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Nastran

1. Theoretical background for calculations in Nastran

In this section, a very brief description is given of how the calculation of frequency response

functions works with Nastran's modal frequency response analysis. Therefore, the most important

equations are given in a chronological order as applied by the programm.

After input of an bulk data file (*.bdf), Nastran assembles the system's mass and stiffness matrices,

leading to a set of differential equations, displayed by eq. (1), already transformed in the frequency

domain (damping is nectlected at first).

M x+K x=f (o) (1)

Secondly, Nastran solves the characteristic equations (eq. (2)) for eigenvalues and computes the

corresponding eigenmodes.

det ( Ko

2

M)=0 (2)

With the seperation approach in eq. (3), a modal transformation[1,3] is performed, which

diagonalizes the system from eq. (1), using the orthogonality properties of the eigenvectors in the

modal matrix , consisting of the calculated eigenvectors.

x=1q(o)

with 1=[

1,

2,

3,

... ,

N

]

(3)

Hereby the system, consisting of N degrees of freedom, is decoupled, leading to a system of N

single-mass oscillators, with each oscillator representing an eigenmode of the system in general

coordinates q

i.

(eq. (4)).

m

i

q

i

(o)+k

i

q

i

(o)=p

i

(o) (4)

Here,

m

i

is the modal mass,

k

i

the modal stiffness, and p

i

=

i

T

f the modal force.With the

eigenfrequencies o

i

2

=k

i

/ m

i

, eq. (4) can be transformed to eq. (5). Furthermore, damping can be

introduced by a modal damping ratio

i

(eq. (6), [1]).

q

i

(o)+o

i

2

q

i

(o)=

p

i

(o)

m

i

(5)

q

i

(o)+2

i

o

i

q

i

(o)+o

i

2

q(o)=

p

i

(o)

m

i

(6)

The solution of this differential equation is well known and given by eq. (7) .

q

i

(o)=

1

o

i

2

D

i

2

+i2o

i

D

i

p

i

(o)

m

i

(7)

Then, the solution for the system ist a linear combination of the solutions for all oscillators (eq. (8)).

x(o)=

i =1

N

i

q

i

(o) (8)

The frequency response function is defined as the ratio of the response of a system x(o)

(displacement, velocity, acceleration) to its excitation force F(o) . The FRF for displacement of

the system is given by eq. (9).

H(o)=

x(o)

F(o)

=

i=1

N

1

o

i

2

D

i

2

+i2

i

o

i

i

T

m

i

(9)

Thus, the FRF for the kth node (degree of freedom) with an single excitation force at jth dof can be

calculated by eq. (10).

H

k

(o)=

i=1

N

i k

i j

m

i

(o

i

2

D

i

2

+i2

i

o

i

)

(10)

2. Pre-processing with Patran

In this case a simple model of a cantilever plate under a single-point cyclic load is used. In the pre-

processing step the model geometry, the finite element mesh, the loads and boundary conditions and

material properties have to be generated. Also, the load cases and the Nastran case controls

parameters have to be defined. With these informations the Nastran bulk data file is automatically

created by Patran created.

A. Geometry:

Create a Surface:

length: 30mm

height: 10mm

B. Elements:

Generate a regular isometric mesh:

globale edge-length: 1 mm

10 x 30 elements

C. Loads

In this example for one edge of the plate all six degrees of freedom are fixed. Further, a single

point load with the magnitude 10 N is applied at a certain node.

1. Generating boundary constraints:

2. Generating force:

D. Materials / Properties

1. Define material properties:

Aluminum: E = 70.000 N/mm

2

= 2,7E-6 kg/mm

3

= 0,3

2. Define model properties:

thickness: 2 mm

E. Analysis

1. Solution Type:

Frequency response analysis,

modal formulation(SOL 111)

Solution Parameters [2]:

Residual Vector

Computation for

decreasing modal

truncation error

Coupled Mass

calculation

Rz stiffness to prevent

singularities in matrix

Eigenvalue Extraction:

Lanczos algorithm

Frequency range:

0 4000 Hz

undefined number of

roots (eigenfrequencies)

in range of interest

1.

2.

3.

2. Subcases:

select the Default subcase

Subcase Parameters:

Define frequencies:

table for frequency

response analysis (5

Hz increments), this

frequency table is

used for generating

the cyclic frequency

of an harmonic

excitation force, the

amplitude is the

prior defined single-

point load

Crit. modal damping, define

constant modal damping ratios

via table ( = 0,001 for all

modes; values are extra-

/interpolated from table for

each mode)

a)

b)

a)

b)

3. Subcases Select:

Select the Default subcase

Run Analysis!

3. Post-processing with Patran

A. Analysis

Access Results:

check correct Job Name

(Select Results File -> *.xdb)

B. Results:

1. Graph the FRF

Select Result Cases

Filter subcases

display Z-Component of displacement function over frequency

i.e. for the excitation node, with logarithmic scaling of y-axis, magnitude

The resulting graph should look like this:

It is also possible to select the phase, real or imaginary part of the displacement function

for display

2. Print the results in a file (for import in Excel or similar)

i.e. magnitude for excitation node

4. Damaged Model

A simple damaged model can be created by deletion of several elements. This is examplary shown

in this section

A. Deletions of elements

Go back to Elements

select Action: Delete, Object: Element

select the desired element

B. Analysis and Postprocessing

Perform analysis with the same parameters, but a different job

name (i.e. exercise_dam)

Attach the new *.xdb-file

Go to Results

filter out the new subcases (filter method: subcase ids)

Make sure that the desired node ist selected.

Check the box for Append Curves in XY Window on the

Display Attributes card.

All other parameters are the same.

5. Remarks

Natural frequencies can be extracted from *.f06-files

Possible variations of results:

Comparison of FRFs for different nodes

FRFs for accelerations, velocities can be calculated (Analysis -> Subcases -> Output

requests -> Select ...)

Calculate Resonances (with damping influence...) from extracted data...

Given is the simplest case of excitation, more complicated excitation loads can be created

using tables and fields (i.e. white noise excitation)

6. Literature

[1] Da Silva, Clarence W. (1999). Vibration: Fundamentals and Practice. CRC Press LCC

[2] MSC.Software Corporation (2003). MSC.Nastran 2004 - Release Guide. MSC.Software

Corporation, Santa Ana, CA, USA.

[3] Hrnlund, M. and Papazoglu, A. (2005). Analysis and measurements of vehicle door

structural dynamic response. Divison of Structural Mechanics, Lund University, Sweden.

http://www.byggmek.lth.se/fileadmin/byggnadsmekanik/

publications/tvsm5000/web5131.pdf

7. Appendix

MSC.Nastran Bulk Data File

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