
.


, , , ,
, , , ,
ln /
(4)
and for counterflow:
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
 
Q UA
T T T T
T T T T
h in c out h out c in
h in c out h out c in
=

\

.


, , , ,
, , , ,
ln /
(5)
Figure 2, Heat Transfer Model
Heat Exchanger Effectiveness
The effectiveness, c, of a heat exchanger is defined as
c
Actual heat transferred
Maximum possible heat transfer
Let us also define the heat capacity rate, C, for the cold and hot fluids as:
C m c
h h p h
=
,
C m c
c c p c
=
,
University of Texas at Arlington MAE 3183, Measurements II Laboratory
Concentric Tube Heat Exchanger 4
C
h c min
= minimum of C and C
C
h c max
= maximum of C and C
Where
C T T
C T T
C T T
C T T
c c out c in
h in c in
h h in h out
h in c in
, ,
min , ,
, ,
min , ,
(6)
(Please note that in your experiment the RHS and LHS of equation (6) will not be equal. This is due to
imperfect insulation of the heat exchanger from the surroundings. You should therefore calculate both
and use the minimum of the two values in your analysis.) Further manipulation gives the following
equation for theoretical effectiveness for a parallel flow, concentric tube heat exchanger
( ) ( )
c =
+
+
1 1
1
Exp NTU C
C
r
r
(7)
For a counter flow heat exchanger the equation becomes
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
c =
1 1
1 1
Exp NTU C
C Exp NTU C
r
r r
(8)
where NTU is the number of transfer units which is defined as NTU UA/C
min
and C
r
is the heat capacity
ratio and is defined as C
r
C
min
/C
max
.
Venturi Flow Meter
This experiment makes use of a venturi flow meter to indicate volumetric flow rate. In this type of flow
meter the pressure differential developed across a venturi will determine the actual flow rate in the
system. The equation to determine the flow rate is given by:
( )
( )
V B A
p p
v
w
=
2
1 2
4
2
1 
(9)
where the area ratio  = d
2
/d
1
= (A
2
/A
1
)
1/2
.
Topics to Review
 Heat Exchanger Efficiency
 Heat Transfer Dimensionless Numbers
 Temperature vs. Pipe Length Curves
University of Texas at Arlington MAE 3183, Measurements II Laboratory
Concentric Tube Heat Exchanger 5
Apparatus
Heat Exchanger
The concentric tube heat exchanger in this experiment is operable in both the parallel and counterflow
configuration and consists of the following:
2 Venturi flow meters
2 Mercury manometer tubes
4 Thermocouples
Thermocouple Controller
The physical characteristics of the heat exchanger are:
Inner Tube ID 0.529 in.
Inner Tube OD 0.625 in.
Outer Tube ID . 0.730 in.
Heat Exchanger Length 57 in.
Tube Material 100% Cu
Fouling Factor, R
f
0.0003 m
2
K/W
To correct the temperature values read from the digital display, use the following calibration equation:
T(F) = 1.241 T(reading)  17.58
Figure 4, Heat Exchanger Flow Diagram
University of Texas at Arlington MAE 3183, Measurements II Laboratory
Concentric Tube Heat Exchanger 6
Venturi Flow Meter
The venturi flow meters used in the experiment have the following characteristics:
B
v
, = 0.91
d
1
= 0.50 in.
d
2
= 0.25 in.
Flow
Figure 3, Venturi Flow Meter used to measure volumetric flow rate
Objective
To determine which configuration, parallel or counterflow, is more effective at transferring heat and the
extent of the difference in effectiveness.
Requirements
1) With the use of the spreadsheet utility obtained from the instructor (heat.xls), find the mass flow
rates and theoretical and experimental effectiveness for all cases.
2) Plot for counter and parallel flow:
 Experimental effectiveness versus Hot flow (Cold flow constant).
 Experimental effectiveness versus Cold flow (Hot flow constant).
3) Plot experimental effectiveness versus theoretical effectiveness for both types of flow. (Hint: Use
same axis scaling and same axis length for x & y and use same start and stop points. Also, dont
include empty space on this chart).
4) For sample calculations, properties such as , k, c
p
,, take the values and formulas that are given by
the program. Its left to you to find the rest of the values (i.e. Re, h, c).
Procedure
Parallel Flow
1) Turn off Valves 1, 2, 4, 5
2) Open valves 3 & 6. Turn on pumps and fans if not already on. The switches are located on the front
of the test apparatus as well as a power strip located on the rear of the test apparatus.
3) Slowly turn valves 1 & 2 to obtain readings for P
1
P
2
and P
3
P
4
.
4) Monitor T
1
until a steady state condition has been reached. Typically, this state does not exist, but
try to catch the readings at a point when T1 is changing very gradually. Usually this occurs at least
after 3 minutes of adjusting for a different flow rate.
5) Take readings for T
1
, T
2
, T
3
, and T
4
, quickly.
6) Repeat steps 3, 4, & 5 for the remaining set of points.
University of Texas at Arlington MAE 3183, Measurements II Laboratory
Concentric Tube Heat Exchanger 7
Counter Flow
1) Turn off Valves 1 & 2.
2) Open valves 4 & 5. Close valves 3 & 6.
3) Follow steps 3, 4, & 5 from above.
Spreadsheet Utility
An Excel
spreadsheet was written to aid the analysis of concentric tube heat exchanger. The Excel
workbook offers a few nice features, one of which being the automation of all the important physical
properties of the working fluid. These values come from fourth order curve fits of experimentally found
values. All pertinent information such as sample readings and physical parameters are entered on the
first page. Page two calculates all the properties of the fluid being used. Page three is a blank template
for you to enter your calculations from the equations in the manual. The final page, page four,
summarizes all important data that will be used in the evaluation of the heat exchangers operation.
The spreadsheet is called heat.xls and can be obtained from the instructor.
Nomenclature
A = area
B = discharge coefficient
c = specific heat
C = heat capacity rate
D, d = diameter
] = friction factor
g = acceleration due to gravity
h = heat transfer coefficient
H = manometer height
k = thermal conductivity
L = heat exchanger length