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Structural Analysis of Automotive Carrier

Prepared for: OCC Systems, Inc. Prepared by: Pinnacle Engineering, Inc. April 14, 2003

37400 Garfield Rd., Ste. 30, Clinton Twp. MI 48036 • Phone (586) 226-3300 / Fax (586) 226-3998 - e-mail pinnacle@pinenginc.com

Structural Analysis of Automotive Carrier
Prepared For: OCC Systems, Inc.

Prepared By: Pinnacle Engineering, Inc.

April 14, 2003

Introduction:
An analysis of an automotive carrier used for final assembly was conducted to understand the stress and deflection that is present under product loading. Five load cases were considered to understand the structural integrity of the carrier. They are identified as follows: 1. Stress and deflection due to product load and carrier weight with the product being supported on the front and middle supports. 2. Stress and deflection due to product load and carrier weight with the product being supported on the front and rear supports. 3. Stress and deflection due to product load only with the product being supported on the front and middle supports. 4. Stress and deflection due to product load only with the product being supported on the front and rear supports. 5. Stress and deflection of the empty carrier. Fatigue life calculations were also conducted in order to compute the life expectancy based on 10 jobs per hour system throughput. Conclusions and recommendations are contained on page 8 at the end of this report.

42850 Garfield Rd., Ste. 105, Clinton Twp. MI 48038 • Phone (586) 226-3300 / Fax (586) 226-3998 - e-mail pinnacle@pinenginc.com

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
CONTENTS:
Introduction Table of Contents Finite Element Model of the Carrier Static Finite Element Results Fatigue Life Calculations Conclusions & Recommendations References 9 10

PAGE:
1 2 3-5 6 7-8

APPENDICES:
APPENDIX A - Finite Element Plots – Load Case #1 APPENDIX B - Finite Element Plots – Load Case #2 APPENDIX C - Finite Element Plots – Load Case #3 APPENDIX D - Finite Element Plots – Load Case #4 APPENDIX E - Finite Element Plots – Load Case #5 APPENDIX F – Force Calculations for Loading APPENDIX G –Fatigue Life Calculations A1-A4 B1-B4 C1-C4 D1-D4 E1-E4 F1 G1-G2

42850 Garfield Rd., Ste. 105, Clinton Twp. MI 48038 • Phone (586) 226-3300 / Fax (586) 226-3998 - e-mail pinnacle@pinenginc.com

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Isometric view of the carrier finite element model. MI 48038 • Phone (586) 226-3300 / Fax (586) 226-3998 . Specific Gravity 0. Table 1 shows the material data used in the finite element analysis. Material A-36 Steel Material data used for the finite element analysis. Ste. The finite element model (FEM) of the carrier was constrained by holding the upper frame at the front and in the two rear corners.Finite Element Model of the Carrier: A finite element model of the carrier assembly was created using 2-D & 3-D Auto Cad files of the carrier design.000728 lbm/in3 Poisson’s ratio 0.29 Young’s modulus 30x106 psi A picture of the solid model can be seen in Figure 1. Clinton Twp.000 solid and plate elements were used to create the model. 105.com -3- .283 lb/in3 Mass Density 0..e-mail pinnacle@pinenginc. Approximately 30. TABLE 1. Figure 1. 42850 Garfield Rd.

com -4- . Supporting calculations can be found in Appendix F.886 lbs Figure 2.913 lbs R1 R2 R3 Load Case 1 Load Case 2 R1=2. Clinton Twp. Therefore. MI 48038 • Phone (586) 226-3300 / Fax (586) 226-3998 . Location and values of the support loads applied to the carrier model. (It is difficult to predict what percent of the product is carried between the middle and rear support due to manufacturing tolerances).Loading of the carrier was determined by considering two cases.027 lbs R2=2652 lbs R3=1.261 lbs R1=3. 105. 4. or the front and rear supports.. Figure 2 shows a side view of the carrier and product and the support locations.e-mail pinnacle@pinenginc. Since the front and center support points are on a slide. both cases were considered to create an upper and lower bound. there is clearance and the possibility that the product weight is mostly carried by the front and middle supports. Ste. 42850 Garfield Rd.

5 lbs 943 lbs Figure 4. Loading of the carrier for Load Case 1.513. Loading of the carrier for Load Case 2.e-mail pinnacle@pinenginc. Product load supported at front and middle support. 1. Product load supported at front and rear support.Figures 3 and 4 show the loading on the finite element model. 1. -5- 42850 Garfield Rd. 105. Ste.com .. Clinton Twp.326 lbs Figure 3. MI 48038 • Phone (586) 226-3300 / Fax (586) 226-3998 .5 lbs 1.130.

490 D1-D4 5 Empty Carrier under it's own weight . Product load and Carrier Weight with the product being support on the front and rear supports.e-mail pinnacle@pinenginc. downward deflection. Clinton Twp. 42850 Garfield Rd. Appendix F shows the load calculations used to determine the applied forces shown in Figures 3 & 4.com -6- .6949" 0. TABLE 2.562 E1-E4 *= this data can be experimentally validated by using an indicator or other measuring device by “zeroing” the measuring device with an empty carrier and then loading the product.* 0. LOAD CASE Static stress and deflection of the Carrier Resultant Deflection (inches) Downward Deflection (inches) Von-Mises Stress (psi) Appendix LOAD CASE DESCRIPTION 1 Product load and Carrier Weight with the product being support on the front and middle supports.* Force of product load only with the product being support on the front and rear supports.No Product Load 0. MI 48038 • Phone (586) 226-3300 / Fax (586) 226-3998 .1573" 0.8020" 0. The finite element contour plots for the static results can be found in Appendices A-E. 105.6240" 11.000 C1-C4 4 0.6253" 12.040 A1-A4 2 0..1083" 7. Force of product load only with the product being support on the front and middle supports.Static Finite Element Results: After the finite element model was solved.8023" 0.430 B1-B4 3 0.7210" 13.6836" 0. The finite element results of deflection and stress are summarized in Table 2. Ste. and Von-Mises stress were recorded. the maximum deflection.7260" 14.

TABLE 3 ..Computed Endurance Limit for this application. The 1020 steel considered in this analysis falls in this range.000 psi Endurance Limit 17. if the cyclical stress is below the endurance limit. the factor a is 14.R.75 Using these factors.504*Su for steels with an ultimate strength less than 200. Clinton Twp. Ste.000 psi. 105. The modified endurance limits are shown in Table 3.106 psi 1020 H. For most steel materials.4 and the exponent b is -0.com -7- . ka=Surface Finish Factor=a*Sutb.Fatigue Life Calculations: To determine the maximum allowable load that can be repeatedly applied. MI 48038 • Phone (586) 226-3300 / Fax (586) 226-3998 . failure will not occur. The endurance limit of both components can be estimated by the following equation: S e = k a kb k c k d k e S e ' where Se = endurance limit Se' = endurance limit of test specimen ka = surface factor kb = size factor kc = load factor kd = temperature factor ke = miscellaneous-effects factor Se'=0. This is used as a safe design criteria. 42850 Garfield Rd.718 kb=Size Factor =1 kc=Load Factor=1 for bending stresses kd=Temperature Factor = 1 for ambient temperature ke= Miscellaneous effects/Stress Concentration Factor=0. the endurance limit is computed. the fatigue strengths were computed in Appendix G.S. Young’s modulus 30x106 psi Ultimate Strength 58.e-mail pinnacle@pinenginc. For hot rolled surfaces.

To compute the life. The primary explanation for this is twofold: 1) The material has an ultimate strength of 58 ksi and the carrier only bears a stress of 14.. Clinton Twp. Ste.com -8- .e-mail pinnacle@pinenginc.The life of the carrier was estimated using the stress result from the finite element study. assuming 10 jobs per hour with 25 carriers in the system is theoretically over 1. the following equation was used: σ b N = a   a  where: a= 1 (0. 105. MI 48038 • Phone (586) 226-3300 / Fax (586) 226-3998 . 42850 Garfield Rd.9S ut )2 Se and b = − 1  .000 years.9 S ut log  S 3  e     The estimated life of this carrier.000 psi and 2) The annual number of cycles this carrier sees is very small when compared to other assembly components.

2 cars per shift. Make sure quality control procedures are in place to insure that carriers are properly fabricated. Ste.08023” for all load cases.e-mail pinnacle@pinenginc. Make sure the system is properly controlled to minimize shock while loading the car onto the carrier. The carrier was analyzed under normal operating loads and found to have resultant deflections not exceeding 0. 105. Recommendations 1. this carrier will not experience fatigue failure if properly fabricated. MI 48038 • Phone (586) 226-3300 / Fax (586) 226-3998 . 2. The carrier stresses were computed and under normal operating loads. the stress should not exceed 14. The downward deflections will not exceed 0. 42850 Garfield Rd. 3.com -9- . The fatigue life was computed and based on each carrier producing 3. 2.Conclusions: 1. Clinton Twp.040 psi.0726”..

A. Stiles. H. Mechanics of Materials. Inc.References: Shigley.com . makes no warranty and assumes no liability for the accuracy or validity of any results contained in this report.. McGraw-Hill Book Company. W. or due to any defect or deficiency therein..e-mail pinnacle@pinenginc. loss of business. Inc. E. J. B. and Mischke. C. PEI shall not be liable for loss of profit.. W. 105. J. conclusions.. Ohlsen. E. data. and recommendations when used for any purpose or use. Weese. MI 48038 Tel (586) 226-3300 42850 Garfield Rd. or other financial loss that may be caused directly or indirectly by the calculations. Any questions relating to the use or interpretation of this report and its application should be directed to: Pinnacle Engineering. 42850 Garfield Suite 105 Clinton Twp.. 1985 DISCLAIMER Pinnacle Engineering. MI 48038 • Phone (586) 226-3300 / Fax (586) 226-3998 . 1989 Higdon. A. F. Clinton Twp.. Ste..10 - . R.. Mechanical Engineering Design. and Riley. John Wiley and Sons.

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Clinton Twp.e-mail pinnacle@pinenginc. Ste. 300.com F-1 . MI 48036 • Phone (586) 226-3300 / Fax (586) 226-3998 .37400 Garfield Rd..

105.e-mail pinnacle@pinenginc. MI 48038 • Phone (586) 226-3300 / Fax (586) 226-3998 .42850 Garfield Rd.com G-1 . Ste. Clinton Twp..

com G-2 . 105. MI 48038 • Phone (586) 226-3300 / Fax (586) 226-3998 . Ste.e-mail pinnacle@pinenginc.42850 Garfield Rd.. Clinton Twp.