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# CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of Research
Naval architecture task is to ensure that, within the bounds of the other design
requirement, the hull form design of propulsion and the procedure will be the most
efficient in terms of hydrodynamics. The final test of the ship will perform at the
required speed with minimum of shaft power, and the problem is to achieve the best
combination of low resistance and high efficiency propulsive. In general, this can
only be achieved by matching precisely the hull and propeller
In general, the basic contractual obligations are placed on the dock that ship
must reach or achieved a certain speed with particular strength in the good weather
on trial and for this reason smooth water performance or calm water is very
important.
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Forecast resistance vessel is fundamental topics of interest to naval architects.
Hydrodynamics been interested in determining the laws of physics related to the
ship resistance and speed characteristic. Due to the complicated nature of flow
around the ship hull, a satisfactory analytical method relating speed and powering
requirement to hull form has not yet been developed.
Generally, there are many methods can be used to determine the ships resistance.
According to Harvald (1983), these methods can be divided into four groups which
namely:
1) Model experiments
2) Standard series of experiments
3) Statistical methods
4) Diagrams
Model testing is still the most accurate and reliable method but the others may
only be used to predict ship resistance between certain limits or only for a ship that
comparative data on these groups to forecast. Have similar particulars to such group.
For the purpose of this study, only three methods of ship resistance prediction will be
discussed in connection with the three groups are shown above. These methods are:
1) Van Oortmersens method
2) Holtrops and Mennen method
3) Schneekluths method
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1.2 Project Background
The main objective of this project is to study and research on the ship
resistance for 28.3m single screw fishing trawler. The ship resistance is normally
determined by using model test in a towing tank or circulating water channel.
However it can also be predicted by using, empirical formula or statistical data.
Prediction in the preliminary design stage is one of the important practice and
research in ship design. Several methods can be used in the ship resistance prediction
depends on the type of the ship and the limitation of the methods. Consequently
using existing method, the resistance of 28.3m fishing trawler will be investigated.
1.3 Objective
i. To predict the ship resistance of 28.3 trawler by using methodical series
ii. To calculate manually using the methodical series by means of using
computer tools such as Microsoft Excel and later on making source codes
iii. To compare the result of resistance prediction with model test and sea trial
result.
iv. To make limitation as guidelines for methods used in resistance prediction.
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1.4 Scope of Research
i. Conduct resistance prediction study in calm water.
ii. Obtain available experimental data and sea trial results.
iii. Conduct resistance prediction based on available methods i.e. Holtrop
and Mennen.
iv. Familiarization of programming language and later on generates source
codes for resistance prediction calculation.
v. Validate prediction result with model experiment.
1.5 Problem Statement
In carrying out prediction using methodical series, several issues will be
i. How accurate is the present method resistance prediction? It is reliable?
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ii. If not? Why it is not reliable at first place? What are the factors
contributing to the inaccuracy of these predictions?
iii. What are the limitations?
iv. Which method that can be used and reliable in particular for fishing
trawler?
1.6 Expected Outcome
i. Resistance prediction results of 28.3m fishing trawler using the
Hullspeed software and manual calculation using Microsoft Excel or
ii. Identify methods that can be applied to predict trawler resistance.
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CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 General
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This chapter will give an overview about the methods that will be used to
achieve the objectives of trawler resistance prediction using methodical series.
2.2 Van Oortmersens Method[2]
This method is useful for estimating the resistance of small ships such as
trawlers and tugs. In this method, the derivation of formula by G. Van Ootmerssen is
based on the resistance and propulsion of a ship as a function of the Froude number
and Reynolds number. The constraint of this formula is also based on other general
parameters for small ships such as trawlers and tugs that are collected from random
tank data. The method was developed through a regression analysis of data from 93
models of tugs and trawlers obtained by the Marine Research Institute, Netherlands
(MARIN). Besides, few assumptions were made for predicting resistance and
powering of small craft such as follows:
1. According to the Figure 2.1 there are positive and negative pressure
peak distributions for the hull surface. For the ship hull scope, there
are high pressure at the bow and stern, while in the middle it becomes
a low pressure.
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Figure 2.1: Pressure distribution around a ship hull [2]
2. Small ship can be said to have a certain characteristics such as the
absence of a parallel middle body, so the regions of low pressure and the
wave system of fore and after shoulder coincide and consequently the
pressure distribution is illustrated as in figure 2.2.
Figure 2.2: Wave system at fore and aft shoulder [2]
3. The summation of viscous resistance and wave-making resistance
representing the components of the total resistance.
The range of parameters for the coefficients of the basic expression is as follow:
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Table 2.1: Limitations for Van Oortmerssens Method [2]
Van Oortmerssens suggested that the final form of the resistance equation is
represented by the summation of viscous resistance and wave-making resistance as
follow:
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Parameter Limitations
Length of water line, L
WL
8 to 80 m
Volume, 5 to 3000 m
Prismatic coefficient, C
P
0.50 to 0.73
Midship coefficient, C
m
0.70 to 0.97
Longitudinal center of buoyancy, LCB -7% L to 2.8% L
entrance angle, i
e
10 to 46
Speed/length, V/L 0 to 1.79
Froude number, F
n
0 to 0.50
( )
( )
( )
( )
1
]
1

+
1
1
]
1

+ + +

2
2
2
4
2
3 2
9 / 1
1
2 l o g 2
0 7 5 . 0
c o s
s i n
2
2 2 2
R n
S V
F n e C
F n e C e C e C
R
m F n
m F n m F n m F n
T

[2.1]
where,
1.
( ) ( ) ( )
m i i i WL i WL i WL i
WL i p i p i i i i i
C d T B d T B d C d C d B L d
B L d C d C d LCB d LCB d d C
+ + + + + +
+ + + + + +
11 ,
2
10 , 9 ,
2
8 , 7 ,
2
6 ,
5 ,
2
4 , 3 ,
2
2 , 1 , 0 ,
3
/ / /
/ 10
[2.2]
2.
( ) 2 /
1
.
b
p
C b m

or for small ships this can be presented by:
( ) 1976 . 2
14347 . 0

p
C m
[2.3]
3.
WL
C
is a parameter for angle of entrance of the load waterline, i
e,
where
( ) B L i C
WL e WL
/
[2.4]
4. Approximation for wetted surface area is represented by:
3 / 1 33 / 2
5402 . 0 223 . 3 V L V S
WL
+
[2.5]
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Table 2.2 below shows an allowance for frictional resistance and table 2.3 shows the
values of regression coefficient given by Van Oortmerssens.
Table 2.2: Allowance for frictional
resistance [2]
Usually, the Van Oortmerssens methods are useful for estimating the
resistance of small ships such as trawlers and tugs. In general, Malaysian fishing
vessels are short and beamy whilst their draught is relatively low. These kinds of
vessel are normally located in shallow river estuaries. These factors will result in a
relatively low breadth-draught ratio and block coefficient.
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Allowance for C
F
Roughness of hull 0.00035
Steering resistance 0.00004
Bilge Keel Resistance 0.00004
Air resistance 0.00008
i 1 2 3 4
d
i,0
79.32134 6714.88397 -908.44371 3012.14549
d
i,1
-0.09287 19.83000 2.52704 2.71437
d
i,2
-0.00209 2.66997 -0.35794 0.25521
d
i,3
-246.46896 -19662.02400 755.186600 -9198.80840
d
i4
187.13664 14099.90400 -48.93952 6886.60416
d
i,5
-1.42893 137.33613 -9.86873 -159.92694
d
i,6
0.11898 -13.36938 -0.77652 16.23621
d
i,7
0.15727 -4.49852 3.79020 -0.82014
d
i,8
-0.00064 0.02100 -0.01879 0.00225
d
i,9
-2.52862 216.44923 -9.24399 236.37970
d
i,10
0.50619 -35.07602 1.28571 -44.17820
d
i,11
1.62851 -128.72535 250.64910 207.25580
2.3 Holtrops & Mennens Method [2]
This resistance prediction method is one of the techniques widely used in
prediction of resistance of displacement and semi-displacement vessels. Like all
methods, however, this technique is limited to a suitable range of hull form
parameters. This algorithm is designed for predicting the resistance of tankers,
general cargo ships, fishing vessels, tugs, container ships and frigates. The
algorithms implements are based upon hydrodynamic theory with coefficients
obtained from the regression analysis of the results of 334 ship model tests.
In their approach to establishing their formulas, Holtrop and Mennen
assumed that the non-dimensional coefficient represents the components of
resistance for a hull form. It might be represented by appropriate geometrical
parameters, thus enabling each component to be expressed as a non-dimensional
function of the sealing and the hull form. The range of parameters for which the
coefficients of the basic expressions are valid is shown as following:
Table 2.4: Limitation for Holtrop and Mennens method [2][3]
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Ship type Max
Froude
no.
Cp L/B B/T
Min Max Min Max Min Max
Tankers, bulk carries 0.24 0.73 0.85 5.1 7.1 2.4 3.2
Trawlers, coasters, tugs 0.38 0.55 0.65 3.9 6.3 2.1 3.0
Containerships, destroyer
types
0.45 0.55 0.67 6.0 9.5 3.0 4.0
Cargo liners 0.30 0.56 0.75 5.3 8.0 2.4 4.0
RORO ships, car ferries 0.35 0.55 0.67 5.3 8.0 3.2 4.0
The step by step procedures are shown below to calculate resistance in order
to predict the ship power.
Calculate:
1. Frictional Resistance,
( ) ( ) ( ) Ca k C SV R
F F
+ + 1 2 / 1
2

[2.6]
2. Wetted Surface,
( )
( )
( )
B B T
W P
M B
M
C A
C T B
C C
C B T L S / 3 8 . 2
3 6 9 6 . 0 / 0 0 3 4 6 7 . 0
2 8 6 2 . 0 4 4 2 5 . 0 4 5 3 0 . 0
2
5 . 0
+

,
_

+
+
+
[2.7]
3. Form Factor
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
6906 . 0
92497 . 0 22284 . 0
0225 . 0 1 52145 . 0
95 . 0 / / 93 . 0 1
LCB C
C L B L T k
P
P R
+
+ +
[2.8]
where,
( ) 06 . 0 1 +
P R
C L L
[2.9]
4. Correlation Factor,
13
( ) 00205 . 0 100 0006 . 0
16 . 0
+

L Ca
[2.10]
5. Frictional Resistance Coefficient,
( )
2
2
075 . 0

LogRn
C
F
[2.11]
6. Residuary resistance,
( ) ( )
2
2
9 . 0
1
cos

+

Fn m Fn m
R
Ce R

[2.12]
where,
( ) ( ) ( )
3 2
3 / 1
1
984388 . 6 8673 . 13
07981 . 8 / 79323 . 4 / 75254 . 1 / 0140407 . 0
P P
P
C C
C L B L T L m
+
+
[2.13]
( )
2
/ 1 . 0
2
2
69385 . 1
Fn
P
e C m

[2.14]
B L C
P
/ 03 . 0 446 . 1
[2.15]
7. Therefore, total resistances are,
R F T
R R R +
[2.16]
Generally, Holtrop and Mennens method is suitable for a small vessel and
this algorithm is designed for predicting the resistance of fishing vessels and tugs.
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However, with this method, there are still errors exist. Therefore, all the factors
below are considered to determine the degree of uncertain parameter:
i) Increasing in Froude number which will create a greater residuary
resistance (wave making resistance, eddy resistance, breaking waves and
shoulder wave) is a common phenomenon in small ships. As a result, errors
in total resistance increase.
ii) Small vessels are easily influenced by environmental condition such
as wind and current during operational.
iii) For smaller ship, the form size and ship type have a great difference.
This method is only limited to the Froude number below 0.5, (Fn < 0.5) and
also valid for T
F
/ L
WL
> 0.04. There is correlation allowance factor in model ship that
will affect some 15% difference in the total resistance and the effective power. This
method is also limited to hull form resembling the average ship described by the
main dimension and form coefficients used in the method.
2.4 Cedric Ridgely Nevitts Method [2]
This method is developed for a model test with trawler hull forms having
large volumes for their length. In this method it covers a range of prismatic
coefficients from 0.55 to 0.70 and displacement-length ratios from 200 to 500, their
residuary resistance contours and wetted surface coefficients have been plotted in
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order to make resistance estimates possible at speed-length ratios from 0.7 to 1.5.
The changing of beam-draft ratio also takes into account the effect on total
resistance.
Table 2.5: Limitations for Cedric Ridgely Nevitts method [2]
This method is applicable to fishing vessels, tugs, fireboats, icebreakers,
oceanographic ships, yachts and other short and beamy ships falling outside the
range of the Taylor Series or Series 60. Procedures of calculating ship resistances
using this method are as follows:
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Parameter Limitations
Breadth/Draft , B/T 2.0 - 3.5
Vulome/length, ( )
3
01 . 0 / L
200 500
Prismatic coefficient, C
P
0.55 - 0.70
Block coefficient, C
B
0.42 - 0.47
Speed/length, V/L 0.7 - 1.5
Longitudinal center of buoyancy, LCB 0.50% - 0.54% aft of FP
entrance angle ,
e
7.0 - 37.4
Calculate:
i) Parameter of V/L for every speed.
ii) Parameter of /(0.01L)
Residuary resistance coefficient C
R
then can be determined from the
graph / (0.01L) against prismatic C
P
at every V/L.
iii) Parameter of B/T ratio
The wetted surface coefficient, L S / value can be determined
from the graph of wetted surface coefficient against prismatic
coefficient Cp and calculated B/T ratio
iv) The wetted surface area from the wetted surface coefficient,
L S /
[2.17]
v) Reynolds Number,

UL
Rn
[2.18]
vi) Frictional resistance coefficient,
( )
2
2
075 . 0

LogRn
C
F
[2.19]
vii) Total resistance,
( ) ( )
2
2 / SV C C R
F R T
+
[2.20]
After all parameters are calculated, correction needs to be carried out with the
total resistance according to the B/T ratio. The correction can be determined from the
graph B/T correction factor against V/L.
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viii) Calculate the real total resistance coefficient,
T T
R R
'
x Correction factor [2.21]
In this method, the resistances are base on the limitation of the parameter.
2.5 DJ. Dousts Method [2]
DJ. Dousts Method is used for calculating resistance based on the resistance
tests of about 130 trawler models carried out at the National Laboratory in
Teddington, England. The results of the tests were transformed into a trawler
standard length, between perpendiculars, of 61m (200ft). (Fyson J. 1985) There are
six parameters used in the early stage of design. Those parameters are L/B, B/T, C
M
,
C
P
, LCB and
e.
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Parameter Limitations
Midship coefficient, C
M
0.81 0.91
Prismatic coefficient, C
P
0.6 0.7
Longitudinal center of buoyancy, LCB 0% - 6% aft of midship
entrance angle,
e
5 - 30
Tables 2.6: Limitations for DJ Dousts Method [2]
This method is relevant to be used in predicting the resistance for fishing
vessels. However, correction needs to be taken into consideration for the ships have
different length compared to the standard ship length (200ft). Procedures of
calculation for DJ Dousts Method are as follows:
i) Calculate the parameter required to determine factors used to calculate
residuary resistance for the ship having standard length, 200 ft. These
parameters are L/B, B/T and V/L.
ii) Determine three factors used to calculate residuary resistance using
graph given. These three factors are
( ) T B Cp f F / ,
1
, [2.22]
( ) LCB Cp f F ,
2

and [2.23]
( ) B L Cp f F / , 2 / 1 ,
'
3

[2.24]
iii) Calculate
6
F
using
( ). 875 . 0 100
6

m
C a F
The parameter a is a
function V/L and given by Table 6.7
iv) Calculate residuary resistance,

( ) 6
'
3 2 1 200
F F F F C
R
+ + +
[2.25]
v) Calculate,
3 / 2
1
/ 0935 . 0 S S [2.26]
vi) Calculate, L V L / 05 . 1 ' [2.27]
vii) Calculate Froudes skin friction correction,
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( )
8
3
' 6
2
' 4 '
175 . 0
'
10 / 22 . 1 10 / 77 . 2 10 / 29 . 0 0196 . 0 L L L SL SFC + +

[2.28]
viii) Calculate,
( )
( )
3 / 1
200 1
/ 5 . 152 SFC x [2.29]
ix) Calculate residuary resistance for new ship,
( ) ( ) 1 200
+
R new R
C C
[2.30]
x) Calculate total resistance,
( )
L
V C
R
new R
T
2

[2.31]
V/L A
0.8 -0.045
0.9 -0.053
1.0 -0.031
1.1 -0.035
Tables 2.7: Values parameter a [2]
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2.6 Schneekluths Method (Taylor Gertler and Harvald Guldhammer)
This method consists of residuary resistance and Frictional resistance in order
to obtain the total resistance of a ship.
R
T
= R
F
+ R
R
[2.32]
2.6.1 Residuary Resistance
The residuary resistance of a new design is not quite so easy to calculate as its
frictional resistance. The coefficient of residuary resistance (CR) of a merchant ship
having the optimum position of the LCB can be approximated using the following
formula developed by Schneekluth. The formula tends to smooth out the effect of the
humps and hollows of the resistance curves. It is based on the published residuary
resistance curves of Taylor Gertler and Harvald - Guldhammer.
10
3
C
R
= (10Fn - 0.8)
4
(10C
P
- 3.3)
2
(10
3
C
v
+ 4)0.0012 + (10
3
C
v
0.05) +
0.2 + (B/T - 2.5)0.17 [2.33]
where
C
R
is the coefficient of residuary resistance
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C
v
= Volume/L
3
[2.34]
and the other terms have their usual meanings.
The residuary resistance is then given by
R
R
= 0.5Sv
2
C
R
[2.35]
The limits of validity of the formula are:
0.17 < Fn < 0.30
2.0 < 10
3
C
v
< 11.0
0.50 < C
P
< 0.80
C
B
C
B
(Ayre) + 0.06 (C
B
(Ayre) = 1.08 - 1.68Fn )
5.0 < L/B < 10.0
2.0 < B/T < 4.5
The formula should not be used outside the specified limits.
2.6.2 Frictional Resistance
The International Towing Tank Conference (ITTC) is a body which co-
ordinates research into ship hydrodynamics. By studying a wide range of
experiments in which the resistance of ships, ship models, planks and other objects
was measured and by looking at the underlying scientific principles a consensus was
reached as to the most reliable way of predicting the variation of frictional resistance
of a smooth surface with Length and Speed.
This is normally referred to as the 1957 ITTC Line. The modern method for
calculating the frictional resistance of a ship is to use the 1957 ITTC Line with a
roughness allowance (typically taken as 0.0004) added to take account of the
distinctly unsmooth surface of a real ship: -
C
f
= 0.0004 + 0.075 / (log
10
Rn - 2 )
2
[2.36]
22
where
C
f
is the coefficient of frictional resistance
0.0004 is a roughness allowance
and Rn is Reynolds Number given by
Rn = vL / [2.37]
where
v is the ship's speed in m/s
is the kinematic viscosity which takes the following typical values: -
In Fresh Water at 15 deg C 1.13910
-6
m
2
/s
In Salt Water at 15 deg C 1.18810
-6
m
2
/s
The frictional resistance is then given by
R
F
= 0.5Sv
2
C
f`
[2.38]
where
is the density of water in kg/m
3
S is the wetted surface area in m
2
and may be given by
S = 1.7LT + LBC
B
(The Denny - Mumford formula) [2.39]
L is the ship's length in m
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CHAPTER THREE
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
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3.1 General
This chapter puts emphasis on the using of methodical series to calculate
manually by means of using computer tools such as Microsoft Excel and later on
making source codes using MATHCAD or MATLAB to predict the ship resistance
and compare the results with existing program such as Hullspeed.
3.2 Computer Programs
3.2.1 Hullspeed
Only one computer software is chosen to predict the ship resistance which is
Hullspeed from FormSys. The selected computer program is to determine the ships
resistance which is more accurate than calculating it manually using the selected
methods. The data that been produce by the programs will be used as guidelines and
limitations to help calculating the ships resistance by using methodical series.
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Hullspeed[6] provides a means of predicting the resistance of a ship hull.
Maxsurf designs may be read in and automatically measured to obtain the required
parameters, or the parameters may be typed by hand without the need for an existing
Maxsurf design file. If the overall efficiency of the propulsion installation is known,
or may be estimated, the power requirements of the design may be predicted.
Given the data required for the resistance prediction algorithms selected for
analysis, Hullspeed will calculate the hull resistance at a range of speeds and will
give results in graphical and tabular formats. These results may be copied to a
spreadsheet or word processor for further analysis and/or formatting.
Hullspeed supports resistance prediction calculations for a wide range of
monohulls and multihull. Many different approaches exist to predict the resistance of
a vessel. Hullspeed implements several different resistance prediction algorithms,
each applicable to various families of hull shapes. For example, some of the
algorithms are useful for estimating the resistance of planning hulls, while others are
useful for estimating the resistance of sailing boat hulls.
Besides resistance prediction calculations, Hullspeed can also be used to
calculate the wave pattern generated by the vessel for a given velocity. It should be
emphasised that resistance prediction is not an exact science and that the algorithms
implemented in this program, while they are useful for estimating the resistance of a
hull, may not provide exact results.
Hullspeed is essentially a resistance prediction program. A number of
regression-based methods and one analytical method can be used to predict the
resistance of the hull form.
It is normal naval architecture practice to break down the resistance into
components which scale according to different laws. Hullspeed can calculate the
resistance components in coefficient form. However, since different methods use
different formulations, not all the resistance components may be available.
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MathCAD is computer software primarily intended for the verification,
validation, documentation and re-use of engineering calculations. First introduced in
1986 on DOS, it was the first to introduce live editing typeset mathematical notation
combined with its automatic computation. It was also the first to automatically
compute and check consistency of engineering units such as the International System
of Units (SI). MathCAD today includes some of the capabilities of a computer
algebra system but remains oriented towards ease of use and numerical engineering
applications.
27
MathCAD was conceived and originally written by Allen Razdow (of MIT),
co-founder of Mathsoft which is now part of Parametric Technology Corporation.
MathCAD is oriented around a worksheet, in which equations and expression are
displayed graphically, as opposed to a plain text, an approach alter adopted by other
systems such as Mathematica.
Among the capabilities of MathCAD are:
Solving differential equations, with several possible numerical methods
Graphing functions in two or three dimensions
Symbolic calculations including solving systems of equations
Finding roots of polynomials and functions
Statistical functions and probability distributions
Calculations in which units are bound to quantities
Although this program is mostly oriented to non-programming users, it is also
used in more complex projects to visualize results of mathematical modelling using
distributed computing and traditional programming languages.
3.2.3 MATLAB
MATLAB (matrix laboratory) is a numerical computing environment and
fourth-generation programming language. Developed by Mathworks, MATLAB
allows matrix manipulations, plotting of functions and data, implementation of
algorithms, creation of user interfaces, and interfacing with programs written in other
languages, including C, C++ and FORTRAN.
28
Although MATLAB is intended primarily for numerical computing, an
domain simulation and Model-Based Design for dynamic and embedded systems.
In 2004, MATLAB had around one million users across industry and
academia. MATLAB users come from various backgrounds of engineering, science
and economics. Among these users are academic and research institutions such as
Georgia Tech, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, NASA, Canterbury University
and RWTH Aachen University as well as industrial enterprises such as ABB Group,
Boeing, Caterpillar Inc., Halliburton, Motorola, Philips, Toyota and UniCredit Bank.
In addition to the usage of MATLAB B being integrated into teaching of
Engineering and Linear Algebra courses, as part as their Continuing Studies
programs, many Community Colleges and Universities are creating stand-alone
MATLAB courses focused on just teaching the MATLAB user interface and script
writing. These courses are especially tailored for returning students going back for a
higher-level degree and for students who graduated many years ago before
MATLAB was integrated into the educational system.
3.3 Methodical Series
There are 3 main methods that will be used when calculating the ships
resistance which are Holtrop and Mennen method, Van Oortmersens method and
Schneekluths method. Using these methods and calculating the resistance using their
formulas in Microsoft Excel, the ships resistance prediction will be obtained. Even
29
though the answer have been obtained, each of the methods came with its own
limitations that need to be consider before the actual results can be compare with the
results that been obtained using Hullspeed.
3.4 Collect Experiment Data
There was a model test have been done in UTM which the result can be used
to compare to the results that obtained by computer programs and methodical series.
It also can be as guidelines so that the results still have the same value but maybe
have a little margin.
3.5 Research Flow Chart
The flow chart mention in the Appendix A.
30
3.6 Research Master Schedule
The Master schedule mention in Appendix B.
CHAPTER FOUR
31
DEVELOPMENT OF COMPUTER PROGRAMMING USING MATLAB
4.1 General
This chapter will explain the software that being used to program the
resistance calculation using the chosen methods. The guidelines that had been set up
using Microsoft Excel and result from Hullspeed will be compared with the program
that will be set.
4.2 MATLAB
MATLAB is a high-level technical computing language and interactive
environment for algorithm development, data visualization, data analysis, and
numeric computation. Using the MATLAB product, it can solve technical
32
computing problems faster than with traditional programming languages, such as C,
C++, and FORTRAN.
MATLAB can be used in a wide range of applications, including signal and
image processing, communications, control design, test and measurement, financial
modelling and analysis, and computational biology. Add-on toolboxes (collections of
special-purpose MATLAB functions, available separately) extend the MATLAB
environment to solve particular classes of problems in these application areas.
MATLAB provides a number of features for documenting and sharing users
work. You can integrate your MATLAB code with other languages and applications,
and distribute your MATLAB algorithms and applications.
Below are the key features:
High-level language for technical computing
Development environment for managing code, files, and data
Interactive tools for iterative exploration, design, and problem solving
Mathematical functions for linear algebra, statistics, Fourier analysis,
filtering, optimization, and numerical integration
2-D and 3-D graphics functions for visualizing data
Tools for building custom graphical user interfaces
Functions for integrating MATLAB based algorithms with external
applications and languages, such as C, C++, Fortran, Java, COM, and
Microsoft Excel
4.3 Source Coding Process Flow
33
Basically, the process of source coding of MATLAB is similar with other
source coding programs such as FORTRAN. Users just need to key in the main
particular or formula that will be used to make the program running as in this case is
to calculate the ship resistance.
First, user need to open the program and create a filename based on the
program that will be set in order for the programmer or other user to use the program.
This process is to distinguish the program that been created so that it will not be
mixed with other similar program but different method or etc.
Next, from the formula that been used before when calculating manually
using Microsoft Excel, programmer have to determine the main particular that will
be change when to calculate other vessels resistance. Then, the velocity of the ship
must be determined so it will automatically calculate the Froude number, for looping
process and for other variables in the formula used.
Further more write the formula that being used to calculate the resistance one
by one and determine what the formula is for so that it will not confused other user
what is that formula for. Make sure that the formula is written according to its
arrangement to prevent from miscalculation or mixed up.
Write until the last variables of the formula and then proceed with running the
program. See whether the program have problem or not. If there wasnt any problem
occur, than the prediction of the total resistance of the ship can be gain from the
program and compared with the formula manually calculated and with other familiar
program been used to calculate ship resistance.
If there were problem, the software will identify which line that is incorrect or
cannot be read by the software. So the problem will be identify by try and error or
search the manual what the causes of the problem and try to rewrite the line and re-
run the program again. If still have problem, identify and rewrite the incorrect line
until the program can produce the appropriate results.
34
Engineers, scientists and other technical professionals across the world use
MathCAD to perform, document and share calculation and design work. The unique
mathematical notation, text and graphs in a single worksheet, making MathCAD
ideal for knowledge capture, calculation reuse and collaboration.
MathCAD drives innovation and offers significant personal and process
productivity advantages for product development, engineering design projects and
hundreds of other applications where calculations are key. Unlike proprietary
your work while applying comprehensive mathematical functionality and dynamic,
unit-aware calculations. MathCAD lets you work with updatable, interactive
designs, allowing you to capture the critical methods and values behind each of your
projects.
Benefits:
Easy to learn and use - no special programming skills required
Increases productivity, saving time and reducing errors
Improves verification and validation of critical calculations
Promotes calculation best practices and reuse of calculation content
Complete documentation of calculations supports standards compliance
4.5 Source Coding Process Flow
35
Basically, the process of source coding of MathCAD is similar with other
source coding programs such as FORTRAN. Users just need to key in the main
particular or formula that will be used to make the program running as in this case is
to calculate the ship resistance.
First, user need to open the program and create a filename based on the
program that will be set in order for the programmer or other user to use the program.
This process is to distinguish the program that been created so that it will not be
mixed with other similar program but different method or etc.
Next, from the formula that been used before when calculating manually
using Microsoft Excel, programmer have to determine the main particular that will
be change when to calculate other vessels resistance. Then, the velocity of the ship
must be determined so it will automatically calculate the Froude number, for looping
process and for other variables in the formula used.
Further more write the formula that being used to calculate the resistance one
by one and determine what the formula is for so that it will not confused other user
what is that formula for. Make sure that the formula is written according to its
arrangement to prevent from miscalculation or mixed up.
Write until the last variables of the formula and then proceed with running the
program. See whether the program have problem or not. If there wasnt any problem
occur, than the prediction of the total resistance of the ship can be gain from the
program and compared with the formula manually calculated and with other familiar
program been used to calculate ship resistance.
If there were problem, the software will identify which line that is incorrect or cannot
be read by the software. So the problem will be identify by try and error or search the
manual what the causes of the problem and try to rewrite the line and re-run the
program again. If still have problem, identify and rewrite the incorrect line until the
program can produce the appropriate results.
36
CHAPTER FIVE
EXTRAPOLATION FROM UTM MODEL TEST
5.1 General
This chapter explain the method used to extrapolate the data taken from
model test done in UTM towing tank (Muslim, 2010) and convert the data to RT
s
and
compared it with the result gain from calculations.
37
5.2 Introduction
Extrapolation methods are methods that are being used to convert the results
or data obtained from model tests to full-scale condition. In model powering test, the
results obtained are meant for the specific size of the model and does not present the
actual powering requirement for the full-scale ship. Thus there is a need to
extrapolate the result obtained from model test to full-scale ship.
Model test is an experiment conducted on a small-scale ratio model. Model
testing is meant to estimate the hydrodynamic quantities such as resistance powering
or sea keeping requirement of full-scale ship through the technique of extrapolation
of the data obtained from model test.
5.3 Experiment Data
The data that been collected from UTM Marine Technology Laboratory have
to be extrapolated to get the correct result that needs to calculate and predict the
resistance of the trawler.
Rtm Ctm Vs (m/s)
Vs
(knots)
Fn Rnm
7.10E+00 0.0069505 4.6296 9 0.2779 2767824.561
1.05E+01 0.0083360 5.1440 10 0.3087 3074210.526
1.35E+01 0.0088552 5.6584 11 0.3396 3380596.491
1.81E+01 0.0099539 6.1728 12 0.3705 3689052.632
2.54E+01 0.0119154 6.6872 13 0.4013 3995438.596
3.80E+01 0.0153684 7.2016 14 0.4322 4303894.737
38
Crs Ca Caa Cts Rts(N)
0.0006145
3
0.0004
1
0.000
2
0.004649
6
8406.15496
0.0021281
7
0.0004
1
0.000
2
0.006111
9
13641.97308
0.0027599
6
0.0004
1
0.000
2
0.006698
3
18090.43903
0.0039594
0
0.0004
1
0.000
2
0.007857
1
25253.52860
0.0060108
8
0.0004
1
0.000
2
0.009871
8
37237.62409
0.0095459
2
0.0004
1
0.000
2
0.013373
3
58505.33735
Table 5.3. Extrapolation Data of Fishing Trawler
5.4 Model Test Analysis
From the result that been extrapolated from the model test that being done in
UTM towing tank and compared with the resistance result obtained from Hullspeed,
researcher can see that the total resistance of the model is almost similar pattern of
the graph which is the model test is the most accurate but it has to be done in many
39
Rns Cfm Cfs Fn^4 Fn4/Cfm Ctm/Cfm (1+k)
110098890.8 0.00380 0.00205 0.0059616 1.568507 1.82868 1.667
122332100.8 0.00372 0.00202 0.0090729 2.436333 2.23848 1.667
134565310.9 0.00366 0.00200 0.0132673 3.628481 2.42182 1.667
146798521 0.00360 0.00197 0.0188135 5.231827 2.76807 1.667
159031731.1 0.00354 0.00195 0.0258861 7.308310 3.36402 1.667
171264941.2 0.00349 0.00193 0.0348543 9.978857 4.40002 1.667
runs in order to get most accurate data from the test. But by using this single run test,
we can see that the resistance result is almost the similar to each other but the small
differences may be cause of the limitations of each formula and the machine flaws.
Figure 5.1 Comparison for Trawler Resistance
40
Figure 5.2 Comparison of Hullspeed and Model Test
41
CHAPTER SIX
RESULT COMPARISON AND ANALYSIS
6.1 General
In this chapter will explain the concept of three methods that use in this
project. As the objective of the project is to prove the empirical formulae include 3
methods (Holtrop and Mannen, Van Oortmesen, Schneekluths) are relevant and
validate the result with model test and programmed software by comparing the result.
However, due to parameter limitation we have to come out with 3 difference type of
vessel (fishing trawler, Frigate. Tanker), those have different length, beam, draft and
reliable result according to limitation.
42
6.2 Result Comparison

By creating source code programming software made easier the work using
MATLAB base on the empirical formula come up with result that be compared with
Hullspeed And Model Test.
6.2.1 Trawler Resistance Prediction

To predict the trawler resistance using vessel main input parameter are
enclosed to the MATLAB programming with 3 methods to achieve result. However
result from MATLAB are not the end result, it must be compared with Hullspeed
result and Modal Test. Below is the graph shown the result from empirical formula,
software and model test;

43
Figure 6.2.1: Resistance Prediction for 28.3m Trawler
The result are been plot to the graph above and shown the result from
empirical formula, software and model test. From the result attained that the values
and pattern of the graph almost identical only at the coefficient resistance (CT)
around 5.00E-03 to 1.50E-02. When regardless the limitation ratio, the value start not
coherent and reliable. Limitations of the 3 methods need to be considered, and not all
value is consistent can be used.
It is because the difference of usage of formula between MATLAB coding
and Hullspeed creates the large gaps with the range value. In this case the usage of
the formula which is possibly slightly difference from reciprocally. Bear in mind the
limitation should not be neglected.

44
6.2.2 Frigate Resistance Prediction
The result produce from 2 source coding MATLAB and MathCAD,
illustrated the similar result with programmed software Hullspeed to be compare. But
nevertheless the difference occurs effected in value and graph pattern.
Figure 6.2.2. Resistance Prediction for 80m Frigate
The deviation between the MATLAB source coding and Hullspeed result
almost the similar, but the Frigate data is a remade lines plan to ensure and validate
the empirical method with the program software. So the result between 2 data
Holtrop Mannen almost identical; however without model test for frigate cannot
assume the data as final result. It just imaginary linesplan as a guideline to ensure the
empirical formula and the software data are relevant. Normally, this method is
45
suitable to be used to calculate the resistance for small vessel within 40m to 120m
length range.
6.2.3 Resistance Prediction for Tanker
The method and formula to conduct prediction are the same as the proven
software used. But the data result slightly gave different on value went in goes bigger
froud number and from formulae that been used nowadays. For this type vessel
besides Holtrop and Mannen Formulae, Schneekluth( Taylor Gertler and Harvald
Guldhammer) a modified method also suitable to use.
Below shown the graph of tanker obtained from using Schneekluth formula
compared with Holtrop and Mennen from Hullspeed.
46
Figure 6.2.3. Resistance Prediction for 100m Tanker
47
6.3 Analysis of Selected Methods
There is 5 different method that been found only 3 methods are reliable which
is Van Oortmersen, (Holtrop and Mannen) and Schneekluth( Taylor Gertler and
Harvald Guldhammer). From the chosen methods, there are parameter on limitation
need to be consider before resistance prediction can start. It is because ensure the
parameter of the vessel are not out of the range or less than range that will affected
accuracy of values and results.
From the reseach noticed that for a small vessel such as fishing trawler are
suitable to calculate resistance with Holtrop and Mannen and Van Oortmesen
method. In this case for 28.3m fishing trawler are not reliable to use calculate the
resistance using Holtrop and Mannen method because the vessel parameter are less
the range within the limitation. To estimating resistance for the trawler, the Van
Oortmesen method is useful for predict the resistance.
Due to parameter limitations, reseacher need to expend the reseach on the
others 2 methods and not only focusing on one method that only can calculate for the
small vessel. By adding with 2 differrent type of vessel the research will expand. A
method has been determined to be useful to calculate small vessel resistance but to
calculate medium and large vessel, it is more appropriate to use Schneekluths and
Holtrop and Mennens method respectively
48
Below are the graphs being compared with all the methods being used to
calculate the resistance for frigate and tanker plus with model test result:-
Figure 6.3.3. Resistance Prediction for 80m Frigate
The differences of percentage and the accuracy of the method can be shown
through the bar graph as below.between 2 model data, the method schneekluth is the
most realiable to be used in this method.
however, when using on small vessel and not following the limitation test, they will
be some difficulties on facing with total resisnatce of the modal test, as when using
appropriate method and limitation, we will have a result that is accurate and precise.
49
Figure 6.3.4. Percentage Differences of Fishing Trawler
Figure 6.3.5. Percentage Differences of 100mTanker
50
CHAPTER 7
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
7.1 Conclusion
Only one method that can be used to calculate the fishing trawlers resistance
and that is Van Oortmersens method. The other two are not reliable enough due to
their formula limitations but it can be used to calculate the resistance of other type of
vessels such as frigate and tanker.
This program can be used widely for student to calculate and predict their
ships resistance and help them to calculate the powering requirement to propel their
vessel. Even though there is many reliable software or programs that exist nowadays
to calculate and predict the vessels resistance and powering, this program is also
51
reliable and can be used like other existing and well-known program such as
Hullspeed.
This program can calculate the resistance without having the user have to
draw or design the shape of the vessel. This program just need main particulars to
calculate the resistance and can give the result that almost similar to well-known
software.
Even the user is using the well-known program and can get the right values
and results, they still have to recalculate and get the new values that change because
the design process is in spiral and kept repeating/changes again and again until get
the final and satisfied results that meet the owner requirement.
7.2 Recommendation
For future recommendation, to be a naval architecture, they should learn and
know the basic empirical formula to calculate the resistance and other properties so
that they would understand what they are doing. This is because to train them not to
depend on the programming software that only needs clicking to get the results. This
will train them to be more alert and mature to handle and solve any problem occur in
the future.
52
References
1. SV. AA. Harvald, Resistance and Propulsion of Ships
2. Alizam, UTM.
3. Dr. Mohamad Pauzi Abd. Ghani, Ship Resistance, UTM.
4. Rawson and Tupper, Basic Ship Theory Vol.2
5. J. D. van Manen P. van Oossanen, Principle of Naval Architecture Vol.2
6. Hullspeed Manual.
8. Mr D.L. Smith. Marine design, Universities of Glassgow& Strathclyde
53
APPENDIX A-
APPENDIX A
Flow Chart
54
START
LITEREATURE
REVIEW
SELF-
PROGRAMMING
SOFTWARE
COLLECT
EXPERIMENT
DATA
ANALYSIS
COMPARISON STUDY
VAN
OORTME
RSEN
HOLTROP
AND
MENNEN
SCHNEEK
LUTH
2007
HULLSPEED

UTM MODEL
TEST DATA
Resistance
prediction for
single screw ships
ITTC 1978
REPORT
METHODOLOGY
LIMITATION AND
GUIDELINES
APPENDIX B
Master Schedule
55
56
APPENDIX C
57
3D and 2D Modelling
In this appendix to shown the model of the vessel in 2D and 3D view for references.
58
59
60
61
62
APPENDIX D
Programming of Rapid Prediction Resistance Flow Chart
In this appendix, the flow chart of the Rapid Prediction Resistance writen in
MATLAB R2010a. There is 3 method to be program in this programming.
HOLTROP AND MANNEN PROGRAMMING FLOW CHART
OPEN
CREATE FILE
NAME
Velocity =1:1:25
CODE THE
MAIN SHIP
PARTICULAR
PROPERTIES OF
WATER
CRITERIA/
LIMITATION OF
COEFFICIENT
CG
C15
LAMDA
C4
C12
C16
FORM
FACTOR
RTOTAL=(RF*kf
ac)+RW+RtR+R
B+RA
RESULT
END
LOOPING
FOR
VARIOUS
SPEED
63
SCHNEEKLUTH PROGRAMMING FLOW CHART
OPEN
CREATE
FILENAME
Cr = ((((( 10*Fn)-0.8)^4)*(((10*Cp)-
3.3)^2)*(((10^3)*Cvol)+4)*0.0012)+...
(((10^3)*Cvol)*0.05)+0.2+(((B/
T)-2.5)*0.17))/1000;
Rr=0.5*rho*S*(V
^2)*Cr;
mu=1.188E-06;
Rn=((V*L)/
mu);
Cf =
0.0004+(0.0075/
((log10(Rn))-
2)^2);
Rf=0.5*rho*S*(V
^2)*Cf;
CODE THE
MAIN SHIP
PARTICULAR
VOLUME=L*B*T*CB
FROUDE
NUMBER(Fn)
Cvol = Volume /
(L^3);% must be
between 0.002 and
0.011
Velocity =1:1:25
RESULT
ANALYSIS AND
RECOMMENDATION
Rt=Rf+Rr
LOOPING FOR
VARIABLE
SPEED
end
for
`
64
VAN OORTMESSEN PROGRAMMING FLOW CHART
OPEN
CREATE
FILENAME
CODING
SHIP MAIN
PARTICULA
R
Velocity
=1:1:25
ANGLE OF
ENTERANC
E
FROUDE
NUMBER
(Fn)
mu =
%kinematic
viscosity of sea
water in m^2/s
Rn=((Velocity*L)
/mu);
CWL=ie*(3.142/180)*(L/
B);
CWL=ie*(3.1
42/180)*(L/
B);
C1
C2
C3
C4
RRper_displacement=((C1*exp((-
m*(Fn^2))/9))+(C2*exp(-m*(Fn^-
2)))+...
(C3*exp(-
m*(Fn^2)))*(sin((Fn^-2)*(3.142/
180)))+...
(C4*exp(-
m*(Fn^2)))*(cos((Fn^-2)*(3.142/
180))));
m=0.14347*(Cp
^-2.1976);
RFper_displacement=(0.075*rho*S*
(Velocity^2))/(2*(((log10(Rn))-
2)^2)*displacement);
RTper_displace
ment=RRper_di
splacement+RF
per_displaceme
nt;
RT =
RTper_displace
ment
RESULT
ANALYSIS AND
RECOMMENDATION
end
LOOPING FOR
VARIABLE
SPEED
For
65
APPENDIX E
SOURCE CODING AND INPUT DATA
In this appendix. The show the conducting the input data for the program
Rapid Prediction Resistance writen in MATLAB R2010a ,that being develop in this
project.
VAN OORTMESSEN INPUT
66
SCHEEKLUTH INPUT
67
HOLTROP AND MANNEN INPUT
68
69
70
71
72
73