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Chap.

5, part II, page 1

Chapter 5, part II: Comparisons among several samples


Testing Equality in a Subset of Groups: The Spock Conspiracy Trial Data.

In 1968, Dr. Benjamin Spock was tried in the United States District Court of Boston on charges
of conspiring to violate the Selective Service Act by encouraging young men to resist the draft
for Vietnam. The defense challenged the jury selection, claiming that women had been
systematically under-represented. The Spock jury had no women.

Juries in Boston are selected in 3 stages. From the city directory, the Clerk of the Court selects
300 names at random. Before the trial, a venire of 30 or more jurors is selected from the 300
names, according to law, at random. The final jury is selected from the venire in a nonrandom
process allowing each side to exclude certain jurors for a variety of reasons.

The Spock defense pointed to the venire for their trial, which contained only one woman. That
woman was released by the prosecution, resulting in an all male jury. The defense argued that the
judge in the trial had a history of venires in which women were under-represented, contrary to
law.

The data consist of the percent women in the venires of Spock’s judge and six other Boston area
District Court judges. Here are the summary statistics:
Descriptives

percent
95% Confidence Interval for
Mean
N Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error Lower Bound Upper Bound Minimum Maximum
SPOCK'S 9 14.6222 5.03879 1.67960 10.7491 18.4954 6.40 23.10
A 5 34.1200 11.94182 5.34054 19.2923 48.9477 16.80 48.90
B 6 33.6167 6.58222 2.68718 26.7090 40.5243 27.00 45.60
C 9 29.1000 4.59293 1.53098 25.5696 32.6304 21.00 33.80
D 2 27.0000 3.81838 2.70000 -7.3068 61.3068 24.30 29.70
E 6 26.9667 9.01014 3.67838 17.5111 36.4222 17.70 40.20
F 9 26.8000 5.96888 1.98963 22.2119 31.3881 16.50 36.20
Total 46 26.5826 9.17911 1.35339 23.8567 29.3085 6.40 48.90

Here is the ANOVA table comparing the equal means model to the separate means model:
ANOVA

percent
Sum of
Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
Between Groups 1927.081 6 321.180 6.718 .000
Within Groups 1864.445 39 47.806
Total 3791.526 45
Chap. 5, part II, page 2

So, we see that the separate means model is significantly better than the equal means model.
Now, the question becomes: Is the venire from Spock’s judge significantly different from the
other 6, and are the other six basically the same?

Here is the ANOVA table comparing the two means model to the equal means model, where
Spock’s venire has parameter µ1 and the other venires have mean µ0.
ANOVA

percent
Sum of
Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
Between Groups 1600.623 1 1600.623 32.145 .000
Within Groups 2190.903 44 49.793
Total 3791.526 45

Now, finally, we want to compare the two-means model to the separate means model. How do
we do this? Remember: SPSS will always use the equal means model as the reduced model. We
need to calculate the Extra Sum of Squares where the two means model serves as the reduced
model.

ESS = SSR2 − SSR7 =

Then, our F statistic is:

F =

Our rejection decision is then made by comparing this value to the 95th quantile of the
appropriate F distribution, or the value closest to this in the table.

From the table we find,

F =

What is our decision?


Chap. 5, part II, page 3

Kruskal Wallis Nonparametric Analysis of Variance

When outliers are present, but the data are thought to be meaningful, one alternative to ANOVA
is the Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric analysis of variance. Here, we use the rank transform and
then conduct the F test on the ranks. The test statistic is:

1
KW = SSBR
σ R2
where σ R2 is the sample variance of all n ranks, where n is the number of observations in all
groups.

Results of Kruskal-Wallis Test for the Spock Data


Ranks

Judge N Mean Rank


percent SPOCK'S 9 6.39
A 5 33.20
B 6 34.00
C 9 28.06
D 2 23.50
E 6 24.08
F 9 23.28
Total 46

Test Statisticsa,b

percent
Chi-Square 21.965
df 6
Asymp. Sig. .001
a. Kruskal Wallis Test
b. Grouping Variable: Judge

To perform the KW test in SPSS, go to Analyze Æ NonparametricÆ K independent samples,


and then choose the “Kruskal-Wallis test” box.