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Marketing is an organization function and a set of process for creating communication and deliver value to customer and for

managing customer relationship in ways the benefits the organization and its stakeholders. Communication, the process of sharing ideas, information, and messages with others in a particular time and place. Communication includes writing and talking, as well as nonverbal communication (such as facial expressions, body language, or gestures), visual communication (the use of images or pictures, such as painting, photography, video, or film), and electronic communication (telephone calls, electronic mail, cable television, or satellite broadcasts). Communication is a vital part of personal life and is also important in business, education, and any other situation where people encounter each other.

Marketing communication is a coordinated promotional message delivered through one or more channels such as print, radio, television, direct mail, and personal selling.

MACROMODEL OF THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS. i. ii. Source may be a company or person who has information to company. Message this is the information sent by a source such as a description of a new cellular telephone. iii. Chanel of communication is where a message is conveyed to a customer by media or sales person, advertising media or public relation tools. iv. v. Encoding is the process of having the sender transforms the idea into a set of symbols. Decoding is the reverse or the process of having the receiver take a set of symbols, message and transform them back to the idea. vi. Receivers are the customer who read, hear or see the message.

DESIGN OF MARKETING COMMUNICATION Is Formulating the communication to archive the desired response will require solving three `problems which are what to say (message strategy), how to say it(creative strategy), and who should say it( message source).

Message strategy. In determining message strategy, management searches for appeals, themes or ideas that will tie into the brand positioning and help to establish points of parity or point of difference. Some of these may be related direct to product or services performance (the quality, economy, or value of the brand) whereas others may relate to more extrinsic consideration the brand as being contemporary, popular or tradition. It is widely believed those industrial buyers are most responsive to performance message. They are knowledgeable about the product, train to recognize value, and accountable for others for their choices. Consumers when they buy certain big ticket items, also tend to gather information and estimate benefits. Creative strategy: Communication effectiveness depends on how a message is being expressed as well as the content of the message its self. An ineffective communication may mean the wrong message was used as or the right message was just expressed poorly. Creative strategies are how marketers translate their message into a specific communication. Creative strategy can be broadly classified as involving either informational or transformational appeals. These two general categories each encompass several different specific creative approaches. Message source: Many communications do not use a source beyond in the company itself. Other use known or unknown people. Message deliveries by attractive or popular sources can potentially archive higher attention and recall, which is why advertisers often use celebrities as spokespeople. Celebrities are likely to be effective when they personify a key product attribute example Steven Kanumba did this for Zantel Twanga kotekote, and Monalisa did this for the comfy mattress.

INTERGRATED MARKETING COMMUNICATION (IMC) Is referred as a concept of designing marketing communication programs that coordinate all promotional activities, advertising, personal selling, sales promotion, public relation and direct marketing. OR Concept of designing marketing communication program that coordinates all promotional activities to provide a consistent message across all audiences. Marketing is an organization function and a set of process for creating communication and deliver value to customer and for managing customer relationship in ways the benefits the organiz\\ation and its stakeholders. Promotion mix This consists of communication tools including advertising, personal selling, sales promotion, public relation and direct marketing. All this tools can be used to: Inform the prospective buyers about the benefit of the product. Persuade them to try. Remind them later about the benefits they enjoyed by using the product.

The promotion elements It has five element such as advertising, personal selling, sales promotion, public relation and direct marketing. ( in summarizes the destinations among these five elements, three of these element advertising, public relation, sales promotion are often said to use mass selling because they are used with groups of prospective buyers.) i. Advertising. Is any paid form of non personal communication about an organization, good, services, or idea of an identified sponsor, that paid aspect if this definition must be denoted silvees

when your advertising you must pay for the space that is denoted let it be on the TV, magazine, media such as radio, internet ect. ii. Personal selling Defined as two way flow of communication between a buyer and seller, designed to influence the persons or group purchase decision. Personal selling is usually face to face communication between sender and receiver. iii. Public relation Is the form of communication management that seek the influence the felling or opinions, or belief held by customers, potential customers, stakeholders, supplies, employee and other about the company and its product and services, may tools as special events lobbying, efforts, annual reports, press conferences and image management may be used by a public relation depertment although publicity often plays the most important role. Publicity is a non personal indirect paid presentation of an organization good or service. iv. Sales promotion Is the short term offer designed to arose interest in buying a good or services. Used in conjunction with advertising, personal selling, sales promotion is offered to intermediaries as well as to ultimate consumers eg. Coupons, rebates, samples and sweepstakes are just a few example of sales promotion. v. Direct marketing is the promotion element that uses direct communication with consumer to generate a response in the form an order a request for information visit to a retail outlet. This communication can take many forms like face to face selling, direct mail, catalogs, telephone solicitation, and direct response adverting (e.g. in radio, TV and points.) and online marketing.

DEVELOPING THE PROMOTIONAL MIX: Is the combination of one or more of the promotional tools the firms chooses to use. There are two things that a marketer should consider:

First the balance of element must be determined that which one is the best and should be emphasize than the other. Several factor that affects such decision like the target audience for the promotion, stage of product life cycle , characteristic of the product , decision stage of a buyer and even the channel of distribution. Second coordination should be there to put much effort.

1. THE TARGET AUDIENCE: Promotional programs are directed to the ultimate consumer to an intermediary retailer, wholesaler or industrial distributor) or both. 2. THE PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE. All products have their own life cycle and the consumption of the promotion mix changes over the four life cycle stages as follow: Introduction stage Informing consumers is an effort to increase their level of awareness is the primary promotional objectives in the introduction stage of the product life cycle, all promotional mix are used at this time/ stage. Growth stage The promotional objective of the growth stage is to persuade the consumer to buy the product, advertising is used to communicate brand differences and personal selling is used to solidify the channel of distribution. Maturity stage: Is the need of maintain existing buyers. Advertising role is to remind buyers of the product existence. Sales promotion in the form of discounts and coupons is important in maintaining loyal buyers. Decline stage: The decline stage of the product life cycle is a usually a period of phase out for the product and little money is spent in the promotional mix.

3. CHANNEL STRATEGIES

Is the flow from a producer to intermediaries to consumer. Archiving control of the channel is often difficult for the manufacturer and promotional strategies and assists in morilng the product through the channel of distribution. And this is where a product has to make an important decision about whether to use a push strategy, pull strategy, or both in its channel of distribution. Push strategy: direction the promotional mix to channel members to encourage them to order and stock a product. Pull strategy: directing the promotional mix at ultimate consumers to encourage them to ask the retailer for the product. DEVELOPING AN IMC PROGRAM Since media costs are high then promotion decision must be made carefully using a systematic approach. Paralleling the plan, implementation and control step described in strategic marketing process. And this is divided into i.) Developing ii.) Executing and iii.) Evaluating the promotional programs. Step 1. Define the audience (s) to be targeted we identified three broad ways to segment both consumer and organization markets on the basis of who the customers are where they are and how the behave. Step 2. Set the promotion objectives, the marketers are to decide exactly what the communication is supposed to accomplish e.g. Is the promotion objectives need only the company to be known? Or is the promotion aim to attract more customers or not? Hence the marketer is supposed to be direct to what is want. Step 3. Set the promotion budget. The managers first determine the total amount to be budgeted and then allocate various amounts to the difference mix component. The things to consider in setting budget.

a) Percentage of sales under this sale determines the promotional activity versus planning to archive the sales objective. b) Competitive parity e.g. if the firm market share is 20% the nits budget would be its 20% of the total amount spent by the industry on promoting a given product market entry. Help to create stability in market share among competitors. The company must suppose to compare how much do competitors spending in term of buying manufacturing advertising. Step 4: design the promotion mix. In this stage first marketers decide which promotion components to use is advertising or personal or public relation? They choose the specific activities within each component in adverting this involves considering such media as TV, radio, newspapers, magazines a consumer sales promotions could consist of coupons free samples.

REFERENCE: CONSUMER BEHAVIOR AND MARKETING STRATEGY 8TH EDITION 2008 MC GRAW HILL J.PAUL PETER, JERRY C OLSON MARKETING THE CORE 2ND EDITION ROGER A. KERIN, STEVEN W. HARTLEY, WILLIAM RUDELIUS. MARKETING MANAGEMENT 7TH EDITION PHILIP KOFLER, KEVIN LANE KELLER.

MOUNT MERU UNIVERSITY FACULY OF EDUCATION AND BUSINESS STUDIES DMKT (2010 2012) ASSIGNMENT ONE COURSE NAME; MARKETING COMMUNICATION COURSE CODE; MK2210D SUBMITTED TO; Miss. SECILIA ZIBILIZA SUBMITTED BY; 1. ISAYA STEPHEN.. [10DMKTMO39] 2. JOSHUA KWEKA ... [10DMKTM032] 3. IRENE EMANUEL.[10DMKTM025] 4. HELLENA M. BLANCE..[10DMKTM022] 5. KERIN OLANG .[10DMKTM036] 6. ROBERT KOKA....[10DMKTM031] 7. CATHERINE ODUMBE.[10DMKTM001] 8. PROSPER GASPER.[10DMKTM026] 9. VENCE WAWARY..[10DMKTM043] 10. YASINTA MKINDI...[10DMKTM033] 11. LUCIAN TLATLA.[10DMKTM040]

Date of submission: 23-01-2012

ARUSHA TANZANIA