You are on page 1of 213

THE PLANS TO ERADICATE ALBANIANS Elena Kocaqi- Levanti

Translated from the original

PLANET PR ZHDUKJEN E SHQIPTARVE By Halit Methasani

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

Preface
The purpose of this study is to show the plans, forms, and methods used to eradicate Albanians from the bulk of their territories in the Balkans during 19-20th centuries and how in their lands were created Greater Greece and Greater Serbia. Albanians used to live in a broader territory than what is called ethnic Albania of 1912. That territory included most of todays Greece and Serbia that began to shrink to the detriment of Albanians at the beginning of 19th century when Greek and Serbian states were created. Those states were stretched mainly on Albanian lands. There is no nation in Europe or in the world to have suffered from its neighbors as much as Albanians have. Of course, it is hard to find a country of problem free with its neighbors; however, it is also rare to find a country where its neighbor achieves political programs in eliminating the population of its adjacent country. There have been some programs for total extinction of Albanians such as one of infamous plans of Vladan Georgevich. The world historiography rarely may have faced such platforms like the one Europe was asked to wipe the Albanians out of the earth surface. The later, according to extremist Serbian nationalists, did not deserve to live, because the land they inhabited was much needed by Serbs. Albanians have been persecuted and purged by artificial nations and by people who came to Europe from Steps of Asia. They were killed, expelled from their homes, tortured, assimilated and stolen by their neighbors in the middle of Europe in modern times, where the human right for life and property were called natural rights born with the human

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

being. While for other nations these rights have been applied, for Albanians they never have, until the beginning of this century when countries like USA, known as supporters of the robbed and persecuted nations, came to the defense of Albanians. Often is said that towards Albanians was carried out genocide, a crime against humanity, but other actions, too, which need to be described; In other words; the violence against Albanians. The world historiography knows the term Holocaust with which we understand total extinction of the Jews by the Nazi Germans. If we were to compare the crimes against the Jews with those undertaken against Albanians, theres no great distinction. Actually, the political programs to wipe out the Albanians are perhaps unique in the modern world. If with holocaust we understand total extinction of a nation or of an ethnic group, this is what has happened with the Albanians, too. Gradually they were reduced from their territories by expulsion, killing and assimilation into other nations. Thus, the objective of this study is to show where Albanian territories used to be during the 18-19 and 20th centuries and how Albanians were wiped out from these territories. In completing this work, contemporary foreign and Albanian historians studies were used, alike.

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

Historic factors
The role of Great Powers in wiping out the Albanians from their territories
Historical factors show that Albanians managed to defend the bulk of their territories, which they did not lose when confronted with all kinds of wandering and wild populations fighting for survival but, lost them during 19-20th century. Great powers of the time divided Albanian lands to their personal interests and those of their allies. Albanians, by not belonging to the Slavic ethnic group, dominating the Balkans, came out the losers. They belong to European ethnic group and are closer to next to kin with western nations. But these countries, instead of supporting Albanians, like Slavs were doing for each-other, on the contrary, were the master planners and supporters of their elimination. Russia, when defeating the Ottoman Empire would carve out swaths of land from its territories. When they were border with it, would include them into its own territory, whereas, when in the Balkans, would give them to its allies. Thus, with the help of Russia, Slavic places became countries and expanded their territories to the expense of Albanians. Greece, meanwhile, was created by Western Europe. The latter wished to create ancient Greece, which considered it the cradle of its civilization. Europe created Greece because it wanted to have a glorious ancient past, something it lacked. Thus, dorians that are known clear to have come down from territories of Macedonia and ancient Epirus were Illyrians that the Europeans of the 19 century were sending

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

from their places. Greece was an invention of great European powers, for it did not exist in any Balkan maps until 19 century. On the other hand, Albanians being the oldest people in the Balkan were not supported by nobody because majority of them were of the Islamic faith. Albanians and their territories were the raw material that Europe and some certain religious circles used for the creation of some artificial nations in the Balkans.

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

The idea of a clean nation state.


This idea was applied with fanaticism by Greece and Serbia which by clean nation mean orthodox population. The concept of nation was born with the French Revolution and is based on two ideas: -One people with one language and one blood should create one nation-state of its own, and this is very normal. -A nation can also be created of people with common ideas, regardless of what ethnicity they belong to. So, if we share some civic values, speak one language that for some is of their mother, and for some others of their stepmother, want to achieve some common goals and wish to call ourselves with a different ethnicity when we dont belong to that, then we belong to this nation. This is also called the self claim, i.e. I am an Albanian but wish to become Greek since it benefits me, when I claim this, I automatically become Greek. Both these ideas were used in the Balkans. While in some places was applied the first and in some other places the second, in the Balkans they were applied both. First, each state that was created claimed to be one ethnic group that had one history and should create one nation-state in its historical land. On the other hand, the second concept was also applied: other nations upon which we want to rule, lets make them like ourselves and lets take their territories. If they want to become like us and abandon their ethnicity, fine, but if those who refuse, will have problems with their existence. They, either accept to become part of that ethnicity, by acquiring its features, or go extinct, since no party will admit to have minorities in its territory. And, when we talk of

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

minorities, first of all we mean religious minority and not an ethnic one since ethnicity does not interest in them at all as it can be self claimed. This method has been one of the key elements to steal the population of Albanians and continues to be, still to this day. So, these countries were created and empowered to the expense of Albanian population, its territories, and its property. This was with the help of great powers.

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

3-Division sown by Orthodox Church Between Muslim and Orthodox Albanians.


The role that Greek and Serbian Orthodox church towards Albanians at different historic moments has been very negative. The orthodox clergy, openly or covertly, has called for extinction of Albanians. For Serbian clerics Albanians were poisonous snakes that must be wiped out, choked, or crushed by their head1 The highest Serbian spiritual institution during the 1999 war appealed to all Serbs to kill as many Albanians as possible. This was to be done in the name of Serbian God with the reasoning that Albanians are faithless and whosoever is a true Serb must not hesitate and have mercy in heeding to this call. In other words; The church of all mercy God, the benign and just, calls for macabre killing towards people,. Its not known whose work has this church done but God does not order killing. It actually punishes severely such thing. The Serbo-Greek orthodox church hates Albanians solely because they are such and dont want to turn into Serbs or Greek. Orthodox priest have been the spearhead of antiAlbanian movements in the Balkans. They have been spiritual inspirers of Greeko-Serbian nationalism and of the massacres undertaken against Albanians. The role of church instead of being for peace, have been inhumane. This clearly shows it has been involved in politics. The objective of Orthodox Church has been the expulsion of

Muhamet Shatri, LNSH n Prizren dhe rrethin (41-45), Prishtin, 1987, p.186

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

Albanians. That way it acquired huge swaths of land left behind by them. One can see clearly why the Greek church is the biggest landowner in Greece, even to this day. The orthodox church divided Albanians into orthodox and Muslims, by calling the Muslims Albanians and orthodox ones serbo-Greek. The later, put at churchs disposal were used against other Albanians. The process of helenization starts with converting to orthodox and with teaching of Greek language. This is done very well by priests of this church. A priest, self claimed saint, by the name Saint Kozma, has been the most active in the assimilation process of Albanians. He would preach to the epirotes to learn Greek, and among others would say: Send your children to learn Greek, because our church is Greek. And, my brother, if you do not teach Greek you cannot understand what our church says. Its better, my brother, to have Greek schools in your country than rivers and creeks. Whosoever Christian, man or woman that promises me that hes not going to speak Albanian at home, lets stand up here and tell me. Ill carry all of his sins onto myself from the day hes born until today. I will urge all the Christians to speak to him and I will atone him. Otherwise, he will not have this opportunity even if he paid money by sacks. (7th preaching to the Albanians of Epirus) One can clearly see that Saint Kozma invites Albanians, especially their orthodox children and youth to learn Greek, for Orthodox Church, according to him, was Greek and could never become Albanian. He would impose abandonment of their language, Albanian, to speak Greek at home, so they would assimilate into Greek. In Samaria, majority were vllachs. In a speech against their

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

language, Kozma Etoliani has said in front of them the most laughable things can come out of a priests mouth. This is what he said: God considers itself very offended when hears prayers or praises in vllach language. When speaking to angels, God speaks Greek whereas when cursing the devil uses vllachs language In his preaching she says: All the religions of the world are deceptive except the orthodox. Its complete and sacred (preaching 1) For the abovementioned saint Kristo Frashri writes: Kozma Etoliani was not only a missionary for the fanfaron orthodoxy, but, as modern Greek historians admit, above all he was a flag holder of Hellenism (Korrieri Newspaper, nr. 292, Dec. 8th 2004) Kozma Etolian undertook a mission with a decree of Sultan Hamid I that aimed at Hellenizing the Albanians in the south. He was connected with Russia, too, which at that time wanted to create the Byzantine Empire. The common goal of Kozma and Russia was the creation of an Orthodox Empire. Greek historians, like Sakelaris would call Kozma one of the bright figures that set the stage for the Greek Renaissance (Epirus, 4000 years of Greek history and civilization, Athens 1997). Saint Kozma indeed worked in Hellenizing the Southern Albania and has given his own contribution to the fact some orthodox Albanians learned the Greek liturgics and get to be called Greek minority or better fit Greekophone, since these are not Greek at all but Albanians that speak Greek. So, the greko-Serbian Orthodox church has played a key role in setting the nationalist and anti Albanian policies in the Balkans. The church has caused some of the Albanian sufferings. By nature Albanians are religiously tolerant. They have never killed other people in the name of religion in the

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

past or today.

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

Hellenized and slavicized Albanians have been the worst enemies of themselves.
Forced by circumstances, at different moments in history, Albanians have not defended as should their national identity and their territorial integrity. Undoubtedly, they lacked both political and military power as well as allies in international relationship so they could defend their place. Despite the adversarial stand of some European countries towards Albanians, the later are themselves to blame for the desperate situation theyre in, for they often have accepted assimilation only for economic benefit in return. After converting to artificial nationality of these countries, later on they turned into the wildest enemies of other Albanians. There are a lot of examples of this, especially in Greece, where leaders of Albanian origin often have been more anti Albanian than others. Such was Napoleon Zerva, an Albanian orthodox, mesmerized by Hellenic philosophy and turned into a mad anti Albanian. By some cham (am) account, Zerva spoke Albanian of cham dialect. He promised them before the genocide that they were brothers and that nobody would touch them. By origin he was of sulioti tribe and his grandparents still spoke old Albanian at home. For Aristidh Kola (2), too, a well renowned figure on Albanian studies, Zerva was an orthodox Albanian. To this day there are orthodox Zerva families in Albania. Napoleon Zerva used Cretan mobs to expel Muslims and not orthodox Albanians. The later still live in Chameria today. The massacres on innocent people of Chameria were of religious nature, organized by heleno-Cretan mobs. They killed, expelled and

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

massacred Muslim Albanians to erect a church state, known today as Greece. Milosevic too, massacred Albanians. He was from the Montenegrin Vasoyevich tribe of Albanian origin. From the same tribe was Arkan. Data from Montenegro that prove their Vasoyevichian tribe and the fact that it is of Albanian origin can be found at works of Spiro Kulisich- O etnogenezi crnagoraca (Ethno genesis of Montenegrins), where the author speaks clearly about the Montenegrin tribes of Albanian origin and emphasizes the role of Albanians in the formation of todays Montenegrins. On Vasoyevichs Albanian origin tribe has written also Edith Durham, (a well known British anthropologist) that is from Hoti. Mark Milan, a Montenegrin military commander fighting against The League of Prizren (3), also was of Albanian origin. Ataturk-Venizelos treaty to exchange Albanian people of Islamic and orthodox faith was between two persons of Albanian origin. Its known that Ataturk was Albanian, but Venizelos, too, according to Aristidh Kola, was an arvanite Albanian living in Crete. He was even more aggressive towards the Albanians and broadened the Greek borders, entering the WW-I. As one can see, Albanians were alienated at certain historic moments. They have embraced another ethnicity and gone that far as to attack severely other Albanians. Rightfully, Konica, often misperceived, prays to God to save Albania from Albanians. This assimilation of Albanians continues even today, especially in Greece and Turkey. In neither one of these countries Albanians have been able to preserved their identity, as they are required to change their name and last name as well as prohibited to learn and speak their language. On the contrary, when foreigners come to

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

Albania, theyre not required by Albanians to do the same. This broad religious or ethnic tolerance of Albanians shows their high degree of cultural level, but it is precisely this tolerance that has destroyed them. Its long overdue for them to become more pragmatic.

Where do neighbors base their territorial claims?


The fact is hardly is there any neighboring countries that like each-other, but the case with Albanians is unprecedented as our neighbors, as we have said, want to wipe us out of the map. Neighbors base their claims in history, ethnicity and economic-strategic factors.

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

The historic right.


The historic right is the basic one that dominates in todays international relations. When applied properly its beneficial to everyone but when abused with it theres been great consequences for the entire region. Thus, Serbia relies on the idea that since in the Balkans has been created some medieval states (it calls them all Serbian) then it reserves the right to include these territories into its state, since they were once occupied. According to Serbia, it must have a leading role in the Balkans since it was distinguished in medieval times. Countries like Albania should succumb to the Serbs supremacy and relinquish territories to them. As we will see later on, Serbia did not exist where it is now but was created in the XIX century. Long before the slavs came to the Balkans those territories belonged to Albanians Greece, too, backs its claims on the theory that Epirus once upon the time used to be hers. But it forgets that the name Greece appeared for the first time on the map in XIX century and that Greece was founded on Albano-arvanite lands and ethnicity. The Montenegrin claims are the same. Similar is the case with the newest artificial nation in the Balkans that of macedonian-bulgaro-slav that claims to descends from ancient Macedonians but forgets that Slavs or turko-avars, where they enter as ethnic group, came to the Balkans during VI-VII centuries. So, as we can see, the historic right that all these countries claim against Albanians, is false.

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

Historic facts speak favorable to the later. There are no people of white race to have that old history as Albanians do. Furthermore, there is no nation of white race to have an old history and not be related to Albanian ancestors. Thus, the oldest history is that of Albanians. This glorious history related to the foundation of Trojan, Hellenic, Roman and all the white race culture and civilization has made jealous certain nationalist instances in Europe and Balkans. The later have tried utmost to shadow the Albanian attributes by treating them with disregard as if they had no contribution to the world civilization, a barbarian nation that does not deserve respect, something in international affairs is related to what you have been in the past and what you are now. A lot has been worked that this history not be linked to Albanian ancestors and many stories have been invented, thus, by leaving history authorless or by beginning from its middle, without treating the root or the origin of many civilizations. Many neighboring European countries ignore historic facts but invented them so they can reap the glory profited by history. The truth would be clear, if based on facts, but often they are considered tails and tails history. History continues to be stolen and these countries have profited huge economically and territorially, together with their allies. From the moment nations were created in the Balkan, each began to make historic claims on Albanian territories and these were supported by some European countries. Otherwise they could not expand their territories without relying on historic claims that those territories once used to belong to them, despite that then those territories were by enlarge populated by Albanians. This way, together with the history, they stole from Albanians the property, too. In

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

some cases property was stolen first and then history. That much interests nationalist and anti Albanian circles in the Balkans in stealing history, which they have managed to have an impact all way to the high ranks that deal with history in Albania, by making them their allies. These circles in Albania, either form ignorance or for personal gains, serve the political interests of these countries. Nothing has been done by the Albanian state to put an end to this national shame that Albanian official history represents.

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

2-Economic-strategic-claim.
Since Serbs do not have access to a sea, they have asked to get a port from Albanian shores. Thus, as its economic interests are better suited if it takes a port of Albania or half of its territory, then Europe should fulfill this. Ok, Albanian interests would be fulfilled too, if it got a port in Danube! The first claim is as absurd as the later. The same way, Greece, too, wants Southern Albania since it can get attacked from this territory. Therefore, if it owned this land, its country is safe. Thus, the outcome is over a million Albanians are subject to expulsion from their turf or become Greek, because Greece claims its safety by stealing Albanian land! Whereas Montenegro should have under its control most of the Shkoder Lake possibly drying half of it, since it is a mountainous country and does not have enough arable land. So, these unscrupulous, laughable, and absurd claims were taken into account when Albanian territories were divided.

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

3-Ethnic claims
It is claimed by Serbs that Albanians were not around in the Balkans but came after the Slavs. If this was true how it is possible they have this broad access to sea that in 19th century it included territories from Montenegro to Peloponnesian peninsula? Serbia fought for 200 years for a port in Adriatic and its not that easy to get a place by the seashore if you came later. History has shown that Slavs came to the Balkans, not Albanians. By historic researchers theyre considered to be the only nation in Europe with no early immigration data. That much is some countries in the Balkans interested in inventing history on Albanian arrival there, that they dont deal with their own arrival in the Balkans. Greece on the other hand does not support the claim of Albanian arrival because it knows it very well that Albanians have here where they have been for thousands of years. They say that Albanians are natives here but claim that they stretch a bit further north since the southern people are Greeks who have forgotten to be such and now its time for Greece to retake and remind them their origin and impose on them their artificial nationality, Greek. So, as one can see, all the neighbors claims are baseless and historic facts turn them down.

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

Albanians managed to defend most of Illyria until 19th century


Albania of XVIII-XIX century covered more than that of 1912. The territory where Albanians used to live during 19th century is not what was left for them in 1912, as called ethnic Albania but was broader than that. It is difficult to determine exactly where Albanians have lived, since Ottoman Empire had no borders and people lived wherever they wished. In antiquity Albanian predecessors had a wide stretch. The white race of Europe originates from them. With the arrival of Slavs, Albanian territories shrunk a lot. The second chopping of Albanian lands occurred during the 19th century with the creation of some artificial nation-state at the expense of Albanians and their land During the 19th century Albanians lived in all of what is called today Greece, three quarters of Macedonia, in Montenegro and in most of what is called Serbia. The later had a considerable number of Albanian populations at sanjak of Belgrade, as well as in central and southern Serbia besides Kosova, an historic Albanian landmark. Foreign travelers of the time have recorded this during their visits to Albania and the rest of the Balkans at the end of 18th and during the 19th century. People spoke Albanian throughout a large territory, from Morea of Peloponnese that became center of the so called Greek state, all way to Belgrade. This is a wide territory that includes Hellas and ancient Macedonia, too, which goes beyond Illyria. If we were to remove Slovenia and Croatia

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

and compensate them with these territories, one may see that Albanians managed to defend the bulk of Illyria as they had it in antiquity. This only if we talk about the profound Pellasgo-Illyrian territories for if we refer data given by ancient historians, Thracians, Dachas, Asia Minor and other part of white race are of the same origin with Illyrians. Assimilation was not pressed during medieval period or Ottoman rule. People were allowed to speak their language. The situation changed during 19th century when nation-states incited by nationalism which was not harmful per se but was used as such by our neighbors in the Balkan. They spread an extremist nationalism based on orthodoxy and converted Albanians of this faith automatically into Serbian and Greek, respective to the part of Albanian land they each took. This kind of nationalism was exclusive because it categorically rejected any other religion or ethnicity and aimed at national purity. This would be achieved when all become orthodox. Lets look at some historic data showing territories inhabited by Albanians in 19th c. Napoleon Bonaparte sent missionaries several times in Albania during his time and they presented detailed information on its borders. Some important data on the issues of ethnic Albania is given at Journey of Dimo and Niko Stephanopoulos to Greece during 1797-1798 (Voyage de Dimo and Niko Stephanopoulos en Grece pendant les anees 1797-1798. The authors visited the area and in the report to Bonaparte on Albania are stated: Albania is in two parts. One borders with Dalmatia and populated by Muslims and Roman Catholics. The other part

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

begins at Vlore all way to the isle of More.2 The author was sent by Bonaparte to gather detailed information for this place as France, obviously was interested when he states among others: all this information is as result of talks we had with the leaders of these places. They showed us the means they have to help, if you, O general, cast your eyes on this nation to put it under the most tyrannical yoke ever seen by them. If so, we are presenting you a plan showing how easy it is to give freedom to all of these peoples of Levant Amy Buo in his work Europes Turkey tells of the land where Albanians lived. Albanians are considered by statisticians to be 1,6 million. Perhaps more, as they stretch from Epirus to western Moesia. Where they mix with Serbs in the field between Prizren and Ipek, between Vranja and Mitrovica. Whereas those called arnaut occupy almost all the areas below the sources of Lepenac river, surroundings of Cernoleva-Riekas, southwest of Prishtina field, areas between Vranja, Gjilan, Novo-Berda, Prishtina Kratova, Krushumlia Prekoplia and Medoka. in the mountains between Albania and Bosnia, like in Kolashin, above Tara, in Gucia, Plava, above the upper bank of Ibar, near Rozhaja, in Suhodoll district and stretched all way to and stretched to ravines in the west and southwest of Jeni-Pazar (Novi-Pazar). Whereas the region of Zeta, where river Moraca runs and in Klement, over Zemin they mix with Montenegrins. At the bottom, above the Macedonian border, Albanians mix a little with Bulgarians east of two Dibras valley. In the south, Epirus, theyre mixed with vllachs and Greeks. Here, the
2

Lumo Skndo, Udhtart e huaj n Shqipri deri n fund t shekullit 19. Tiran 99 p 21-25

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

mixture is that great that the closer you get to the Greek Kingdom, at the bottom, its difficult to distinguish a Greek from an Albanian when both are Christians and tied to marriage. Mountaineers are mainly catholic. They inhabit places between Peja and Gjakova, Bosnia, Drini river and Montenegro. The catholic Clements live by Zem river banks. Nish is their largest center. However these good looking people do not enjoy a great development as it would be fair given their high qualities. Albanians may be the most beautiful race of european Turkey. Albanias inhabitants, especially those in Northern Albania fit the profile of roman soldiers seen over some triumph arches of emperors. Under a different government Albanians would Europeanize like Albanians in Dalmatia and those of Klement settled in Syrmie.3 Vranja is inhabited by Bulgarians and Albanians. The later make up to 20.000. From this area, Sultan Mahmud had deported a good number of Albanians to Trachia and Anadoll because they did not obey his orders. Janina may have close to 25.000 Albanian Muslims, and vllach or Greek Albanians, where the later make up the majority4 So, as a very knowledgeable author on the Balkans of that time witnesses those Albanian territories stretched all way to Nish and included most of Montenegro and Macedonia, together with Epirus. The author does not put Greece in the concept of Albania, as at that time, as he witnesses, Greek Empire had been created and that territory, even though it had a different name, was populated by Albanians. Historic
3

Ami Boue, La Turquie d Europe, Lumo Skndo, p. 129-130. Ami Buoe, La Tourquie d Europe , Paris, 1840, 4 volumes, v.2. p.13 4 Same place, p.143

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

facts in this study will prove this. It is clear that he calls Albanians by their religion. When he refers to them as Greek Albanians, he means Albanians of Byzantine orthodox rite. Regarding the demarcation of Albanian borders, Sami Frashri states: This land, as it has never been under one and only government, for its border demarcation it should rely only on the language used by its people. For, if it were to rely on history, at least all of Macedonia should be known as Shqipri All of Albania is situated in latitude 39-43 degrees and 17-20 degrees longitude. The extreme length of it is 5 degrees or 1250 km and greatest width 1000 km.5 Thus, Sami Frashri who lived at the time when Balkan states were created, puts territories populated by Albanians or the concept of ethnic Albania on a great latitude. The map accompanying Hahns Albaniche Studien includes the entire territory of four vilayets: Janina, Shkodra, Manastiri, and Uskubi, and on the first page the author cares to emphasize that Albania is situated 39-43 latitude or from Preveza to Novi Pazar. He, then goes into describing the territories where Albanians live, which he divides in four groups. In conclusion (page 13) he witnesses that Albanians inhabit the whole area that includes Moratka (river in Montenegro that discharges at north side of Scutari Lake) to Toplica. In other words: from northern frontier of Shkodra Lake to Nish. When Serbia, Montenegro and Greece were getting their independence, Turkey donated to them 70.000 km of Albanian land, short of saying that the entire of both, Greece and Serbia, were created on a territory populated by Albanians.
5

Sami Frashri, Shqipria dhe Shqiptart, Tiran, p. 18

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

After the 1876-1877 war with Russia, Turkey donated 25.000 of Albanian land in the interest of orhtodox peoples in the Balkans. In 1913 Balkan states got 30.000 km of Albanian land donated. So, Albanians in 19th century covered a broader territory than today for we must not forget that they comprised majority of todays Greece. Conclusively, the information presented by these authors of 19th century match. Some of them rely on ethnic borders where Albanian nation really lived at that time. Some others who wrote after Serbia and Greece were created, have looked at political borders rather than ethnic to determine where Albanians lived. These were the general definitions as to where Albanians have lived but we will look into details of historic data that prove exactly statements of these authors. One of them was Peloponnesian and considered it his native Albania.

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

Territories of Todays Greece were populated by Albanians

Medieval Greece was called Arbri by Arvanites


Historic facts that come from middle ages witness that Greece was populated by Albanians at that time. They called themselves Arvanit but west would call them Greeks or with Greek conscience. We will bring the historic facts in order how they witness of Albanian population in Peloponesy and Atica. (then Greece) Petta Paulo in his book, Stratiotis, (knights), brings some important facts on ethnic composition of Greece at that time. An Arbresh or Arvanite song sung by these knights, says: We are from Arbria (todays Greece) Brave knights we are On horse, sea or land For Turks naught we care 6 In this case these stratiotis (fighters) that west calls them Greeks, called their country Arbri, not Greece. Petta Paulo emphasizes: If knights proclaim expressively and continually to be Albanians and not Greeks, language attributed to them is venecian-Greek as it does not show Albanian traces. We dont know if we could propose a research on possible Albanian traces inside their Greek. They claim to be arvanites, same as what Greeks call Albanians. This apparent confusion is supported by their involvement in Greek community wich gathers at Saint Vlash church and not in Albanian community at Saint Maucio, something often mentioned at contemporary chronicles. Perhaps, the reason of this choice was not ethnic but rather religious, since
6

Petta Paulo, Stratiott, Ushtar Shqiptar n Itali, Tiran, 2006. P.30

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

traditionally Albanian stratiotis (knights) in general, come from Morea, therefore belong to Greek church. So, in Venedik they would not figure as an orthodox fraction of Albanian community but as an arvanit fraction of Greek community.7 Thus, the author explains clearly that Moreas Greeks were arvanite Albanians but called Greeks since they follow orthodox rite of Greek community and lived in what the west calls Greece, and not Arbri as Albanians call it. When he says the language they speak is Greek- venecian, he is wrong, because arvanites speak Albanian to this day. Moreover, they speak almost standard Albanian. Apparently, the author did not know Albanian and it sounded like venecian and Greek. In fact, hes right, for both these languages are based on Albanian. Cippico points that in all of Moreas cities being under their control, venecians kept as mercenaries many Albanian knights. In Greek theyre called stratiotis. Stratiotis are people that in latin are called epirots, turks, Greeks, Albanians8 The vast majority of stratiotis serving Venedik were not from Albania but from Morea 9 The presence of Greek element in the knight ranks was considerable, however, they were a minority. Among Greeks, too, had leaders dynasties whose kin relationship were not well established due to misuse of their prestigious surnames, Paleologo, Ralli or Klada.10 So, for the author, knights came from a place the West of

Petta Paulo, Stratiott, Ushtart Shqiptar n Itali. P.13 Stratiott, Ushtar Shqiptar n Itali. P.42 9 9-Stratiott, Ushtar shqiptar n Itali. P.63
8 10

Stratiott, Ushtart Shqiptar n Itali, p.65

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

that time would call Greece, but theyre not Greeks but Albanians, except those with last names Ralli or Klada. In fact, not even those families were Greeks, for Klada and Ralli are Albanian families with Albanian last names, which shows that theres no Greek ethnicity at all. The author also point out: Its worth noticing, in any case, how these Christian Albanians had nothing but a Greek national conscience.11 So, after so many uncertainties the author clearly states that Greeks were called Albanians with Greek national conscience. Therefore, its understood that Albanians were called Greeks only by faith and the place they came from. He also points out that the Macedonian regiment found in 1739 was a unit made-up entirely by Albanians and organized by Albanian officers. This regiment was created by Karl Burboni.12 During the independence wars of Balkan nations, Albanians for the most ranked on turks side. At their first war and the bloodiest, severe fighting took place between turks and Greeks that in fact were battles among Albanian Muslims and christians.13 The author witnesses the Albanians tragedy who fought against one another on behalf and account of hellenism or ottomanism, respective of the faith they belonged to, and never united to fight for their own interests. Another author, Luis Beonlew, on Albanians of Greece during 19th c., says: Even in our times we see how Albanians, after spreading throughout modern Greece, beginning primarily in 14th century, are going that far as to forget their mother tongue

11 12 13

Stratiott, Ushtart Shqiptar n Itali, p.126 Stratiott, Ushtart Shqiptar n Itali, p.122
Stratiott, Ushtart shqiptar n Itali p. 131

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

and become According to the same author: It is said that before the war for independence not a single Albanian of Argos spoke Greek. Many Albanians from Athens tell of this. Fields and surroundings of Atica, Southern Eubea, Megara, Argos and of Corinth are populated entirely by Albanians.15 Before the war with turks, in islands of Hydra, Specia, Poros and Salamine, there was no women at all that spoke or understood Greek. The naval fleet of the time, in general, continued to speak Albanian. But now the Albanian wants to be called Greek. In slightly larger areas of Atica, Albanian women speak Greek in the street when they think foreigners are observing them. In Hydra, Specia and Salamine islands, too, all the youth speak Greek. 16 This french author who has also done a dignified work on Pellazgo-Illyrian origin of ancient Greeks, clearly proves that Atica and Peloponesy used to be populated by Albanians and that arvanites hellenism was artificial, misunderstood or imposed. Nicholas Hamond, a distinguished helenofile, does not agree with modern Greek idea on inexistence of Albanians and insists that: during 14-15th cen. The largest part of Peloponesy was Albanian speaking. According to him, Albanians multiplied during the centuries of ottoman rule and their decedents could be seen across Greece in 1930-s speaking Albanian. They, says Hamond, call themselves Greeks, despite the fact they are Albanians and speak Albanian So, even an extremist helonofile like Nicholas
14

Greeks.14

Luis Beonlew, Greqia para grekve (Greece before Greeks), Tirana, 2008. P.54 15

Luis Beonlew, Greqia para grekve (Greece before Greeks), Tirana, 2008. P.54
16

Same place, p.55

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

Hamond is forced to admit that Peloponesy spoke Albanian and was populated by Albanians. He explains that even in his 1930-s visits to Greece, they continued to still speak Albanian. Poqueville, presents us with data on Greeces population of that time, so valuable on this topic. At the beginning he had good relationship with Albanians and presents things realistically, but later, as he had a quarrel with Ali Pasha Tepelena, talks evil of them, especially of Labria, where Ali was from. Poqueville speaks on Albanians of Greece. On Beotina: population of villages we mentioned is almost formed by Albanians. On Corinth: Albanians have replaced Greeks in the whole of Corinth and Argolida On Atica: Villagers of Atica are Albanians. (At that time Athens had 4.000 Albanians and 3.000 Greek-Albanians starting to become Greeks- and 3.000 of different ethnicities, part of which were also Muslim Albanians.17 On Argos: natives of this city have not been less famous than Spartans. Are Albanians of christian faith, count up to 10.000, but multiply and advance daily. Further, Puquiville talks of Albanians of Lala and Bardhuni, capturing the city of Gastun (Elida). On people of Hydra island he says that in 1816 there were nearly 22.000 inhabitants and among them were 20 Greeks who were given permit to settle there. The rest were natives and spoke Albanian. Specia had 21.000 residents. For Psara he says: it outlived its tough Albanians. As we can see, Poquiville witnesses that the heart of what is
17

Selman Sheme, amria, Tiran, 2005 p.202

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

called today, Greece, was inhabited by Albanians. This is reliable since Pouquiville has visited Greece and is not deemed to be some kind of an albanofile. Besides, his data are similar to those of other authors. Bartholdi in his book Voyage en Grece speaks of three Albanian groups, Albanian solders of Morea, Albanians residents in Athens and Albanians of Lethada18 He states that Petro Mavromichalis, leader of maniats, wore Albanian traditional costumes.19This shows that maniats who claimed to be real Greeks were nothing but Albanians and this is proven by other historic data, too. George Finaly says powerful Albanians of Hydra, Albanian warriors of Suli, Bulgarians of Macedonia and vllachs of Aspropotami carried out the independence war of Greece. In 14th century, arvanites had managed to put in their hands a good size territory of Akarnania, Epirus, Macedonia and had began consolidating their dwellings in Peloponesy. Louis Bellog in his book Bonaparte and Greeks points that Greece is populated by a bunch of people that differ from tradition, language and character but unite in common faith and hatred against turks.20 Dimo Stephanopouli by origin was from Mani of Peloponesy and Napoleon sent him to meet with Beg of Manito to offer him Bonapartes help in liberating the country from Turkey. After a few months of traveling he came to Bonaparte with an answer about Albania: Albania is divided in two parts. One borders with Dalmatia and is populated by turks and by catholic christians. The other part of Albania begins in Valona
18

Lumo Skndo, Udhtart e huaj n Shqipri deri n fund t shekullit 19, Tiran 1999. p.76
19

Richard Burgess, Greece and Levant, London, 1835.p. 205


20

Louise Bellog, Bonnoparti dhe Grekt, Paris, 1826, p.20

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

or Avlon, at a distance of 100 miles from Dalmatia, and goes all away to the peninsula of Morea. Ali, the strongest and the richest among them wants to make it one, the whole Albania. He has subdued all of his other rivals, like Pasha of Valona and that of Delvina whom he replaced with his son. The whole territory, from bay of Preveza to that of Levant, Arta and Janina, which includes the whole Rumelia, is under Ali Pashas rule and can gather 300.000 Greek men and 40.000 turks. (hence, he calls Greeks, Albanian orhtodox and turks, Albanian Muslims).21 Morea is Levants richest. It has 300.000 residents, including 27.000 turks and 40.000 maniats22 Maniats are under Mavromichalis and Dimo sees them as the purest Spartans to exist 23(Maniats were tall white people and lived in Mana of Morea. Albanians call it Arbri. They were the most loyal Greece had. Their leader, Mavromichalis, wore Albanian costumes and spoke Albanian). At the same book is written that Greece was armed. After the first Russian-Turkish war, Albania was flooded with bandits and vagabonds. Tired of Greeks demands, the government allowed them to take up arms and defend their property.24Hence, once again, obviously, Greece is under the concept of Albania, just the way Dimo Stephanopuli from Mani of Peloponesy puts it .Thus, he says: Albania was flooded by thieves and Greeks asked for arms. He means the inhabitants of Albania. He calls them Greeks but they are orthodox arvanites living in a place which Europe in 19th

21

Bonnoparti and Greeks.p.70-74


22

Same book. P 76 Same book. p.90 24 same book, p.98


23

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

century named it Greece. So, he uses both Greece and Albania, to show the place where Attica and Peloponesy are situated. By Falmerayers account, medieval and modern Greeks are not descendants of antiquitys Greeks and their hellenism is artificial. With sllavic blood, Albanian heroes, orthodox turks form Ponti, vllach latin speaking politicians, assimilated Albanian and macedonians, not to mention dozens of other ethnicities? Is there really any Greek among them today? Falmerayer is right when he speaks of the mixture and being artificial about modern Greeks, for different nations play the game as if were Greek. But he did not know well of ancient Albanian presence in those territories. In History of Teba, vol.2, Cevas notes Its known that during the national war and after that time, until 1850, Albanian was spoken in all of Atika and Athens itself. Only a few knew how to speak Greek. He says the same about the region of Teba, with the exception of a few in inner cities. Whereas V. Rafailidhi in his book, Ethnos notes: Falmerayer, who admired the arvanites a lot, would write that the Greek revolution was indeed a work of arvanites. Actually, in the state created immediately after 1821, almost, majority of people in Kapodistria and Oton, spoke Albanian. A part of the neo-helenism, whose daily language is arvanitian, played the primary role in the creation of this state where they live today, either military or economically, alike. On the outstanding role of Albanians in the war leading to the creation of the Greek state, also speaks Vadington: Half of Odysseys army (Andruci) are mainly Albanians under Gurras command. He, also, highlights that Odyssey himself was raised and educated in Ali Pashas Yard in Janina. While British Counsel in Morea, Grini, qualifies Odyssey as

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

captain general of Eastern Greece, one of the most renown Albanian leaders. In his book La Turqie et Helenisme contemporain, french author Victor Bernard, with his admiration for Albanian nation, writes: Sometimes Albanian nation has been exalted and personified with a great man, whose hand, whomever he may have been, Mehmet Aliu, Ali Tepelena, Skanderbeg or Pirro, has uplifted an entire world and has carved its marks of ingenuity on the people it has led. The life of Albanians in this awkward century, their works in Egypt, where they were kings or in Greece where they were the real authors of independence, should explain to us many periods of early history. And when Albanians vindicate Alexander, Achilles and Agamemnon, exaggeration shouldnt be but a form, for the paradox in itself carries a truth . Rennel Rodd at his book, Customs and Lore of Modern Greece, states that Greece is populated by Albanians and that ancient Greeks have effaced. By his point, modern Greeks are linked to Albanians 25Albanians were invited to populate Greece since Byzantium era, even earlier. IN 14th century, Manuel Katakuzhini brought some thousands of Albanians, Johan Paleologu brought more Albanians, too. So, according to him, Greeks had vanished and their place was taken by Albanians, from where the modern Greeks originate. Edward Blaquiere at The Greek Revolution, Its origin and Progress says: all the peasants living in Greece were Albanians. 26 William St. Clair at That Greece might still be free says that many of Albanians in Hydra and Specia do not speak Greek,

25 26

Customs and Lore of Modern Greece, by Rennel Rodd, published in 1892, p.17 Edward Blaquiere The Greek Revolution: Its origin and Progress, p.21

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

however, they carry themselves as Greeks for they are connected with Orthodox Church.27 Vllachs and Albanians are the raw material of making the new Greeks.28Lucy M. J. Garnett in his book Greece of the Hellenes, says that Albanians used to and still form almost all the Atticas population.29 In Middle Ages, these Albanian mountaineers brought their fighting spirit, shining costumes and human beauty to renew the Hellenic race. They are still there, especially in Atika district, where Albanian is the daily language. Among Hydra marines are famous Albanian names, particularly in the great war of independence, where leading families were of Albanian origin30 Sami Frashri, too, witnesses that in his time, many territories in Greece were populated by Albanians. Hydra has a population of 17.300 but before the war were 40.000 who fought for Greeces liberation. Even now, the selected part of Greek military is of Hydra people.31 Kopaisi is the largest lake in Greece, situated in northern part of Beotia. Since the population around it is Albanian, the lake has wrongfully been named Topolias, of an Albanian root word, topil which means lake.32 According to Antonio Belushi, 1994 Greece had 654 arvanite villages in Atica, Peloponesy,Beoti, Korint, Arkadi, Akai, Elida, Mesina and Agrolida. Among Aegean islands, the list is topped by Eubea with 89 villages followed by Androsi,
27

William St. Clair: That Greece Might still be Free, p.9 The Vlachs: The History of Balkan people, p.139. T.J Winfrith 29 Greece of the Hellens, by Lucy M. J. Garnett. P. 32 30 Greek pictures, by J. P. Mahaffy, published in 1890. P.20, 31 Frashri, Sami. P. 74 32- Same book, p.91 32 Selman Sheme. P. 206
28

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

10

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

while islands Hydra, Specia, Paros, Egina and Salamina are populated are populated primarily by Albanians.33Salamia has about 4.570 residents who speak Albanian language entirely.34 On the other hand, orthodox residents of todays Greece did not call themselves neither Greeks nor helens but rumios, a term related to Byzantine Empire. Albanians, besides this religious term have used the national term, arvanite. Thus, conclusively, by looking at contemporary authors, Greece was populated by Albanians who spoke Albanian. As to how Albanians got to be assimilated into Greeks, we will see as follows.

33 34

Selman Sheme, amria-Tiran, 2005.p.206 Sami Frashri.p.152

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

11

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

Albanians of Suli and Epirus


Artificial Greece created by Europe, not only denies being Albanian but claims that all the neighboring lands belong to her. In 1913, through bargaining that took place in European diplomatic chambers, Greece took from Albania Southern Epirus or Chameria and Southwestern Macedonia, populated by enlarge with Albanians. It has claimed and still does that these are ore used to be Greek lands, but were forgotten and now Greece should take and make them Greek. It is absurd to think that these are Greek territories when, as we saw earlier, Albanians have lived in Athens and Peloponesy. Therefore, its worthless to further proof this, however, lets look at facts showing these territories to have been and still are Albanian. Pouqueville, says that christian Albanians of Suli are totally different, mountaineers and warriors.35Peasants of Thyami are Albanian christians with cham language.36 Richard Burgess calls Janina and Epirus part of Albania and says that Albania stretches even beyond old Epirus 37 Janina used to be capital of Albania in 13th century. He considers Ali Pasha descendent of pellasgs and his death as that of Spartas Leonidha. 38Preveza is the border between Albania and Greek state. 39 At that time were placed political borders between Greece and Albania which was still under

35

Francois Pouqueville Voyage de la grece, Lumo Skndo p. 47 same book. P.46 37 Richard Burgess, Greece and the Levant, London 1835 p. 77
36 38 39

Same book-p 80 Same book,p. 96

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

Ottoman rule. Ibrahim Manzouri, at La grec et lAlbani says that to chams belog suliots, too, who are not Greeks but Albanians, either by language or origin.40 At Bonaparte and Greeks, Parga and Preveza are called Albanian shores. Sami Frashri offers some data on composition of these areas population. According to him, Filati has 24.179 people and all of them are Albanians 41 Italian Aldo Sestini in his book The chams, published in 1941, says that Filati has 32.000, of whom 3.500 are bilinguals, but they, too, are Albanians. In regard to Janina, Sami Frashri states that it has a population of 35.000, 30 mosques and 6 churches, 2 synagogues and 3 teqe (Bektashi Monastery, t.n.). Two thirds of population is Muslim and onethird christian. All of the Muslims are Albanians. So is the majority of christians, who want to be literate in their language and are giving up the Greek issue.42 Margllici, a city in Preveza prefecture of Janina province, has a population of 3.000, all Albanians.Sub-prefecture, together with the areas of Parga and Fanar is comprised of 71 villages, has 25.000 residents. The entire population is Albanians, majority Muslims.43 Prefecture of Preveza borders at north with sub-prefecture of Janina and east with Greece. South is bordered with Bay of Narta and Preveza gorge, whereas from west and southwest, with Ionian Sea. Its a population of 5.5000, mostly Muslims and the rest christians with the exception of a few jews. All of
40

Lumo Skndo, Udhtart e huaj n Shqipri, Tiran 1999. P. 103


41

Sami Frashri, p.61


42 43

Same book.p.82 Sami Frashri-p.118

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

the Muslims are Albanians. So are most of Christians. Only in the city and those border with Greece are Greeks.44 Whereas Aldo Sestini, an italian, who wrote The chams, in 1941, says that Preveza has 21.160 inhabitants, of whom 10.000 are Greek speakers with Albanian origin.45 So, he shows clearly that even those who were supposed to be Greeks were in fact Albanians. Parga has 5.000 breaths. Its a Muslim population and some christians who are Albanians and Greeks. By Aldo Sestini, sub-prefecture of Paramithia has around 15.486 inhabitants, 5.000 of whom are bilingual. Pogonia has 13.888, of whom 6.200 are Greekspeakers. Margllii has 14.537 Albanians. One may notice that islands and shores have a population, generally Greek with Albanian origin.46 For example, kundurioti, people from renown marine family in island of Hidra, who played a quintessential role during the independence struggle, were of Albanian origin.47 As foreign authors witness, Albanian otrthodox who, besides Albanian language speak that of the orthodox church, too, are called Greeks. John Hubhouse, a companion and friend of Byron, says of Albania: I have never seen any map to show the line that divides the place that clear. No doubt, the whole province, including Akarnan, can be called Albania. Preveza is the largest dock of Southern Albania. The christians of Janina, although they live in an Albanian province, call themselves Greek, just like those of Preveza and Narta. But, since the word rumjos (rumyos, t.n.) is a religious term and not a national, and indicates a christian following a Greek church,
44

Sami Frashrop.141 Selman Sheme- p.103 46 Misha Glennny-, The Balkans, Nationalism, War and the Great Powers- p.23 47 Same book, p.25
45

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

considering that majority of Albanians is of this faith and is known by this term, its difficult to avoid doubt when speaking about the population of this country. Albanians of Atika love music and dance much like the rest of Albanians, and on April 20th, all the villagers come to dance all day in downtown, at Terzeus temple square. 48 For this author, Albania begins in Tivar and ends at Akranani, beyond Arta. Since at that time the Greek state was created, Albanian territories together with its population were included in the Greek concept, too. Hence, the author speaks of ethno-political Albania and not for an ethnically clean one. He, also explains clearly that orthodox christians are called rumyos, and that the West called this concept, Greek, regardless the fact that the population was Albanian. Today, Southern Epirus is 9.200 km and has a population of 350.000 residents, without the Muslim chams in Albania. Researchers of hellenism claim that the arvanites came don there during 14-15th century and are not natives. They assimilated the native Greeks, who began to speak Albanian. Thus, for them time has come that Albanians of Athens and Peloponesy, to return to their original identity, Greek! Historic facts that we analyzed earlier, shows that Albanians were not only the medieval Greeks but those of antiquity, too, were of Illyrian origin. There is never mentioned any Greek ethnogeographic notion in medieval maps, whereas Albania is in all them. Population composition during medieval and modern times in Greece, make you wonder and understand that the arvanites who have lived and still live in Peloponesy and Atika, where helenic civilization was born and

48

John Hubhouse, A journey through Albania and other provinces of Turkey in Europe and Asia to Constantinople during the years 1809-1810. Lumo Skndo, p. 58-67

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

developed, are descendents of ancient hellenes. Historic facts show that hellenes origin is of Albanian grandfathers. Right at the first historic source, Iliad, it is spoken of tribes of Pellazgo-Illyrian origin, living at that time in Peloponesy and Atika. Iliad is nothing but a work that speaks of wars between Albanian ancestors. At Iliad the whole the culture and ethics used by characters, is that of modern Albanians, especially gheg ones. It is clear if you compare the behavior of the characters resembling the culture of modern Albanias ghegs. The Japanese researcher, prof.dr. Kazuhiko Jamamoto has conducted a very interesting study., where he compares the ethical principles in works of the Homeric society with that of Albanian Code . He notices that the code of honor of Albanians is identical to that of Homeric Era. In his study he explains49that the ethic structure of a society without a state authority, like the one of gheg tribes of Northern Albania, comprise of Besa, (the verbal sworn oath, the promise. t.n.) honor, friend, blood, bread and revenge. He analyses the virtues of Homeric era with the Albanian ones. At Homers work, hospitality is like to Albanians today, with no difference at all, even though 3000 years have passed. In fact, even today, hospitality for Albanians is sacred. Thus, a gheg Albanian is customary to open his door even to his adversary and receive him with abundance of goods and courtesy, even though they are in vengeance, just like Achilles receives Priamus with all the good, though he had killed his son. Hospitality on Albanians has such values that even a murder may attend his victims burial as he remains in their besa
49

Gazeta Republika, June 3-5. 2004

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

(oath). Only after he has left the victims house the selfconfinement begins. Odyssey says he would rather prefer to die than seeing his guest maltreatment in his house50 If his guest compensates the hospitality with ingratitude than the host will revenge towards him. Menelaus hopes that gods will punish Trojans, as Parade of Troy has flouted the hospitality by abducting his wife51 The guest has a specific importance in the Homeric society, just like it has in todays Albanian society. The Kanun has the same hospitality rules as homeric society. And not only The Kanun but the whole Albanian culture. The main Trojan conflict consists at perfidy towards the host in his house, after abducting his wife and robbing the house.52 Achilles say that he mobilized his army to set scores of the offense by Menelaus, as Paridi had by worded his hospitality. 53 If the guest is offended or threatened, it is the host who carries the responsibility and the embarrassment in front of all the society. Penelope says to Telemak that if he allows the adversaries to misbehave with the alien sheltered in his house, then the shame will fall on him.54 Telemak says to Odyssey that he himself will be the shield of offenses and slapping, for as long as he remains in his house.55 Odyssey states that the alien should be received as guest when he knocks at a house in a foreign land.56 So, as one may notice, all the aspects on hospitality, treated at Iliad and Odyssey, are identical to

50

Odyssey, 16; 99-111 Iliad, 12; 623-629 52 Iliad, 13 623-639 53 The Iliad, 1 152-160 54 The Odyssey, 18;222-225 55 The Odyssey, 20, 262-265 56 The Odyssey, 9; 265-271
51

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

those of Albanians, applying them to their daily live, today. Ransom for blood and vengeance is known by the kanun even today. When an assassin manages to survive and escape alive to another place, his kinfolks, asks those of the victim to accept the ransom for the victims blood. When the victims family accepts it, then the reconciliation is reached and the assassin may return to his place.57 If the indemnity is not fulfilled, it results in a conflict that is up to the elders to resolve. It hears both sides and then decides based on presented facts. The pact of reconciliation is guaranteed with the oath (besa) offered by the parties.58 The revenge rules to Albanians today are still as they were in the Homeric era, both, the ransom and reconciliation guaranteed by oath (bes). When a mans blood is spilled, family members or his kinfolks must revenge for him. This act of vengence is amust for them and, for Akamas, its amisfortune if nobody in the family or clan to revenge for the diseased.59 To the kanun of Albanians, too, vendeta takes a key place ant it must be carried out by family and tribe, just the way it was for the homeric society. These, once again show that homeric society has no resemblence to Greeks, but to the todays Albanians. The concept of Besa, where the author meets three kinds of besa concepts. The first is the keeping of the oath (besa), when Achiles vows to Kalkanti, who asks him to take oath that he will protect him from Agamemnon60. The second kind is the vow to tell the truth, when Agamemnon swears that he

57

Iliad, 9, 632-639 Iliad, 3, 276-279 59 Iliad, 14; 482-485 60 Iliad, 1, 74-83


58

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

has not touched Briseyda of Achiles. 61 The third kind is the vow that guarantees the fullfillment of the given oath. Oddessy swears to Zeus that he will destroy all of those who have harassed his wife, for they embarressed his son and his wife.62 When men take their oath, a third person witnesses it. Those who take the oath, swear to God, Earth and Sky . Agamemnon swears that he has God, Earth and Sky as witness that he has never touched Briseyda 63. For Albanians besa has been sacred and as an assurance institute. When an accordance was reached at Balshajs time no pawn was kept. It was guaranteed by besa of Albanians. At later epochs, too, Greece has had Pellazgo-Illyrian culture, for it was inhabited by tribes of this population. Herodot says for jonians and dorians that lakodemons and athinians are; first with Doric and second jonic blood. Indeed, these two nations have kept since early times, the best parts of Greece. One is pellazg and the other helen, one has never moved from its place, the other has migrated often. Under Orin, the son of Heln, they moved to Osa, Olimp that is called Histiaeotis, and were forced to abandon these areas, by kadms. They settled under macedonian name at the foot of Pindi. They moved once again and came to Dryops, and from there entered Peloponnesus. Pseudoskilaks settles dorians at the peninsula of Ylli near Bylinians, hence by territories of Illyria.64 Herodot says that dorians were from Macedonia by origin and that their leader was Pellazgu. At their early days they were weak and gadabouts, and soon detached from the Pellazgs. Herodotus
61

Iliad, 19 258-266 Odyssey Iliad 19, 258-266 64 Skilaksi, Illiroi, p 22


62 63

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

himself continues to prove that eols are pellazgs. Tukididious refers to eols as an ethnicity where majority must have spoken an unfamiliar language. As Herodot states, jonians, too, were pellazgs.65 So, we saw all the information ancient authors have presented in relation to the origin of the three tribes living in Helada (Ionians, dorians and eols) show that they were of Pellazgo-Illyrian origin. This proves that the territory called today Greece has been historically populated by Albanians. Thus, Albanians are not in that territory by accident, but have lived there since early times

65

Herodot VIII, p 44 , VII p, 9

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

Albanian territories in todays Serbia


Serbia was created on 19th century as a result of help given to it by Russia. Also, in spite of this help it managed to create a state with its center Belgrade and later on to expand beyond fathom on Albanian lands, by creating thus that serbia we know today. But during 19-20th century it enlaged itself several times, for it included Macedonia and Kosova within its territory. Later on it would identify by name Yugoslavia, created by great powers. In the beginning, during the monarchic years it was dominated by Serbs and after by croats, led by Tito. By the sanjac of Belgrade, when Serbian state was created at least 150.000 Albanians were expelled66. This shows that in that sanjac had lived a considerable number of Albanians, as they expelled only Muslim Albanians. There should have lived more Albanians as the orthodox Albanians were automatically called Serbs. On 1856, by Paris Peace Treaty, Serbia had gained some kind of right to expell all of the Albanians fromk the cities of Shumadija as well as from Hercegovina. Other territories of central Serbia, too, like Nish, Novi Pazar, Vranja and Kurshumli, were inhabited by Albanian population and land deeds belonged to Albanians. Serbia took these territories from the Ottoman Empire in 1878 and expelled thereout all of the Muslim Albanians, and keeping the orthodox Albanians of the slavic religious rite, through assimilation. The authors of 19th cent. Infer of Albanian territories of todays Serbia. In his works, titled Reise von Belgrade nach Salonik1, Hahn infers that it is the flow of Morava water that separates the Albanian province from that
66

Shaban Braha, Idriz Seferi, Lvizja Kombtare Shqiptare, Tiran 1982, p. 23

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

of slavs. Then, passing into history, the author proves that these Albanians are autochthonous residents of the areas in question, for they are descendants of Illyrians, Eoirots, Macedonians, Dardhans, Antariats, Taulants, Tribals and Desarets67. The Vilayet of Kosova, where Nish, too was included, was comprised of Albanian population. This was confirmed, among others, by three objective foreign observers, whom had visited these territories a few decades before the Congress of Berlin. All three of these observers, good connoisseurs of Balkan Penninsiula, Ami Boue, 1810, British analyst E. Spenser, 1847 and distinguished Austrian scientist J. Hahn, 1853 had respectively presented, almost accurately, even the boundaries of the territories where Albanians were present, independently. According to them, Albanians were in the north as far as Nish, Leskoc, Toplica, and Vranja. Most of the Albanian families were concentrated in the region of Toplica (circuits of Prokuple, Dobriq, Kosanica and part of Jabllanica, Pustareka and Kurshumlia). Albanians were also present in the district of Vranja (part of Pustareka and Jabllanica circuit, Leskoc, Polanica, Gerdelica, Masurica, Pqinja, Inogoshta circuits, etc.) In the region of Nish and that of Pirot. Albanians were present at other places, too, especially in cities like Qupuri, Paraqin, Uzhice, Krushec, Aleksinc, Karanovc (Kraleva) and as far as Belgrade. To the East they were stretched to Kumanova, Prelep and Manastir, whereas in south, as far as Konica, Janina and Preveza. On the periphery of these territories there was a
67

Reise von Belgrade nach Salonik- HAHN- Read the chapter: Zur Geschichte
des Moraagebieter p.228-262.

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

mixtrue of ethnicities, where Albanians comprised variably, besides other ethinicities. As we can see, Serbia erected upon an Albanian coat and assimilated the Albanian orthodox poplulation of the slavic ritual, while expelling those of islamic faith. Belgrade, Shumadia and Hercegovina, too, had Albanian population, but were expelled since mid 19th century. In 19 century Central serbia was entirely Albanian but was ethnically cleansed or rather, religiously cleansed within a few months.

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

Albanian territories in Macedonia In 19th century According to Sami Frasheri, Macedonia was composed of 1.850.000 residents, of whom 750.000 were Muslims and 50.000 jews. The rest were christians68. Muslims were primarily of Albanian origin and he counted even then, 750.000. Today, the Macedonian government counts 500.000 such. Where did the others went, for the population grows and not reclines. Today it should have at least 2.000.000 Muslim Albanians, not counting those orthodox ones. In Shkup (Skoplje) of Macedonia, around 80% of the population was Albanian with 5.000 Albanian homes, 1000 slavo-macedonian and 300 Serbian ones. Today, only 40% of the population is Albanian. Poquiville, on todays Macedonia infers that; Ohrid, Resnja, Starova, Struga, Gryka e Vogl (Gorge Minor), Upper and Lower Dibra, Gryka e Madhe (Gorge Major) and Gora have 353 villages of which, only 25 in Resnja are Bulgarian; Ohrid with 5.000 people, Struga with 3.000. Together with its sorroundings are 6.200 residents of Albanian ethnicity.69 Sub-Prefecture of Prilep borders to the north with prefecture of Krova and of its region. On the east it borders with subprefecture of Tikvesh and Qypyrlia, whereas in the south with the region of Karagova of Thesaloniki and sub-prefecture of Follorina and of Manastiri (Bitola) province. Together with the province of Mirihova it is comprised of 131 villages. The population of Prilep sub-prefecture reaches to 59.248, majoritz of whom are Albanian Muslims, while the rest, slavs and vlachs.70 In regard to Konica Perfecture, Sami Frashri writes
68

Sami Frasheri. P.115 Franncois Poqueville, Voyage de la grece, Lumo Skndo, p. 55 70 Frashri, Sami p.143
69

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

that it is comprised of 34 villages where half of 25.000 residents living there, are Albanian Muslims and the rest are christians of Albanian and vlach ethinicity 71. Hughes describes Konica this way: one of the best places of Albanianshas 5.000 residents, where 2/3 of whom are Muslims, 600 Albanian homes 200 Greek ones. With Greek, in such cases, were refered to the Albanians of orthodox rite. Regarding the city of Kora, Sami Frashri says that the population is entirely Albanian, where 2/3 are christians. The prefecture of Kora itself , which includes Kora, Kosturi, Kolonja and Starova, has 159.379 residents. All of them, but a small number of bullgarians and jews in Kostur, and a few vllachs, are Albanians, of whom 44.849 are Muslims and the rest christians72. Resnja, on the northeast of Prespa Lake, in the prefecture of Manastiri, has a population of 4.384. The region has 32 villages with 15.816 inahbitants, vllach and christian Albanians.73 Prefecture of Serfixhe (Servia) consists of 6 sub-prefectures and has 9 districts with 407 villages. On the east and northeast it borders with the province of Thesaloniki, whereas from the north with the prefecture of Manastiri. On the northwest it borders with the prefecture of Kora, whereas on the west with with that of Janina and on the south with Greece. There are 197.039 inhabitants, of which, 76.563 are Muslims and the rest are Greeks and vllachs. Those of Muslim population speak turkish, Albanian and Greek. Greeks speak Greek and vllachs, their own language, vllach74. Z. Brailford, member of Balkan Committee in London has
71

Frashri, Sami p.90 Frashri, Sami, p.93 73 Frashri, Sami, p.151 74 Frashri, Sami, p.155
72

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

decribed Macedonia to fullfill his charity mission, delivering aid. He considers Albanian nationality as the only ethnographic element that has the uncontestable right on Macedonia. Noel Buxton, chairman of the Balkan Committee, is someone who shows very little simpathy for Albanians. However, he says that Albanians comprise a very important factor in Macedonia and that it is impossible to solve this so called macedonian issue, by ignoring this ancient people. The liberation process (for Macedonia) has gonne that far as to have given every nation the equal rights on the free land, except one, Albania. This old people should not have lost on civility of nations. Macedonia does not form a distinguished homgeniuos race specifically by Greeks or Serbs, but Albania could not have been partitioned without destroing a nation75. Another English, distinguished publicist, Charles Woods, places Albanians at their locations for inhabitance on the west of the flow separating the pool of Adriatic from that of Egean Sea76 Below is a passage from the works of Baldacci pertaining the new Albanian state: It is a reson for the perfect national unification that includes the bulk of four old turkish vilayets of Scutari (Shkodra, today), Janina, Kosova and Manastiri. The Turkish occupation not only did not affect the ethnographic characteristic but could not stop the spirit of independence, either, which remained always the fundamental quality of Albanian people and its national way of living. This part of Macedonia is an area with patriarcal civilization, with its

75 76

Europe and Turks, by Noel Buxton, London. P. 48-49(alb. Version) See: Turkey and its neighbours, p. 83 (page may vary on Albanian version)

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

residents at the western border being Albanians. Exactly at this part of Macedonia are found the strongest people physically and ethnographically the purest of the peninsiula.... Albanians, the best looking race in the Balkans77 So, the information provided by authors, offers it results that Albanian territories in Macedonia are: Ohri, Resnja, Starova, Struga, Gryka e Vogl (Gorge Minor), Dibra e Eprme and Dibra e Poshtme (Upper and Lower Dibra), Gryka e Madhe (Gorge Major), Gora, Prilepi, Krova, Follorina, Mirihova, Kosturi, Kolonja, Konica and the prefecture of Serfizha, Manastiri, Shkupi, Tetova, Kumanova, etc. Thus, Albanians have populated the larger part of what is called Macedonia. Even today, with all the intrigues and backstages to eleminate or assimilate the Albanians, they make up a considerable amount of the macedonian states population, which in a few years should become the absolute majority, thanks to the population growth. Albanian territories in Montenegro Sami Frashri says that the breeding of the population by mixture of Illyrians and Slavs in Bosnia and Hercegovina, Montenegro and Dalmacia, has resulted in resemblence to Albanians in physiognomy, morals and behaviour, except the language. The scholar Franz Miklovisih about this says: To Albania should be included the whole region called Zedda (Zeta)78 Another scholar, Mas Latrie, the same one who calls Janina an Albanian city, makes Zeta an Albanian province, also. The name Zenta, Zeta and Cedda names a small princedom of Illyrian seaside that has remained independent
77

New Country of Albania, Antonio Baldacci, taken from Italian Military Magazine, Rome, 1913 78 Serbian Dinasty- Chernojevich- Franz Miklovisih, Viena, 1886, p. 29

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

from 13-19th century. Its territory includes a part of upper Albania or the modern Montenegro(?) Before the turkish occupation, Montenegro had a large Albanian population. After the invasion, part of the Serbian population who wanted to maintain the orthodox religion, migrated to mountains where Albanian orthodox already were living, After that, the Albanian orthodox began performing their rituals in slavic language of the church and thus they were assimilated by Serbs. Montenegrins have allways cooperated with Albanians. For example, the Princ of Montenegro, Ivan Cernoyevich participated in The League of Lezha and remained to the end of it. He was a nephew to the Ballshajs. When Krajl Nikolla invaded Shkodra, he said he was of Bushati. Even costumes, traditions and their hight that resemble those of montaineers of the Alps, proves them to be slavicized Albanians. Another important fact is that they are brackicephalous like the Albanians, whereas slavs and Serbs are mezocephalous. Montenegro has been eracted almost entirely upon an Albanian terriotory and population.. Thus, on the east is situated Plava-Gucia, Kaloshini, Tara, etc, that used to be populated by Albanians. To the south are Hoti & Gruda that, Montenegro took together with Plava & Gucia in 1913. The whole seaside used to be populated by Albanians, but today there are Albanians in Ulqin and Tivar and a minority in Bar and Budva. Ulqin and Tivar were taken by Montenegro in 1878. As a territory today, Sanjak separates Serbia from Montenegro. Serbia has 2/3 of it and 1/3 is to Montenegro, which used to include the Albanian Plava & Gucia. The metropolis of Sanjak has been Novi Pazar. By historic fact presented herein, Novi Pazar was a citypopulated in general by Muslim Albanians, and most of them were expatriated to Turkey. Majority of Sanjakians are Albanians, half-assimilated.

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

They speak slavic, and their lastnames, usualy Albanian tribes names of the north, have the suffix iq. The ethnic identity of Sanjak is Albanian, for they preserved to this day only ancient Albanian traditions. With Albanians Sanjakians are linked by blood and traditions, whereas with Sarajevo, religion and language. (which 100 years before converted from Albanian to slavic, due to brutality upon them). Right from the beginning of ex-Yugoslavias disintegration, sanjakians proclaimed for secession from Serbia and Montenegro, and to join either Kosova or Bosnia.. The passing years , Sanjak was relegated more from Kosova and Albanians and approached more to Bosnia and bosnians All the more, Sanjak is coming out on political stage as factor pertaining more to the bosnian issue more than Albanian one. All the bosnian embassies in the world have taken up tu aproach the Sanjak issue. Of course, Sanjak does not present any important economic factor, like Kosova for example, but it is very important on geo-strategic aspect.79

79

Hivzi Islami, Spastrimet etnike, Politika gjenocidale serbe ndaj shqiptarve, Published by Dukagjini Peja, Kosova, 2003

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

How did Albanians vanish from most of their Balkans

territories in the

The eradication of Albanians from their lands passed three phases: 1-First phase: the creation of Greece or Serbia, which took place on a neither Serbian or Greek ethnic territory, but Albanian one. Greec was created on a trritory populated by en-large with Albaniansand the rest by other minorities, and, instead of nameing it Arvaniti or Arbri it was called Greece by Europe.. Serbia, too, after its states creation began expelling Muslim Albanians from Sanjak of Belgrade. 2-Second phase: These states erected upon Albanian lands, great powers stole from the ottomans, were the initiators of Albanias fragmentation for the second time, in 1878. Serbia took Nish, Novi Pazar, Vranja etc. Montenegro took Ulqin (Ulcinj) and Tivar. Ottoman Empire with Albanian lands under its rule, lost at war with Russia, and in March 1878 signed with it a treaty giving Bulagria territories of Eastern Albania, for it was Russias demand, too. Western countries not wanting Russias empowerment in the Balkans, discussed once more the agreement at the Congerss of Berlin in June 1878 which gave Serbia and Montenegro a part of Albanian territories. The agreement on Albanian lands was signed between these states and the ottomans. Albanians were not even allowed to participate in it, let alone to be asked. Albanian patriots, allowed by Turkey, formed The League of Prizren. Turkey wanted to use Albanians by throwing them at war with its neighbours that were taking their land with its approval, with the justification I would give them but, look, Albanians dont want to, and later when consolidating its position, it

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

would take these territories under its control. So, Turkey wanted to use Albanians for its own goals. It had no intention to defend Albanian lands, for in reality it had sold them already. Third phase: Cleavage in 1912-1913. Balkan states, becoming such with the help of Russia, began to woven plans how to divide turkish territories in the Balkans. Balkan war was one to divide the european Turkey that in fact were ethnic Albanian territories, and was enthroned with the cleavage of Albania by the great powers. Italo-Turkish war had weakend Turkeys position in The Balkans. This set in motion the government of balkan states to take agvantage of the circumstances created, for territorial gains. Balkan states, with all the deep contradictions between themselves, with the help of Russia managed to form a political and military alliance to attack the Ottoman Empire. By using as an argument the so-called inability of Albanians to form their own country, as well as the forged ethno-historical arguments, Serbia sought to unite Northern and Northeastern Albania with Serbia, and Southern Albania with Greece. Austro-Hungary tried to sabotage this alliance but failed. On march 13, 1912, a serbo-bulgarian agreement was reached. It contained a hidden appendix, by which Bulgaria recognizes not only lands with Serbian population but also the annexation of Albanian lands to the north and and west of Sharri Mountains (Bjeshkt e Sharrit), Central, Northern and Northeastern Albania, whereas Serbia recognized Bulgarias ownership of lands to the east of Rodop and Struma river. The territory between Sharri Mountains, Struma River and Lake Ohrid, with the main cities Dibra, Krova, Gostivar, Tetova, Kumanova and Shkup were called negotiable; as an arbitartor on solving this issue was appointed Russias czar.

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

Besides serbo-bulgarian talks, bulgaro-Greek talks were also held, which ended on May 29 with signing of a defence treatyin case of an attack by Turkey Montenegrin government had reached a verbal agreement with Bulgaria, whith which, the later recognized Cetina lands it would occupy, in an eventual war against Turkey. So, we have a Balkanik Orthodox alliance, presenting a serious risk for the existence of the Albanian nation. Meanwhile, relationships between Turkey and Balkan Alliance states were agravating all the more. On Oct. 8th 1912 Montenegro declared war on Turkey. On oct. 17, Montenegro was followed by Serbia and Bulgaria and a day later, Greece, too. In November, Albanian patriots, with Turkeys permission, proclaimed Albanias Independence, while being occupied by neighbouring countries armies. The Independence was a formal act, as the decision for it was not taken by Albanians, but Great Powers. Thus, after the First Balkan War, Serbia and Greece shared Macedonia between themselves, enraging Bulgaria, wanting its share. That greedy were Serbs and Greeks that they did not care at all about their friend, Bulgaria. Serbias territory at that time expanded 82% or twice the size it was before.. This was carried out mostly at the expense of ethnic Albanian land in Kosova and Albanian Macedonia. Greece took Epirus, whereas Montenegro Plava, Gucia, Hot and Gruda. Everytime Turkey would loose wars it would haggle with Albanian lands, by giving them away for free to Albanians neighbours. On the other hand, for as long as Albanians territories were defended by an empire like Turkey, they would not risk vanishing, for Turkey was the accupier and remote from Albanians. Its war to defend its territories that in fact were Albanian, were in favor of Albanians, as they had

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

am ally. However, when the Ottomans would loose, they did not care to make concessions for them. So, the benefit to ottomans was not direct but indirect. Whereas Italy and Austro-Hungary have payed a balancing role in the Balkans, for if they had no interest of theirs, today Albania, certainly woulld not be at the political map of Europe. Austria did not want Serbia strengthened. It wanted the Balkans under its rule, and for this reason supportes the creation of an independent Albanian state, from which Serbia were to take as little as possible. Italy had its own intentions and showed equilibrium towards Greeces interests that wished to grab allway to Shkumbin river and even further north, if possible. Thus, the interests of these two states that collided diplomatically with other bigger european powers, preserved the territories Albanians have today in what is called political Albania, whereas the Albanian territories outside it have been preserved thank to Islam, juxtapose to orthodox faith of our neighbours. Had Albanians been all orthodox of byzantine rite and old slav, then the first, by Europe would have been called Greek and the later Serbs and montenegrins, and today would have been assimilated entirely. The second Albanian state, Dardania, is atributed to the American foreign policy. But, lets take a look at how balkan states were created upon Albanian territories.

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

Greek state, first state of Albanians.


As we saw, the territories of what today is called Greece, during the last period of 18-19th century, most of them were populated by Albanians and other parts by slavs and vlachs. During 1821-1829, Albanians of Peloponessy and Attica fought fro the liberation of their land from Ottoman Empire. United, regardless of their faith, thy fought for the helenic ideal, and it did not cross their mind that the West would change their identity. Modern geek state at first had Morea as their base, populated by Albanians of islamic and orthodox faith; that later spread to Attica, too. The Albanian uprising was exploited by orthodox clergy and by the west to create an independent state to be called Greece.. Thus, the West would weaken the Ottoman Empire, while the orthodox pulpit would make a state as its paradise, as it aquired most of the property of this state, especially that of Muslim population, dislodged to Turkey. Although todays Greek state tries to hide the history regarding the territories of the first helens, at the beginning of 19 century, populated by Albanians and that had liberated the place, most of the explorers to have visited Greece, bring afore such a thing. All the leaders of the war were Albanians, such as Kolokotroni, Ali Farmaqi, Mavromihali, Bubulina, Karaiskaqi, etc. The leaders of the state were Albanians, as well as the prime-ministers. The Parlament spoke Albanian, as it was the mother-tongue. The king was thronned by Albanians, the marines language was Albanian, and many more. Why was Greece not called Arbri, as called by arvanites

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

living in that place, but was called Greece? Greece was not called Arbri because some european countries, on the socalled Greek land had undertaken to build a new state and give people a new ethnic identity, suiting them, for they were seeking to have an ancient Europe and claiming to originate culturally from it. In order to misappropriate the Hellenic antiquity, Europeans began to claim that ancient Greece was founded by peoples who descended from north and center of Europe, that were certainly lies, because there is no historic fact to support it. Calling it Arbri would have been right, for it would represend correctly the demogryphy of that place. When Greece was created, a person were not asked the ethnicity but was automatically called Greek population. This label was given to the Albanian people and other minorities by great powers, especially by Russia, France and England. By using this name they would identify very well with ancient Greeks. Greece is a new state that never existed before and speaks a language that had never been spoken by its people before. Until 1912, this state with help from Europe, ravened territories like Thracia, Macedonia and Epirus, with most of its population being Albanian, Vlachos and Slavic and began their Greekisation en-mase. (not helenisation,H.M.)

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

European adventure that converted Albanians to Greek.


When Greece got its independence it faced the identity crisis: are we Albanians or what Europe says, we are Greeks. Thus, after a 10 year struggle on either to use Albanian or Greek, the later was decided by the great powers, and the Greek myth began to conceive. Phanariots, the church and the great powers began the propaganda to make Albanians and others ethnicities Greek. The helenic ideal was exported from outside with domestic support of orthodox clergy. It should be emphasized that Phanariots were not Greeks as propagated, but an intelectual strata from different ethnicities of the Balkans, using the language of Orthodox church for their education, for they were orthodox christians. It was precisely this multiethnic layer, but with culture, (if one woud called helenic), that became the ideological core of helenism, responsible for later assimilation of different ethnicities living in the so-called Greece. In the book Bonaparte and Greeks, the author says that phanariots were were negotiators between turks and Greeks of Morea and Rumelia. Together with the clergy they formed a government and preserved a national unity among Greeks. Independent, they resemble the roman patricians with their clients, despite their great enchantment of common gifts. The glory that links phanariots with the highlanders of Rumelia and with their Morea countrymen ignorants was the religion80. So, the common thing phnariots and Albanians of Morea

80

Bonaparte and Greeks. p. 39

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

had, was religion. This state, where the Orthodox church made the law, would not accept other nationality or religion, for to be orthodox meant to be Greek. For defiant Muslims, it was difficult for the church to make them Greeks, therfore a plan to deport them to Turkey was compiled. First, measures were taken on Muslim arvanites of Peloponnesys Lala, whom were forcefully converted or expelled when refuzing to change the religion. Later, when Greece expanded, Muslim Albanians of Macedonia and Epirus, and the orthodox ones were immediately pronounced Greeks. The orthodox of Turkey, who knew naught Greek, were pronounced Greeks because of their religion. Thus, with the population exchange on religion basis, Greece claimed to be a country with no minorities. Its population growth came as a result of stealing population of different ethnicities, primarily Albanians, converting them to Greeks. Thus, in 1828 Albanian-vllach population in Greece reached 1.000.000, which was also the official census of the Greek state. In 1912, Greece, also aquired Albanian, vllach and slavic population of Thesalia, Epirus and Macedonia, which reached to 2.500.000. In 1923, Greece took the orthodox Albanian population of Turkey, reaching 3.600.000. The theorists of Helenism say that Greece was not clean, but cleaned it with the population they took in 1913 and with the religious exchange of the population in 1923. What kind of cleansing are we talking about? Certainly, not of ethinic cleansing but religious cleansing. Greece looks at the national purity so titly linked to religious purity. Simply, Albanians were exchanged with Albanians, and some were called turks and others Greeks, according to their religion, islam or orthodox. With the idea that helenic is whomever will become, forcefully it was achieved to make such all the

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

ethnicities, by adding thus artificialy, both the population and the territory. As the religious cleansing ended, Greece declared to be an homogenious and ethnic state, and other ethnicities in it were inexistent. For, all were orthodox Greeks and among them were some Muslims in Thracia. Now, to convince all the ethnicities in this Greek state, that they indeed were such and should be called clean Greek, they should use this artificial language and forget their mother tongue. Thus, various myths were created, linking modern Greeks with the old ones. All the ethnicities of Greek state were proud to be Greeks and began to look scornfully those of their race who would not become glorious Greeks. Different ethnicities inside Greece were to brag of being Greeks. They were to be ashamed of being Albanians, slavs or vlachs. They were to detach themselves from their true ethnicity and to replace it as soon as possible. Members of the most ignorant layers of these ethnicities began to feel inferior and ashamed for what they were indeed and desparately sought to be Greeks. The Greek nation was not made up of these Albanian, slav or vllach ignorants, whom from that moment on must felt ashamed of their blood and were to become urgently ideal, means Greek. With this laughable fanaticism and with the artificial helenism, the culture of comprising nationalities of the false Greek nation, was destroyed. Hence, other races, except grreks, had never existed before. And, if any of those would rebel against being Greek, would be punished that severely, that could loose even his life or to be expatriated, as was the tradition of decades before. With the arrival of fascism in Greece, in 1936, Albanian population remaining there, were persecuted. Albanian language was prohibited in public. Albanian orthodox of Southern Epirus, (that Athens

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

calls them Greeks), like the Albanians of Athens and Peloponessy, began to be priviledged so they could be thrown against their Albanian brothers of other religion. The Church carried this propaganda and, in general, wherever it found uneducated men, it reached its goal. Replacement of Albanian residential place names with Greek names began and simultaniously, Greeks began to bring orthodox population so the ratio between religions leans towards orthodox. This orthodox population resettled on properties that the Greek state stole from Muslim Albanians. Assets and bank accounts of Albanians were frozen. The Greek state was created by great powers to prevent Russias acces to Aegean sea and to weaken Ottoman Empire, but in reality, it was the first Albanian state. Had Europe not intervened to change their ethnicity, this country would be speaking Albanian even today and could have been united one with Albania. The old ancient culture would not have been clad to these artificial Greeks, but to the real people that created it, that of the Albanians forefathers. So, towards Albanians is done an historic injustice. From them has not only been stolen lands and population but the merits they should have in the world history. It did not suffice that artificial Greece took from Albanians Peloponnesy, Attica, Thesalia, Southern Epirus, Albanian Macedonia, where in parts of these places population was mainly Albanian, mixed with vlachs and slavs, but is fighting sternly, even today, for some kind of Northern Epirus that is Southern Albania. Sometimes it seeks the whole Albania, that somehow, once upon a time used to be Greek, but has forgoten what it was, and Greeks today are working with cash at hand, to remind Albanians that they are modern Greeks. When Greece was Albanian in majority with a great

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

vllach and slav minority, how could other territories, like Epirus, Thesalia, or Macedonia, which were far away from what is called Athens, be Greek territories? So, the ideas of fanariots served as core of new helenism, applied on Albanian population and continued to be applied on other nationalities, too. The Albanian population, comprising the majority of the artificial Greek nationality, has been under pressure for two centuries to change the language. Part of it has changed it, but today there are thousands of Greeks of Albanian origine, who still speak Albanian. In an 1881 document, sent for help to German Kingdom, Foreign Minister of Greece, Kumunderos, among others states: even after 50 years of independent Greek state, a large part of Moreas population, being ethnically uniform, does not let up of being Albanian. He further notes that even in Athens itself, like in Morea (Peloponnesis) more than 70.000 speak only Albanian, knowing not a single word of Greek, maintaining further on that were talking about a homogenious ethnicity, known to be such for at least ten centuries on the above mentioned area.

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

The Helenist Ideology


Questions raised time and again by science circles from all over the world are: Who are the todays Greeks? Are they related to the firs helens? Are there common things between modern and those of antiquity? Is there really a Greek nation or not? But above all, on the basis of whom was this so-called Greek nation erected? These are some questions that historic facts answer themselves. At fist glance, modern Greeks try a lot to resemble the first Greeks. They even do not call themselves Greek but helen, are very fanatic and everything related to ancient helenic culture, they claim it part of their cultural heritage. In order to understand who Greeks are, one must study the Helenist Ideology. Helen is someone who shares the ideals and the ancient culture of classic era, which means; everyone form any ethnicity, black or white, can be helen, because he likes the filohelenist culture. But, could a helen be something else at the same time? According to modern Greeks, no. The term helen is used for all of those who refuse their ethnicity and take up the false helen one. But they should only keep tha later. The modern Greeks have abandoned the reality and live in the ideal world. Helenism has nothing to do with ethnicity but with an ideal, with a perfect image. So, Helenism is an ideology, like the Marxist one, but not a nationality. This is the first ideology to create a nation in the world history. Whereas the Marxist ideology created a dictatorial political system, the Helenist ideology created an artificial nationality that follows exactly the rules of its

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

ideology, in order to realize the ideal programme of its own ideology. So, we have the creation of a nation with an idealist philosophy. Claiming to become another nation, when indeed youre not, is an attempt that from the deffinition of a nation comes out a failure, so these circles can persuade the most ignorant segment of the population, aiming to assimilate, for they do not know to evaluate themselves. Not knowing to praise your own values is a transgression as big as to overvalue your own. Misha Glenny says that years ago, the Greek state concept (which was a product of great powers policy, in order to destabilize the ottomans) has never existed. Greeks did not know who they were81. According to the anthropologist Roger Just, many of Greeks of the 19th century who just won their independence from Turkey, not only did not call themselves helen (they learned this term later on from the nationalist intelectuals), but did not even speak Greek, but Albanian, vllach or slavic. For Vamik Volkan: The Greek movement to build a national identity, contains a unique element not shared with others; support from outside and even a pressure for a sort of specific new identity. The british, french and russians were necessitating a modern Greek identity to be helen, accordant to the european nostalgia to restore the prechrist helenic civilisation82. According to G. Bowrsock Helenism is a moder idea, reflecting the modern forms of cultural domination83 Williams St. Clair at That Greece might still be free, says that
81

Misha Glenny, The Balkans, Nationalism, War and the great powers, p.26 Vamik Volkan, Blood Lines from Ethnic Pride to Ethnic Terrorism. P.121,122. 83 Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece, edited by Nigel Wilson, p.345
82

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

modern Greeks had an opportunity to discover who they were and to decide how to call themselves and their small country. The outside world had decided for them. They would be called Greeks and their country, Greece. Whereas David Hoden defines the filohelenism as a love, a dream that sees Greece and Greeks not as an actual place and real people but as a simbol of imagined perfection. Europe, like Hellas, was a general ideal, a simbol cultural superiority. Europe needed a nobel european past, a source to enlighten it, and found it in Greece, a Greece that Europe created itself. This is an ideologic phenomenon we will reckon in, a twin concept: Hellas-Europe. They acquired the most exclusive political adventure of 19 century, an adventure that sent thousands of lives under the control of a nation-state that had never existed as a sovereign state84. Thus, the population called today helen, is not a self claimed as such or Greek, but by the intensive propoganda of the intelectuals, by the Orthodox Church and some western countries. It got used to such idea. Helenism is not an ethnic entity, nor is it a national identity. It is an idea to melt all the ethnicities of a place into Greek, just the way it wanted it and concderned Europe of 19th century. Such people were called helen and the philosophy, Helenist. There is no ancient map or medieval ones, for that matter, showing the name Greece. Only during 17-19th centuries appeared the terms; ancient and modern Greece. Thus, under the array of an ideology, an artificial nation and state was erected. It often has shown extremist tendencies towards other nations, for it has aimed to raven them into its territory.

84

Michael Herzfeld, Ours once more: Folklore, Ideology, and the making of Modern Greecem, p. 4, 5

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

What elements of the helenist modern ideology should to be fulfilled in order to be a helen?

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

1- First, to have the desire of being a helen


In order to be a helen, one has to crave becoming one and this is the core of the ideology. So, if you want such thing, it does not matter if you are black, white, red or yellow. So far we are in good order. Of my ignorance, I wish to become what I am not, so I can feel better, therefore I am doing it! What about when I have no craving of becoming such and others want me unwillingly, I am at loss, whats the solution? This is the very key issue to have caused violence and blood in the Balkans, as well as inside the Greek state itself, even today. It propagates inferiority of being Albanian and superiority of being Greek. Thus, it is a misfortune to be an Albanian, while a great bliss of being Greek.

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

2- To be a Modern Greek, one must become an orthodox


Religion is one of main and undisputable features of modern helenism. The orthodox clergy has a great role in assimilating other nationalities into helen, as the orthodox ones within the state are automatically assumed Greek by it. Is it possible that the the religious criteria determines the nationality? To Greeks, yes! Albanian orthodox are automatically called Greeks, regardless they do not know a single Greek word. Whereas with orthodox, bulgarians, Serbs or Rumanians it does not happen for they preserve their national identity with fanatism. Pressure on orthodox Albanians is so great, something not applied against others of common faith in the Balkans. Old Helens were pagans, not orthodox. Then what do we do? Theres no problem, modern Greeks have changed this element, for they cannot make the people pagan, even if nonbeliever helenists would have wanted to do such a thing. This would not have been allowed by the orthodox clergy, that would have lost his sheep, or by the Christian Europe, for it is the master of this idea, modern helenism. The Orthodox clergy has had a big role within the country, both, on the politics and the politicians. Even the fanariots, who got the countrys lead that Europe created, were in general orthodox clerics. Greece has the features of a theocratic state. Greeks were of the only country in the EU to have the religion written in their passport, an open violation of human rights. Religion is related to the persons believe, not to his/her appearance on the passport. How laughable it is to think that

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

the person believes the religion hes forced to claim! Apparently, this does not matter, as long as hes formaly accepted by people. For helens it is not important who you are and what do you believe, but who you are going to become and what do you pretend to believe. This lack of religious tolerance is also aimed at members of other religions, by discrimination or pressure to change their religion and become orthodox. This wave of conversion has also been applied towards Albanians of Albania, living in Greece.

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

3- Greek Language.
To be a helen one must learn the language called Greek. The language called old Greek is not understood by the speakers of new Greek language, it is even the most difficult subject in school. The language set when Greek state was created, was the ancient one. But it was very difficult to be learned by people, who protested this. Looking at the hardship this language presented, was decided for dimotiki language be learned, todays Greek. It was easier to be acquired, for it had gramtical elements. Todays language has been regulatedby linguists, in order to be adapted to speakers. So, the language is a concoction the orthodox clergy together with politicians and the West forced upon the different peoples of Greece, especially Albanians.. Thus, they managed to eradicate most of them and to convert them into Greek. 4- Absorbtion of old tradition by modern helens In order to be Greek one must pretend to be descendant of the first helens. In fact, what links you with the first helens it is the craving to be like them, not being realistically related. Sunday Telegraph newspaper of March 27 1994, says: Greece has been very harsh in eradicate traces of ethnic diversity and suggests that its desperate attempts, including the monopoly of the Greek state on the classic past (which is common to all peoples of European origin), could be explained with the fact that Greeks today are a mixture of slavs, turks, Greeks, bulgarians, Albanians, vllachs, jews and

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

gyspsies. Modern Greeks, claiming to be descendants of ancient helens, are lookint to steal the so-called antique Greek culture. Todays Greeks believe they are the same old ones and have given the world all the science, but they forget that before were even more advanced civilisations. They believe to have discovered the atom, but it was discovered by Democritus, who was not Greek but Thracian. The alphabet is called Greek, but the matter is the characters are taken from the Phoenician language and Greeks have no idea what do they mean. It is said to have invented the democratic system, but their democracy has nothing to do with the reall one , for in ancient Greece was an elite that governed and not the people. Also, there was slavery and women had no human rights at all. Conclusively, what origin were the old Greeks? Same as the modern, they were of pellazgo-illyrian origin, the forefathers of todays Albanians. Thus, if theres somebody to brag about what the first Greeks have achieved, they are only Albanians (things they are not interested much in).

5-Absorption of Byzantine tradition


Greece, with its Megali Idea plan even claims the byzantine heritage, centered in Constantinopoly. In 17th century this empire began to be called Byzantium, as before it was called Eastern Roman Empire. Greeks claim this because its official language was Greek, more or less, the same language spoken by todays Greeks, or the artificial helens. But this does not mean that empire was Greek, for Greece was created in 19th century, by taking the

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

Byzantiums official language and passing it to the people, being mainly Albanian. Since a state created later, acquires the language of an empire existing before it, does not mean that this scribe state can authenticate the Byzantium state as its own. Often todays Greeks consider the fall of Byzantium as one of the darkest days of Hellenism, but we have seen that Byzantium was the biggest enemy of helenism. Ancient Greek philosophers and the wonders of ancient art disappeared with fanaticism by the priests, for it belonged to the pagan culture. Literary and philosophic works of antiquity vanished, but some survived thanks to the arab scholars who were kind enough to preserve and translate these works. So, todays Greece had no linkage with Bizantium, for it hasnt even existed before the 19th century. It is the Albanians who are more related to Bizantium, whom founded it and raised it, and at the end, were Albanians again, that with commandant Ballaban Pasha, brought it down. What consequences has the helenist ideology had on Albanians? 1-Non-recognition of any minority by Greece The identity of modern Greeks is based on the conviction that the Greek state is ethnically homogenious, and this belief has caused the denial of minorities existence. Greece is the only state in the Balkans to have no minority, for it has no ethnicities and all the minorities have been made artificial Greeks by the state. Albanian and slavic population who refused to become Greek, were expelled. The remaining was made orthodox and agreed to become artificial Greek, so it would not lose its property. The population brought from Asia, was not brought because it was Greek, for it did not even speak the artificial Greek language, but because it was orthodox. This made it

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

automatically Greek. So, Greece does not recognize ethnic minorities, because it links the ethnicity with religion and when its population became all orthodox, and cleansed of Muslims, then it has no minorities. This has caused violation of rights in the name of helen ideal, hence not only of the Albanians who comprise most of Greece.

2-National complacency and xenophobia


The helenist ideology claims that Greece is not just like any other Balkan state but is the aristocracy, not only of the Balkans but of the whole world. Greeks are not only the aristocrats of the worlds nations but the chosen ones of God himself. Todays Greeks glorify themselves a lot and prove to be xenophobic towards others and their culture, according to Greeks, is inferior compare to theirs. And it is normal to have such reactions, when people of that country are taught to live in the world of ideas, not in the real one. They want to achieve the platonic idealism, to become a perfect nation, as may be explained by Platos philosophy. Thus, as a nation they are not and do not live in the real world, but in the perfect one, programmed by the ideal helenic ideologists. Being in the ideal world, of course they are xenophobic towards inferiors of real world. This has incited a great deal of hatred against Albanians, for in reality, with feet on the ground they are Albanians, and ideally, with feet on the air are helens. The new generation does not know such thing very well, for thats how its been educated. But, even though it does not read and likes to be what it has been told it is, therfore, it really thinks it is such, albeit misinformed. Telling an Albanian of Greece, especially of young generation- that is even more ignorant- that he is an Albanian, he might kill

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

you, while his parents at home speak only Albanian. How could he be an Albanian when at school hes been told superior is a Greek and being an Albanian is the worst misfortune may happen to you in Greece?! Are you in your mind? What are you talking about?! Do not even dare to compare an artificial Greek with his geniune origin, for thats how much he hates that origin, that you put your life in danger if you remind him that. In this world, each of us evaluates others based on the level of his knowlegde. Thus, an ignorant cannot possiblly evaluate an inteligent and cultured person, for there is a rule, sometimes written, sometimes not: each should be evaluated by his coequal. So, the estimation of somebody is just and acceptable when performed by someone with due level of knowledge on that field, having an equal or greater level than the one being assessed. What I want to say is: a people being told everyday he has done this and that, will believe only whats been told and is not going to scramble his mind in digging to bring afore whats the truth. It resembles an ugly person, whom has been told hes beautiful by people who want to ridicule him or do not know how to evaluate beauty. When this is told continuously, he will indeed think he is beautiful, even though he will be scared from his appearance, looking at the mirror. Albeit scared out of his looks, he will not employ his brain and think hes not good looking, as he likes it. Thus, he believes and thinks he indeed is such. This is more or less what is happening with todays Greeks, who have overestimated themselves and defend with fanaticism their ideas, that whoever dares to oppose them, will be attacked with all means available. For what happens with modern Greeks is not the peoples fault, but certain politico-religious intellectual circles in and outside the

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

country .

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

3-Religious and cultural intolerance


Hellenism has caused a great religious intolerance towards nations of other faith, especially Albanians. The later are considered Muslims, while being of other faiths, also and have a unique religious tolerance in the world. As far as culture is concerned, why bother talk about culture, for modern Greeks do not comport themselves to be the center of the world but of the universe. They consider the origin of the world culture to be their monopoly. Modern Greeks comport to be the cradle of the world culture, as they claim to be the antique ones. But, on the other hand, there are other cultures even older than the one antique. They claim the byzantine culture, considering it part of their civilization, while this is not true.

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

Greek nationalism: The theory of Renan and Smith


Where does the modern nationalism repose? In antiquity there was no nationalism or racism. Greeks did not consider themselves superior on racial aspect, but on the political sense. In order to understand well how Greek nationalism borne, we ought to understand how this nation was born first. According to Renan, nation is a spirit, a spiritual principle. Man does not belong to his language or race. What makes up a nation is not the speaking of a common language, nor being of one race. To mankind there is something more superior to language, it is the desire85. Concisely, bilingual groups, like arvanite Albanians, vllachs who speak vllach (aromanian) and slavs do not belong to a single ethnic group. They are aliens to each-other and are not related to one common cultural background, which could unite them into a single nation. Thus, the Greek nation has been formed starting from the desire of a common ideal, not from the ethnic unification. So, the nation, by him, is an imagination, idealism, but not a common language, blood or race. This is a colonial theory and exterminatory for other nations and finds room at oppressed peoples. By Anthony Smith, a nation is based on common ancestry, of the same ethnic group and common culture. The model based on territory, desire and the citizen is called Renans model, whereas the one based on language, tradition,
85

Ernest Renan, What is a nation? Herman Brauer, The Philosophy of Ernest Renan, vol.2

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

common culture and ancestors, is Smiths Which one of these two models applies to the artificial Greek, the civil or the ethnic one? It is obvious that Greece belongs to the Renans group, the civil nationalism. In fact, Greeks do not admit this, for, they say, these are nationalist and imperialist theories. But Greece makes no difference from imperialist nations, for in the name of artificial helenism it has violated the rights of ethnies comprising Greece so it can create an artificial or false entity. So, the Greek nation is an open-eyed dream. Greece does not support the Greek ethnicity on one Greek ethny but on other ethnies, although it claims other ones to be Greek. According to it, the Greek nation is indeed made up of arvanites, vllachs and slavs but they have cohabited in Byzantium and have common values, therefore are Greeks. Smith points out that to prove the linkage between the new and old Greeks, the challenge for historians is to prove convincible the previous cultural ethnic relationship with those of modern nation86. Europeans created the Arian model, by which, old Greeks origin is from a migrated population from north, who mixed with natives and formed, what is known as Greek culture. They, categorically deny Middle Eastern influence, for Greece is a pure Arian culture. Germans saw dorians as pure Arians, migrated from North, perhaps from Germany. For this, they exalted the Greek culture, ignoring the Egyptian and Mesopotamian ones, and this, for racial reasons. Hence, europeans got united to help their brethren Greeks, to liberate them, but when they went there, there were no Greeks of Arian kind, at all. This explains the foundation of the
86

A.D. Smith, National Identity, p. 236-237

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

theory that everything is related to Greece, when we know that before Greece there was enlightening civilizations. Every European may claim something out of first helens, but genuine relation to them had only albanians, for they brought to life the old and new Greeks, and this fact europeans want to avoid. The new Greek state was a fatal product of european politicians, an adventure of their foreign policy. Greeces borders were expanded with excuse of unifying Greeks and with these claims, different groups of people were forced to become Greeks. Hence, there has never been a Greek nation. It was created by the great powers in cooperation with the fanariots and Orthodox Church of 19th century.

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

Megali Idea of Yanny Koleti (Jani Koleti)


Megali Idea was a program of helenic nationalists who contended to build a great Greek state, which would include territories with alien population, but that Greek state would claim it as its own, since they used to be part of the Bizantine Empire. This great Greek state would stretch from Ionian Sea to Asia Minor, including Epirus, Thraca, Macedonia, and a part of todays Turkey, with Constantinople as its capital city. Megali Idea dominated the foreign policy of Greek state, from its conception until the defeat by turks, it endured in 1923. By this project, Greece managed to acquire most of the territories it wanted, like the Epirus of southern Albania and a part of Macedonia and ancient Thracia. It managed to expand to Asia Minor, but this dream was ruined by Ataturk. Megali Idea was realized by Venizelos, who participated in Balkan Wars and WWI only to fulfill the expansionist wishes of the artificial Greek state. The Helenists like him wanted to replace the Ottoman Empire with a new Greek empire, that would contain other nations, that, certainly, in a few years would automatically become Greek. For Greece to justify these claims, it had to come up with existent and inexistent facts, in order to prove that these territories belong to her, by historic right. Hence, a number of historians, supported by the politics, began to make the connections between the ancient Greeks, their colonial reach, and the modern ones. Thus, modern Greeks, had to have, at least, part of those territories, out of preclusion to have all of them, and certainly, these were territories of its Balkan neighbors.

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

Territorial expansion Of Greece (1832-1947)

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

Attempts of the Greek State to eradicate the Albanian State.


Greece, as we saw, was created all by Albanian population, in a territory inhabited by Albanians, and later on with politicians, Albanian leaders, too. It has not been satisfied with what it has done against Albanians, as ideologues of helenism want to, also, include Albania inside the Greek state. This have been tried before and continues today, under the guise of human rights, seeking Greek schools for Albanians of Albania whom have forgotten Greek language and now should be reminded. Greece uses intensively two ways to achieve its goals. First, during 19-20th centuries it has openly asked all the chancelleries that Southern Albania be passed to Greece. Since it did not reach this, for the international conjunctures have changed in favor of Greece, it has changed strategy, but not the goal. Epirus now is asked for by some organizations claiming to be independent. The second way to reach the goal is very easy, by assimilating Albanians with Greek schools and by paying them to self-claim being Greeks. Lets see the first way; that of international efforts Greece tried during 20th century: In 1915, two years after Greece took half of the Albanian Epirus, it signed the confidential Treaty Of London with some great European powers. Per this treaty, Greece gets to take Southern Albania and Serbia, Northern Albania, something never realized, thanks to USAs intervention. This treaty was denounced by the Bolshevik government of Russia, when

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

they took power in 1917, since this treaty had the approval of the Russian tsar. Wilson did not allow this treaty to be applied, and thus, Greece could not realize its wishes. In 1919 was signed the Titani-Venizelos agreement, a continuation of the confidential Treaty of London. By this agreement, sides would support each-other. One side would take the territories from Kora to Gjirokastra, whereas Italy would get Vlora. Greece based its claims on orthodox faith of some residents in Southern Albania, but majority of them were Muslims. Orthodox schools, called Greek, are from the Ottomans times, for schools were attended on religious bases. Orthodox Albanians were subject to attend school instructed in the orthodox churchs language, later to become the Greek states language, but on the other hand they were Albanians, Greek language is the most effective tool to kill the Albanian language and nationality. It would instill on Albanians the language at school, then claiming them to be Greeks, but the reality is different, and this has been noticed, also, by foreigns to have promenaded the Albanian lands. Some orthodox clergyman often have served as tools at the hands of helenism and have openly carried out anti-Albanian activities. Patrick Northland says about Albanians of Kora that the so called Greeks are simply christians of the Albanian Autocephalous Orthodox Church and from conversations with many of them , none accepts the Greek nationality, but claim to be christian Albanians and accept, above all, Albanian national conscience. These clerics are the main responsible ones of the great tragedy that the Southern Albania endured due to Greek

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians


87

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

crimes and massacres Chief of the French Security mission in Kora, among others points out: Latest devastations in Tepelena and Leskovik indicate how dangerous it is to allow the free hand to Greece with the pretext of protecting the rights.88 During the WWII, Greece sent a telegram to Roosevelt, arguing pertly the territorial claims on Southern Albania, which should be given to her for thence Greece, can be attacked. Albanian state should seize to exist because the invaders may pass through Albania and from there they stage attacks on Greece. This was a laughable claim, as well as absurd and could fly in courtyards of european feudal diplomacies at the beginning of 20th century, but not in USA. In a memorandum sent to the American Administration, Greece justified its territorial claims towards Albania, by saying that Albanians have no national feelings and would not fight for Albania. What has been going on and continues, is clan wars for chattel89. America from her side released a statement, on Dec. 11, 1942, where it supported full independence of Albania, and that there were no reserves towards Albanian borders. America would not support this foolishness, for it has in its political and state philosophy the support for independence of occupied and small countries. In retaliation, the VorioEpirus Organisation wrote: The American statement breaks the heart of thousands of loyal Greek-americans, who believe that the appearance of Albania on the future map of Europe will be a continuos reason for troubles in the Balkan Peninsiula,
87

M. Cami, Kleri i lart orthodoks n Shqipri dhe Lvizja Kombtare Shqiptare n 1912-192. Tiran 1993. P. 46 88 Beqir Meta, Tensioni greko-shqiptar, 1939-1949, GEER, Tirana 2002 p.21 89 Same place p.95

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

an obstacle of peace in Europe and beyond. For 20 years Albania has shown its inability to govern itself. Albanians have shown inability to act as a national entity90 Contrary to the American statement, the 1942 statement of British government considered the issue of the Albanian borders as an issue to be discussed at Peace Conference 91. So, the American and British stands were opponent, as Britain was still following the same policy of fractioning and destroying the southern Albanians, since the beginning of 19th century. Greece never seized weaving plans to eradicate the Albanians from the map. Panajot Pipineli, deputy foreign minister of Greece, presented to the American State department a plan to annex Albania to Greece. He made three propositions to wipe Albania from the map. Thus, according to him, the problems would be solved in order to preserve the peace. His propositions were: 1-Deviding Albania between Greece and Yugoslavia, or between Greece, Yugoslavia, and Italy. This way the troubling plans in the Balkans would be eliminated. 2-Adhering Albania to an international organization, as a protectorate, something problematic, that would not be advisable. 3-Attaching the whole Albania to Greece, since this was rational, but not with Yugoslavia, because Albanians and slavs had ethnic issues. This plan, of course, was contested by American Dept. of State. Whereas America denounced the division of Albania,

90 91

Same place, p.100, 101 Same place, p. 98

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

England continued to support it. Home Office put in charge Arnold Toynbee, professor at Oxford University, to make a study on Albanias future, based not on ethnic principle but on the economic-strategic ones92. In order to favor the Greek claims, Dickson wrote to the professor: I think we will not be able to solve this difficult issue simply based on ethnic criteria. But based on this principle, the issue would be against Greeks. Based on broader criterion, there are stronger arguments in favor of Greek claims First of all, Greeks have invaded with arms the territory they claim. They were not defeated militarily by Italians but were forced by Germans to abandon this territory. At the end of war, the whole Greek nation asked to retake the territory. (Obviously, every territory that gets occupied, somehow, becomes of the occupier!) Secondly, of course, we must reward the Greeks as our allies in the WW2. We cannot give them Cyprus, besides Dodekenazi, which we will make every effort to avail it to them. Theres nothing easier than Southern Albania, which can be offered to Greece as territorial compensation! On one hand, the annexationby Greece would raise claims by Yugoslavia for a part of Eastern Albania. If Southern Albania becomes a gift to Greece, it would be practiaclly impossible for it to be an integral country. Another difficulty is the inability to decide whether to ribuilt an independent Albanian state or not. If the decision is negative, it would certainly be a lot easier to give parts of Albania to Greece and Yugoslavia. But if the principle of nationality would still be valid, at the end of war, we may want to reconfigure Albania in a different

92

Same place, p.430

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

form93. The response of this historian was: Albania is to be left to Italy or to become confederation with Yugoslavia and Greece, and this resolves the Greek claims At another study of Royal Institute, 1942, also is offered as a solution the fissure of Albania, between Yugoslavia and Greece, with borderline Elbasan, or entering Albania into Yugoslavian-Greek confederation, as Danish protectorate94. Anthony Eden would say that it was true that Greeks are resentful when talking about Albania, therefore, since they were allies, their requests should be considered.95 On the other hand, American State Department, too, prepared a study on Albania, where amonth others says that Albania is a strategic place, thats why neighbors want it. They were the connection between East and West, the separation between slavs and the rest of Europe. Albanians wanted to have good relations with all, but were distrustful. They were patriots and wanted independence, but was difficult to live between their strong neighbours, for they wanted to be neutral and under international protection. Greeks calimed the annexation of a territory that wasnt theirs and that had a small Greek minority. Sovereign Albania could not be such if it gave a part of it to Greece and a large Albanian minority is under the Greek rule that had expatriated and persecuted Albanian ams. The chief of American Misison in Paris sazs that it would be unfair for the Albanian people and that with Greek claims a new problem would be created with the minorities, by
93

Dicksons letter to Toynbee, Oct. 9-th 1941-FO371-29714 (B.Meta, p. 431 alb. Version) 94 Same place, p.439 95 Same place, p.446

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

placing 500.000 Albanians under the Greek yoke for the sake of 50.000 residents.96 After the communist establishment, Albanias inferior relations towards Greece ended. Enver Hoxha threatened the chauvinist Greek circles with war. In 1949 it became clear that the time when Greek military troops entering and acting at will in Albania, was over. Hence, in Albania had come to power someone who saw it as his domain and would not allow Greece to ruin the comfort he had found. At least, the communist regime had one positive thing and it was the protection of the Albanian territorial integrity, threatened to disapear from the map. The second way, which continues even today, is the assimilation of the Albanians of Albania. It did not suffice that the entire Greek state was erected upon a population, most of which Albanian, and a territory which was Albanian property, but still to this day, continues to steal people from Albania and convert them to Greeks. As Albania came out of the half a century isolation, Albanians went to Greece to work and there came to contact with Greek language. There has been and still is a great pressure on Albanians working there, to convert to Greek. The psychologic pressure has caused that some Albanians conceal their Albanian national identity. Greece has not allowed the opening of Albanian schools, while its known that a very large number, over 100.000 Albanian children attend Greek schools. This fact is not even taken into consideration by Greek state. Albanians are not allowed their mother tongue, because Greeks want to assimilate them. Certainly, the assimilation has taken place on the most
96

Same place, p.508

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

ignorant segment of Albanian population, for people that have a little culture, would not, under any circumstances, agree to change their ethnic identity. Media plays a very negative role, as they have considered Albanians (and still do) as problematic and any indecent act is atributed to them. If an Albanian acts benevolently, then he must be of Greek origin, while all the malevolent acts are carried out by Albanians! Media has even been the main national hatered instigator towards Albanians, especially in prime news editions. The role of the Orthodox church is not behind on this, which I do not known whose work it does, for doing the Gods work, one must be peace-minded. An event has stricken me a great deal: the killing of two Albanian brothers, 18 and 20, by a Greek peasant. Both those brothers had worked, harvesting olives for this farmer, and he should have paid him the wages of 100.000 drachmas. The farmer refused to pay and they went to his house but he again would not payem. The moment they tried to leave, he pulled out the weapon and shot them from behind, and after wounding them heavily, approached them and in cold blood shot them in the head, making sure they are dead. It was a premeditated murder and unrelated to self defense. The farmer shot them from behind, to wound them, then willingly, hit them on anothr vital organ, like head, when they were not a threat at all, being heavily wounded. The orthodox priest came on television and said there was no reason to arrest the murderer, as he had done a very good deed in killing the Albanians, and should even go as far as Albania and kill Albanians there, too. To hear such things from a criminals mouth (or a lowbrow) you get shocked, but to hear them froma priest, it is scandalous. This clearly shows that some orthodox priests,

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

when Albanians are in question, forget their divine mission and working for God, by doing devils work. The person in question is kept only one day in jail and was freed on a laughable bond of 1,500.00 He certainly has not been convicted, for the life of an Albanian in Greece is not even worth a Greeks wallet. There have been cases when an Albanian is sentenced 5 years in jail for stealing a chicken or three kg potatoes, and a Greek has not even spent a day in jail for a double murder. The Greek government demands accountability from Albanian politicians for a minority comprised of Greekophone Albanians and for Albanian remains, whom it wants to convert to Greek fallen soldiers, whereas our (Albanian) government has not even asked to stop the assimilation of Albanians of Albania by the Greek state, that prevents Albanian to be learned at school. Little can be done for Albanians in Greece as they are under the control of another state, but how about whats going on in Albania? Certain circles of Greek state continue their intensive campaign to Greekionise Albanias Albanians. The tactic applied is the assimilation consisting especially in teaching Greek language. Schools have been opened to teach Albanians Greek language and culture, so it will be easier to assimilate them. Theres a kind of nationalist prostitution thriving, as the Greek state pays Albanians monthly pensions so they may claim to be Greeks. Changing your ethnicity for money is no different than a prostitute selling her own body. Money is the primary means to make a living, however, when it is made by selling work and ideas is called business, and when is made by selling your morale, is called prostitution. Claiming of Greek nationality is one of the methods used today by Greek circles inside our country (Albania), who are

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

the very pimps of these nationalist prostitutes. The self claiming is demanded, as it is known those are Albanians, since thers no Greeks in Athen, let alone in Albania. Thats why they try to make them like those of Greece. The best method is to teach them the language, pay them salary and on the other hand, as repayment for the salary, claims being Greek. If it would be the case, then countries way stronger that would have wanted to assimilate certain segments of the population, would then pay them money and force them to declare different than what they were. This self declaration is the method used to steal the Albanias population, and this is not even looked with care by the Albanian state, which should be said it makes gafes in relations with Greece, by giving in to every demand it makes openly, either steals Albanian territory or steals Albanian population.

Creation of Serbia in Albanian territories


Serbia has been created as a state, by en-large, on an Albanian territory. Based on historic fact, Serbia had not been stretched on the territory it took from Albaniain 19-20th century. At the beginning, Serbia was created as a state in the Sanjak of Belgrade, where also were many Albanians, and later expanded through territories known today as Central and Southern Serbia, which were entirely Albanian. Serbs, not only do not admit to have erected their country upon Albanian lands, but claim that Albanians have come there after Serbs, who took these lands from them. Where do Serbs base their claims on Albanian territories 1-Counterfeit historical right

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

10

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

2-Economic claims 3-Ethnic claims Serb nationalists support their territorial claims with the empire of Stephan Neman and that of Stephan Dushan. According to modern Serbs, todays Serbia should stretch on territories these empires once had. Serbian extremist nationalists culminate by saying that it is Serbia even where a single serb is. The claims that that Serbia should be located on where the medieval empires used to be, are baseless and extremist ones, for two reasons; 1- Empires are created by violent invasions and contain alien populace, whose rights are violated. This could have been justified for medeival era, that to a certain degree was barbaric, but not for modern times. Acquisition of these territories by Serbia means that for the sake of its whimsy, it keeps under its yoke other non-Serbian peoples. What for? To have a modern colony in the Balkans?! Looking at other conferment, its clear they were not Serbian empires but multiethnic ones. Actually, for Stephan Niman is alleged Albanian origin. Hence, the Serbian claims of that empire to have been Serbian and thts where Serbia should expand, are preposterous. Sknder Riza has published a letter sent to a Serbian Pope, Albanian by origin, arguing that Nimanis were of Albanian origin. He presents four points to prove it. Lets see what he wrote to him; 1- According to a Greek theory and notes on Hilendar, she is of Albanian origin and belongs to Nimani tribe. Nimanis used to be catholics then with the separation of churches in 1054, convertet to orthodox. Later on, with the arrival of turks, embraced Islam. I do not know of your classic Greek

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

11

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

command, but Greeks spelled it Nemane. This is how it is written on Hilendar. The Greek letter E, in fact can be read in two ways, with old etacistic this letter is read E and later, with the itacistic pronunciation, its sounded out I. The Nimani tribe is written Nemane (gr.) whereas Stephan Nemanea as Stephan Stephan Nemane (gr.). Also, even in Hilander is written with the name Stephan Nemane. Therefore, with the later spoken Albanian, its read Nimani, and before was read Nemane. With the sllovenisation of reading the word Nemane, of later middle ages, has been obtained the word Nemanja (from the Albanian metathesis: Nemanaj) From the tribe Nimani we have heirs of todays Nimani, living in suburban Prizren area and in urban Prizren, and from this tribe descends Xhavid Nimani with his brothers and relatives. As for Nimanjiqi etymology, -iqi is only the slavic suffix of the surnames, just like during the Yugoslavias time, before WWII, Albanian lastnames have been added -iqi to. 2-Nimanajs have ruled by canonal rights until 1354, when tsar Dushan issued his own canon, which was full of old Albanian canonal norms. These mores are preserved to this day by Serbs (Albanian schismatics) and Albanians in Kosova, or more precise, in Metohia (Dukagjin). This is the second proof, proving Namanjiqs were of Albanian origin. 3- Justice at the Nemaniqs time was settled the same way as today to Albanians in Metohia (Dukagjin, through senile judgment. Tsar Dushan had studied for justice in Shkodra, before becoming tsar of Serbs, Greeks and Albanians. The dinasty of Nemaniqs has applied justice in the places it ruled, the Albanian way. 4-Neman in the beginning was a great chieftain, but was called dorzon, great witness. Whereas later on, under the

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

12

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

influence of Greeks and slavs was appointed Great Chieftain, means great dorzon, an Albanian eypression equal to ruler, sinonim of rule, used in middle ages. He had cavalry and people whom he ruled through. This is the fourth proof for the Albanian method of ruling the Nimani dynasty in medieval Serbia. All these I know because I have classic Greek command and know the Albanian language, as well.. For this reason, I inform you that this element and fact be considerate in your work in the future, if it was not known by you already. Whereas the original proofs of the first point can be found on Hilendar, others you may find in Metohi (Dukagjin)especially at the works of Dr. Milutin Gjuriqiq. I apologize for not undersigning under this information, for, as a serb (schismatic=Albanian) I am afraid. 20th of Sept. 1985. So, there are records suported by other facts that the socalled Serbian tsars, are of Albanian origin. There are still people with last name Nimani living in Kosova. Hence, Serbian claims that those were Serbian empires, are baseless. Furthermore, scholars from Kosova have proven that even kings or Serbian dynasties of 19th century, were of Albanian origin, pertaining to slavic orthodox observance. 2- Economic-strategic claims. Serbia thinks that Albanian ethnic territories should have been at the disposal of Serbias economic prosperity, without regard that in these territories lived a different populace, having the natural right to exploit the land where it lives for its own use. Thus, Serbia has claimed Albanian territories to fulfill its economic needs. This, Serbia has demanded openly, without any diplomatic guise, for her cravings have often

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

13

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

been catered, even when it has asked twaddle, therefore theres no reason to spin out at all and present her demands in a diplomatic manner. With economic claims, she has asked that even in todays Albanian territory to have a sea-port, since it did not have access to sea. So, Albanians should of had sacrificed their resources for Serbia. 3-Territorial-ethnic claims, by which, Albanians have come with Turks in the todays territories in the Balkans, and as such, they have usurped Serbias lands. Albanians have assimilated many slavs, by Albanianizing them, and have expanded after 1690s to Serbian lands. I will briefly deal with this, since it is clear to all serious historians dealing with Blakans. Albanians are the oldest white race and this can not be disputed by anybody. They are the nation-concievers of the white race as well as the their language and civilisation 97 If Albanians had come later, it would have been impossible for them to have that broad access to sea, something Serbia that came later, has fought a lot to have. From the anthropological point of view Albanians belong to the oldest european race with a brakicefal head shape, like the european ethnic one and with white race features. Thus, instead of Albanians crying of being destroyed by salvic invasions, its the later ones who do.

97

For more on this, see; Elena Kocaqi with: Roli pellazgo-ilir n fromimin e kombeve dhe gjuhve evropiane, Albant (shqiptart me fam botrore) si edhe Shqipja, elsi i gjuhve indo-evropiane

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

14

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

The origin of Serbian nationalism


In order to understand Serbian nationalism of 20th century, we should find its roots. This nationalism is ludicrous, but tragic, also. Ludicrous, because Serbian claims are based on ridiculous and gross facts, and tragic because it has affected the lives of milions of people in the Balkans, who were killed, persecuted and expatriated. This nationalism originates at the beginning of 19th century and was incited by Russia, Orthodox Church and extremist nationalists inside the country. Russia wanted to expand her rule to the Balkans, and this it would manage to do by supporting the Balkans slavs, whom she considered of the same family. Serbian political nationalism originates on Radical Partu of Nikolla Pasich. In 1880, begins the masive program to invigorate Serbs with nationalist psyche. This was not necessarily a bad thing , but the problem was that the tough nationalism on Serbs was directed as genocide against other nations, especially, Albanians. All the school text books had to emanate the message of serb nationalism. Serbias geography showed all of the territories that later on would become Yugoslavia. Thus, Serbian geography included a part of Hungary, Vojvodina, of Macedoniaalwaz to the sea, parts of North and Eastern Albania, and all of Croatia, the population of which was called catholic Serbian. Macedonia was Serbias, because once upon a time, a medieval Serbian king took a gabion on that land and had made it part of his empire. Bulgaria was

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

enemy and rival of Serbs for Macedonia of Serbia, three quarters of which at that time spoke only Albanian. Their nationalist programs promoted magnificent heroes stories wandering up and down the Balkans, especially through Kosova, the craddle of Serbia. Serbian Orthodox church, also played a big role, which has conducted its war for wealth and dominance. Considering its role had been weakened during the Ottoman Empires period, it wanted to regain the position it had had, and for this reason its war was directed against the Balkans Muslims, majority of whom were Albanians. The church wanted to rob their land in the name of the new Serbian state, just being created. There has been such an extremist nationalism that culminated to say: Where a serb, Serbia is is there. This message was what Vuk Karajich left for his nation (1767-1864, acadamician, reformer of Serbian language, writer, and folklorist) It was this very policy followed by Serbia in centuries 19 and 20, claiming every place, having or no Serbs. As far as Albanians goes, almost all of the Serbias leaders have asked for their annihilation. Miloshevich would say: Only the dead Albanians are good for Serbia.

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

Serbian plans to eradicate Albanians


There are not that many plans for any nation in the world, which they want to wipe it out of the earths surface, than for Albania. These palns are inhumane, extremist and punishable, that have been pursuant to, step by step to extirpate the Albanians from Serbia and after from Kosova. 1- First Serbian plan for the extermination of Albanians. Ilia Garasan, in 1843, became Minister of Interior Affairs under the prince Alexander Karageorgevich. Garasan was the son of a successful merchant and one of the Constitutional Party leaders. In 1844 Garasan sent a program (neartania) to the Serbian prince. In this program he exalted the glory for medieval expansion of Serbs. He thought Serbs should replace the Turkish rule in the Balkans, which was weakening down. According to him, Austria was the eternal enemy of Serbian state. Why exactly Serbia? Because it had the same aims as Serbs, wanted to have its influence in the Balkans and was strong economically and militarily. Given that Serbia could not confront Austria outright, it would enter into alliance with those big anti-Austrian countries; First, with Russia and France. It was the very serbo-austrian rivalry for the Balkans causing the flare up of the WWI. Western great powers exhibited naivet as they fell prey of Serbian nationalism and the later exploted them to erect a Serbian empire: Yugoslavia of pre-WWII. By Garashani, Serbia had historic rights to have a leading role in this part of Europe. He listed the territories Serbia would make hers, where it included Bosnia-Herzegovina, Montenegro, and Northern Albania (Sanjak of Kosova, also,

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

certainly for her, indisputably belongs to Serbia), as well as all the turkish domains where Serbian residents were present. By him, Albania was important because it had ports, thus, Serbia would survive the Austrian blocade. He was concerned of the Serbs living in Hungary, Vojvodina and Banat, but for these territories he was not in a big rush, for they belonged to Austria and it was strong at that time. He showed interest for Croatia, too, which, according to him, in ancient times it must have been populated by Serbs. With slavs of Bulgaria he did not advise to deal with, the reason being, as he says, Russia would get mad and would not let Serbia have access to Constantinople. He, also expressed interest about the czechs, but they were not slavs from the south, and for this he did not include them in his plan. This program has lead the Serbian politics to this day, for almost 100 years has set the Balkans ablaze. In order to achieve his plans, he did not depend his hopes at Russias help, for she wanted Serbia to be under her own influence. Hence, he wanted the help of a country like France and later on this was realized. On the other hand, an agreement with Austria had to be reached as a counterbalance against Russia. This was the first plan, also, serving as a platform for other plans, undermining exclusively Albanians.

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

2- Vladan Georgevich plans of 1908 for total extinction of Albanians.


This is one of the most gruesome projects that Hitler himself would have envied. This project was sent to all the western chancelleries and in it is envisioned the absolute extermination of Albanians from the earths surface. It was a project of 188 pages, where Serbia asked Europes permission to fully annihilate the Albanians. According to the author of this program, published in several languages Albanians do not have one language, do not have their own books, do not have their history, thus they have no right to live, do not have the right to exist and have no right to form of whatsoever country. Furthermore, foreign minister of Serbia at that time, asked Viena that Albanians be annihilated just like some North Africas people. Of course, Austria has not approved of Serbias ineptitude and this was evident with the eventual support of Albanias independence. With the utmost seriousness, Vladan Georgevich culminated in calling albaians human with tails. The arnaut type is frail and small, at him theres something of a gypsy, of a Phoenician. Albanians do not only remind you of Phoenicians, but primitive people, too, who would sleep on trees and there would grasp on the tail. Centuries that followed, human had no longer use of the tail. It reduced that much that todays human have not much left but a small remnant on the small ossicles of ischium. Only among Albanians seems there seems to be people with tail, still, in the 19th century. J.G Hahn (p.63) says: There are two kinds of people with tails; one kind with goat tail and a kind with pony tail. Those who have tail are

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

very strong people. They are special, stocky and also, exelent infantryman. One of them died a few years ago. He had voyaged within a single day fabulous spaces for several needs. He was forced to carry his tail on his hand lest soil it. Hahn did not say such things but speaks of fairytale. Dr. Georgevich is equaly that smart that calls them thruth, only out of extreme hatered for Albanians. In fact with this passage he has exposed his own ignorance.

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

The Memorandum of Vaso Chubrilovic to eradicate Albanians


This platform was prepared on March 7th 1937 by Vaso Chubrilovich, presenting it to the kingdom of Stoyadinovich. In this platform are shown inhumane methods Serbian state should use to eradicate the Albanians. Among others, that program says: We have killed and exterminate those Albanians Provinces between Jastreca and Southern Morava have been cleansed completely out of Albanians, who effaced Albanians multiply a lot. Whereas the entire Serbian people has been expanded with 58.700 more residents during 19211931, at the same period, Albanians who were supposed to bi 1/10 of Serbshave added up 68.000. If it continues with the same way, considering the birthrate of Albanians as well as the conditions ever so difficult to colonize with old methods, with time this disproportion will increase ever so great and at the end it will be a big question even for those little colonizing successes we have had so far. Aforetime Serbia solved differently this problem: Karageorge (first king of Serbia during the first insurgency) Milosh Obrenovich (who became king of Serbia later) Mihajl Obrenovic (another king) Jovan Visipich (prime minister) did not have any separate ministry of agrarian reform neither general agrarian inspectorate, nor expensive apparatus, however, they managed to purge Sebia of foreign elements, by populating it with her own people. However, in our times, even those few families settled after the WW1, did not catch

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

root in place. Certainly, the main reason of failure in colonization during those years, was that the best lands remained in the hands of Albanians. Hence, the best way to colonize en mass would be total seisure of lands out of Albanians. After the war, at the time of rebellion and attacks by Albanian outlaws in Kosovo, it was easier to expatriate some Albanians, by usurping and dispossessing them of pastures. However, this was not done and was a grave mistake of our government, because not only did we legalize their property deeds but accustomed Albanians with the Western European attitudes towards private property. Out of all this, its obvious that with methods of our policy applied so far, colonization in the south has not yielded the expected results, and which now impose themselves upon us as a major necessity of state. Why is the eradication of Albanians important? According to him, the block of Albanians around the Sharri mountains have a great national, state and strategic importance for the Serbian state. We already have stressed the method of resistance and the importance of strengthening the ties between the provinces and suburban areas of Vardari valley with our old lands. The time for Serbias strengthening and expansion, from its conception of first Serbian state, onwards, has begun since 9th century. But this was interrupted by Albanians and, until the old connection between Montenegro and Macedonia, from Drini River as far as Southern Morava, is reestablished, we will not have secured the possession of that land. From the ethnic point of view, macedonians will fully approach us only when they have the genuine ethnic support of with the Serbian mother land, which they have lacked so far. They will gain this support only with the break-up of the Albanian block, which

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

militarily and strategically has an important position. The Albanian block is dangerous, as the decisive battles for fate of the Balkans indicate, like the major war with Sultan Murat in Kosova, 1389 and the war of Huniadi with turks 1n 1446. In the 20th century, only the countries being inhabited by their own people will consolidate their position. Therefore, it is imperative for all of us these important strategic positions not lose them to the alien enemy, means Albanians. Furthermore yet, when this element has the support of a national state of the same kind, means the Albanian state. This country today is weak, but even so, it has become the base of italian imperialism, through which it aims to penetrate in the heart of our country. The most efective tool against it is our element, which will want ans will know how to defend property and his country. Besides this block of 18 districts and regions Albanians and other ethnic minorities in southern provinces are not a threat to our national and state safety as their dwelling are scattered. Thus, to nationalize the Albanian districts around the Shari mountains, means to burry once and for all every irredentism and to permanently secure power over these lands. It is impossible to thwart Albanians only through gradual colonization. It is the only people who made it through the last millennia. Not only is it kept at the heart of our country, Rashka and Zeta, but has caused damage by pushing our ethnic border northward and eastward.

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

How to eradicate Albanians?


According to him, the only means method is the inhumane force of an organized state power. Thus, from the viewpoint of gradual reduction of Albanians through slow colonization is ineffective, so then, there is only one way left, mass migration. In this case we have two states in our mind: Albania and Turkey. Albania, with a scarce population, with many undrained swamps an uncultivated valleys, would be able to accept some hundred thousands from our country. Modern Turkey, with huge lands in Asia Minor and Kurdistan, still uninhabited and wastelands, creates an unlimited opportunity for the internal colonisation. Therefor, it is more favorable that there we send most of Albanian evacuees. It must be emphasised that we do not limit ourselves only to diplomatic passes with Ankara, but should exploit all the means in convincing Tirana to accept part of the evacuees. I believe, this will flounder a little in Tirana, as Italy will stumble this process. But Albanian government, durig talks on this issue, should be informed that we will not hesitate for anything. (So Serbs were more wary of italian government that of Albania) At the beginning, Turkey agrees to take in around 200.000 Albanian evacuees. Afterwards, as we succeed in this, we send more. In order to relocate a whole people, the first prerequisite is the creation of a suitable psychosis. Methods 1- In order to carry out the expulsion of Albanians, we must first of all win over the clergy and men of influence through

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

money and threats in order for them to give their support to the evacuation of Albanians. Thus, he will lead their exodus for Turkey and Albania. 2-Other means would be coercion by the state apparatus. The law must be enforced to the letter so as to make staying intolerable for the Albanians: fines, imprisonment, the ruthless application of all police regulations, such as the prohibition of smuggling, cutting forests, damaging agriculture, leaving dogs unchained, etc. From the economic aspect, this should include the refusal to recognize old land deeds. The work of the land registry should be accompanied from the start by the ruthless collection of taxes and the payment of all private and public debts, the requisitioning of all public and municipal pasture land, the cancellation of concessions, the withdrawal of permits to exercise an occupation, dismissal from government, private and municipal offices etc., all of which will speed up the process of evacuation. 3-Private initiative, too, can assist greatly in this direction. We should mobilize the chetnics, youth organizations and paramilitary units, legally and illegaly alike. Armys staff should be mobilized, too, because at its heart is the great interest of Serbia and is already organized, it is a military and has no time to deal with bureaucracy: The army will carry all these duties, promt and in a disciplinary way. Milions of dinars should be spent because its worth it. Once we sign the agreement with Turkey, we will start dislodging 40.000 Albanian families, estimating 5 household per family, means 200.000, spending 15.000 per every family. Hey, whats 600.000.000 dinars to cleanse a place, otherwise, we would need 10 division with solders to keep it quiet at trouble times. We should distribute weapons to our colonists, as need be.

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

The old form of Chetnik action should be organized and secretly assisted. In particular, a mass migration of Montenegrins should be launched from the mountain pastures in order to create a large-scale conflict with the Albanians. This conflict should be instigated by our trusted people. Thus, it will appear as a clan war for economic reasons. Serbia followed a method of 1878, scorched secretely villages and city neighborhoods. Entire regions must clear out and the remaining population in those zones, should be dominated by Serbian colonists. This cleansing should first take place at the regions border with Albania. During the displacement, first to move should be the village populace, then the city one. Of those from the village, should be the rich and and middle ones. If the rich leave, the poor will slavish very easy. As soon as they agree to leave, everything should be ready, like passports and trains, to take them to Asia. We should even pay the trip and food to take with them. Then, as Albanians are gone, Serbs will begin replacing them in their dwellings. First should be the montenegrin highlanders who have no land and there they should accommodate comfortably. They are related to Albanians, so they have the same temperament. In order for Montenegrins to be organised well, Serbs should be sent there to do it, for they marry of their own race, dinaric and not with Serbs. Thus, from the marriages of Serbs and montenegrins, a new race will be created. For the Serbian colonists there should be created very good conditions. Colonisation of Pollog will make them feel even safer. Shkup (Scoplje,t.n) must be colonised with Serbs, but not dinarics, means montenegrins. As far as Tirana goes, we

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

shot their mouth with money, so it wont talk. Italy will blab some but nobody will listen to her. Turkey will accept Albanians gladly. Hitler is dislodging milions himself and Europe will not pay attention to the Albanians Serbia is dislodging. Italy is dealing with Austria and is not paying attention to us, but we should be wary of France and England, our allies, lest they intervene and ruin our plan. If they complain, we must justify that the safety of MoravaVardar road is in their interest and tht it would be so only if there are no Albanians there. He asked to erect a university only for the colonisation of Kosova, Vojvodina and Sanjak.Let the government pay! If the smalll kingdom of Serbia paid for the colonisation of Toplica and Kasanica, why couldnt Yougoslavia pay for this?! According to him, up until then, Albanian womens fertility had stopped the Serbian colonisation in Kosova.

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

Projects during the WWII


Under Stefan Molevics project, 06-30-1941, homogenious Serbia should include fromeast end southeast Kosova and Mcedonia, Vidini and Qysendini, in todays Bulgaria, Northeren Dalmacia, including Dubrovnik, a part of Slovenia, Montenegro, Herzegovina and the northern part of Albania. Within the Great serbia should be included all the territories contained even a serb living, but in a lot of the cases, even where there was none. The 1941s program of chetnics, which was looking to create the great Serbia within the borders of Serbia, Montenegro and Bosnia-Herzegovina, was to cleanse it of nonSerbian element. Pertaining Albanians, it said that Kosova had been and will Serbian , not only from the administrative and jurisdictional aspect, but also demographically, which should be generally Serbian. After the war, revenge of Serbs against the Albanians would flare up.98 General Lubo Navakovic in a letter of sept. 12 1941 would ask Kosta Pecan, known for his crimes in Kosova, that when he leads off for his providential journey, only him knows what plans should there be for the south. I believe that in Sanjak, Gukagjin and Kosova will be not a single plis (a typical Albanian white wool hat, t.n)) for seed. Syanica and Llapi rivers, for two months will carry Albanian heads. A Serbian chetnic leader, Voya Dragivic, would boast that after the wars victory by the allies, all of the Albanians should be eradicated, even the craddle children.
98

Mehmet Shatri Kosova n Luftn e Dyt Botrore, Prishtina, 1997.p.47............ (Kosova during World War Two, t.n)

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

The second memorandum of Vaso Chubrilovic for the expulsion of Albanians from Yugoslavia, November 3-rd 1944 Chubrilovic, desiderate of his anti-Albanian memorandum of 1930s, at the end of the war prepared a second memorandum. Taking example from his ideals ally, Greece, which had begun expatriating the Albanians, Chubrilovic, too, decided to undertake a similar program against Albanians. As he pointed out all the darksome deeds of nonslavic minorities, carried out against the south slavs, (Albanians topping the list, austrians and grermans), he again laid down the plan how to dispel them from territory of Yugoslavia. Albanians masterd strategic points of Yugoslavia, Kaaniku Gorge and Shari Mountains, therefrom had always had entered foreign invaders, and these should be taken from Albanians and given to Serbs. These territories, by him, used to be slavs, but Albanians had taken them., thus, they had to be returned to slavs. German minorities ought to be expelled, for they had helped Hitler. With them, rumanians, italians and hungarians, also, in other words, non-slavs. Albanians, germans and austrians must be revoked of their citizenship, for not deserving it. Germans should not be treated as bad, while all the Albanians and hungarians must be expelled. Which minority should we start with? Large minorities are dangerous. Those who have economic importance must be effaced first. Hence, first to dispel are germans and hungarians of Vojvodina and Albanians of Kosova. Albanians from Montenegro, kosova and Macedonia should be cleansed, expelled, and thus there will be no more problems. Slav macedonians want Albanians expatriated. We should expatriate all the minorities, especailly Albanians and the german race, for they colaborate against slavs

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

How to get rid of them?


Theres no better time for war than now. Its an ideal opportunity, for in peacidity its needed decades to do it. We must expedite the expulsion of Albanians and german race from Yugoslavia. This should be done forcefully, with military operations and with all the means available. They must be punnished heavily, gather them in concentration camps, and confiscate their property and en mass expulsion to other countries. To do this we will get the help of our brethren russians, with their military, especially to expel germans and hungarians. Wealthy ones must be expelled first, as they are disobedient, while the poor we have them under control. Immediatelly, their lands must be populated, to be over with it, lest they want to return here. Their lands will be occupied quickly, for Albanians, hungarians and germans have the most fertile land of Yugoslavia. This time we must not make the mistake of 1918, but minorities must be expelled once and for all, and their land be given to slavs. We will never have a better opportunity again to make our country this ethnically clean- Cubrilovic concludes. 7- Ivo Andriq palns in 1939 for eradicating the Albanians and the Albanian state. (recipient of Nobel prize, too) Andriq is a serb, whom was awarded Nobel prize. He has written his thoughts pertaining the policy toward Albanians, not much different that of other Serbs. Lets take a look at his thoughts pertaining Albanians and Albania. He justifies serbias demand to take Durrs, with the reasoning that Serbia has no sea. Further, he continues,

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

Serbia and Greece have shared amonth themk the spheres of interest in the territories of autonomous Albania. Hence, the territory from Seman river to the sea and to Devolli flow, is under Serbias impact. Southern part of Albania, wherefrom this line, falls under Greeces hold. In case of turmoil in Albania, both countries should agree on their deportment. Treaty of London, attached on April 16, 1915, betwenn France, Great Britain, Russia and Italy, had these dispositions on Albania: At erticle 6 it says: Italy will take (from it), under full ownership, Vlora, Sazan Island and, beside these, a very broad territory for their protection, which means the part between Vjosa river in north and east, and in the south as far as Himara Under article 7 says: If a small autonomous, neutral state of Albania is formed, Italy will not contradict the notion of France, Great Britain and Russia, that northern and southern regions of Albania be split between Montenegro, Serbia and Greece. At the Peace Conference, allied powers (France, Great Britain and United States of America), for Albania proposed first, for north and east, the same borders designated at the London Conference in 1913; acknowledged the full sovereignty over Vlora and the necessary rearward and granted her the mandate to administer the free Albanian country, under the control of League of Nations. Serbias viewpoint has been against Italys mandate, since Serbs did not like any other power in the Balkans. They wanted to spread their dominance, by taking over Shkodra and Northern Albania. By Serbian prime minister Ivo Andriq: If southern part of Albania will go to other countries, Serbia will ask for northern part of Albania, as far as Drini River. Our country has old rights

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

towards these regions. Shkodra used to be the capital city of Serbian kings. Our people has shed a river of blood for Shkodra, especially in the war of 1913, which caused Serbia thousands of soldiers and Montenegro a third of its army. To fulfill the wishes of the great powers, Serbian and montenegrin troops emptied Shkodra and Northern Albania in 1913. Shkodra could belong to Montenegro, had it agreed to give Llovqen to Austria or neutralise it. But Montenegro did not agree to give up this strategic point. Drini Valley and Shkodra comprise a geographic and economic continuity with Montenegro and regions border with Serbia. For central Serbia and Montenegro, Drini Valley is the only path direct and short to Adriatic. The important railroad Danube-Adriatic dhould pass through Drini Valley. The London Conference of Ambassadors, in 1913, has recognised Serbias right of access to sea. Shkodra is also, linked with Buna river, which opens the natural montenegrin trade line to sea. Ever since Treaty of Berlin, Montenegro enjoys the right of sailing at will through Buna. Most of Shkodra lake belongs to Montenegro. Due to turkish carelessness, the best montenegrin lands are still submerged by Shkodra Lakes waters. Wherefore, it is mainly in our states interest to regulate Buna and Drini rivers, not only by reason of sailing in Buna, but this way we dry out 12.00020.000 acres of fertile land and about the same meliorated. Two thirds of this land belongs to Montenegro. Our allies agree that Shkodra and Northern Albania unite with Yugoslavia Pashiq even says: The minimum Serbia askes, if Italy takes Vlora, is this: have the border along sideDrini i Zi (Black Drini, t.n) as far as delta with Drini i Bardh (White Drini, t.n) and thereout, alongside Drini as far as the sea, but we should ask the maximum, so Italy takes as little as possible. The maximum of our claims would be: Mati river as far as its

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

source, and thereout, straight from the east as far as Drini i Zi. So, Mati and drini would be our borders with the Italian protectorate. Pashiq writes that due to subversive stand Italy had had against Croatia, Serbia and Slovenia, they consider this italian military invasion of Albania, a greater danger for their existence. In Albanian land was prosecuted a fierce war between us and Italy. Italians then started the montenegrin and macedonian issue, as well as the idea of Great Albania, as far as Kaanik. We prosecuted against them attacks of both surprise and open, alike, by bribing Albanian leadership and promulgating the idea of Independent Albania and Balkans for Balkan peoples French expert at the conference, Larosh, consoled Pashiq in this manner: The kingdom has erred that at its time did not approve the proposal for splitting of Albania Pashiq was appeased with this but Belgrade had refused. In order to disallow italians in Vlora, were forced to relinquish Shkodra and borders as far as Drini Whereas the Conference of Ambassadors was deciding for Albanias borders organizing her Independence, from second half of 1921 we sugned with e leaders of Mirdita a cooperation agreement. It was envisioned the creation of free state of Mirdita, which would have been protected by SCS (Serbia, Croatia, Slovenia, t.n)) military forces. Foreign interests would be represented by Belgrades government. Tiranas government crushed this movement and we were accused and condemned in front of the League of Nations The Treaty of Rome, January 1942, from its spirit, imposed Rome and Belgrade honoring the Independence and the principle of non interference in internal affairs of Albania., as well as reciprocal updating on situation in Albania.

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

In mean time, this was not impede italian government, in august 1924 helping Fan Nolis rebelion against Ahmet Zogu, and neither our government, in december of the same year capacitating Ahmet Zogu that, from our territory to enter Albania to retake the power. Neithr Rome nor Belgrade could face the intrigues and demands of his own Albanian friends, asking for help to keep or bring him to power and promising loyalty and cooperation, while in the early case would change the orientation. Traditional policy of serbia is Balkans for Balkan peoples At its conception, this principle applied in war against the Ottoman Empire and Austro-Hungarian monarchy99 . As we see, Ivo Andriq points out partially backstages of Serbia and Balkans policy, trying to rob Albania as much as possible, including total erasure from the map.

99

Taken from Hivzi Islamis book: Spastrimet etnike dhe politika gjenocidale serbe ndaj shqiptarve, Published by DUKAGJINI, Pej, 2003

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

The Project of Voislav Sheshels Party for eradicating the Albanians.


The program Voislav Sheshels Serbian Radical Party presents in addition some points directly related to Albanians. Sheshel, a radical extremist nationalist has offered his own contribution on the expulsion of Albanians from Kosova. Based the program and the bylaw approved at the Founding Convention, Feb. 23 1991, he followed the tradition of Serbian radicals and of the idealogue Nikolla Pashiq. Thus, Sheshel was a follower Serbian nationalisms father, Nikolla Pashiq. Among others, in this program is mentioned the Albanian issue, expatriated under the Serbian regime. We support the formation of Federal Republic of Yugoslavia as a temporary solution in this aspect, which capacitates us is to attenuate the efforts in seeking international legal recognition of Serbian sovereignty, which would result in the reduction of borders designated by the Serbian communist regime in Serbia and would have offered the elimination of demands for gradual secession by Kosova, Metohia, Sanjak and Vojvodina and fragmanting Serbia to the level of Belgrades Pashalik. Shall return the national traditions and state symbols: red, blue and white flag without any ideological characteristics, with the symbol of emblem in the form of white double headed eagle of Nemaniqs Dynasty and the Goddess of Justice; Shall use all the means for eradicating the Albanian separatist rebels out of Kosova and Metohia, so as to prevent reoccurrence of rebellions. We support these measures be

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

taken immediately against them: Reviewing of birth records and national rights, based on census records of 1991; Suspension of autonomy status for provinces in the Serbian territory; Expulsion of all Albanian immigrants and their descendants, Return of stolen land to Serbs and church, Hindrance of any state funding on Albanian minority and reallocating the funds previously used exclusively for the purpose of bringing Serbs to Kosova and Metohia; Severe state taxes and fees. Such was the policy followed by another nationalist, Dobrica Qosic, stating these words about Albanians on the book: Times of snakes That social, political and moral rubbish of the Balkans is an ally of America and European Union, to fight against the most democratic, civilized and cultured Balkan people, Serbian people. The Jurist Committee for Human Rights Yukom and Helsinki Committee in Serbia have indicted Serbian academician Dobrica Qosic for national, racial and religious hatred incitement. In the law suit of these organizations is a passage from Qosics book. Legal Memorandum of Serbian Science and Arts Academy, 1985 In fact, this political-police leaflet presented the project for Great Serbia from Vienna as far as Istanbul, claiming that Serbia is present wherever there is even a single serb, or a Serbian grave. Hence, we should emphasize the fact that in this memorandum was projected a Serbian political strategy totally different from century old Serbian platform for extirpation of Albanians. This memorandum was to instigate vendetta and revenge against Albanians, where an explicit

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

emphasis was placed on Muslims Albanians, so that Albanianism in Kosova to disappear by a political strategy, accepted by slavs in particular, and Christians in general. In order to successfully implement this Serbian national program Serbian Science and Arts Academy tended to chant the personality of Slobodan Milosevic, politically and nationally. One of the most distinguished politicians, who had spoken about the secession of Kosova, was also Zoran Djindjic. In his book, Serbia and Kosova he states: Kosova should secede. This is the only way to overcome the absolute claim and idea, which after all is the basis of repression in Kosova. The Albanian issue, as the only national issue unsaved in the Balkans, should be solved through a new border between Serbs and Albanians, through Albanians and slavs Djindjic lost his life due to these ideas, for the motives of his assassination are related to Kosova and dispatching of Milosevic to the Hague. If Serbia were to have Djindjic leading it, Kosovas issues would have been solved earlier and Serbs and Albanians, as two neighboring peoples, would have had found peace. Certainly, Serbia will produce more people like Djindjic with new ideas and inspirations, divorced from sick Serbian nationalism that caused several wars in the Balkans, during 20th century, as well as one world war. How did Serbia wiped out the Albanians from the Serbian state. The occupation of Belgrades Pashalik. Serbia acquired the Sanjak of Belgrade at the beginning of 19th century. Thereat, Serbs, Albanians, Turks etc, lived there. When Serbs commandeered that territory, they first began

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

expelling ethnic Albanians from the sanjak of Belgrade and from Morava river valley. By data, from the sanjak were spelled at least 150.000 Albanians 100, by converting it to todays population growth, turns to a million people who would be speaking Albanian in Belgrade, not including here orthodox Albanians, who were automatically called Serbs, that would make the numbers even higher. So, the historic data show that, even Belgrade itself, capital of todays Serbia, used to have a large Albanian population, which could have made up the majority of the population thereat. This indicates that native Albanians had not vanished from their territory until the beginning of 19th century. It was the 19th century that obliterated the Albanians from the Balkans under the framework of creating clean states not on ethnic but religious bases. Serbian policy, after ethnic cleansing in Belgrades sanjak, (of Albanians and bosniacs), inspired and helped by Russia, too, it ogled other lands inhabited by Albanians, that today are located at Central Serbia. In 1856, under the peace agreement, held in Paris, serbia won the right to expel the Albanians from Shumadica and Herzegovina. So, it started cleansing Albanians from other areas, too. In 1856 a law was passed for colonizing that affected the Albanians of those areas. By this law, Nish and Piroti began to Serbianise. Then, most of people in those provinces were Albanians. In the sanjak of Nish Albanian population was located in 700 dwellings. This colonization and Serbianisation continued in the county o Toplica, where most of Albanians were concentrated.
100

Shaban Braha, Idriz Seferi at: Lvizja Kombtare Shqiptare, Tirana 1982, p.23

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

County of Toplica included Prokuple, Dobriq, Kosanica and some parts of Jablanica, Pustareka and Krushumlia. County of Vranjam, with important centers of a part f Pustareka and Jablanica, district of Leskovac, Polanica, Gredelica, Masurica, Pqinja, Inogosi, etc. Albanian lived at some other places, too, like Qupri, Paraqin, Uzhica, Krushec, Karanovac, and as far as Belgrade. At the beginning Serbia expelled whomever it could and later began colonizing the Albanian lands.

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

The occupation of Nish (with many Albanians) and the expulsion of Albanians.
In 1878, the Conference of Berlin gave Nish to Serbia, then part of Kosovas Vilayet. This city also included parts of Vranja, Piroci and Leskoci. In the sanjak of Nish, historic data indicate that majority of population was Albanian101. Sanjak of Nish, (then Nish) was called Albania and the people self-claimed Albanian. Properties in Nish were under the ownership of Albanians and other ethnicities, like Serbs, working as grubber at Albanian farms. So a few Serbs at those territories were grubbers on Albanian territories and later these grubbers became owners, and Albanians expelled.. John Ross says: almost all of the dwellers on the western part of Nishs sanjak, handed over to Serbia, were Albanians of Islamic faiththerefore, when this sanjak was occupied by Serbian army, the populace could not withstand it. All of it left for the vilayet of Kosova, abandoning the whole place. The genocide on the sanjak of Nish started in 1877-1878, when Serbia occupied it with the support of Russian forces. Both these armies began another massive attack on Albanians. Parallel with massacring of the Albanian people took place the looting of their property. Stefan Popovic infers that102 : some Albanian families
101

Sabit Uka, Dbimi i shqiptarve nga Sanxhaku i Nishit 1877-1878, vol.1, Prishtina, 1994. P.220-221( Albanian Version- t. n: Expulsion of Albanians from the sanjak of Nish 1877-1878 Note, that t.n used throughout the book means: translators note) 102 Stefan Popoviq, Putovanje po novoj Serbie (Journey through new Serbia), Belgrade,

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

were leaving and dragging through Southern Morava river valley, in the midst of frosty chill by the road, through Gredelica ravine, as far as Vranja (Vranya, t.n) and Kumanova. One could see frosen cadavers of children and elders. The tow has been tragic, for horses and axen would dragg slowly through the snow, as there were only a few carts. Some tossed children, gone or half way dead out of fatigue and hunger, were swollen and inflated like bellows. Some would pass away while feeding, or soon after it Serbian writer Ivan Hadjivasilievic explains the occupation of Albanian northern territories so that Serbia becomes a clean country and to create the opportunity for an eventual Serbian attack on Kosova.103 Ethnic cleansing took place in 700 villages of Nish, whereof 200.000104 Albanians were expelled, and on the deserted territories were settled Serbs and Montenegrins, who gained properties and homes of Albanians. Hence, a huge property, for free! Those who survived, settled in Kosova, Macedonia and a lot of them left for Turkey. Still, during 1878, Serbs expelled 350.000 more Albanians from what thenceforth was called Central Serbia and Montenegro. Serbias prince, Milan Obrenovic would stimulate the chetnics by telling them: whomever would expel or dislodge as many as possible Albanians from Serbia, would have greater merits from the state Sources indicate that only during the winter of 1877-1878, 70.000 Albanians were killed and 600 villages were destroyed.
1950 103 Johan Hadjivasilievic, Albanska kongra, (The Albanian exodus) Belgrade, 1909, p. 14-15 104 Sabit Uka, Dbimi i Shqiptarve nga sanxhaku I Nishit (The expulsion of Albanians from the sanjak of Nish), 1877-1878.

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

During this expulsion, Serbs took and made theirs around 50.000 homes of Albanians, another high figure, given that in every household there were at least 10, as there were dominant big families. Besides homes, Serbs stole livestock, arable and pasture lands and everything Albanians had owned. In 1879-1880, Serbia put out a law for colonizing of these lands by Serbian and montenegrin populace. The colonization of Toplica to Nish was carried. Altogether, from this territory were expelled around 550.000 Albanians, replaced with only 15.000 Serbs. The area began to slavisize, was called arnautllk, means Albanian area. Hence, Serbs proffited a huge property, which could not be found or gained easy nowhere in the world. But, here it is, exactly at the heart of Europe, a reality! The occupation of Kosovas vilayet and the beginning of its Serbization. In 1912 started the Balkan War, directed by three Balkan countries, all russian allies, Serbia, Greece and Bulgaria. The war was all about dividing Ottoman Empires territories, (in fact were Albanian territories). So, balkan wars, fed by Serbian and Greek extreme nationalism, were wars to take the land from Albanians and later, either assimilate or efface them. Great powers donated to serbia the vilayet of Kosova, whereof Serbia began to carry out the plans of effacing the Albanians. According to Jusuf Osmani, based on the cadastral, Albanian territories then were 115.000 km. For Albanian state was left 28.000 km and 55% of the population. Montenegro was expanded with 62% land and 100% population. Greece

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

was expanded 67% land and 68% population105. With the will of great powers, by the Congresss of Berlin, Serbia doubled to 1,6 milion, as it acquired 13.000 km from the Ottoman Empire, primarily Albanian. Thus, the population growth was not natural. In 1866, Serbia counted 1.3 milion, whereas in WWI had 3.2 m. So, obviously, Great Serbia, Great Greece, and Great Montenegro, all three were created at the expense of Albanian territories.. Whats more awfull, is that these countries almost doubled their population with Albanian people. During 1912-1914, 26.000 Albanians were killed and 21.000 others were imprisioned. Around 500.000 Albanians were expatriated to Turkey. In 1915, 120.000 more Albanians were expatriated106. At that time were , altogether, were expelled 620.000 Albanians, who were replaced with 20.000 Serbs and 6.000 montenegrins107 During the years, 1912-1915 from Manastiri (Bitola, t.n) were dislodged for Turkey around 130.000 Albanians. Leo Freundlich writes: Thousands of men, women, elderly and children, drowned and slaughtered. Scorched villages and pillaged homes. Women and girls treated with bestiality. A devastated place, looted, blood a washed and humiliated, indicates that Serbs did not enter Albania as liberators but as murders of Albanians.Numerous villages were razed off, people massacred en masse in a bestial way. The place, where poor, diligent Albanian
105

See Nuri Bashova, Tokat shqiptare n udhkryqin e tanism ballkanik, , Shqiptar n rrjedhat ballkanike ( Albanian territories at pressent balkan crossroad, Albanians in Balkan course) Prisjhtina, 1996, p. 275 106 H. Bajrami, Konventa Jugosllavo-Turke pr shprnguljen e shqiptarve, Gjurmime albanologjike, 1982. 107 H. Bajrami, Politika e shfarosjes s shqiptarve dhe kolonizimi serb i Kosovs. (1844-1945) ( The policy of Albanian extirpation and Serbian colonisation of Kosovat.n) Prishtina, 1995, p. 27

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

generations had created their country, was reduced to piles of wreckage. An entire people has been crucified in blood and Europe hushed (Leo Freudlich, Viena 1913) Edith Durham wrote in 1913: In Shala, Muslims either had to either baptize or drown. A man form Peja bosoms: Every day the herald yells on the streets that will execute today ten people. Nobody knows who they are and why are they being killed.. They are taken to a pit that will be their grave. The territories that Serbs gained in 1912 were 90% property of wealthy Albanians. Serbia passed laws to confiscate their land and give it to the Serbs. Under the pretext of eleminating the manors , it nationalised many lands and redistribute them to the Serbs, but not to the landless Albanians. Murder and violence against Albanians occurred systemically even after the creation of Yugoslavia. Belgrades gazette, Rad (Labor) of August, 1925, wrote: Homes have been burning for several days. Its unbearable to hear the children and elders scream being dragged, just to rob them. Serbia has created a province of second class citizens. Entire villages are burning, a lot of people getting killed and cruelty is unfathomable. Nobody is ashamed anymore in this country. Like the last cannibal, the power preaches the extirpation of a people because of its religion and national identity. After Albanians were gone, entire land and villages were emtied and replaced with serb colons. The purpose of Serbian colonization was to change the national structure, from Albanian to Serbian. Europeans colonised lands outside the continent, whereas the only ones who colonised within the old continent, were Serbs and Greeks. Furthermore, there were so many vacant lands that Belgrade planned to bring Russians from Russia and settle them in Albanian lands, just like Greece had done.

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

Settlers were brought, even Serbs from diaspora, like America, Europe and elsewhere, and accommodating them in Albanian homes and lands. Overnight, a family of nothing in possession, would turn into owner of four or five acres of land and up to 40 acres.. Serbian state, holder of huge Albanian property, would build new homes for settlers brought hitherward. Between the two world wars, Serbian government, in the name of Land Reform, dispossessed Albanians of their thousands of acres of land and redistributed them to Serbs. During this period, in Kosova were settled 13.482 families with 67.000 residents, in 594 dwellings.108. By a report of High Directorate of Land Reform in Shkup (Skopje), until the end of 1940, in Peja, Ferizaj, Shkup and Prizren have been fenced 381.000 ha of land. These settlers were accommodated and armed by the Serbian state in order to defend their colonies. In 1930, to Asia were dislodged more than 32.000 Albanians, and their land were sold for very cheap to Montenegrin settlers. Whereas, 6.000 more Albanians left for Albania, the expulsion of Albanians continued on a fast pace and simultaneously occurred their replacement with serbomontenegrins.

108

Register of settlers, Aug. 4-th 1940

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

1938 Serbo-Turkish convention for dislodging the Albanians from Kosova.


Serbian government did not want Albanians to dislodge to Albania, but as far as possible, as far as Anadols desserts, lest they return. Ergo, the visas for Turkey were issued within a day or two. Albanians sent to Turkey, were settled in the dessert, where a large number of them were getting sick and dying. Serbia kept dislodging Albanians, but was in need of an agreement with the Turks, in order to have the Albanian knot dealt with once and for all. The serbo-turkish accord has had as a goal to dislodge 250.000-300.000 Albanians, some, even write up to 480.000. This accord was signed between Turkey and Serbia at the expense of Albanians. Perhaps, Turkey had no ill intentions when deciding to take Albanians, but these decisions were heavily damaging the Albanian nation. Turkey has never been afraid of Albanians; it has even proved sympathy for them, since many great figures of Ottoman Empire are of Albanian origin. On the other hand, why would Turkey avoid taking in a European ethnic population with a glorious past?! What Turkey has done, indifferent of other Balkan states, is converting Albanians into Turks, by changing their surnames and by not officializing the Albanian language, making Turkey in this aspect a country not much different than Serbia and Greece.

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

Dislodging of Albanians after WW2


After the WW2, Serbia pursued with its plans of Albanian expulsion. First, it was decided the return of settlers who left when broke out. At the same time with the colonization, began the sequestration of peoples enemies property, especially those of Dardanias Albanians. Albanians were hit heavily by collectivization of arable land, as well as by nationalization of private enterprise. Although Yugoslavia declared equality for all of its citizens, this did not occur in Dardanias province, which was more under the Serbian control than Yugoslav federation authorities. They started fabricating reasons from the most banal to the most sophisticated ones, just to annoy Albanians to the point they would immigrate to Turkey. Hence, Albanian flag was banned with the pretext that they were working on organizing an uprising to unite with Albania. This state organized violence forced 500.000 Albanians of Kosova to dislodge to Turkey during the 50s and 60s. It was over one third of the population then. From 1945-1965, in Kosova have been settled 65.000 people of slavic origin, employed at state administration. Tito was the leader of Yugoslav Communist Party then and kept an innocuous position towards Albanians. He even gave them autonomy within Yugoslavias framework, by detaching Kosova officially from Serbia. Kosovas autonomy was within the Yugoslav federation and with its disintegration, Serbia would lose every right over Kosova and it automatically would gain its independence. But this did not happen, for Milosevic

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

divested Kosova of its autonomy, to return it under Serbian tutelage. In 1974 Kosovas constitution was passed, which provided Albanians with a better status. This caused many Serbs educated with a farcical, extremist nationalistic spirit, claiming to better than Albanians, could not stand this status of Albanians, thus leaving Kosova. According to Serbian sources, 57.118 Serbs abandoned Kosova. During 1974-1981, situation in Kosova improved noticeably, since Albanians there, is some degree, began to self govern. However, in 1981, there were demonstrations by Albanians, whose demands were Dardania gets the status of a republic within Yugoslavia. The situation thenceforward continued to fray, as Serbs started to intensify the political war, intending to end the autonomy of this Albanian province. The monocracy in Belgrade was speaking openly to change the ethnic structure in Belgrade. The politicians began organizing demonstrations, asking that Serbia must not, for any reason, relinquish Kosova. Serbia began employing Serbs at lucrative state positions. Against this created situation rose miners of Trepa. Serbia decreed emergency situation, under the pressure of 30.000 police force sent form Belgrade, to quell this down. With votes in Kosovas parliament , where some were not MP at all and some were venal Albanians, on March 29, 1989, Kosovas autunomy was abolished and this was ratified by Yugoslav Federal Assembly. Removal of autonomy was accompanied with abolishing of Albanian as an official language and closure of Prishtinas University. With the colonisation and expulsion of Albanians, Serbia tried to alter the ethnic structure. Between the two world wars, Albanians counted for 70% of the population, but this

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

changed, as Albanians multiply fast. This figure reached to 95% in 2000s. On July 2-nd, 1990 Kosovas Assembly proclaimed its Independence, which was also approved with a popular referendum in september of the same year. This independence was not recognised by any country, not even by Albania. In 1990, Serbian government, after the abolition of Kosovas autonomy, legislated the law of returning the settlerswho had been ther during the last two world wars and later left. Later on a project was drafted for the resettlement of 200.000 serbo-montenegrin colonists in Kosova. The dwellings where these settlers would be the those of expelled Albanian families, or funded by the Serbian state. Some asked to settle up to 300.000 Serbs. Ideas were thrown to bring in some 400.000 Serbs from Romania. In 1995, as war was going on in Bosnia, Serbia brought to Kosova some tens of thousand Bosnian Serbs. Now it was the right opportunity to fullfil its dreams! Serbia wanted to colonise Kosova, but had no people to do it with, as Serbs were sated that much with the lands they took from Albanians in 19th century, that they did not to abandon that property and go to the most empoverished place of Yugoslavia then.

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

Cleansing of Kosova off Albanians in 1999


Violence in Kosova continued the same as it had since 19th century, now with a small difference, for the world was watching. Foreign media was reporting the killings and the vioence pursued on Albanians. In 1998, in Drenica, Adem Jasharis armed file fought with Serbian army, where he died. Serbs rvenged by reprisal, by killing all of his family of about 50 members, children and women included. In Rea, January 1999, all the villages men were massacred. Their massive killingshocked the world opinion who had seen them during WW2 and Bosnia, and did not want to see them repeat. With the intervention of the west, especially USA, both sides, serb and Albanian set at the table talking to solve this issue. Serbs refused to sign the Ramboullet agreement and this opened the way for the west to act. On March 24 1999, NATOs airplanes started bombarding Serbia. This lasted until June 12 of that year, when an agreement between NATO and the Serbian agreement was signed. Serbia lost the war but was not treated as looser, and this is perhaps one of first such cases in the history. While Serbia was being bombarded, serb nationalists decided to implement their century old plan of cleansing Kosova off of Albanians. Serbia, forcefully dislodged 1.000.000 albainians and 700.000 others hiding in forests and mountains of Kosova, in ordeer to survive. This was the biggest exodus after the WW2 that was condemned by the whole world, except some dictatorial countries. Albanians were being expelled, and as their homes were looted and arsoned, livestock was stolen, too. These have been filmed by foreign news media, also. After nine years of

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

international protectorate, on February 17th 2008, Dardania proclaimed its Independence, recognized immediately by most powerfull nations in the world. Finally, this part of Albanian territory and people that sufferd for a century under violence, killing, persecution and expulsion, gained its right to live free in its own land.

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

The issue of Albanians in Macedonia


As we saw earlier, Albanians have also lived in a broad territory of ancient Macedonia. In 1913, Macedonia was split in two parts, one passed to Serbia and the other to Greece.. The later got the cities populated mostly by Albanians, like Kosturi, Grveneja, Follorina, Konica, etc., mixed mainly with slavo-bulgarian race. The Albanian-macedonian populace of islamic faith, was expelled to Turkey by Greece in 1923, while the orthodox was assimilated. Mithat Frashri say that in 1925, 38 villages of Kosturi and Follorina, with 20.000 inhabitants, were expelled. During 1920-1925, altogether were expelled 35.000 Albanians of Kosturi and Follorina, plus 55.000 of amria109. On the other hand, Serbia did not expell the whole Albanian population it took, except that of Manastiri (Bitola, t.n.), being around 130.000 residents. The rest remained in Serbia. This is related to the fact that Albanians were facing to kinds of slavs, Serbs and bulgarian ones. Neither of them liked Albanians, but thez could not coordinate among themselves for their expulsion. Perhaps, Serbs were afraid that slavobulgarians of Macedonia and not Serbs were going to replace the Albanians. There was so much Albanian land available for colonisation, that there were not enough Serbs to replace them. It wouldnt, nohow, wanted to have slavobulgarians replace the Albanians, hence it waited, perhaps, for a more favourable time finding enough Serbs to do it. Another positiv factor was that Tito of croatian origin was the
109

Selman Sheme, amria, Tirana 2005, p. 100

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

leader of Yugoslavia, and was not keen to Serbias strenghening. Republic of Macedonia was created after the WW2. It included the Western Macedonia with majority Albanian people. This territory, poipulated by Albanians and bulgaroslavs disjoined from Serbia and became a state on its own. Thus, the Albanian issue was severed and complicated further. In 1992 Macedonia proclaimed independent republic and Albanians did not gain any sate froming status, albeit a considerable number. There were efforts by slavomacedonian nationalists to deny their language and national rights, but this was denounced by Albanians as well as USA, in recent years being an advocte of the Albanian cause. In 2001 there were violent armed confrontations between Albanians and slavo-macedonian state, crowning with the Ohrid Accord. This agreement provided for Albanians, in some degree, the state forming status and permission of Albanian as official language. But this agreement has yet to be implemented.

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

THE ALBANIAN HOLOCAUST


The violence applied on Albanians, by Greek and Serbian states, in order to expell them from their territories, exceeds the crimes against humanity and genocide. In the literal sense of the word, they may be called a true holocaust. Masacres on Albanians during the last two centuries may be considered the first european holocaust. There have indeed been wars to occupy territories, during the whole time, but seldom has it happen that the military enters the occupied territories to kill and expell the whole people living there. Masacres on Albanians are unprecedented, as they have been carried in a very agressive and inhumane way. There may have been armed killings (in other wars), but against Albanians are used torturing killings, humiliating and offensive. Thus, they have been mutilated alive, little children have been killed in front of their mothers, unimaginable and terrifying crimes. These are crimes that devil himself would be jelous of. Undoubtedly, there have been crimes against the jews, gathered at concentration camps, but not of this nature. In fact, it is puzzling and very shocking how could there be people with such low feelings towards others, especially children, in this world. The civilised world, inbstead of discussing the Albanian issue, tht it created itself, should deal with human education of part of Serbian and Greek populace, and precisely of people who have participated on such massacres. Civilized countries must react sternly towards such cannibalisms.

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

Serbia and Greece have not apologized yet for what they have done and, apparently, do not intend to ever do it, for they do not regret anything in this matter. This means that Albanians must be aware, for in an eventual war, they would be massacred again, as in the last two centuries. These two countries have committed their crimes willfully and cold blooded, intentionally to annihilate Albanians from their ethnic territories. These countries continue as yet this policy towards Albanians, openly or secretly. Today these countries are not allowed by the west, like USA, for if they were allowed to, they could have effaced the Albanians over night and historic facts are compelling to believe it. Lets see which are called crimes against humanity and genocide by definition of Penal Code, to understand the magnitude of the crimes committed against Albanians: Genocide is the implementation of a premeditated plan, aiming to partially or entirely destroy a national, ethnic, racial or religious group, guided against members of a group and accompanied with acts, such as, deliberate killings of members of a group, severe bodily or mental harm, placing in heavy living conditions, causing physical destruction, application of measures deliberately to prevent birth, as well as forcibly transferring of a groups children to another group110. Crimes against humanity are killings, extirpations, converting to slaves, internment, expulsions, and any kind of torture or other human violence, committed in accordance to a deliberate concrete plan against a group of civilian

110

Kodi Penal i Procedurs Penale RSH, (Penal Code of Penal Procedure in Republic of Albania)Tirana, 2002, p.47

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

population for political, ideological, racial, ethnic or religious motives111. All these penal have been committed against Albanians in the Balkans and they have been accompanied, also, with other previous plans, deliberately to eradicate the Albanians from their territories. Neighboring states used all forms to wipe out the Albanians from their land. They used killings, expulsions, rape, assimilation, looting, tortures and all these for ethnic-racial and religious motives. Their goal was to totally destroy the Albanians within their territory, with deliberate plans, like Serbian ones. Rarely could there be found such political or academic programs, in any country of the world, like those of Serbs to eliminate Albanians. Such programs exceed those of Hitler, since at least, theres no strategy of Hitler in a written form, how to eradicate the other inferior races, despite of actions with aim ethnic cleansing. Theres been a killing of population, expulsion, prevention of procreation, like imprisonment of all am male and their evacuation to Aegean Islands, assimilation, massive rape of Albanian women and many other crimes. Crimes committed by Serbs and Greeks against Albanians are bestial. Albanians must know these crimes, lest they never forget, so they create a strong state, able to defend their lives from such lunacy, in the future.

111

Same place

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

Killings
Lets start with Serbia, since it has used systemic and massive violence against Albanians, during the last two centuries. Serbs started with violence against Albanians right from the conception of Serbian Princedom in sanjak of Belgrade. After 1832, Albanians living at this sanjak were being expelled by military means, as well as killing and massacring. In 1878, from the Albanian territories Serbia took, were killed 70.000 Albanians, especially at Toplica area. The victory of Balkan Alliance culminated at the Conference of Ambassadors in London, which, from Albania of 1913, detached over 61.510 km, with a population of approximately 2 million, and in these territories underwent ethnic cleansing of Albanians, who were either expelled or killed. According to statistics provided by Italian scholar, A Baldacci: During 1912 and 1913 have been killed by Serbs approximately 150.000 Albanians. Dimitrie Turkevic, a socialist, informing the opinion on Serbian crimes committed at an Albanian village in Luma: The village disappeared in two hours with scene difficult to describe. Bullets knocking down women carrying children on their bosoms; screaming children (accidentally spared) next to their killed mothers, bodies like cypress of beautiful highlander women dragging like worms on greensward, women giving birth out of fear; in two hours have been killed 500 souls, corpses are thrown inside homes and burnt, so crimes traces be erased. Leo Frundlich describes Serbian massacres of fall 1912-spring 1913 on Albanian territories, Kosova and Macedonia:

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

Hundreds of thousands massacred corpses floating through river streams. Those who managed to survive the disease, hunger, bullets of Serbian infantry guns and artillery shells, were amassed at designated places and given a bullet in the head. Worse was for those hiding inside their homes. After detailed search, for looting purpose and gold, easily found, they faced beheading like animals. Albanian women underwent the worst tortures, whom were raped, then tied, piled up, covered with straw and burned alive. If pregnant, they would cut their belly with bayonet, getting their fetus out, put them on the tip of bayonets or fence sticks. Then, after the massacres, Serbs would drink wine, sing and dance. Occasionally, during beheading, they would fill cups with blood and open the party with it. According to him, over 25.000 Albanians were massacred only in the Northern ethnic Albania, during 1912. These facts are inferred in Leo Freundlichs book: Akuza q ulrijn (Albanian Golgotha, eng. version). Within a period of less than five months, Serbian army and chetnik bands committed savagery that can not be described. Hundreds of thousand unarmed men decapitated, raped women, drowned old men, hundreds of burnt women and razed homes. Before the Serbian war against Albanians, in 1912, nobody had tried to eliminate an entire people, whereas Serbs were the first to start such a precedent in Europe. L. Frundlich calls Albanians a brave people and with character, being crucified before the worlds eyes, and Europe kept silent. He appeals to Europe, in the name of humanity, to pressure Serbia to stop killing of Albanians. He reported then that a Belgrade newspaper would boast how Albanians were beheaded with an order kill! by the Serbian commander. Serbian soldiers would get up storming through

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

homes and beheading every human being they would catch. While the Paris Peace Conference of 1919 was going on, a register of 80.000 killed Albanians was presented there. From mid November 1944, until 1947, were killed 47.000 Albanians. According to Yugoslavian military secret sources, in Yugoslavia, in 1937, were 900.000 Albanians. By birth records of 1948, Yugoslavia had 750.000 Albanians, means 150.000 less than in 1937. In 1999, too, it resulted in 13.000 killed and missing112. The massacres committed by Serbs on Albanian at the end of 20th century, was as horrible as those at the beginning of it. If we estimate the number of Albanians killed by Serbian state, from its conception until 1999, exceeds 500.000. Converting it to the todays population growth rate, and multiplying it by four, it results to two million Albanians killed by Serbia. This number could be even higher, considering that in 19th century there were no cameras to report the massacres. What we are talking about now pertains to 20th century. Serbian Massacres on Albanians are ghoulish and horrible. These are monstrous and unimaginable crimes. Simply to rob Albanians! All these crimes were committed only to extirpate Albanians from their property, pertaining to them by all kinds of rights, and to pass these properties to Serbs and artificial Greeks. Greece, since 1913, when it received as gift Chameria (amria, t.n.) and Southern Epirus, has used all the means available to eliminate the Albanians.

112

For more on Serbian killings against Albanians, see Prof. Dr.Muhamet Pirraku studies

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

The subjugation of am Albanians to convert them to Greek began since 1913, with the massacre of Paramithi, where 72 heads of Southern Epirus were murdered. These leaders were not killed for no reason. Those have been al along the plans of theocratic states of Greece and Serbia, for with these kinds of killings, the ordinary people will submit very soon and easy. The Despot of Janina (Yanina), Spiridon did not suffice with that much, but in the Korfuzi (Kyrkirat.n.) Convention decided to dislodge to Aegean Islands, all the am men from 17-70 years old. Thus, 5.000 or 7.000 am men of Islamic faith, were sent off to Aegean Islands. Of these, 350 were killed and 450 died of hunger and torture, as most of them were old. This is a clean genocide, the purpose of which was nonproliferation of Albanian populace. They were freed from prisons of Aegean when Germany occupied Greece. During 1940-1941 were killed 2.300, of whom 1.950 men and women, during the emigration 2.400 died113. Greece has killed 5.000 ams. Greece has performed more tolerant than Serbia, since it has killed and expelled Muslim Albanians, while the orthodox made Greek. It happened that in the territories Greece took, was a large number of Orthodox Albanians. Whereas, in those taken by Serbia, where the population was larger, the dominant religion was Islam and there was no other way to change the ethnic ratio between Serbs and Albanians, except killing and expulsion. Fadil Nuri, who witnessed the massacres the band of Zerva undertook, tells how his family was whipped out. My six months old sister, Dile,was in the cradle. Our mother was at the bathroom, washing Diles clothes when the
113

Selman Sheme, p. 104

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

criminals drowsed her in gasoline and set her on fire. She came out of the laundry room wrapped in flames. She kept on burning until she lost conscience. Her flesh turned black and dripping light brown blood. Her lips burnt, teeth visible. It was a dreadful seen. The criminals, after they burned my mother, killed my sister, Dile, in the cradle. In a horrific state, my mother died of burning and her body decomposed by the June heat, getting grubby. The criminals did not allow us to burry her114 Another witness present at the scene, states: The hoodlums, hung our father on the butcher hook and chopped him in pieces, half dead. We headed for the Albanias border. En route, too, they continued to torture, masacre and rape.115 Another witness says: At lunch time were visited by our neighbor, Gaq Pulla, together with five other unknown Greeks, armed with weapons and knives. The head of the household urged us to cook lunch for the guests. After they ate the meal, Gaq Pulla ordered Omer, the master of the house, to accompany him to the command post. He refused but they all jumped him. At the end, they pulled the knives and started to stab him on the shoulder and everywhere, throwing him down the stairs, partialiy cut-up. When thy got out to the street, they kept dismembering him, first cut his nose and ears, alive. As they dismembered him, they put him in a sack and threw him at a creek. 116 In other words, people that can not be compared even with animals, as they, too, perhaps have honor and behaviour ethic codes. Eating and drinking at somebodys house and to butcher him

114

Hasan Minga, amria, Tirana, 2002. P.72 Same book, p. 78 116 Same book, p. 79
115

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

in front of his children, is a barbarity, seen not even amongst wild animals. Another witness tells the story where she was present herself: To protect us came Nikola Rafti ( it appears to be an orthodox Albanian, who wanted to protect his neighbour), who resisted for a while, bur they forced himn to open the main door. Soon after the hoodlums entered, they began to rape the brides anf young girls. I, - says the witness, - together with some others, taking advantage of the situation where the bandits were fighting over the swag, managed to scarce. When I returned home, saw my mother hung by arms and legs with wires. Limbs were dripping blood, like other parts of the body, from the knive and cleaver cuts. In that state of being, I told her I wanted to eat. She, giving up the ghost, replied: -Go to Rina, Nikola Raftis wife, - but she ousted me, saying she had no bread for us. She said that mother was hanged very high up in the ceiling, and could not rescue or even untie her. In prison, her aunt laboured a girl and named her Rafete. When they expelled her to Albania, she was carrying her daughter, and by hand her four year old son. He could not endure the walking anymore, and a solder was about to shoot the boy and kill him. My aunt plead to not kill her son, for she would leave her daughter on the side of the road and take the son. She left her 4 m.o. daughter, on the roadside, wet of rain, wrapped on a rug, to never see her again. Since her son was trembling of cold, she returned and took the rug from her daughter, to have her son survive. The tragedy of her daughter made her insane.117

117

Hasan Minga, amria- Tirana, 2002, p.79.

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

Crimes of this nature were not commited even by Hitlers army. International war laws prohibit an armed army to massacre the civilian population and war captives, for no reason, whatsoever. No mercy for even infants?!

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

The Expulsion
Serbia has expelled from the territories it took from Albanians, a population of more than 2.5 millions, multiplied by its todays growth rate, and could have reached around 10 million. With this great number, Serbia could not even exist. According to Amy Bout, Serbia during the first half of 19 century had less than 900.000 people, whereas Albania over 1.6 million (Albanians of Greece not included). In his geographic analysis, Albania, ethnically clean, had a size of 180.000 km. To Serbias population should be estimated also that part of assimilated Albanians. The peninsula, still by his accounts, had a lot more Albanians than Greeks and, at least, twice more than Serbs. All this population, was killed, assimilated or expelled. Hence, the Albanians who formed the artificial Greek nation and the orthodox Albanians who became Serbian, are not estimated. For, if we were to count them, the Albanians then would amount to over three million. Multiplying this number with 10, which is approximately the natural growth, compared to that of 19th century, it turns out Albanian people in the Balkans today would be 30 million. But today are very few, since Serbia carried out the massive expulsion of Albanians from Central and Southern Serbia and Kosova, Macedonia and Montenegro. Had the communist regime of Tito not been installed, perhaps, today there would not have been any Albanian left in the territories Serbia took. Below is a table reflecting the expulsion of Albanians from Serbia, during the last two centuries:

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

Sanjak of Belgrade..150.000 During 1878-1880 from Nish...550.000 During 1912-1915 From Manastiri..130.000 During 1912-1915 from Kosova.620.000 In 1930..32.000 1952. 37.000 1953. 19.000 1954. 17.500 1955. 51.000 1956. 56.000 1957..57.710 1958..41.300 1959..32.000 1960..27.980 1961..31.600 1962..15.910 1963..25720 1964..21.530 1965..19.821 During 80s 90s..400.000 Thus, from the territories of Serbian state were expelled over 2.3 million Muslim Albanians. A very high number, considering the situation Albanians were in. Estimating the number of killed ones with that of expelled, it figures that Serbia is responsible for the death and suffering of millions of Albanians that today could make up a population of 15 million in the territories Serbia took. But there are not even signs of regret or remorse for the pain and sufferings it has inflicted on Albanians. In 1999, Serbia realized the last phase of total extirpation of Albanians from their territories, undeservedly occupied by Serbs or donated to them by Europe at the beginning of 20th

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

century. Within a week Serbia forced Kosova to evacuation, by dislodging Albanians from their country. Thus, over a million Albanians were forcefully expelled to neighboring countries, while the rest hid internally. Had it not been for the Wests determination, especially America, Serbia would have carried out its last phase of total extinction of Albanians. It was Americas insistence that carried the war to the end and returned the Albanians to their ancestral lands The exchange and expulsion of Muslim Albanians of Greece during 1913-1944 After the flop of Greeks in Turkey, they were compelled to sign an agreement of population exchange between the two countries. This treaty is known as: Treaty of Losana, Jan. 30, 1923, which decided the exchange of orthodox population of Turkey with that of Islamic population of Greece. Hence, a population exchange in respect to religion, not nationality. The Albanians of Greece, which theretofore had not become orthodox, since the territories where eptirot Albanians and Macedonians lived, were acquired by Greece very recently and the church had not managed to convert them, became subject to exchange. On the other hand, Albanians of Turkey who had preserved the orthodox faith, the church of Greece wanted them, since it regarded them as Greeks. Thus, by disregarding their ethnicity, but rather their religion, Albanian population became a victim of Greek Orthodox Churchs whims. This is seen clear at first article of the Convention stating: From May 1-st of 1923 will start a population exchange; That of Turkish nationality and orthodox faith situated in Turkish

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

territory, with the population of Greek nationality of Islamic faith, situated in Greek territory. Obviously, Greek orthodox are called of Turkish nationality and Greek Muslims of Greek nationality. If those were of Turkish and Greek nationals, would they have agreed to exchange? Certainly, not, but they were exchanged because of being Albanians. After the exchange, those people would change their ethnicity and become Greeks and Turks (article 7). The population leaving Greece was around 400.000, certainly, majority Albanian Muslims. Hence , it is seen clear, how unimportant was ethnicity for parties, where it is stated that people of Turkish nationality and orthodox faith would become Greek, and vice-versa. So, they were Greeks and Turks that after the exchange would be called Turks and Greeks, as if the nationality were not related to language and blood. As a result, Muslim Albanians who did not want to become orthodox, means Greeks, would be expelled to Turkey and vice-versa, even though in the treaty were recognized as minorities and that Greece vowed to comply with all their legitimate rights. In fact , the Greek state had begun expelling and persecuting the Albanian population of Southern Epirus and Macedonia since 1913 when it took those Albanian ethnic territories. Only during 1912-1925, from amria were dislodged more than 20.000.118 At that time from the Albanian part of Macedonia, that Greece took, were expelled about 35.000 Muslim Albanians.
118

See: H. Minga at amria, Tirana, 2002, p.3, 4

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

Another source claims that during 1920-1925, from Kosturi and Follorina were expelled altogether 35.000 and from amria 55.000.119 Albanian Muslims from other parts of Greece, were also expelled. When under the absurd pretext of investigation to determine the origine the expulsion of am popullation was taking full swing the Albanian government demanded that this issue be propounded for probe at the Council of the League. At the telegram addressed to the Secretarz General of the State, on August 11, 1924, it states: ...the Albanian ethnic composition of amria province is determined in an uncontestable maner, the reason being; population is autochthonous, it speaks only Albanian. Turkish culture there is totaly strange and no other foreign element whatsoever is met here. Had Pangalos, an arvanite but with Albanian conscience, not come to power, the entire populace of Southern Epirus would have vanished from the territory of Greek state, except the othodox Albanians, who began to Greekionise. Pangalos declared at the League of Nations that the population exchange was over and that Epirot Muslims are Albanians, not turks. This was a great help for Albanians who would remain for a few more years in Turkey. Teodor Pangalo recalls: Eversince my chilhood I speak Albanian, since my late grandmother, who raised me, did not know Greek. (she was a daughter of Anton Virvili, the wealthiest of Megarida upper class, in the house of whom, in Selamia, gave up ghost his closest and unforgatable friend, head general of Rumelia, Karaiskaqi) In my vains flows half-Albanian blood and I am proud of it. Admiral Kunduriotis, three nickolaites (grandfahter,
119

Selman Sheme, amria, Tirana 2005. P.100

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

father and nephew), admiral Sakelari, hero of submarine: Ll. Kaoni V. Lasko and many distinguished Greeks are all of Albanian origin who is known for their service to the country. Soon after my coming to power, in June 1925, I found myself facing the real gap of our relationship with Albania, because of the amria (Chameria, H.M.) issue. Albanias Representative, comming to political office, communicated to me that the Greek authorities, forcefully and in violation of the treaty, are dislodging the Albanian residents of the periphery , sending them through sea to Asia Minor and their protest to this is responded with: Muslim Albanians (turkoAlbanians!) are exchangable. I checked the appropriate documents and was convinced that the interpretation of the ministry was baseless, for the Treaty of Losana determines clearly that Muslim Albanians of Epirus are considered a minority and not exchangable, like turks of Thracia, etc. For full clarification of the issue, I wired the distinguished ambasador in London, the late Kaklamanis, who represented Greece during the edditing of the Treaty who replied that there is no reference to exchange on this matter. Ergo, thus, the opinion of those at the ministry is baseless. I invited imediately the directory general, competent in this matter, who whimsically said: Formally they are right, but for the score of the cause and the purpose, the expulsion of Albanians is undertaken to free the villages and resettle our countrymen refugees. It is not worth it to bother for 5-6 thousand dirty Albanians, Mr. chairman! I could barely contain myself from kicking and throwing out this diplomat. Meanwhile, by police authorities report, in Epirus a real drama was being actualized. Peasants, pityingly crying, were being detached from their hearth of birth and where they

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

hab been living for centuries, were being embarked on ships to Asia Minor. I gave order to disembark them and return free to their villages. Albanians, like all the unheard tribes and with descendants of the ancient, have bad vices, but also have unusual virtues. Albanians are not neithr of mongolian, slavic or turkish origin. It is proven historically to be Illyrians, descendants of Pellazgs and, therefore, brother tribe of old ones, who came from the North and supplimented the first inhabitants of Greece. Miauli, Kundurioti, Sahturi, Odise Andruci and thousands of other Greeks of Albanian origin, fought heroically for the Greek independence on National Revolution of 1821.120 In 1944, with the help of the West, the cleansing of amria off Muslim Albanians, was, also, carried out. A population of 25.000 was expelled, which today has been multiplied to 250.000 inhabitants, living in Albania. Greece has expelled few in comparison to Serbia, as it has only expelled Muslim Albanians, while it made the orthodox ones, Greeks.

120

The article on Acropolis newspaper, July-August 1949. Republished by: Theodor PangalosArchive, (vol. 2, 1925-1952) Athens, Kedros, 1974

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

THE RAPINGS
The raping of Albanian girls and women, by both Greeks and Serbs, has taken place systemically at war time. In Kosova, it is thought to have been raped around 20.000 females, of which, 2.000 cases have been proven. Lets look at some of the rape victims in Kosova, collected by Luljeta Selimi: We were hiding on the mountains some days. It was the biggest army offensive so far on the mountains of (iavic) Chichavice. It was September 22, 1998. In our family alone, we were 14; and from the rest of the village there were about 70 people. The army surrounded us on all sides; there was no possibility to run away on one side or another, and it was also impossible to get any food. By the third day, it was impossible to continue eating wild forest berries. Children began to cry; many of them became ill and we had no hope of survival. Due to lack of food, they were dying, and their spirits were overwhelmed by the terror. It was midday when the paratroopers arrived; their heads covered with fabric veils. They gathered and pushed us all together in a little space. Their faces were camouflaged. They took all the men and tied them up by the woods. Later they brought an army lorry and locked all the men in it. Then they looted all our valuable things and a few of our children; this tactic was to make us talk about anything valuable they thought we had hidden. They took the son of a woman who tried to grab a gun, and cut his ears and three of his fingers. My brother tried to react to that even though his hands were tied. For this reaction,

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

they positioned him in front of everybody, took his clothes off, and amidst everyone, they cut his genital organs. God how he did not die at the moment! Our mother and his wife did not move, I walked towards them, but it seems my brother had died immediately from the pain and I never saw him move after. I am going to rape you with his organ said one of the officers, and two others tied my hands and then they tied me to the army track. I tried to refuse them, but with a heavy blow on my head I lost consciousness and I only remember when I regained consciousness, that I was completely naked and tied up. A few meters away they were raping another girl or woman whom I did not recognize; but in front of me I saw my mother sitting and crying. Instead of giving me some courage, she said, They killed your brother and his wife. It seems she said this because her heart was breaking with pain. Maybe, it is better that you die, because it will be easier for me to be alone my mother said. Then she began to tell me things that sounded very unimportant for that moment. I was shaking; I do not know whether I was shaking from the cold, or because of the pain I was enduring. There were a lot of dead bodies around us. There were so many pieces of fingers, hands, ears, that I cannot understand even today how I can speak about this kind of terror and horror and still live. A little later, a police officer approached me and said, Since you were a virgin, I will marry you; you will come with me to Serbia. There we will build you a nest just like our leader Milosevic says. We should marry you with Serbian boys so you will give birth to Serbian children, and we should kill all Albanian man. Will you give birth to a boy Tell me! he demanded; and, in front of my mother began to rape me again. I do not know how much he hurt me because I could not feel any part of my body, but when I opened my eyes I

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

saw my body was covered with blood. This time my mother had been crying by my side. Further away, the other women had placed the dead corpses one after the other. One woman approached me and tried to dress me, I did not, and still do not understand why I was not bothered that my body was naked and around me there were so many women and children. Maybe my body did not hold me anymore, maybe I had gone mad! But I know I was suffering from the wounds; my belly was hurting so much, and the shame and the feeling that I was so dirty and broken by the raping and dehumanizing vulgar violence that the Serbs had done to me and my body. Someone gave me some water. I sat down and dressed myself. I had no feeling. I was still looking at dead bodies and still I do not understand why I loved death so much. Death had become my first desire. My poor mother only stood by my side and kept crying and said nothing. A woman approached me and asked me to tie the three wounded fingers of her six year old son, whose fingers had been cut by the soldiers. I got closer but my hands were weak and could hardly do it. Somehow, I tried and tied his wounds with a piece of fabric from an old shirt his mother found somewhere around. Later, we buried the eighteen dead bodies. My mother now became very feverish, but we had nothing but one aspirin. After she had that, she said, I should have not taken this drug; maybe someone else would have found it useful; my heart is broken anyway so I did not need to take it. I am going to die with a broken heart more for you than for your brother and sister in law. My daughter, remember to tell everyone. It looks as if you will live long, so please tell people what we have suffered, do not keep it

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

hidden and after that she died. I remained lonely and dirty.121 Another witness testifies: A few days had passed since the bombardments had begun. My husband and I comforted each other, but in front of our children we pretended that we were not afraid. War had reached the other villages outside the city of Gjakov, consequently we sheltered with many people from the villages surrounding. Although they had fled from their homes and villages, like my husband and I, they too pretended that they were not afraid when in front of their children. For us it was impossible to flee the city because hundreds and hundreds of soldiers, police and paramilitary forces were present at every corner. On March 29th 1999 they began to arrest every male member our vicinity I was terrified. What are we going to do? We have a twelve year old son! I said to my husband. Let us wait and see what is going to happen. Our soldiers, the UK Soldiers, are not very far perhaps they are observing the situation in the city and we might be saved from the worst?. As darkness approached, we went to a friends house on the outskirts of the city. They had no food. My husband and left and went to ask another family nearby. During the night we were joined by three more families. Unfortunately for us we fell asleep. We all woke up thinking that we had seen a night mare; the police had broken the door and entered the room where we were sleeping.

121

Luljeta Selimi: Rrfime tonditse (Shocking testimonies) published on newspaper Shqip, May,1st 2007.

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

-Money and gold if you want to continue living; we will let you leave for Albania immediately on condition that you never return. -In order to save our children alive, we should gowhispered my husband. Then, we gave them all the money and the valuable items that we possessed. Thinking that we had valuables left in our bags they took our bags too. Women should go first, and men will follow after half an hour; after we make sure they are not UK soldiers. We are not going to be separated- I said and stopped walking. Meanwhile a young boy who had been sheltering in our house attempted to run away and was shot right in front of our eyes. His mother threw herself over her sons body, but the bullet went through her into his body again. The crying and the screaming, alarmed and echoed the surrounding hills, but the wounded woman did not want to be separated from her dear sons corpse. The Serbs became angrier. They tied up all the men, and undressed all of us women. The children, eleven of them, began to cry. During those miserable moments, the wounded woman died as well. -Now we are going to film a remarkable movie, because we need it for the late night programs of Prishtina TV- said one of the police officers while dragging a fifteen year old girl to the nearby bed. I wanted to be dead just like the woman that was shot in front of us. Even now I want to be dead, and not live with these flashbacks. The girl died after half an hour rape by three men one after the other. Then they raped a friends wife and at the end of that raped me. I remember when they cut my breast, I was praying to God to take my life away with all my heart but death did not hear me. Once they left me, they took another young woman, and when she began screaming aloud, they started ripping off her nails!

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

When they stopped raping her they took her and the men with them. I survived but it was not a life any more, it has been a real dark hell ever since. On the same day they took my son, whom I have not seen since. Every one present, including my children, saw us women being raped. Together with my son and the other men, they took my husband whom they freed four months after the war ended. I was happy that he survived, yet when he arrived I could not hug him. I could not hug him because he had seen the police, the soldiers and the paramilitary men playing with my body, raping me and the other women present on that damn day; I was feeling sick of shame, I could lift my eyelids to face his eyes. These memories will haunt me for the rest of life. But with his tired limbs, tearful eyes, and crying heart he hugged me, and comforted me for our dead son, and then opened his arms to our daughters. On that day many people came to welcome him back from hell and every one of those hearts and eyes were crying for our tragedy. Our emotions were eased a little bit, but my heart was still crying, and some words began to pour out like yawns out of a dead mouth: -Husband, it is great that you returned, this is a great happiness, now I know that the house has a strong voice in it again, and a lord to lead it I know that oursix girls now have a dad, a pillar to lean, have a mans voice to look after them. I, as a dehumanized and raped woman, which is what I have remained, am sick of shame for what has happened to me in front of your and everybody elses eyes, therefore I cannot look straight into your eyes, I am ashamed to speak to you, I am ashamed to live with you and with this family, so now that you are back and our children can depend on you, I will go back to my family where I was born, because I do not want you to feel ashamed living with a woman like me.

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

I wanted to continued further, but my tears, my cries and those of my daughters and my husband stopped me. - No my wife, you shall no go anywhere, you are the honor of this family, and if someone should feel ashamed in this family for what has happened, it should be me. I should have done more to protect you and the honor of our family. You are innocent and you will always remain my beloved wife. You will be the pride of our family forever, because you did not want to go with them without me. But I and all the other men of Kosova, who did not take arms join the UK, should always live with the shame. We should always look up to the mothers who gave birth to brave and courageous sons that bought our freedom, with pride- said my husband. I, B.B. from Gjakova, will live haunted by those memories and the shame and the dirtiness. But I am supported by my husband and my daughters, while hoping that one day my only son will return Another woman tells of her tragedy. In a few moments he ordered one of his colleagues to light his cigarette. He also offered me one. I was feeling so bad that in every second passing I felt my strength vanishing. After a short break he came closer and said: -My name is Nenad Stojanoviq and I will now make sure you have a lifelong unforgettable memory from me. Perhaps you still want to live your life as you are young and beautiful but I will stop it very soon. I will kill you slowly but surely- and then he placed the cigarette on my chest by extinguishing it there, which created a horrible burn wound. Then he lighted another cigarette and any time he wanted to extinguish he did that on my body by burning it bit by bit. That way he burned my body in a matter of hours. I cannot find a word to explain the pain and the screaming, it was a terrible torture

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

that I had never even seen in movies and I had never thought that humans would inflict that to other humans even in the case of dealing with the worst enemy ever. The next night after they untied my hands and several other people raped me one after the other. I do not know exactly how many people played with my body but today I can see that my body is covered with cigarette burns and many knife cuts as they were writing words on it with their knifes The same also, has happened to am girls and women, who have been systemically during the massacre and while being kept at concentration camps.

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

THE ASSIMILATION
Greece, followed by Turkey, is a country that has assimilated more Albanians than any other country. Greece, as we have seen earlier, has been an artificial state, which the only basis of its formation was the assimilation of different ethnicities into artificial Greek. The Hellenist ideology served as base, which consisted in teaching of the Orthodox Churchs language an in the making of orthodox. In this manner were assimilated a great number of Albanians into Greek, which reaches in millions and makes up over half of the population of Greece today. Greeks of Albanian origin are from 5-7 million and this is obvious by their last names to this day, Albanian, but ending with an s. The same happened to Albanians in contact with Slavs. Had Albanians not been assimilated by slavs, the later would be a minority in the Balkans today. If Albanians had preserved the language, Slavs would have been assimilated by majority Albanians, but on the contrary, quite the opposite has happened, hence due to Albanians negligence. They turned into Serbs and Montenegrins, and ironically are exactly those who have lost their national identity who often have been the worst enemies of Albanians. Historic data show that many distinguished serbo-montenegrin figures, which have often

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

been the fiercest enemies of Albanians, are of Albanian origin. In 1054, when the division of the church in orthodox and catholic occurred, many Albanian tribes went with eastern church and some others with western one. Albanian orthodox were assimilated and became Montenegrins, for, the rituals of the ceremonies were conducted in the language of Slavic church, whereas those who remained under the roman rite were not slavicized. There are some Albanian tribes, like Vasoyevichs. Conferment on this is provided by Edith Durham and Spiro Kulisich. From this tribe is thought to have come, also, Milosevic. From Kuqi tribe emanates Mark Milani of Montenegro, a sworn enemy of Highland Albanians. Nemanja tribe, which originally is Nimanaj, was from the Gashi Family of Dean, who were masters of Deani Monastery, where all the Serbian claims are based. From this Albanian family emanates the monarch Stephan Nemanja, who in fact was the king of Albanians, Vlachos and Serbs, who were all members of that empire. The last names Serbs, Montenegrins and Bosnians carry are of Albanian families, like Gashi-Gashiq, Gashani, Berisha-

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

Berishiq, Shala-Shaliq, Gjuka-Gjukiq, Gjukanovic, Gjoka-Gjkiq, Gjelo-Gjeloviq, Hoti-Hotoviq, Lulaj-Luliq, Balaj-Baliq, BashaBashiq, Bashovic, Daci-Daciq, Rugova-Rugovac, Kuku-Kukiq. Thus, Serbs and Montenegrins have assimilated through the religion many orthodox Albanians, who have played an important role in the formation of these nations, especially the Montenegrin. Muslim Albanians living in their ethnic territories donated to Serbia and Montenegro were expelled as it was difficult for them to change their religion.

Theft and colonization


Territories populated by Albanians at the beginning of the 19th century have been very large. As we have seen, they included most of todays Greece and Serbia. These countries were established, by en large, upon an Albanian territory and population. Hence, Greece is a country that today has a territory of 131.000 km. If we were to estimate only half of what used to be property of arvanite Albanians, am and Macedonians, it accounts for 65.000 km. It is known that Albanians lived also at a larger area of Greece when it was created, thus, this

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

number is even higher than that. Serbia has a territory of 88.000 km, which in more than half of this territory has been populated by Albanians, sush as central and southern part, we estimate around 44.000 km. Todays Macedonia has 16.000 km belonging to Albanians. From Albanian territories Montenegro took Plava, Gucia, Hot, Gruda and some costal cities. This state has a territory of 13.000 km, whereof about 2/3 were taken from Albanians in 1878-1912, hence 8.000 km. Computing all Albanian lands used to establish other countries, without the territories of Albania and Kosova, it turns out that these countries have taken from Albanians, at least 132.000 km. Adding here 28.000 km of Albania and 12.000 km of Kosova, it sums to around 170.000 km populated by Albanians before the establishment of Balkan states. Thus, preliminarily, Balkan states took from Albanians half the therritories when Greece, Serbia and Montenegro were erected and half remained to Albanians until 1912. Soon after, they took from Albanians yet another 2/3 of these territories, by leaving thus only 28.000 km, and hence, for the

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

sake of Austria, for had it been for them and Russia, there would be no kind of any Albania whatsoever on the map, to this day. In 1912 there was around 90.270- 100.000 km land populated by Albanians (Vilayet of Kosova with 32.900 km, vilayet of Shkodra with 10.270 km, vilayet of Manastiri with 28.500 km and vilayet of Janina with 17.900 km) where Albania was left with only 28.500 km, or 32.24 % of all the ethnic Albanian lands. These lands were passed as property of Greece, Serbia and Montenegro, a huge property of

Albanians, exploited by other nations, instead of Albanians. In 1913, Serbia expanded its territory by 82% and a population of 55%. Montenegro expanded its territory 62% and population of 100%, whereas Greece expanded the territory by 68% and population 67%. Therefore, with the occupation of 67.79% of the Albanian territory, the expansion of orthodox countries of the Balakns and the drastic

reduction of Albanian state territory, occurred. Properties in Kosova, before the 1912 Serbian occupation, were over 90% under the ownership of the Albanians, primarily at the hands of begs and latifondists. Serbia,

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

immediately, on February. 20, 1914, issued The Draft on colonization of recently liberated territories and integrated with the kingdom of Serbia, which later on was

implemented. Similarly, also, acted Montenegro, which had issued the Law on colonizing the recently liberated lands from February 27 1914. These legal dispositions, as well as many more issued later on, served as support for other laws passed by the Kingdom of SCS (Serbian, Croatian & Slovenian-H.M),pertinently Yugoslavian, i.e. the draft on colonization of new regions, the 1931 law on colonization, and many more. By these laws, most of the Albanian lands were nationalized and later were allocated to Serbs and Montenegrins. According to a report of Supreme Directorate of Land Reform in Shkup (Skopje-H.M), until the end of October 1940, per agrarian directorates in Peja, Ferizaj, Shkup and Prizren, have been fenced off 381.245 ha land. Hence, only for four cities, around 400.000 ha land. Similarly, Greece, too, 1918 legislated the land reform law, by which it stole a huge property of Albanians, while it started to freeze other properties, lest ams use them. In their

dwellings were resettled the orthodox exchangees brought

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

from Turkey.

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

FACTORS THAT PREVENTED THE TOTAL EXTINCTION OF ALBANIANS

The role of Austria and America When the Balkan nations gained their independence, they had a great power to defend their interests. Albania was the last country to get the independence bfrom the Ottoman Empire, for it did not have until then an advocate on international relationship to defend its interests. At the beginning of 20th century, the Ottoman Empire was coming to an end, and without doubt, its lands in the Balkans, which were Albanians lands, would become prey of neighboring countries and the interests of great powers. The first Balkan war intended to split the albanian lands between Greece, Serbia, Bulgaria and Montenegro. In October 1912, when the war broke out, albanian territory became a scene of fighting between turkish troups and military troups of Serbia, Greece and Montenegro. Turkey was

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

fighting because it considered the albanian cities as part of its own, whereas Albanias neighbors wanted to share them between themselves.. So, the balkan wars were wars to take from the neighbor, any albanian piece of land they could, while albanians themselves played no role to defend their land by means of arms, except some sporadic attacks in cooperation with turks, which failed, anyway. When most of the Balkan armies had enterd Albania, Ismail Qemali proclaimed the Independence, which should be said, was invalid, for his government had no control of the territory and that independence was not recognized by anybody. Some historians think that he was allowed or was delegated by Turkey do take such action when it was all clear that Albanian lands were sliping of Turkeys hands, so albanians could rise, lest their lands be shared among their neighbors. Since Turkey was in war with them, it would rather preffer an independent Albania than at its enemieshands. Or, with this manuevering Turkey would win the war with Balkan countries and would retake the albanian lands under its rule. The Ottomans lost the war, therefore, albanians either declare independence or not, they did not matter to any

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

anybody, for they had no integral army on the ground to fight for their land, instead, others were doing it. It was then when the Albnanian issue surfaced for the great powers. Most of them did not even know where Albania is located, nor did they wanted to know. Whereas some other powers, like Austria and Italy, were very familiar with Albania and were very interested on the Albanian question, since the later would fullfil some of their ambitions on their foreign policy. Austria had began showing interest on the Balkans since the austro-turkish wars of 17th century and it intensified its interest in 19th century. During the greco-turkish war of 19th century, the political climate of exacerbated and this could destabilize the Ottoman Empires status quo. For this reason, Austro-Hungary and Russia sped up to reach an understanding so as to preserve this sattus quo. In their talks they agreed that should this status quo fall out, then Austro-Hungary would ask to annex Bosnia and Herzegovina, which it had occupied since the Treaty of Berlin, as well as the Sanjak of Janipazar Concerning the Albanian issue, which had an important part during the ruso-austrian talks, Viena proposed the

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

creation of an independent Albanian state, named: The Princedom of Albania, which would include within its borders Janina in the south as far as Shkodra Lake in the North and would have a reasonable stretch eastward. The remaining territories after this would be divided among the small Balkan countries, so that the theretofore balance would be preserved. This country, by secret plans of Viena, would be under Austro-Hungarian protectorate. Austro-Hungarian

proposals for the new system in the Balkans and for dividing the European Turkeys territories, were contradicted by Russia as inconsistent with Russias policy and interests on the Balkans, which it aimed to streach the slavic countries as far as the albanian shores of Adriatic. So, Austria had already been interested on the Albanian question, even before. She wanted an independent albanian state to block slavs from having access to the Adriatic. Albanias Independence proclaimed by albanians, was recognized by nobody, thus, the albanian question remained at the hands of great powers. Austria, one of them, insisted and vetoed any decision that would incapacitate the formation of an albanian state. It was supported by Italy, also.

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

After months of talks among great powers, conclusively, the political Albania we know today, was only created thanks to Austrias insistance, for when the fate of Albania was decided, there was no albanian voice heard at the chambers of European diplomacy. Russian influence and of some other western countries

caused 2/3 of albanian ethnic territories at that time, to end up as gifts to Serbia, Montenegro ang Greece. At the circles of European diplomacy it has been said openly that Albania was created to satisfy Austrias whims, for had it not happened, there would not be any Albania at all. At least, Austrias decision made possible the creation of an Albaian state and internationalized its question. Short of that, all of albanian lands would have been divided among balkan countries. It should be said that Italy played a positive role, which had its interests in Albania and wanted to balance Austria and Greece, which, also, had ambitions on Albania. After the WWI, the question of recognizing political Albania, surfaced again, which neighbors wanted to devide among themselves and also, had reached the secret agreement of London for this purpose. European great powers which fought

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

each-other, either disapeared or weakened down, and America began taking a greater role at international affairs, for its economy was stronger. American president, Widrow Wilson came up with the the Fourteen Point program, asking for peoples right to determination and in this case did not allow that Albania be disintegrated, something very positive. The purpose of his Fourteen Point program was to weaken the European powers. By this program, the colonized countries, too, had the right to selfdetermination of their fate. Thus, with the loss of their colonies, European countries would loose their dominance in the world, which could be replaced by that of America, which would not be colonialist like Europe, and this was witnessed later on in 20th century. America has never questioned Albanias independence, even though this was demanded by Greece during and after WWII, that it be devided and Greece would take the Southern Albania. After the 90-s of 20th century, the Albanian question was supported by the American Government. It was George H.W. Bush, (the 41-st President of The United States, H.M.) who threatened Milosevic with war, if he attacks the albanians.

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

The same policy was followed by Clinton who lead an western coalition towards Serbia, which was pursuing

violence sistemically, by killing thousands of albanians. America put an end to the serbian rule in Kosova, thus another part of Albania became independent after nearly 100 years from the independence Turkey had given. It was George W. Bush who also became the guarantor of its independence and decisively carried this out to the end. Was also him who favored Albania in her admission to NATO, for it is known that the political class has not fullfilled satisfactorily the standards to be a member of it. No doubt that albanian people deserved to enter NATO, for albanians have produced the best military commanders throughout the history of mankind. Therefore, this is not the merit of the albanian political class. Turks have been hostile towards albanians, at least during the last century. But, even though Albania has suffered 500 years under the ottoman rule, albanians still are not hostile with the turks, neither. Turkey became a shelter for many muslim albanians expelled by serbian and grrek orthodox fanatics. It has always been resourceful to take in its territories,

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

and their number goes in millions. If we reffer to the high ranking state leaderss remarks, one out of six turks is

albanian, hence the number could be over ten million. Other sources take this number to 15-20 million. Most of them have lost their albanian national identity, for it has self-assimilated. The decision of another albanian, like Ataturk, to turkonize their lastnames, caused albanians to loose the traces of their origin, except when their old surname have been preserved by family members. Theres another hiogh number of Albanians who still preserve their nationality, but do not learn albanian in school. Turkey, in this aspect, does not differ at all from Greece and Serbia, for there, too, the state has played a huge role in assimilating albanians into turks. On the other hand, Turkey could have very well refuse to take in Albanians that Serbia Greece was expelling, but when it did, they were subject to assimilation. As one can see, in this aspect, Turkey and Greece are the same. However, Turkey was of the first countries to recognize Kosovas Independence, perhaps, to compensate howsoever albanians for the damages caused during the history.

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

This is a positive fact, as other countries that have harmed albanians continuosly to this day with bellicosity. Like Turkey, England and France were first ones to recognize Kosova as a country, as they, too, had played a very negative role for albanians at the beginning of 20th century, causing their tragedy. As a result, Austria and USA have been two countries to defend albanians at historic moments, for had political Albania been devided, perhaps, today there would not be an albanian question to speak of today anymore, at least of the part that Greece was going to take, as in a short period of time she would have made albanians greeks.

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

Islamic faith
Theres no other issue debated today more than: Was it smart for albanians to convert their religion and was it

beneficial for Albania to have a different religion than its neighbors? The answer is, certainly, islamic faith of albanians has been one key factor for them to preserve their national identity. Why? Historians say that albanians became muslims because their neighbors were orthodox, thus they would better preserve their national identity. This is very ideal and utopian, for albanians never cared how they would preserve their national identity. Had they done this, we (they, HM) woud never be where they are today. It may be said that since albanians were muslims, or that they became such for some goals and interests, it inadvertently helped preventing the assimilation by their neighbors. Had albanians all become orthodox, they would have had split into bysantine or slavic rite. Hence, those of Bysantine would be considered as greeks by the west and passed to Greece whereas those of slavic

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

rite to Serbia and would be called serbs. Albanians being muslims has helped them very much, because, even in the terriories given to Serbia, albanian

muslims managed to remain albanians, for the orthodox ones became serbs. Thats what took place in the territories given to Greece. Orthodox albanians became greeks while the muslim ones were expelled. It should be said that for such issues greeks have been more extremeist than serbs, for they expelled all of the muslims from Greece. Serbia, too, expelled them from Northern and Southern Serbia, but there was no more place availed by Turkey for those of Kosova, besides the fact that Tito, the croat and the moderated communist, came to power in Yugosalvia, and he was not keen to Serbia, let alone expelling the remaining Albanians, because Serbia wanted so! However, serbs found other means to pursue their policy of extirpating albanians to Turkey, but failed to get rid of all of them, although they wanted such thing due to the internal and external situation created at that time. So, regardless of the negative consequences islam had on albanians, especially in their relationship with the west, it has had a positive side for it preserved their albanian identity.

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

THE ALBANIAN QUESTION AND ITS SOLUTION

The difference between Great Serbia, Great Greece and Real Albania. The Albanian efforts to be recognized as a nation in the states where they live, are interpreted by anti-albanian circles as efforts to create the Great Albania. It would be dangerous for it would incite wars. But albanians do not have any political platform for national unification, let alone to create a Greater Albania. National Unification or Real Albania is a very narrow concept, compared to the Greater Albania. The later contains a wider concept, for Greater Albania would include territories of many artificial countries, like Greece and Serbia, something impossible. On the other hand, Greater Serbia was a project that included foreign territories, which were kept forcibly by Belgrades regime. The artificial Greece through helenization managed to assimilate, at least formally, all of the nationalities under the helenic concept. Greater Greece was an imperial concept and an oppressor of other ethnicities. It called for inclusion of the territories of the

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

Bysantine Empire on the Balkans and Asia Minor, and all of the population of this territory would be put under the rule of greek artificial helenism. Looking at how Greater Greece and Greater Serbia were concepts to cause two centuries blood and violence in the Balkans, anti-albanian circles interpret the albanian question as a formation of Greater Albania. They did not allow albanians to create a national state in their territory during these last two centuries and still pursue the theory of preserving the status-quo in the Balkans and non-border changing.

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

How can the Albanian issue be solved?


Having a strong state and national personality In general, albanians today live in countries next to Albania due to the historic injustice upon them these last two centuries. In todays political Albanian territory are included very little of historical terrtory with few people. Dardanias (Kosovas HM) independence strengthened the albanians position in the Balkans, but still a lot of problems remain to be solved. Albanians lack a strong personality on international relations. They often have not been heard,

escept by Americans, who are the only ones to gauge the due importance of albanian problem. Albanians rank as one of the poorest countries of Europe, at least on the state aspect, since the individuals are better off than the state, for they work all over the world to improve their economic situation. A strong economy would also make a politically strong Albania. Could Albania manage to be economically strong in the future? Only if it could achieve one or all of the following conditions; 1- Albanian territory has been cleavaged and albanians

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

trade with each-other by paying costume tarifs which goes to the pockets of states that stole the territories they lived. In the conditions of a market economy, where market is the key to succsess, for the crisis today is market crisis-because there is overproduction and no market for it-albanians come out as even more looseres. Albanians do not have a unified national market to withstand foreign competition. They consume more than they produce. Almost everything consumed is imported, besides other non-food products, while the very territory where albanians live is very rich on raw materials, plenty to build a model country. Albania has wood, stone, minerals, seas, lakes, rivers, fields, mountains, hills suitable for

arboriculture, farming and turizm, but those are not exploited because the competition from outside is vefry strong. So, for a land cleavaged on several countries and with a strong foreign competition, there is no economic developement to speak of. 2-Albanian population is the youngest of white race, and were it in a better state, would even spare the future of this race, thanks to its natural growth. This young population has

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

been converted into modern slave, by working in european countries for very low wages, long hours and ordinary jobs. Albanians are loosing the free man power to other countries. One of the key factors of developement is the brain, the most educated or the genuine inteligentsia of a country. Albanians are a smart people and want to prosper, but on the other hand, education has nothing to do with

cleaverness. The only thing linking these two is the fact that a smart person can learn very fast, but if he lacks will to do it, he does not differ much from others. The educated pepole in Albania are not valued, furthermore, even the real albanian intelectuals often struggle for survival and are forced to abandon Albania for a better life in other countries. There, they are at the hands of luck. It depends on the benevolance and inclusiveness towards albanians are the countries where they stay. This segment of the population does not repatriate, for those who are in power will not open the way for them, despite their comments on media about programs and projects they never implement, but merely to spend the taxpayers money. Even in cases someone decide to return, he/she is not treated well. Thers been cases when students

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

graduated out of the country with very good grades, bid for academic staff positions in Tirana and have not been accepted. Instead, other candidates with no good grades at all, are offered the position, simply for being the relative or friend of whomever appoints him/her. So, theres huge corruption in even hiring professors at universities. How, then, will there be an elite prepared by albanian universities when they are pseudoelite themselves?! This has lead to a low teaching quality and an elite of lower level than it should be. The brain is a national property and it keeps on leaving Albania. And those who return or have not left yet, are not respected, therefore, a developed country is impossible. 3-The governance of Albanians has not been adequate, hence, we speak of albanians governed by albanians, for there are albanians governed by others in their own land. The governments during these last twenty years of democracy, rarely have thought for the benefit of the country rather than their personal gains. Albanian politicians are devoid of a political culture and patriotizm, characteristcs of developed countries elites. Ascendancy is considered as a workplace where you can

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

employ the whole family clan, and not as a jurisdiction open to those with merits for it. Albanian politicians do not know yet that ascendency is a responsibility and not a bank where you can financialy insure the lifes of many generations of your family. The ineptitude to lead albanians in the due path and economic prosperity, is one of the handicaps of this class. This is not a characteristic of only these last twenty years democracy but of the whole century. Ever since Albania gained its independence, Albanian governments leading the country, have not work for albanians, but for themselves. They have even asked their enemies just to get in power and peoples interests have not concerned them at all. To keep to power, they have often made concessions to these antialbanian countries, detriment to albanians. During monism, too, was created a very extremist political elite, for to keep the power, it would kill every albanian who opposed within the country. It must be said that communists have been more agressive and fanatic pertinent the power monopoly. Albanians were placed to work on a new form of feudalism and was exploited to fullfil the whims of that elite, wasting every national property, just to secure its eternal power. It

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

must be emphasized that in a century independence, albanian rulers have made thier own self a state, in view of enforcing their own power. It means they did not intend to build a country beneficial to albanians, but to safeguard their power from their political opponents. Even today, the same policy pursues, and are the friends of Albania who demand more a better country for Albanians on international level, than the albanian political class itself. Conclusively, in order for albanians to be heard, they should have a strong economy and an honest state. In order to have a strong economy, we should have a strong government that loves the country and appoints people that deserve the post. Albania must do a lot on field of education, for only that way it may have an elite of great value for the country. Whereas, the territorial issue does not depend only on albanians, but on the great powers, too.

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

HAVING A STRONG DIPLOMACY

Another very important factor on the prosperity of a country, is the way it enters into international relationship and how it manuevers to serve the interests of its own people. Often, an international negotiation could benefit a country milions of dollars profit and could reap the fruits, impossible even by a successfull war. During these two centuries Albanian s have not had an international strategic partner to vouch for their national interests. They have often won, not out of a friend protecting them, but because this friend has had his own strategic goals and a strong slavic element in the Balkans was not in his interest. In this case, the interest of a great power has coincided with those of Albanians and they have managed to survive. Hence, the presence of an Albanian state is attributed to the interests of austrian and italian foreign policy, both wanting to dominate the Balkans and was in their interest to have an Albanian state there. especially for Austria, and thats why they defended the albanian cause. After the WW2 Albanians again became

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

allies with a great power for ideological reason and not political-strategic ones. Through these powers they protected their interests, like the case when Albania entered the UN or when greeks relinquished their territorial claims and was supported by the soviets of that time. Currently Albania has a strategic partner on international relationship, USA, that has already been supporter of the albanian question. USA is the srtongest country in the world, economically and politicaly and sides with albanians. Thats a great fortune for them! The Albanian diplomacy should be a model to put all of its capacity in defense of albanian interests. In order to have a successful diplomacy, it should be lead by successful people and very elaborate, and Albania is not short of them but only need to be selected on merits basis.

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

The question of DARDHANIA


The ethnic issues are difficlt ones to solve, especially when dealing with neighbors who have extinction programs and have commited horrible crimes against albanians. Dardhania used to be part of albanian nation since earliest histroric times. She managed to get independence after a century long war with serbs. This independence is being recognized internationally, for recognition is an important side of a ountrys sovereignty. The question arises: What will the future of this part of albanian territory be? Under the framework of nations right to determine their own future, it would be at the hands of albanians to decide their unification in one country, which would be good as a federation or with greater local autonomy, so the governance shall be efficient. Federal unification with national and local government would be very beneficial for albanians, for it would also, open the market for over six million and would make an economy competing with the world market. This union would strengthen the albanian factor very much even in international level, for albanians would become an important factor in the region. No doubt,

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

this union would not be seen keenly by those who bloodied and mammocked albanians for two centuries, but this would be a minimal right that is up to albanians to decide. Howevere the future of Dardhania and political Albania would be, it it will be a federal union. They would say we are joining Europe and would not make federation upon federation. Germany, too is part of Europe and has more or less a similar system within the country. The other reason is that who knows how Europe will end up in the future? History tells of erected empires, lasting even over 1000 years but at the end have fallen and albanians have remained here. They have withdrawn and albanians were left with the burden of organizing their country politically. If this uninon (European, HM) in the future would end, then its countries would decide their political borders and the albanian question would once again become a gangrene for the Balkans, and their existence could be in question, also.

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

The issue of Macedonian Albanians


Albanians in Macedonia are a stateforming factor, despite the frequent efforts of slavo-bulgarians of Macedonia to deny this to them. The later even claim to be macedonians of Alexander, something laughable and anecdotic, since bulgarians came to Balkans 1000 years after the death of Alexander the Great. Likewise, Greece, too, an artificial nation, has no right to claim Macedonia, since first of all, it should clarify the position of ethnic minorities within its country and legislate their due rights and resign form the artificial helenizm. Albanians used to live throuout most of Alexanders Macedonia in 19th century, but when this terriory was split between Serbia and Greece, albanians were weakened and vanished, especially from the territory taken by Greece. The question of macedonian Albanians living in Greece is divided in two parts. A part of them are of albanian origin, of orthodox rite, hence became artificial greeks, whereas the other part are muslim albanians expellet to Turkey and Albania, but some of them still posess the property deeds of

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

their land there. The greco-turkish agreement was to exchange the greek citizens of islamic faith with turkish citizens of christian faith, or at least, thats what was written in the treaty. Muslim Albanians of macedonian part Greece took, were stripped of this right, by this agreement of religios basis. This question is difficult to solve, for Greece is very extremist and very gravely fights the ethnic minorities domestically. The question of Macedonias Albanians is somewhat easier to solve, but could ask for more time. If Macedoni will sustain as a country, then Albanians must have all their rights pertinent to a stateforming nation. Albanian population grows evr so fast, and should it keep this pace, after a short period they will become the majority. Considerig this as danger, macedonian slavs have implemented two tactics to control albanian population. One has been denial of emplyment and such conveniences, so as to make their life difficult. Thus, they are compelled to abandon their hearths and emigrate, hence the population leaves the country and few albanians remain in the country. This part of emigrated population is excluded birth records or is not counted, so the

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

number of albanians e as low as possible. Another tactic has been the encuragement and support of slavic natality, by the slavo-macedonian state. There has been stimulus package in cash for those who have over three children, to encurage more births. In any case, Macedonia will become a member of EU and this supercountry has some principles on this field that can not be violated by any country. If there are conflicts surfacing, there will be laws passed regulating in detail interethnic rights. If Albanians will comprise the majority in the future, then it will be their right to decide what to do with that country. An alternative could also be a fedaration or an Abano-DardanoMacedonian confederation that would better solve the albanian problem in this region. If for any reason Macedonia would split, then the part populated by albanians should join the albanian federation, that is the union of Albania and Dardhania. These changes could come gradualy and always by diplomatic means.

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

The Albanians of Greece Issue


Greece is the most problematic country of EU on ethnic rights comprising the so called greek nation. She does not recognize to any ethnicity the right of its presence as such within the country, for the greek nationalists think that should Greece recognize ethnies in its country, it would seize to exist and the cause of helenizm would come to an end. So, Greece harshly fights other ethnicities in the country and refuses to recognize any of them because this would be the cause of threatning their artificial helenizm. Greece has four kinds of albanians inside its territory; arvanites, macedonianalbanians, epirotes or orhtodox chams and muslim ones of Albania as well as albanians of Albania. Arvanites dwell most of the core of greek state. They were the raw material whereby Greece and Helenizm took form. The matter is thatthose who have preserved the language, speak Albanian and are not greek at all from the ethnic aspect. This is important for the leaders of modern helenizm, for all are different but have one common point; the desire to be helens. This is encuraged and supported, as we have

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

tackled it before, by western powers, as well. Arvanites should win their ethnic status within the greek state. Ther is a problem here, because they claim to be the masters of Greece, its creator, therefore, could not be a minority. The Arvanite core of the country they belong, expanded and thus they, in a way, remained a minority, bur the largest one, the one that even makes the foundation of the artficilal greek nation. This is even the biggest reasons why they do not demand this status to learn their language. The Albanian state should have raised this issue and other problems, but never did, because albanian statesmen lack the personality and integrity to do such thing. This problem could be solved in the future based on the norms of human rights within the framework of EU. The language they have preserved should be taught inschool, for it is the basic human right to do such thing, but the Greek state would not accept it, therefore, th issue should then be solved politically and cooperatively; Albania-EU-USA. The question of macedonian albanians and muslim

epirotans has yet to be solved and very difficult or impossible to solve. Muslim Albanians were expelled to Turkey and is impossible to repatriate, for they were expelled since 1923,

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

under the greco-turko agreement then. Unresolved remains the question of macedonian orthodox, convertet to Greeks, whereof some have managed to preserve the language. They should be treated with the status aof the Arvanites, the right to learn albanian language, independent of their small number. A problem reamins the issue of ams (chams, HM) expelled at the end of WW2. Those were expelled with the lame excuse thez colaborated with the germans. Even if they did this, there was no collective punishment. It is iniquitous to expell a people from their eon country with the justification that at a war some members of that community had supported the loosing block, herewith for survival and not chauvinistic interests. So, the greek justification not only is laughable but gruesome and inhumane, for the reason is clear; they refused to become greeks, like orthodox chams did, and regardless of it, still speak albanian to this day. Some think that the issue can not be solved because the war law sequestered their property as that of an enemy, for in 1940 when Italy attcked Greece from the Albanian territory, was issued the war law with Albania that sequestered all the

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

properties of albanians in Greece. By this law, all properties of albanians in Greece were sequestered conservatively and administered by the greek state. It must be emphasized, hence, with properties of albanians in Greece we understand not only those in their territories , like in amria, etc, but properties of albanians throughout the greek state territory. Later on, with a joint decision of Ministry of National Economyand the Greek Ministry of Finances, dated June 9 th of 1947, nr. 148882-3547, and later based on law 4506, March 14 th 1966, Albanian citizens of greek origin , living in Albania, were excluded from application of war law provisions. By this law, and by Greek identification option, Albanian citizens of greek origin are considered all the orthodox ones of Albania. This law describes in detail the amount of wealth and property frozen for compensation purposes and through its statues, is reflected the almost impossible way to return these properties by state commissions. The issue of locked properties of Albanians remains a frozen process. So, the war law has an economic character, for through it, Albanian property is still kept frozen. Further more, it is

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

questionable either the war law with Albania has been abrogated or not. The law is invalid since Albania and Greece are members of the same political and military alliance, which does not allow its members to be at war with each-other. Actually, even if one of the two states is attacked by another country, the norms of the alliance force the whole alliance to defend that country, thus, the war law is entirely invalid. The am issue is not a legal one but political. Even if any am would address the greek court requesting his property, it certainly would get a negative response. Some legal experts think of taking this matter to the Tribunal of Human Rights in Strasburg. Even if they did so and the court grants the decision in favor of Albanians, something improbable, the court was established in 1949, whereas the case occurred 4-5 years prior. The law has no retroactive application and this is a principle that can not be overruled, except in extreme cases. But, in any case, even if there was a favorable decision, again there is another problem, and the matter remains unsolved; court decisions lack legislative power on pairs in the process. Theres no llegal sanction against

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

Greece, even if it does not comply, but only political ones. So, the the decision of Strasburgs Court has no binding power. The am matter is a political one and can be solved by friends of Albania, but not by Albanian politics, which is afraid of even to mention the name of the place, let alone the issue itself! The American Senate introduced the am question for debate, and did it even before the befitting one, Albanias Assembly. It was Hillary Clinton who presented this unsolved issue before the Senate, something to be praised for. Albanians of Albania living in Greece are another problem. They are not respected of their ethnic rights, have no school in Albanian language, for the greek side has not allowed it. Grrek politicians come to Albania and bring to account the Albanian state for some greek speaking Albanian orthodox ore better clarified, albanians that Greece wants to make them Greeks, and the Albanian government does not dare open its mouth for its citizens.

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

Albanians of Montenegro and Serbia


Montenegro was erected almost entirely on Albanian territory from it conception, and later kept expanding on those territories. In 1878-1880 it took Ulqin and Tivar, whereas in 1913 took Plava and Gucia, located east of Montenegro and Hot & Gruda, south and southeast of the country. Albanians were expelled out of their land and the remaining were assimilated, something still occurs today, still. Essential is the stopping of the assimilation process and albanians learn Albanian language, for this is a fundamental human right. It should be said that Montenegro under Gjukanovic has been more tolerant towards Albanians, because they have worked together. It was the albaniansvote that seceded

Montenegro from Serbia. Alabanians of Presheva Valley are under a great pressure by Serbia. They have managed to survive inspite of great international pressure on Serbia and because it pretends kindness so it may retake Kosova.

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

The Conclusions
Albanians are a very old people who have lived In their territories since prehistoric times. They managed to defend a large part of their territories until 18-19-20th century. The lands they did not loose for milenias were lost when Europe created artificial states nationaly clean upon Albanian coats.

Albanian population served in some cases as base ingredient for other nation-states, especially Greece. During those two centuries, towards albanians have been undertaken vicious campaigns of assimilation and expulsion unseen through old and new Eropean history. Of 180.000 km land albanians had preserved, Europe left the Albanian state with only 28.000 km, as the remaing territory, together with the Albanian population it donated to others. Countries like Serbia and Greece from their conception were created on the lands of Albanians and also began the process of assimilation, expulsion, and killings. Neighboring countries, especially Serbia, have even had projects of total extinction of Albanians, viz their annihilation, like in the case of Georgevic and Cubrilovic. Those plans describing the

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

eradication of Albanians, as if of animal extrinction, are rare or unheard of in the world history. The civilized countries, instead of denouncing those plans as inhumane, they supported Serbia, availing to her all the opportunities to realize them. If we were to take into account the number of killed, extirpated, assimilated, as well as the property of albanians, stolen by neighbors, then comes all clear that upon albanians was carried out a true Holocaust. Over 500.000 Albanians have been killed, estimated by todays natural growth, would be 2-2.5 million people. There have been 2.5 millions expelled from their territories, which would be 10 million if we estimate with todays natural growth. By Greece have been

assimilated 5-7 million albanians who became Greeks and also a great number of them, at the territories taken by slavs. By Turkey have been assimilated over 10 million albanians, mainly those who were expelled from Serbia, who found refuge there, but could not preserve their national identity, because Turkey did not allow them. From Albanians were stolen about 140.000 km land to create other countries and this is a huge property, thus having an impact on Albania

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

being the poorest country in Europe. All of these killings, thefts, expulsions and assimilations are carried out for nationalistic and religious reason, but above all, for economic reasons. Albanians are the most stolen people than any other people in Europe and perhaps of the first ones in the world. Theft and vilence exercised on albanianshas been supported in some cases by the great powers then, which did not fret their friends and allies in the Balkans. Thus, ams were expelled with the knowledge of Englishmen. Greece has always asked to reap the utmost from Albanians and their land, and it was her asking for permit from the British, to expel ams. It was aproved, for it was their friend and ally and they have supported it in every whim Greece has had. Russia of 19th century has been a supporter of Balkans slavs and has assisted those countries to take Albanian lands. The communist Russia has not played as much a negative role on this as much as the czarist regime. France, at the beginning has supported Serbia and it was her that created Yugoslavia in Versailles, which was in fact the Greater Serbia that disintegrated through blood and

violence. French policy has changed today, for iniquity upon

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

Albanians, was understood. France was the first to recognize Kosova and this deserves applause. The non total extinction of Albanians is attributed to the great powers like Austria and America, which made an Albanian political state and has protected them in the Balkans. A great role has played the Islamic faith, wich is different from that of orthodox neighbors, for it did not allow the total assimilation of albanians by their neighbors. The Albanian question is an open problem and unsolved for as long as Albanians continue to be killed, repressed, and persecuted in their land, but under an alien country that does not protect their interests. Albanian politicians must safeguard the interests of albanains wherever they are and ilucidate the world diplomacy about their history and the state in which Albanians currently are. This is a huge task on Albanian and Dardhan (Kosovas) states. Albanian must not, under any

circumstances, demand to solve their issue by violent means, for this would further damage and weaken the Albanian nation. Today wins whoever is a good player in international relationship and the Albanian diplomacy must be one of the strongest in the world, but in order to be that it should appoint

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

the most capable on top of it. Sumarily, this studys purpose was to present records of crime, theft, assimilation, and rape carried upon albanians during these two centuries. Its purpose also has been to remind Albanians this outrage lest they allow in the future such crimes ever perpetrate on them. But, nohow does it intend to actuate Albanians into revenge. Vengenge and violence are peculiarities of uncivilized people and Albanians have proven to be an ancient people, whereby have derived the entire European culture.

The end

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian

The plans to eradicate Albanians

Elena Kocaqi-LEVANTI

Bibliogarphy
A.D. Smith, National Identity, 1991 Albant (World Famous Albanians), Tirana, 2008

Other bibliography to be completed. *There are some maps yet to be inserted at apropriate pages of this document.

A note from the translator, Halit Methasani: WARNING! Do not distribute, share, sell or give away this book, without written permission from the author Elena Kocaqi and/or the translator, Halit Methasani. Violators will be prosecuted under international applicable laws on copyrights.

Translated by Halit Methasani from its origional in Albanian