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University of Texas at Arlington MAE 3183, Measurements II Laboratory

Concentric Tube Heat Exchanger 1







Experiment #4

Concentric Tube Heat Exchanger


University of Texas at Arlington MAE 3183, Measurements II Laboratory


Concentric Tube Heat Exchanger 2
Introduction

A heat exchanger is a device by which thermal energy is transferred from one fluid to another. The types
of heat exchangers to be tested in this experiment are called single-pass, parallel-flow and counter-flow
concentric tube heat exchangers. In a parallel-flow heat exchanger, the working fluids flow in the same
direction. In the counter flow exchanger, the fluids flow in parallel but opposite directions. (See Figure 1)


Figure 1, Concentric Tube Heat Exchangers

The variables that affect the performance of a heat exchanger are the fluids physical properties, the
fluids mass flow rates, the inlet temperature of the fluids, the physical properties of the heat exchanger
materials, the configuration and area of the heat transfer surfaces, the extent of scale or deposits on the
heat transfer surfaces, and the ambient conditions.

Theory

Heat transfer by conduction and convection between two fluids separated by a cylindrical tube (Figure 2)
is described by Q.

Q AU T T
h c
= ( ) (1)

Further manipulations can be made to find that:


1 1 1 1 1
2
1
UA U A U A h A
R
A Lk
r
r
R
A h A
i i o o o o
f o
o
o
i
f i
i i i
= = = + + + +
, ,
ln
t
(2)

Where h is the heat transfer coefficient, U is the overall heat transfer coefficient, and R
f
is the fouling
factor. The fouling factor is merely a term used to account for the additional thermal resistance caused
by rust formation, scale buildup, etc. For fully developed, turbulent flow in tubes where the Reynolds
number is between 2300 and 510
6
and the Prandtl number is between 0.5 and 2000, an empirical
correlation to determine h proposed by Gnielinski (1976) is widely used.

University of Texas at Arlington MAE 3183, Measurements II Laboratory


Concentric Tube Heat Exchanger 3

( )( )
( ) ( )
Nu
hD
k
D
H
D
= =
]
+ ]
8 1000
1 127 8 1
1 2
2 3
Re Pr
. Pr
(3a)

where, for smooth tubes, the friction factor is given by

( )
| |
] =

0 79 164
2
. ln Re .
D
(3b)

All fluid properties are taken at the average fluid temperature.

Thus, the convective coefficients are determined from equation (3a,b) and used in equation (2) to find
the overall heat transfer coefficient, U. The heat transfer rate, Q, in equation (1) is not suitable for this
case since the temperature difference between the hot and cold fluids varies between inlet and outlet.
The equation recommended for parallel-flow is given by:


( ) ( )
( ) ( )
| |
Q UA
T T T T
T T T T
h in c in h out c out
h in c in h out c out
=


|
\

|
.
|
|
, , , ,
, , , ,
ln /
(4)

and for counter-flow:


( ) ( )
( ) ( )
| |
Q UA
T T T T
T T T T
h in c out h out c in
h in c out h out c in
=


|
\

|
.
|
|
, , , ,
, , , ,
ln /
(5)


Figure 2, Heat Transfer Model

Heat Exchanger Effectiveness

The effectiveness, c, of a heat exchanger is defined as

c
Actual heat transferred
Maximum possible heat transfer


Let us also define the heat capacity rate, C, for the cold and hot fluids as:

C m c
h h p h
=

,


C m c
c c p c
=

,


University of Texas at Arlington MAE 3183, Measurements II Laboratory


Concentric Tube Heat Exchanger 4
C
h c min
= minimum of C and C

C
h c max
= maximum of C and C

Where

m is the mass flow rate and c


p
is the specific heat at constant pressure. With these definitions,
the heat exchanger experimental effectiveness can be derived as


( )
( )
( )
( )
c =

C T T
C T T
C T T
C T T
c c out c in
h in c in
h h in h out
h in c in
, ,
min , ,
, ,
min , ,
(6)

(Please note that in your experiment the RHS and LHS of equation (6) will not be equal. This is due to
imperfect insulation of the heat exchanger from the surroundings. You should therefore calculate both
and use the minimum of the two values in your analysis.) Further manipulation gives the following
equation for theoretical effectiveness for a parallel flow, concentric tube heat exchanger


( ) ( )
c =
+
+
1 1
1
Exp NTU C
C
r
r
(7)

For a counter flow heat exchanger the equation becomes


( ) ( )
( ) ( )
c =


1 1
1 1
Exp NTU C
C Exp NTU C
r
r r
(8)

where NTU is the number of transfer units which is defined as NTU UA/C
min
and C
r
is the heat capacity
ratio and is defined as C
r
C
min
/C
max
.

Venturi Flow Meter

This experiment makes use of a venturi flow meter to indicate volumetric flow rate. In this type of flow
meter the pressure differential developed across a venturi will determine the actual flow rate in the
system. The equation to determine the flow rate is given by:


( )

( )
V B A
p p
v
w
=

2
1 2
4
2
1 |
(9)

where the area ratio | = d
2
/d
1
= (A
2
/A
1
)
1/2
.


Topics to Review
- Heat Exchanger Efficiency
- Heat Transfer Dimensionless Numbers
- Temperature vs. Pipe Length Curves




University of Texas at Arlington MAE 3183, Measurements II Laboratory


Concentric Tube Heat Exchanger 5
Apparatus

Heat Exchanger

The concentric tube heat exchanger in this experiment is operable in both the parallel- and counter-flow
configuration and consists of the following:
2 Venturi flow meters
2 Mercury manometer tubes
4 Thermocouples
Thermocouple Controller

The physical characteristics of the heat exchanger are:
Inner Tube ID 0.529 in.
Inner Tube OD 0.625 in.
Outer Tube ID . 0.730 in.
Heat Exchanger Length 57 in.
Tube Material 100% Cu
Fouling Factor, R
f
0.0003 m
2
K/W

To correct the temperature values read from the digital display, use the following calibration equation:

T(F) = 1.241 T(reading) - 17.58


Figure 4, Heat Exchanger Flow Diagram


University of Texas at Arlington MAE 3183, Measurements II Laboratory


Concentric Tube Heat Exchanger 6
Venturi Flow Meter

The venturi flow meters used in the experiment have the following characteristics:
B
v
, = 0.91
d
1
= 0.50 in.
d
2
= 0.25 in.

Flow

Figure 3, Venturi Flow Meter used to measure volumetric flow rate

Objective

To determine which configuration, parallel- or counter-flow, is more effective at transferring heat and the
extent of the difference in effectiveness.

Requirements

1) With the use of the spreadsheet utility obtained from the instructor (heat.xls), find the mass flow
rates and theoretical and experimental effectiveness for all cases.
2) Plot for counter and parallel flow:
- Experimental effectiveness versus Hot flow (Cold flow constant).
- Experimental effectiveness versus Cold flow (Hot flow constant).
3) Plot experimental effectiveness versus theoretical effectiveness for both types of flow. (Hint: Use
same axis scaling and same axis length for x & y and use same start and stop points. Also, dont
include empty space on this chart).
4) For sample calculations, properties such as , k, c
p
,, take the values and formulas that are given by
the program. Its left to you to find the rest of the values (i.e. Re, h, c).
Procedure

Parallel Flow

1) Turn off Valves 1, 2, 4, 5
2) Open valves 3 & 6. Turn on pumps and fans if not already on. The switches are located on the front
of the test apparatus as well as a power strip located on the rear of the test apparatus.
3) Slowly turn valves 1 & 2 to obtain readings for P
1
-P
2
and P
3
-P
4
.
4) Monitor T
1
until a steady state condition has been reached. Typically, this state does not exist, but
try to catch the readings at a point when T1 is changing very gradually. Usually this occurs at least
after 3 minutes of adjusting for a different flow rate.
5) Take readings for T
1
, T
2
, T
3
, and T
4
, quickly.
6) Repeat steps 3, 4, & 5 for the remaining set of points.
University of Texas at Arlington MAE 3183, Measurements II Laboratory


Concentric Tube Heat Exchanger 7
Counter Flow

1) Turn off Valves 1 & 2.
2) Open valves 4 & 5. Close valves 3 & 6.
3) Follow steps 3, 4, & 5 from above.

Spreadsheet Utility

An Excel

spreadsheet was written to aid the analysis of concentric tube heat exchanger. The Excel
workbook offers a few nice features, one of which being the automation of all the important physical
properties of the working fluid. These values come from fourth order curve fits of experimentally found
values. All pertinent information such as sample readings and physical parameters are entered on the
first page. Page two calculates all the properties of the fluid being used. Page three is a blank template
for you to enter your calculations from the equations in the manual. The final page, page four,
summarizes all important data that will be used in the evaluation of the heat exchangers operation.

The spreadsheet is called heat.xls and can be obtained from the instructor.

Nomenclature

A = area
B = discharge coefficient
c = specific heat
C = heat capacity rate
D, d = diameter
] = friction factor
g = acceleration due to gravity
h = heat transfer coefficient
H = manometer height
k = thermal conductivity
L = heat exchanger length

m = mass flow rate


n = constant
NTU = number of transfer units
Nu = Nussult number
p, P = pressure
Pr = Prandtl number
Q = heat transfer rate
r = radius
R = thermal resistance
Re = Reynolds number
T = temperature
U = overall heat transfer coefficient

V = volumetric flow rate


c = effectiveness
= density
Subscripts
1,2,3,4 = points in system (heat exchanger)
1 = inlet (venturi)
2 = throat (venturi)
c = cold
D = diameter
f = fouling
h = hot
University of Texas at Arlington MAE 3183, Measurements II Laboratory


Concentric Tube Heat Exchanger 8
H = hydraulic
i = inside (hot)
in = inlet
max = maximum
min = minimum
o = outside (cold)
out = outlet
p = constant pressure
r = ratio
v = venturi
w = water

References

1) Holman, J. P., Heat Transfer, 3
rd
edition., McGraw Hill, Inc., New York, 1972.
2) Incropera, F. P., and Dewitt, D. P., Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer, 3
rd
edition, John Wiley
& Sons, New York, 1990.

University of Texas at Arlington MAE 3183, Measurements II Laboratory


Concentric Tube Heat Exchanger 9
Data Sheet

Table 1, Parallel-Flow Heat Exchanger

Reading T
1
T
2
T
3
T
4
P
1
-P
2

(PSI)
P
3
-P
4

(PSI)
1 0.5 1
2 1 1
3 1.5 1
4 2 1
5 2.5 1
6 2.5 0.75
7 2.5 0.5
8 2.5 0.25


Table 2, Counter-Flow Heat Exchanger

Reading T
1
T
2
T
3
T
4
P
1
-P
2

(PSI)
P
3
-P
4

(PSI)
1 0.5 1
2 1 1
3 1.5 1
4 2 1
5 2.5 1
6 2.5 0.75
7 2.5 0.5
8 2.5 0.25


Instructor's Initials