing exceed 300mm. 26.5.1.6 Minimum shear reinforcement Minimum shear reinforcement in the form of stirrups shall be provided such that: Asv bsv 0.4 0.87 fy

Where Asv = total cross-sectional area of stirrups legs effective in shear. Sv = stirrups spacing along the length of the member B = breadth of the beam or breadth of the web of flange beam, and fy = characteristic strength of the stirrups reinforcement in N/mm2 which shall not taken greater than 415 N/mm2 Where the maximum shear stress calculated is less than half the permissible value in member of minor structure importance such as lintels, this provision need not to be complied with. 26.5.1.7 Distribution of torsion reinforcement When a member is designed for torsion torsion reinforcement shall be provided as below: a) the transverse reinforcement for torsion shall be rectangular closed stirrups placed perpendicular to the axis of the member. The spacing of the stirrups shall not exceed the list of x1, x1+y1/4 and 300 mm, where x1, y1 are respectively the short & long dimensions of the stirrup.

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b)

Longitudinal reinforcement shall be place as closed as is practicable to the corner of the cross section & in all cases, there shall be atleast one longitudinal bar in each corner of the ties. When the cross sectional dimension of the member exceed 450 mm additional longitudinal bar shall be provided to satisfied the requirement of minimum reinforcement & spacing given in 26.5.1.3.

26.3.2 Minimum Distance between Individual Bars (a) The horizontal distance between two parallel main reinforcing bars shall usually be not-less than the greatest of the following: (i) Dia of larger bar and (ii) 5 mm more than nominal maximum size of coarse aggregate. (b) When needle vibrators are used it may be reduced to 2/3 rd of nominal maximum size of coarse aggregate, Sufficient space must be left between bars to enable vibrator to be immersed. (c) Where there are two or more rows of bars, bars shall be vertically in line and the minimum vertical distance between bars shall be 15 mm, 2/3rd of nominal maximum size of aggregate or the maximum size of bars, whichever is greater. 26.5.2 Slabs The rule given in 26.5.2.1 and 26.5.2.2 shall apply to slabs in addition to those given in the appropriate clause. 26.5.2.1 Minimum reinforcement

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The mild steel reinforcement in either direction in slabs shall not be less than 0.15 percent of the total cross-sectional area. However, this value can be reduced to 0.12 percent when high strength deformed bars or welded wire fabric are used. 26.5.2.2 Maximum diameter The diameter of reinforcing bars shall not exceed one eight of the total thickness of slab. 26.3.3 Maximum distance between bars - Slabs 1) The horizontal distance between parallel main reinforcement bars shall not be more than three times the effective depth of solid slab or 300 mm whichever is smaller. 2) The horizontal distance between parallel reinforcement bars provided against shrinkage and temperature shall not be more than five times the effective depth of a solid slab or 300 mm whichever is smaller. Torsion reinforcement - Slab Torsion reinforcement is to be provided at any corner where the slab is simply supported on both edges meeting at that corner. It shall consist of top and bottom reinforcement, each with layers of bars placed parallel to the sides of the slab and extending from the edges a minimum distance of one-fifth of the shorter span. The area of reinforcement in each of these four layers shall be three-quarters of the area required for the maximum mid-span moment in the slab. D-l.9 Torsion reinforcement equal to half that described in D-l.8 shall be provided at a corner contained by edges over only one of which the slab is continuous. D-1.10 Torsion reinforcements need not be provided at any comer contained by edges over both of which the slab is continuous.

26.5.3 Columns A. Longitudinal Reinforcement a. The cross sectioned area of longitudinal reinforcement shall be not less than 0.8% nor more than 6% of the gross sectional area of the column. Although it is recommended that the maximum area of steel should not exceed 4% to avoid practical difficulties in placing & compacting concrete.

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b. In any column that has a larger cross sectional area than that required to support the load, the minimum percentage steel must be based on the area of concrete resist the direct stress & not on the actual area. c. The bar should not be less than 12 mm in diameter so that it is sufficiently rigid to stand up straight in the column forms during fixing and concerting. d. The minimum member of longitudinal bars provided in a column shall be four in rectangular columns & six in circular columns. e. A reinforced concrete column having helical reinforcement must have at least six bars of longitudinal reinforcement with the helical reinforcement. These bars must be in contact with the helical reinforcement & equidistance around its inner circumference. f. Spacing of longitudinal should not exceed 300 mm along periphery of a column. g. In case of pedestals, in which the longitudinal reinforcement is not taken into account in strength calculations, nominal reinforcement should be not be less than 0.15% of cross sectional area. B. Transverse Reinforcement a. The diameter of lateral ties should not be less than of the diameter of the largest longitudinal bar in no case should not be less than 6 mm. b. Spacing of lateral ties should not exceed least of the following: Least lateral dimension of the column. 16 times the smallest diameter of longitudinal bars to be tied. 300mm. SHEAR 40.1 Nominal Shear Stress The nominal shear stress in beams of uniform depth shall be obtained by the following equation: v = Vu/ b.d where Vu = shear force due to design loads; b = breadth of the member, which for flanged section shall be taken as the breadth of the web, bw; and d = effective depth. 40.2.3 With Shear Reinforcement Under no circumstances, even with shear reinforcement, shall the nominal shear stress in beams should not exceed given in Table 20. 40.2.3.1 For solid slabs, the nominal shear stress shall not exceed half the appropriate values given in Table 20.

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40.3 Minimum Shear Reinforcement When v, is less than c given in Table 19, minimum shear reinforcement shall be provided in accordance with 26.5.1.6.

40.4 Design of Shear Reinforcement When v, is exceeds c , given in Table 19, shear reinforcement shall be provided in any of the following forms: a) Vertical stirrups, b) Bent-up bars along with stirrups, and where bent-up bars are provided, their contribution towards shear resistance shall not be more than half that of the total shear reinforcement. Shear reinforcement shall be provided to carry a shear equal to Vu c b d. the strength of shear reinforcement Vus shall be calculated as below: a) For Vertical Stirrups:

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Vus

0.87 fy Asv d ___________ Sv

b) For inclined stirrups or a series of bars bent up at different cross section: 0.87 fy Asv d ___________ (Sin + Cos ) Sv c) For single bar or single group of parallel bars, all bent up at the same cross sections: Vus = Vus Where Asv = total cross sectional area of stirrups legs or bent-up bar within a distance Sv, spacing of the stirrups or bent-up bars along length of the member. v c b fy = = nominal shear stress, design shear strength of the concrete, = 0.87 fy Asv Sin

Sv

= the

= breadth of the member which for flanged beams, shall be taken as the breadth of the web bw. = up greater than 415 N/mm2, characteristic strength of the stirrup or bentreinforcement which shall not be taken

= bar and

angle between the inclined stirrup or bent up and the axis of the member not less than 45 o,

effective depth

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DEVELOPMENT LENGTH OF BARS 26.2 Development of Stress in Reinforcement The calculated tension or compression in any bar at any section shall be developed on each side of the section by an appropriate development length or end anchorage or by a combination thereof. Development length Ld is given by Ld = st /4bd = nominal diameter of bar, bd = design bond stress st = stress in bar at the section considered at design load Design bond stress in limit state method for plain bars in tension is given in clause 26.2.1.1 For deformed bars conforming to IS 1786 these values are to be increased by 60 %. For bars in compression, the values of bond stress for bars in tension is to be increased by 25 percent

B. Shear reinforcement (STIRRUPS) Development length and anchorage requirement is satisfied, in case of stirrups and transverse ties, when Bar is bent Through an angle of at least 90 degrees (round a bar of at least its own dia) & is continued beyond for a length of at least 8 , or

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E4-E5 Civil (Technica l)

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Through an angle of 135 degrees & is continued beyond for a length of at least 6 or Through an angle of 180 degrees and is continued beyond for a length of at least 4

DUCTILE DETAILING AS PER IS: 13920 Provisions of IS 13920-1993 shall be adopted in all reinforced concrete structures which are located in seismic zone III, IV or V

The provisions for reinforced concrete construction given in IS 13920-1993 shall apply specifically to monolithic reinforced concrete construction. Precast and/or prestressed concrete members may be used only if they can provide the same level of ductility as that of a monolithic reinforced concrete construction during or after an earthquake. The definition of seismic zone and importance factor are given in IS 1893-2002. CODAL PROVISIONS OF IS 13920 5.2 For all buildings which are more than 3 storeys in height, the minimum grade of concrete shall be M20 (fck = 20 MPa ). 5.3 Steel reinforcements of grade Fe 415 (see IS 1786 : 1985 ) or less only shall be used. However, high strength deformed steel bars, produced by the thermomechanical treatment process, of grades Fe 500 and Fe 550, having elongation more than 14.5 percent and conforming to other requirements of IS 1786 : 1985 may also be used for the reinforcement. Flexure Members 6.1.2 The member shall preferably have a width-to-depth ratio of more than 0.3. 6.1.3 The width of the member shall not be less than 200 mm. 6.1.4 The depth D of the member shall preferably be not more than 1/4 of the clear span. 6.2 Longitudinal Reinforcement 6.2.1 a) The top as well as bottom reinforcement shall consist of at least two bars throughout the member length. b) The tension steel ratio on any face, at any section, shall not be less than min = 0.24(fck)1/2 /fy ; where fck and fy are in MPa. 6.2.2 The maximum steel ratio on any face at any section, shall not exceed max = 0.025. 6.2.3 The positive steel at a joint face must be at least equal to half the negative steel at that face.

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E4-E5 Civil (Technica l)

Rev date : 20-04-11

6.2.4 The steel provided at each of the top and bottom face of the member at any section along its length shall be at least equal to one-fourth of the maximum negative moment steel provided at the face of either joint 6.2.6 The longitudinal bars shall be spliced, only if hoops are provided over the entire splice length, at a spacing not exceeding 150 mm 6.3 Web Reinforcement 6.3.1 Web reinforcement shall consist of vertical hoops. A vertical hoop is a closed stirrup having a 135 hook with a 10 diameter extension (but not < 75 mm) at each end that is embedded in the confined core 6.3.2 The minimum diameter of the bar forming a hoop shall be 6 mm. However, in beams with clear span exceeding 5 m, the minimum bar diameter shall be 8 mm. 6.3.4 The contribution of bent up bars and inclined hoops to shear resistance of the section shall not be considered. 6.3.5 The spacing of hoops over a length of 2d at either end of a beam shall not exceed (a) d/4, and (b) 8 times the diameter of the smallest longitudinal bar; however, it need not be less than 100 mm. elsewhere, the beam shall have vertical hoops at a spacing not exceeding d/2. Columns 7.1.2 The minimum dimension of the member shall not be less than 200 mm. However, in frames which have beams with centre to centre span exceeding 5 m or columns of unsupported length exceeding 4 m, the shortest dimension of the column shall not be less than 300 mm. 7.1.3 The ratio of the shortest cross sectional dimension to the perpendicular dimension shall preferably not be less than 0.4. 7.2 Longitudinal Reinforcement 7.2.1 Lap splices shall be provided only in the central half of the member length. It should be proportioned as a tension splice. Hoops shall be provided over the entire splice length at spacing not exceeding 150 mm centre to centre. Not more than 50 percent of the bars shall be spliced at one section. 7.3 Transverse Reinforcement 7.3.1 Transverse reinforcement for circular columns shall consist of spiral or circular hoops. In rectangular columns, rectangular hoops may be used. A rectangular hoop is a closed stirrup, having a 135 hook with a 10 diameter extension (but not < 75 mm) at each end that is embedded in the confined core. 7.3.3 The spacing of hoops shall not exceed half the least lateral dimension of the column, except where special confining reinforcement is provided, as per 7.4. 7.4 Special Confining Reinforcement This requirement shall be met with, unless a larger amount of transverse reinforcement is required from shear strength considerations.

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E4-E5 Civil (Technica l)

Rev date : 20-04-11

7.4.1 Special confining reinforcement shall be provided over a length lo from each joint face, towards midspan, and on either side of any section, where flexural yielding may occur under the effect of earthquake forces. The length lo shall not be less than (a) larger lateral dimension of the member at the section where yielding occurs, (b) 1/6 of clear span of the member, and (c) 450 mm. 7.4.2 When a column terminates into a footing or mat, special confining reinforcement shall extend at least 300 mm into the footing or mat. 7.4.6 The spacing of hoops used as special confining reinforcement shall not exceed 1/4 of minimum member dimension but need not be less than 75 mm nor more than 100 mm. 8 JOINTS OF FRAMES 8.1 The special confining reinforcement as required at the end of column shall be provided through the joint as well, unless the joint is confined as specified by 8.2. 8.2 A joint which has beams framing into all vertical faces of it and where each beam width is at least 3/4 of the column width, may be provided with half the special confining reinforcement required at the end of the column. The spacing of hoops shall not exceed 150 mm.

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E4-E5 Civil (Technica l)

Rev date : 20-04-11

DEAD LOADS UNIT WEIGHTS OF SOME MATERIALS/BUILDING COMPONENTS


As per IS-875(Part-1)-1987 UNIT WEIGHT MATERIAL PLAIN CONCRETE REINFORCED CONCRETE BRICK MASONRY STONE MASONRY TIMBER CEMENT-PLASTER LIME -PLASTER STEEL AC SHEET -ROOFING GI SHEET -ROOFING MANGLORE TILES STEEL WORK -ROOFING kN/m3 24 25 19-20 21-27 6-10 21 18 78.5 0.16 0.15 0.65 0.16-0.23 kN/m2

LIVE LOADS ON FLOORS AS PER IS-875(Part-2)-1987


LIVE LOAD (kN/m2) 2.0 2.5 4.0

TYPE OF FLOOR USAGE RESIDENTIAL OFFICIAL WITH SEPARATE STORAGE WITHOUT SEPARATE STORAGE SHOPS,CLASS ROOMS,WAITINGS ROOMS, RESTAURANTS,WORK ROOMS,THEATRES ETC - WITH FIXED SEATING - WITHOUT FIXED SEATING FACTORIES & WAREHOUSES STACK ROOM IN LIBRARIES ,BOOK STORES GARRAGES LIGHT VEHICLES HEAVY VEHICLES STAIRS-NOT LIABLE TO OVER CROWDING - LIABLE TO OVER CROWDING

4.0 5.0 5.0-10 10.0 4.0 7.5 4.0 5.0

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E4-E5 Civil (Technica l)

Rev date : 20-04-11

LIVE LOADS ON FLOORS OF T.E.BLDGS


LIVE LOAD (kN/m2)
6.0 6.0 10.0 12.0

TYPE OF FLOOR USAGE SWITCH ROOM(NEW TECHNOLOGY) OMC ROOM,DDF ROOM,POWER PLANT, BATTERY ROOM MDF ROOM WEATHER MAKER

LIVE LOADS ON ROOFS ROOF WITH ACCESS ROOF WITHOUT ACCESS 1.5 0.75

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E4-E5 Civil (Technica l)

Rev date : 20-04-11

3.0 Steps for Design of a Multi-Storeyed Building:Manual Method of Analysis & Design:Step1: Study of architectural Drawings:- Before proceeding for structural design of any building it is ensure that approved working drawings are available in the office. All working drawings i.e. each floor plan, elevations, sections, are studied thoroughly & discrepancy if any brought to the notice of concern Architect for rectification/correction. The problems coming in finalization of structural configuration may also be intimated to concern Architect for rectification/correction if any. Step2: Finalization of structural Configuration. After receiving corrected working drawing from the architectural wing, the structural system is finalized. The structural arrangements of a building is so chosen as to make it efficient in resisting vertical as well as horizontal loads due to earthquake. The span of slabs co chosen that thickness of slab 100-150mm and slab panels, floor beams, and columns, are all marked and numbered on the architectural plans. Now the building is ready for structural design to start.

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E4-E5 Civil (Technica l)

Rev date : 20-04-11

ISOMETRIC V IEW OF FR AMED STRUCTU RE Step3: Load Calculation and analysis. For each floor or roof, the loading intensity of slab is calculated taking into account the dead load of the slab, finish plaster, etc. including partitions and the live load expected on the floor, depending on the usage of the floor or roof. The linear loading of beams, columns, walls, parapets, etc. also calculated. Step3 (a): Preliminary Sizes of structural members. Before proceeding for load calculation preliminary sizes of slabs, beams,& columns decided. In manual load calculation preliminary sizes of structural members should be judicially fixed as once load calculation & analysis is done it is not easy to revise the same. But in computer aided analysis & design it can be revised easily. Slab:- The thickness of the slab decided on the basis of span/d ratio assuming appropriate modification factor. Beam : The width the beam generally taken as the width of wall i.e 230 or 300 mm. The width of beam is help full in placement of reinforcement in one layer & more width is help full in resisting shear due to torsion. The depth of beam is generally taken as 1/12 th (for Heavy Loads) to 1/15 th (for Lighter Loads) of span. Column:- Size of column depends upon the moments from the both the direction and the axial load. Preliminary Column size may be finalized by approximately calculation of axial load & moments. Procedure for vertical load calculation on Columns: Step(i): First, the load from slab (including Live load & Dead Load) is transferred on to the adjoining beams using formulas given below|:For computation of shear force on beams & reactions on columns, an equivalent uniformly distributed load per linear meter of beam may be taken as : Equivalent u.d.l. on short beam of slab panel = w B/4.0 Equivalent u.d.l. on long beam of slab panel = w B/4 x [2-(B/L)] Where w is the total load on the slab panel in Kn/Sqm & L & B are long span & short spans of slab panel respectively.

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E4-E5 Civil (Technica l)

Rev date : 20-04-11

Step(ii): Over this load, the weight of wall (if any), self weight of beam etc. are added to get the load on beam (in running metre). Step(iii):The load (in running metre) on each beam is calculated as in Step 1 & Step 2. Step(iv):Then the loads from the beams are transferred to the columns. Step(v):Step (i) to Step (v) is repeated for each floor. Step(vi):These loads at various floors on each column are then added to get the total loads on each column, footing and the whole building. Step4: HORIZONTAL (SEISMIC) LOAD CALCULTAION: The Horizontal Load Calculation or the Load Calculations for Seismic case is carried out as per the Indian Standard Code IS:1893-2002. The loads calculated in Para-II above at various floor levels are modified as per the requirement of Para 7.3.1 of IS:1893-2002. The Seismic Shear at various floor levels is calculated for the whole Building using the values from IS 1893-2002. Calculation o f horizontal loads on buildings (As per is-18 93-2002) Sample ex ample fo r horizontal lo ad calculation (I) (II) BUILDING IS ON SEISMIC ZONE-IV FOUNDATION TYPE ISOLATED FOOTINGS

As per clau se 7.5.3 o f IS-1893-2002 Design base s hear v b


V b

= Ah W

(F)

Where A h = Des ign Horizo ntal acce lerat ion spectrum value as per 6.4.2 of the code = (Z/2 ) (I/R) (Sa/g) Where Z = Zone factor as p er table 2 o f IS Cod e (1893-2002 ) = 0.24 (in this case) = Importance factor as p er table 6 of IS- 1893-2002) = 1.5 (Assuming t ha t the b ld g. is T.E. Bldg.)

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E4-E5 Civil (Technica l) R (OMRF) (S a /g)

Rev date : 20-04-11

= Response reduction factor as per table 7 of IS code = 3.0 (for ordinar y R. C. Mo ment res ist ing fram e = Avera ge resp ons e acceler at io n co effic ient for soil t yp e & app ropriate natural period s and lamp ing of the stru cture.

For calcu lat ing of (Sa/g) value as above we have to calculate va lu e of T i.e. Fu ndamental Nat iona l Per iod (Second s) (Clau se 7.6 of IS Code) T h = 0.075 h 0 . 7 5 (Fo r RC Frame build ing) = 0.0 85 h 0 . 7 5 (For S teel fram e build ing) = Height of building in Meter

In case of building wit h bric k in fills wall s. T = 0.09 h /d 1 / 2 Where h and d = height of bu ild ing in Meter = Base d imension of t he bu ilding at the plinth leve l in Meter alo ng t he considered directio n o f the lat era l fo rce.

Value of (Sa/g) is to b e read fro m fig 2 on page 16 of IS Code dep ending upo n Soil condit io n & Fundament a l Natural period T. Or the va lue of (Sa/g) ma y be calcu lat ed o n the bas is o f Follow ing. Formulas :(i) For ro cky, or hard soil site s (Sa/g) = 1+15 T if 0.00T 0.10 = 2.50 if 0.10T 0.40 =1.0 0/T if 0.40T 4.00 (ii) Fo r mediu m soil site s (Sa/g) = 1+15 T if = 2.5 0 if = 1.36/T if 0.00T 0.10 0.10T0.55 0.55T 4.00

(iii) Fo r soft so il sites (Sa/g) = 1+15 T if 0.00T<0.10

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E4-E5 Civil (Technica l) = 2.50 =1.6 7/T

Rev date : 20-04-11 if 0.10T0.67 if 0.67T 4.00

W= Seismic we ight of the building as per clause 7.4.2 of the code.


A

2 bays @ 7.5 m C/C

4 bays @ 4.0 m C/C TYPICAL FLOOR PLAN Bldg. is three storey with Each storey of 5.0m height

164.9

157.99

47.01

Frame with EQ Loads

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Calculating Seismic weight of building per frame for fra me (B) Le ngt h bld g = 16.00 M C/C distance of frames = 7.50 M De nsit y of R. C.C = 25 KN/m 3 Floor slab = 0.151 6.007 .5025 = 450 KN (A) Co lu mn b elow slab = 0.300(0.70 -0.15)16.0025 = 0.300 .5516 .0025=66 KN (B) Co lu mns = 0.300 .60(5.00+5.00)/2 25 5 = 112.5 KN (C)

Live load = 600 kg/m 2 = 6.00 kn/m 2 As per table 8 of cod e when live load is above 3.0 0 kn/m 2 5 0% of live load to be considered for lamp mass ca lcu lat ion. Lu mp mass at First Floor = 0.506.00167.50 = 360 KN (D) To tal lamp mass first floor & seco nd floo r (Assuming same L.L. on S.F.) (A)+(B)+(C)+(D) = 450+66+112.50+360 = 988.50 KN (ii) Wight lamped at terrace Flo or slab:= 0.1316.007.5025 = 390 KN (E)

Beam be low slab = 0.23(0.60-0.15)16.0025 = 0.230.4516.00 25 = 41 .4.KN (F) Co lu mns = 0.300.6005.00 /2255 = 56.25 KN (G) L.L. = Nil Du ring Eart hqu ake = 0. ( As per the clau se 7.3.2 o f the code the imposed lo ad o n roof need not to be considered ) To tal lamped mass at terrace level = (E)+(F)+(G) = 39 0+41.40+56.25=487.65 KN To tal weight o f b uilding p er framed per inner frame F.F = S.F. = Terrace = 988.50 KN 988.50 KN 487.65 KN 2464.65 KN

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Putting a ll values in Fo rmulas (F) V b = Des ign base she ar = (z/z)(I/R(Sa/ g) w Va lu e of T = 0.09 h/Vd H = Height of bldg. = 15.00 m (3 x5.0=15.00m ) d = 16.00 m T = 0.0915.00/V 16.00 = 0.3375 = 0.34 For med ium soils For T = 0.34 Sa/ g = 2.50 V b = 0.24 /21.50 /3.002 .502465.65 = 369.85 KN Distribution base shea r is d one using formula (clau se 7.7) Fi = w
i

/ w

x Vb

Where F i = Des ign lat eral force at floor i W i = Seis mic weight of floor i h i = he ight of floor in m from base. n = number of stor y s in t he build ing is equal to number of le vels at whic h ma ss es are located. V b = 369.85 KN Floor F.F. S.F. Terrace le vel W i KN 988.50 988.50 487.65 h i (m) W i h i 2 6.00 355 86 11.00 119608.5 16.00 124800 2 w i h i = 279994.5 F i 47.01 KN 157.99 164.85 = 369.85 KN

Step5. VERTICAL LOAD AN ALY SIS: a) GENERAL: The skeleto n frame work of a mult i sto ried R.C. C. fr amed structu re is made up of a s ys tem of columns, beams and slabs. It is presumed that t he re inforcements are a lwa ys so arranged t hat all joint s of the frame are mono lithic. In view of t he u ncertain propert y of m ateria l cre ep, shr inkage and a nu mber of app ro ximate s imp lif yi ng assumptions made in t he detailed anal ys is of mu lti storied framed structures (such as condit io ns

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of end restraints et c.) it is co ns id ered s uffic ient to obtain reaso nable accurac y of a nal ysis fo r the d es ign of structu re. If the normal mo ment distr ibution is ap plied to all joints, t he wo rk invo lved is enormous. However wit h certain as sumptions, it is po ssib le to anal yz e t he fram es and get resu lts whic h will be ad equate for design purposes. To simplif y ana l ysis t he t hre e dimensio nal mult isto ried R.C. C. framed stru cture are considered as comb inat ions of p laner framed in two d irectio ns. It is assumed that each of these p laner frames act indep end ent l y o f t he frame s. Procedur e for Frame analysis for ca lculation of mo ments in Columns & beam s: Step(i): F ir st, the load from slab (including Live load & Dead Load ) is transferred on to the adjo ining beams us ing formulas given below|:For computatio n of Bend ing Moment s in beams , an equ ivale nt uniforml y d istr ibuted load per linear mete r of beam ma y be take n as : Equiva le nt u.d.l. o n s hort beam of slab p ane l = w B/3.0 Equiva le nt u.d.l. o n lo ng beam of slab pane l = w B/6 x [ 3-(B/L) 2 ] where w is t he to tal lo ad on the slab p anel in K n/Sqm & L & B are long span & s hort sp ans of s lab panel respect ive l y. Step(ii) : Over t his load, the weight of wall ( if an y), self weight of beam etc. are added to get the load on beam (in running Meter). Step(iii):T he load (in running Meter) on each beam is ca lculated as in Step 1 & Step 2. Step(iv):St ep (i) to Step (iii) is repeated for each flo or Step(v):T hen t hese loads are us ed as u.d.l on a part icular fr ame for ana lysis b y mome nt distrib ution met ho d as described in t he ne xt sect io n.

b) METHOD O F ANALYSIS:

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Ana l ys is of lar ge fram ed structures beams to o Cu mbersome with the class ical met hod of structure ana l ys i s su ch a Clape yrons t heorem of t hree moments, Cast ingilianos t herefore o f leas t work, Poiso ns met hod of virtual work etc. There fore, it become nec es sar y to e volve simp ler met hods.

Some of these are :a.) Hard y cross met hod of moment distr ibution. b.) Kanis method of iteratio n. c) HARDY CROSS METHOD OF MOMENT DISTRI BUTION: In t his met hod, and it ha s been become quite therefore, o fte n the balancing and carry-o ver co nst itu te one c ycle found the carry-o ver values conver ge fa st e nough to ins ignifica nt a fter four c ycle of o peratio n. it is, adequ ate to stop the compu tation a fter fo ur cyc les.

The frame is a nalyzed b y this method either: i. Floor-wise as suming t he co lu mns to be fixed for ends. or ii. Taking t he frame as a who le. T he who le frame ana l ys is ca n be carried out for several a lternat ive loading arrangeme nts for obtaining ma ximum po sit ive and ne gat ive bending mome nt. Generall y fr ames are a nal yzed floor-wise for the worst co ndit ions of loading.

The metho d is describ ed in the fo llowing step s. Step1: Step2: Step3: Step4: Ca lculate the st iffnes s of a ll members. Enter t hem in t he calculat ion sc hem e. Ca lculated t he d istrib ution fa ctor at a ll joints fro m t he st iffnes s. Enter them in t he calculat io n scheme. Lo ok t he jo ints and calculat e the fixed -e nd moments. E nter them in t he calcu lat io n scheme. Unlock the joint one by one by applying imaginary external moments at each joint which nullifier the unbalanced moment at the joint. Distribute the imaginary external moment among all members

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Step5: Step6:

Meeting at t he joint in proportion to the ir re lat ive st iffnes s and enter t hese va lue in t he scheme. This operation is called balancing. Enter t he carr y-o ver mome nts at t he far in the scheme. Repeat steps 4 & 5, till the carry-o ver moments become in significa nt. Ba lance t he unb alanced moment o btained from the last carr y-o ver operation. Add the init ial fixed-end moments, bala ncing moment s and carr y-o ver mome nt s to get t he final end moments in b eam & co lumns.

Step7:

Step8:

A sample of moment distribu tio n met hod is s how n on next two pages.

C ALCUL ATI ON OF D I ST R IB UTIO N F ACTO R FOR F R AM E AN AL Y SI S Le n gth of me mbe r Cm

S N O .

J O IN T

M EMB ER

Siz e i n Cm

M o ment o f I ne rt ia C m 4 ( I)

K= I/ L

S um K

D . F.

B A- II I 1 R ig h t bea m Lo w e r C o l. Le f t be a m B -II I 2 R ig h t bea m Lo w e r C o l. Le f t be a m 3 C -II I Lo w e r C o l. Up pe r c o l. A- II 4 R ig h t bea m Lo w e r C o l. Le f t be a m B -II 5 Up pe r c o l. R ig h t bea m 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30

D 45 45 45 60 45 60 45 45 45 45 60 45 60 22 7 81 2. 50 22 7 81 2. 50 22 7 81 2. 50 54 0 00 0. 00 22 7 81 2. 50 54 0 00 0. 00 22 7 81 2. 50 22 7 81 2. 50 22 7 81 2. 50 22 7 81 2. 50 54 0 00 0. 00 22 7 81 2. 50 54 0 00 0. 00 6 00 3 50 6 00 7 00 3 50 7 00 3 50 3 50 6 00 3 50 6 00 3 50 7 00 3 7 9. 69 6 5 0. 89 3 7 9. 69 7 7 1. 43 6 5 0. 89 7 7 1. 43 6 5 0. 89 6 5 0. 89 3 7 9. 69 6 5 0. 89 9 0 0. 00 6 5 0. 89 7 7 1. 43 0. 37 1 03 0. 58 0. 63 0. 21 0. 43 1 80 2. 01 0. 36 0. 54 1 42 2. 32 0. 46 0. 39 0. 23 1 68 1. 47 0. 39 0. 30 0. 22 2 97 3. 21 0. 26

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Lo w e r C o l. Le f t be a m C -II 6 Up pe r c o l. Lo w e r C o l. Up pe r c o l. A- I 7 R ig h t bea m Lo w e r C o l. Le f t be a m B -I Up pe r c o l. R ig h t bea m 8 Lo w e r C o l. Le f t be a m C -I 9 Up pe r c o l. Lo w e r C o l.

30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30

45 60 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 60 45 60 45 45

22 7 81 2. 50 54 0 00 0. 00 22 7 81 2. 50 22 7 81 2. 50 22 7 81 2. 50 22 7 81 2. 50 22 7 81 2. 50 22 7 81 2. 50 22 7 81 2. 50 54 0 00 0. 00 22 7 81 2. 50 54 0 00 0. 00 22 7 81 2. 50 22 7 81 2. 50

3 50 7 00 3 50 3 50 3 50 6 00 4 20 6 00 3 50 7 00 4 20 7 00 3 50 4 20

6 5 0. 89 7 7 1. 43 6 5 0. 89 6 5 0. 89 6 5 0. 89 3 7 9. 69 5 4 2. 41 3 7 9. 69 6 5 0. 89 7 7 1. 43 5 4 2. 41 7 7 1. 43 6 5 0. 89 5 4 2. 41

0. 22 0. 37 0. 31 2 07 3. 21 0. 31 0. 41 0. 24 1 57 2. 99 0. 34 0. 16 0. 28 0. 33 2 34 4. 42 0. 23 0. 39 0. 33 1 96 4. 73 0. 28

FRME ANA LYS IS BY MO MEN T DIS TRIBUTION METHO D


7 . 0 0 0. 5 4 0.4 6

III

U. d . l . 28 0 . 63 0. 3 7 84 . 0 0 31 . 0 8 3 0X4 5 In t . FE M

6 . 00 U. D. L 2 4 0 . 21 0. 4 3 0.36 3 0X6 0

0 bal . 52 . 92 C. O. 14 . 63 B AL Tot al 57 . 41 -10 . 14

84 . 00 2 . 94

0 6. 0 2

-9 8. 0 0 5.04

In t . FEM

9 8. 0 0 5 2. 9 2

1. 4 7 -5. 9 6 57 . 4 1

15 . 54 2 . 14

0. 7 4 1 1. 0 6

-2 6. 4 6 3.66

2. 5 2 5. 4 8

1 04 . 62

1 7. 8 2

-11 5. 7 6

5 3. 0 8

0 4 5. 08 1 2. 66 4.6 6 5 3. 08

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Tot al 38 . 28 B AL C. O. 26 . 46 -17 . 43 BA L C. O. 3. 0 1 4. 0 6 -0. 4 2 BA L C. O.

29 . 25 0 0 . 39 II 25 0 . 39 0. 2 3 75 . 0 0 17 . 2 5 0. 3 In t . FE M 6 . 00

1. 4 7 0 0. 2 2 7 . 0 0 0. 3 7

3 4. 87 1 2. 99 2 2. 54 2 5. 32 0 0.3 1

20 0. 2 2 0.26

0.3 1

0 29 . 25 C. O. 17 . 22 B AL -17 . 43

75 . 00 2

0 1. 4 7

-8 1. 6 7 1.73

In t . FEM

8 1. 6 7 3 0. 2 2

29 . 04

1 10 . 2 8 67 . 0 3

8 . 63 -0 . 58

5. 3 9 -0. 4 2

-1 5. 1 1 -0 . 5

0. 8 7 15 . 5

0 2 5. 32 2 0. 22 1 2. 99 3 2. 55

85 . 05

6. 4 4

-9 5. 5 5

6 7. 8 2

Tot al 41 . 81 B AL C. O. 14 . 63 0. 7 4 -7 . 26 1 5. 1 8 3. 6 6

34 . 44 0 0 . 41 I 28 6 . 00

1 0. 7 8 0 0. 2 8 7 . 0 0

5 1. 01 2.0 8 1 2. 66 4 0. 43 0 0.3 3

30

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0 . 34

0 28 . 56 0 -6 . 02

0. 2 4 84 . 0 0 20 . 1 6 3. 0 8 -4. 2 5 65 . 0 1

0 . 16 In t . FE M

0. 2 3

0.33

0. 3 9 1 22 . 5 0 4 7. 7 8 6. 3 6 2. 4 6

0.2 8

84 . 00 6 . 16 10 . 08 2 . 09

0 8. 8 6 0 3. 0 1

-12 2. 5 0 12 . 7 1 -2 3. 8 9 4.31

In t . FEM

C. O. BA L

22 . 54

1 02 . 33

1 1. 8 7

-12 9. 3 7

8 3. 5 4

0 3 4. 3 0 1.7 6 3 2. 54

Step6. HORIZONTAL LOAD ANALYS IS:Frame ana lysis for horizo nta l loads calculated in step 4 is carr ied ou t b y us ing :(a)Approximate Method:i) Cant ilever met hod. ii) Portal met hod . Approximate methods are used for prelim inar y designs only. For fina l d esign we ma y use e xact met hod i.e (i) Slope deflect io n or matrix met hods (ii) Factor method. We will no t d iscuss t hes e met ho ds in d et ail a s no w mo dern co mputer package as STAAD PRO is ava ilable fo r a nal ysis.

Step7: DESIGN OF COULMN,FOUNDATIO NS, BEAMS & SLABS: After load calcu lat io n & anal ys is for vert ica l & horizonta l lo ads, design o f Columns ,Found ations, Beams, S labs a nd are to be carried out as per the var ious clauses of IS codes, IS 456-2000, IS :1893-2002, IS:13920-1993 etc. The D es ign of Co lumn, Foundatio n, Beam s a nd Slabs are dis cu ss ed in details in follow ing s ect io n.

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A. Design o f columns : - Wit h t he know ledge of (i) Vertical load


(ii) Moment s du e to horizont al loads on eit her a xis;( iii) Mo ments due to vertical lo ads on eit her axis, act ing on each co lumn, at a ll flo or leve ls of the b uilding, colum ns are design ed b y charts of SP-16(Desig n Aids) w it h a load factor of 1.5 for vertical lo ad effect a nd w it h a load fa ctor of 1.2 for the combined effect s of t he vertic al and t he horizont a l loads. The step confirms t he s ize of columns assumed in t he archite ctural draw ings. T he design o f each colum n is carr ied o ut from the top of foundatio n to t he roo f, varyi ng t he amount of stee l reinforcement fo r suitable grou ps for ease in des ign. Fu rther, slender ne ss effects in e ac h sto re y ar e cons idered for each column group. Imp ortant Considerations in design o f Columns:(i)Effecti ve heig ht of column :- T he effective height of a column is defined as t he height b etween t he po int s o f contr a flexure of t he buckled co lumn. Fo r effect ive column height refer table 28 (Annexu re E) of IS : 456 -2000. For framed structure effect ive height of column d epends upon re lat ive st iffness of t he colum n & vario us beams fram ing into the column at its two ends. (Refer Annexure E of IS: 456-2000.) (ii)Un suppo rted Leng th: - The u nsupported length l, o f a compression member sha ll be take n as t he c lear dis tance betwee n end restraint s except that :In beam & s lab co nstruct ion, it s ha ll be the clear d ist a nce b etwee n the floor & under sid e of t he s hallower beam fram ing into the colu mns in each dire ct ion at t he next higher floor leve l. (iii) Slenderness limits fo r column s: - The u nsupported lengt h betwee n end re straint s s hall no t e xceed 60 times t he least lat era l dime nsio n of a column. (iv) Mini mu m Eccentricit y: - A ll columns s ha ll b e des igned for minimum eccentric it y equal to u nsu pported le ngt h of colu mn/500 plus least latera l dime nsio n/30, subject to a minimum of 20 mm. Or e mi n l/500+ D/30 20 mm

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Where l= unsu pported length of colu mn in mm. D=Lateral dimens io n o f column in cons iderat ion in mm.

t he

d irect io n

und er

(v)Design Approach: - T he design o f colu mn is complex s ince it is sub jected to axia l loads & mome nt s which ma y ver y ind ependentl y. Co lu mn d es ign requ ired:I. II. III. Determ inat ion o f the cross sect iona l dime ns ion. The area of longitud inal steel & it s distr ibution. Trans verse st ee l. The ma ximum a xial load & moments act ing a long t he lengt h of the colu mn are cons idered for the design of the colum n sect ion eit her b y t he working str ess method or limit st at e met hod. The trans verse reinfo rcem ent is provided to impart effect ive lat eral support aga inst bu ckling to ever y longitu dina l b ar. It is eit her in the form of circular rings of pol ygo na l lin ks (lateral t ies).

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B. Desig n o f foundations: - With the knowledge o f the column lo ads and moments at base a nd the soil data, found ations for columns are designed The follow ing is a lis t o f different t ypes of fou ndatio ns in o rd er to prefere nce w ith a view to economy: (i) Ind ividual footings (ii) Co mbina t ion of individual a nd co mbined fo otings ( iii) Strip fo otings wit h r eta ining wall act ing as str ip beam wherever applic able; ( iv) Raft fo undations of the t yp es (a) Slab (b) beam-slab. The bric k wa ll footings are also designed at this st a ge. Often, plint h b eams are provided to support brick walls a nd also to act as eart hq uake t ies in ea ch p rincipal d ire ct ion. Plint h beams, retaining wal l if any, are a lso designed at t his sta ge, being cons idered as part of fo undations. Imp ortant Considerations in design o f Fo undations:a) Introduction: - Foundations ar e structural element s that transfer loads from the bu ilding or ind ividual column to the eart h. If t he se loads are to be properl y transmitted, fou ndatio ns must be d es igned to prevent e xcess ive sett lement or rotation, to minimize differentia l sett lement and to provide adequate safet y aga inst slid ing and over turning. b) Depth of foundation:Depth of foundation below ground level may be obtained by using Rankine's formula p - - 2 1 Sin - - - - - - - - - - - 1 + Sin

Where h = p = = =

Minimum dep th of found ation Gross bearing cap acit y De nsit y of soil Angle of Repo se of soil

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c) Recom mend atio ns o f IS 456 -2000, limit state design, bending, shear, crack ing & developmen t i) To determine the area required for proper transfer of total load on the soil, the total load (the combination of dead, live and any other load without multiplying it with any load factor) need be considered. Plan Ar ea o f foo ting = To tal Load inclu ding Se lf We ight ------------------------------------Allowable bearing capacit y of soil

ii) IS 1904 1978, Code o f Practice for Structura l Safety of Building s: s hallow found atio n, s ha ll gove rn t he genera l deta ils. iii) Thick ness of the ed ge of footin g:-(Refere nce c lause 34.1 .2) The t hickness at t he ed ge s hall not be less t han 15 cm for footing on soils. iv) Dimen sion of p edestal:In the case of plain Cement Concrete pedestals, the angle between the plane passing through the bottom edge of the pedestal and the corresponding junction edge of the column with pedestal and the horizontal plane shall be governed by the expression. 100 q o ----------- + 1 Fck

Tan (s hould not be les s tha n) 0.9 x Where qo fc k =

Ca lculated maximum bearing pressure at the b ase of the pedestal/ fo oting in N/mm 2 Character ist ic strength of concrete at 28 da ys in N/mm 2

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Co lumn

P LA IN CONCRE TE PEDES TA L

(v)

Bend in g Moment

(Refere nce Clauses- 34.2.3 .1 & 34 .2.3.2) COLUM N BASE PEDESTAL

Y
FAC E O F PE D ES TA

FAC E O F CO LUMN

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ISOLATED COLUMN FOOTING The bending Moment will be considered at the face of column, Pedestal or wall and shall be determined by passing through the section a vertical place which extends completely across the footing, and over the entire area of the footing or, one side of the said plane. (vi)Shear (Reference Clause 33.2.4.1) The shear strength of footing is governed by the following two factors:a) The footing acting essentially as a wide beam, with a potential diagonal crack intending in a plane across the entire width, the critical section for this condition shall be assumed as a vertical section located from the face of the column, pedestal or wall at a distance equal to the effective depth of the footing in case of footings on soils.

FOR ONE WAY BENDING ACTION For one way shear action, the nominal shear stress is calculated as follows:Vu v = Where v Vu b d = = = = Shear stress Factored vertical shear force Breadth of critical section Effective depth ------b.d

v < c ( c = Design Shear Strength of Concrete Based on % of longitudinal tensile reinforcement refer Table 61 of SP-16)

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C R I T IC A L SECTIO N

d d

CRITICAL SECTION FOR ONE -WAY SHEAR (FOR TWO WAY BENDING ACTION) For two may bending action, the following should be checked in punching shear. Punching shear shall be around the perimeter 0.5 time the effective depth away from the face of column or pedestal. For two way shear action, the nominal shear stress is calculated in accordance with lause 31.6.2 of the code as follows:Vu v Where v b0 d Vu = = = = Shear stress Periphery of the critical section Effective depth Factored vertical shear force = ---------b0.d

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When shear reinforcement is not provided, the nominal shear stress at the critical section should not exceed [Ks. c] Where Ks = 0.5 + Bc (But not greater than 1) Short dimension of column or pedestal Bc = ---------------------------------------------------Long dimension of column or pedestal c = 0.25 fek N/mm2

Note:-It is general practice to make the base deep enough so that shear reinforcement is not required. (vii)Development Length (Reference Clause 34.2.4.3) The critical section for checking the development length in a footing shall be assumed at the same planes as those described for bending moment in clause 34.2.3 of code (as discussed 4.5 of the handout) and also at all other vertical planes where abrupt changes of section occur. (viii) Reinforcement:- The Min % of steel in footing slab should be 0.12% & max spacing should not be more than 3 times effective depth or 450 mm whichever is less. (Reference Clause 34.3) Only tensile reinforcement is normally provided. The total reinforcement shall be laid down uniformly in case of square footings. For rectangular footings, there shall be a central band, equal to the width of the footings. The reinforcement in the central band shall be provided in accordance with the following equation. 2 = -----B+1

Reinforcement in central Band width -------------------------------------------------Total reinforcement in short direction Where B = Long side of footing --------------------------Short side of footing

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(ix)Transfer of Load at the Base of Column (Reference Clause 34.4) The compressive stress in concrete at the base of column or pedestal shall be transferred by bearing to the top of supporting pedestal or footing. The bearing pressure on the loaded area shall not exceed the permissible bearing stress in direct

A1 Compression multiplied by a value equal to but not greater than 2 Where A1 = Supporting area for bearing of footing, which is sloped or stepped footing may be taken as the area of the lower base of the largest frustum of a pyramid or cone contained wholly with in the footing and having for its upper base, the area actually loaded and having side slope of one vertical to two horizontal. Loaded area at the column base. -----A2

A2 4.91

For limit state method of design, the permissible bearing stress shall be = 45 fek If the permissible bearing stress is exceeded either in column concrete or in footing concrete, reinforcement must be provided for developing the excess force. The reinforcement may be provided either by extending the longitudinal bars into the footing or by providing dowels in accordance with the code as give in the following:1) Minimum area of extended longitudinal bars or dowels must be 0.5% of cross sectional area of the supported column or pedestal. 2) A minimum of four bars must be provided. 3) If dowels are used their diameter should not exceed the diameter of the column bars by more than 3 mm. 4) Enough development length should be provided to transfer the compression or tension to the supporting member. 5) Column bars of diameter larger than 36 mm, in compression only can be dowelled at the footing with bars of smaller diameters. Te dowel must extend into the column a distance equal to the development length of the column bar. At the same time, the dowel must extend vertically into the footing a distance equal to the development length of the dowel.

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C. Des ign of F loor slabs :-. De sign o f floor s labs and beams is taken up wit h t he F irst Floor & upwards .The s labs are designed as one-wa y or two-way pa nels, taking t he edge co ndit ions o f t he supporting ed ges in to account, with t he loading alread y dec ided as per fu nctio nal use of slab panel. The design of flo or slab is carried out as per clau se 24.4 & 37.1.2 & A nne xure D o f IS : 4 56-2000. The Bending mo ment coefficie nts are to be taken from table- 26 of the code depending upon the sup port condit ion & be nding mo ment calcu lated & reinforcement steel ma y be calculat ed from the charts of SP -16. The slab des ign for particular floo r may be do ne in tabular form as shown below.

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SLAB DESIGN
Name of pr oj ect:Level of sl a b
s l a b S l a Ed g e b c o nd it io n I D To tal l oa d in KN / Sq .m w S h or t sp an lx m 1. 5 l * y w / * l lx x *l x t h i c k n e s s i n m m S t e e l i n s h o r t s p a n

lo ng s pa n ly m

Sh o r t s pa n M ome nt K N -M

L o ng s pa n mom e nt KN M

St ee l in lo ng sp a n

x ( + )

x ( )

mu x +

1 0

1 1=

7 x 9

S m t u e x e - l 1 2 = 1 7 3 x 1 0

y ( + )

y ()

m u y + 1 6 = 7 x 1 4

m u y Ste e - l 1 7 = 7 x 1 5
18

1 4

1 5

Tw o Ad j . Ed g S e. 1 Di sc ont . (Cas e No. 4) S 2

8. 50

3 .5 0

5. 2 5

1 1 5 . 6. 5 8 0

1 2 0

0 . 0 5 6

0 . 0 7 5

8. 7 8

1 1 . 7 6

0 . 0 3 5

0 . 0 4 7

5 . 4 9

7 . 3 7

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Method of calculation of steel from Tables of SP-16 for slab design


Determine the main reinforcement required for a slab with the following data: Factored moment Mu 9.60 kN.mper Metre width Depth of slab 10 cm Concrete mix M 20 Characteristic strength a) 415 N/mm2 METHOD OF REFERRING TO TABLES FOR SLABS Referring to table 35 (for fck=20 & fy = 415 N/mm2), directly we get the following reinforcement for a moment of resistance of 9.60 kN.m per Metre width: 8 mm dia at 13 cm spacing or 10 mm dia at 210 cm spacing Reinforcement given in the table is based on a cover of 15 mm or bar diameter whichever is greater. Check for Deflection:-Slab is also checked for control of Deflection as per clause 23.2.1, 24.1 & Fig 4. of the IS:456-2000.

D. Design of floor Beams:-. The beams are designed as continuous beams, monolithic with reinforced concrete columns with their far ends assumed fixed. The variation in the live load position is taken into account by following the two-cycle moment distribution. the moments are applied a face correction to reduce them to the face of the members. The moments due to horizontal loads are added to the above moments. Each section of the beam is designed for load factor of 1.5 for vertical load effect and with a load factor of 1.2 for the combined effects of the vertical and the horizontal loads. The effect of the shear due to vertical and horizontal loads is also similarly taken care of. It may be noted that the shear component due to wind or earthquake may be significant and it may affect the size and the range of shear stirrups. Bent- up bars are not effective for earthquake shear due to its alternating nature. The beam design can be easily done by a computer program which will give reinforcement at various critical sections along the length of the beam and also shear stirrups required it saves considerable time and labour of a designer. In manual method span of a beam is generally designed at three sections i.e at two supports & at Mid span. The each section is designed for factored Moment, Shear & equivalent shear for Torsion if any at a section.

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Two examples of beam design are given below illustrating calculation of steel reinforcement with help of SP-16.

Example1.Singly Reinfo rced Beam Determine t he main te nsio n reinforceme nt required for a rectangular b eam sect io n wit h t he following data: Size o f b eam 30 X 60 cm Co ncret e mix M 20 Character ist ic strength 415 N/mm 2 o f reinfo rcement Facto red mo ment 170 kN.m As su ming 2 0 mm dia bars wit h 25 mm clear cover, Effect ive d epth= 6 00 2 5 20 /2 = 565 mm Fro m Tab le D for f y = 415 N/ mm 2 and f c k = 20 N/mm 2 M u, l i m/ bd 2 = 2.76 N/ mm 2 = 2.76/1000 X (1000 ) 2 = 2.76 X 10 3 kN/m 2 M u, l im = 2.76 X 10 3 bd 2 = 2.76 X 10 3 X 0.300 X0.565 X0.565 = 264.32 kN.m Actu al mome nt of 170 kN.m is less t han M u, l i m. The sect ion is t here fo re to be d esigned as a s ingl y reinfo rced (under-reinforced) recta ngu lar sect io n. Re ferring to table 2 of SP-16 we have to ca lculate Mu/bd 2 Mu/bd 2 = 170 x10 6 /(300x 565 x565) = 1.78 Fro m Tab le 2. p t = 0.556 A st =0.556 x 300x 565/100 =942.42mm 2 =9.42 cm 2 Ex ample2 .Dou bly Reinforced Bea m (i)Deter mine the main reinforcements r equired for a rectangular with the following data: Size o f b eam 3060 cm Co ncret e mix M 20 Character ist ic strength of 415/Nmm 2 Re inforcement Facto red mo ment 320Kn.m

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As su ming 2 0 mm dia bars wit h 25 mm clear cover, D=600-25 20/ 2 =565 mm Fro m tab le D, fo r f y = 415 N/mm 2 and f c k = 20N/mm 2 Mu 2 lim/bd 2 = 2.76 N/mm 2 = 2.76 10 3 KN/m 2 Mu 2 lim= 2.76 10 3 0.3000.5650.5 65 = 264.32 KN-M Actu al mome nt of 320 Kn.M is greater than Mu 2 lim he nce t he s ect io n is to be designed as a doubly reinforced section.

Re inforcement from Table 50 Mu/bd 2 = 320 10 6 / (300 565 2 ) = 3.34 N/mm 2 d /d = (25+10)/565 = 0.062 Ne xt higher value of d 1 /d = 0.1 , will be used for referr ing to Table 5 0 For Mu/bd 2 = 3.34 and d /d = 0.10, p t = 1.152, p c = 0.207 A st = 1.152 x 300x 565 /100 =1952.64 mm 2 =19.52 cm 2 And A sc = 0.207 x 300x 565/100 =350.86 mm 2 =3.51 cm 2 (ii) Determine the Shear reinforcement (vertical stirrup s ) required for the same beam section if factored shear force is V u =250 KN. N/mm v < ma x ( 2.8 N /mm 2 ) he nce se ct ion is adeq uate regarding s he ar stress. From table 6 1 for p t =1.15 c =0.65 N/mm 2 Shear capac it y of co ncrete se ct ion = c b d = 0.65 300 565/1000=110 .18 kN She ar to b e carried b y st irrups V u s =V u - c b d = 250 - 1 10.18 =139.82 kN V u s /d = 139.82/56.5 = 2.47 kN/ cm Referr ing to tab le 6 2 for steel f y = 415 N/mm 2 Provid e 8 mm diameter two le gged vert ical st irrups at 140 mm sp acing.
2

S hear stress v = V u /bd = 250 10 3 /(300 565) =1.47

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TABLES

FOR

DESIGN

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DETAILING AS PER IS 13920

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MIN 2 BARS FOR FULL LENGTH ALONG TOP AND BOTTOM FACE AS > MIN. Bd AS < MAX Bd 50 m max 50 m max

db
2d 2d

HOOP SPACING > d /2 HOOP SPACING < d/4 and 8 db B = BREADTH OF BEAM db = DIAMETER OF LONGITUDINAL BAR

BEAM REINFORCEMENT

37

Questions:1. Which are t he important BIS Codes/ ha ndou ts used for structu ral design of RCC build ings ? 2. In w hich seismic zones provis io ns of IS 13920 is to be ad opted fo r all re inforced concrete structu res? 3. (a) What are t he basic values o f span to effect ive depth rat ios for beams as per IS 456 for sp an upto 10meter for (i) Cant ilever (ii) Simpl y supported (iii) Co nt inuou s (b) What are t he basic values of sp an to overa ll depth ratio s for two -way slabs upto 3.5 m sp an & wit h Fe415 stee l reinforceme nt and load ing cla ss upto 3KN/m 2 ? 4. What are t he provisions o f IS 456 for nominal cover to meet durabilit y requireme nt s ? A s per IS 456 how much minimum cover should be provided for a) Co lumn b) Footing 5. (a) What are t he minimu m reinforceme nt provis ion of IS 4 56 for beams in respect of: (i) Tension re inforcement

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(ii) Shear re inforcement (b) What are t he IS 456 provisio ns for ma ximum reinforcement in beams for:(i) Compress ion reinfo rcement (ii) Tension re inforcement 6. What is t he maximum permis s ible spacing for s hear reinforcement in b eams? E xpla in IS 4 56 provis ions for side fa ce reinforcement in beams. 7. How mu ch m inimum reinforceme nt must be provided in s labs ? 8. As per IS189 3 give formulae for calculating a) Des ign Base S hear (V b ) b) Des ign Hor izonta l accelerat io n (A h ) 9. Give formulae for calculat ing t ime p eriod as per IS1 893 for a) RCC Frame Building b) RCC Building Br ick in fill walls 10. How vert ical loads on co lumns are ca lculat ed? G ive name s of s impler met hods of ana l ysis of structures. 11. What is t he minimum ecce ntr icit y for whic h all columns s hould be designed? List out minimum a nd maximum lo ngitudina l reinfo rcement req uired to b e provided in co lu mns ? G ive in brief provisions for maximum spacing of lateral t ies in a column? 12. What are t he cr itic al sect ions in isolat ed fo oting design fo r the follow ing:a) Bending mo ment b ) One wa y s hear c) Two way shear 13. How man y minimum longitudina l reinforcement bars sho uld be provided in:a) Circular co lu mn b) Rect a ngular column 14. What is the minimum diamet er bar that can be u sed in longitudina l reinforcement in colu mn?

---------------------

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