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Development Science I:

AGROFORSTRY LANDSCAPE ANALYSIS


Prof. Dr. HADI SUSILO ARIFIN

QUIZ
What is Agroforesrty Landscape Analysis (AFLA)?

Graduate School of International Development and Cooperation Hiroshima University Japan Spring 2012
Material Source: AFLA Modul (Arifin HS, Wulandari C, Pramukanto and Kaswanto RL, 2008); Arifin HS, Wulandari C, Pramukanto and Kaswanto RL, 2010. Analisis Lanskap Agroforestri. IPB Press. Bogor. 199p

DEVELOPMENT SCIENCE I SCHEDULE SPRING SEMESTER 2012 Visiting Professor: Prof. Dr. Hadi Susilo Arifin Day & Time: Friday, 08:45 10:15
NO 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 DATE April 13, 2012 April 20, 2012 May 11, 2012 May 18, 2012 May 25, 2012 June 01, 2012 June 08, 2012 June 15, 2012 TOPIC SUBJECT Introduction of Agroforestry Landscape Analysis Characteristics of Agroforestry Landscape Driver of Change in Agroforestry Landscape Approach and Method for Agroforestry Landscape Analysis Traditional Agroforestry Practices for Carbon Stock: Pekarangan Case Study Agroforestry Development for Enhancing Creative Economy: Local Wisdom and Eco-village Case Study Agroforestry for Urban Biodiversity Conservation: Case Study in Tropical Countries Evaluation: a take home exam would be given to student through www.hsarifin.staff.ipb.ac.id

REMARKS
Powerpoint materials can be accessed by Academic Download page of Blog: www.hsarifin.staff.ipb.ac.id Weekly tasks would be uploaded through the Blog www.hsarifin.staff.ipb.ac.id and each student writes the answer through comment box directly. Materials of the 9th till the 16th might be delivered by Professor from China. Contact Address: Prof. Dr. Hadi Susilo Arifin Room 719 7th F IDEC Building Hiroshima University Extension: 6911; Mobile: 080-4735-4859 dedhsa@yahoo.com; www.hsarifin.staff.ipb.ac.id

The 1st Lecture

Institutional capacity for relevant education Curriculum/ syllabus Teachers, Facilitators of learning Formal knowledge Experience

INTRODUCTION

fulfilling jobs

Science Knowledge

Practice Action

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Nickel Mining (Source: Y. Setiyadi, 2003)

Coal Mining (Source: Y. Setiyadi, 2003)

AFLA - INTRODUCTION
A great problem of poverty and several disasters. Land use planning towards segregated or integrated management of landscape. Some landscapes of Indonesia should be evaluated.

Deforestation ugly landscapes

Agroforestry Landscape Analysis

Source: HS Arifin (2003)

Could be a model to be used for maintenance the balanced ecosystem.

Seminar Nasional Agroforesrti dengan tema Agroforestry as the Future Sustainable Land Use

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Profile of Agroforestry Landscape in Cianjur-Cisokan Watershed, West Java, Indonesia (Arifin, 2002)

TERMINOLOGY
Landscape Agroforestry Landscape Agroforestry Agroforestry Landscape Watershed Integrated vs Segregated Related Sciences Scale and boundaries system

LANDSCAPE AGROFORESTRY
Deals with basis concepts and principles that are central to understanding landscape agroforestry. Concepts central to defining and understanding of system and landscape. Relationships with concepts developed in related fields of study: farming system, agroforestry system, agroecosystem, watershed management, landscape architecture, landscape in related ecology The roles of scale and system boundaries.

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Scale: Microbe root tree patch plot farm landscape governance

Landscape Agroforestry Analysis

Landscape Definition
What is a landscape?
the total character of a region (Alexander von Humboldt) landscape dealt with in their totality as physical, ecological and geographical entities, integrating all natural and human (caused) pattern and processes (Naveh, 1987) landscape as a heterogeneous land area composed of a cluster of interacting ecosystem that is repeated in similar form throughout (Forman & Gordon, 1986) landscape objects: natural-artificial; home gardens scale - rural, sub-urban, urban, regional scale

Interactions: tree site & climate, tree tree, tree soil crop, tree market, treewaterflows/ C-stocks/ Biodiversity, tree forest classification & access rules
Replicable patterns: knowledge/action links

a particular configuration of topography, vegetation cover, land use and settlement pattern which delimits some coherence of natural and cultural processes and activities (Green, et.al., 1996) a piece of land which we perceive comprehensive around us, without looking closely at single components, and which look familiar to us (Haber, 1996). Websters (1963); The Oxford English Dictionary (1933): a picture representing a view of natural inland scenery (as of prairie, woodland, mountains, etc.). the landform of a region in the aggregate. a portion of land or expanse of natural scenery as seen by the eye in a single view.

DEFINITION OF ECOLOGY
ECOLOGY having been first proposed by the German biologist Ernst Haeckel in 1869. Oikos (Greek) house or place to live. The study of the relation of organisms or groups of organisms to their environment, or the science of the interrelations between living organisms and their environment. Websters Unabridged Dictionary: the totality or pattern of relations between organisms and their environment.

THE SCIENCE OF ECOLOGY


A useful back ground to landscape ecology Ecology: the scientific study of the relationships between organisms and their environment Natural ecosystem Basic ecological balancing process

Carl Troll (in the end of 1930s, The German Biogeographer) introduced the term of Landscape Ecology a new science which could developed to combine spatial, horizontal approach from geographer, vertical approach from ecologist. Landscape Ecology a science which has relationship with human.

Courtesy slide from Ong BL

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Four Basic Concepts in LE

AGROFORESTRY
Landscape Ecology Function A combination of agriculture and forestry sciences in rural development in order to create the balancing of agriculture intensification and forest sustainability. Any intensive land management system that optimizes the environmental, social, and economic benefits arising from the biological interactions created when trees and/or shrubs are deliberately grown over space and/or time which crops and/or livestock. The system and land use technology where perennial trees (included bush, palm, bamboo, wood, etc.) and annual cash crops are cultivated in the same land with spatial and temporal arrangement.

Structure

Change

C U L T U R E
Courtesy from Nakagoshi N

Five different agroforestry practices: * forest farming, * alley cropping, * shelter-belts, * riparian buffer, and * agrosilvopastural/agrosilvofishery. Agroforestry is discussed through: * ecology, * agronomy, * forestry, * botany, * geography, * landscape, and * economy.

SIMPLE AGROFORESTRY SYSTEM


Modern: Promoted from outside Simple: Association of a small number of component: Less than 5 tree species A species of annual crop or semi-perennials crop Trees with economic role: coconut, rubber, clove, teak. Trees with ecological role: Erythrina and G. leocephalla Cash-crops: rice, corn, vegetables, herbs, grasses Other economic plants: banana, coffee, cacao, etc.

Tumpangsari (Multiple cropping) in simple agrroforestry taungya Indonesia version. It was developed by PT Perhutani for social forest. Simple Agroforestry in commercial sector: coffee and erythrina as shadding tree; coconut and cacao; rubber and rattan; Ceiba petandra in the edge of rice field; citrus and clove.

COMPLEX AGROFORESTRY SYSTEM


Traditional: Farmer developed Complex: Association of many species (tree, treelet, shrub, bush, liana, herb, and grass); Functions and structure close to natural forest ecosystem Physically, performance and the dynamic is similar with primary forest or secondary forest. The benefit of this system is good soil and water resources protection and biodiversity conservation.

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Models of Agroforestry

Modern: Traditional: Promoted from outside Farmer developed


Complex: Simple: Association of a small - Association of many number of component: species (tree, treelet, liana and herb) Less than 5 tree - Functions and species A species of annual structure close to crop or seminatural forest perennials crop ecosystem

A natural forest ?

STEPS OF AGROFORESTRY COMPLEX ESTABLISHMENT


Slush and burn shifting cultivation dry land for cash crops (rainfed paddy 2-3 harvests, or palawija). Multiple-cropping cash crops and trees (wood, fruits, leaves production)

AGROECOLOGY
AGROECOLOGY: the relation and interaction between crop and/or livestock in one side, with land or environment on the other sides. LAND = ENVIRONMENT, all bio-physic factors and their condition which influence plant and animal growth on certain land in the certain period; therefore its included biotic factor (flora and fauna) and a-biotic (precipitation, sunlight, rock, topography, soil, ground water, etc.)

AGROECOSYSTEM
AGROECOSYSTEM, a land utilization unit wich is included plant, livestock and land its self, convert sunlight energy, water, nutrition, labor and agriculture input to become economic products for human being (foods, feeds, fuel, and shelter) Crop agroecosystem (Cropping systems) Livestock agroecosystem (Livestock systems)

HARVEST Interactions Flows CROP INPUT LIVESTOCK Cities Landscape SOIL Streams Groundwater Management System
GENERAL STRUCTURE OF AGROECOSYSTEM & THE RELATIONSHIPS WITH EXTERNAL SYSTEM

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AGROECOSYSTEM SCALE
* Crop Field: a piece of land for plantation 1 or more of plant/crop. * Agricultural Regions: large area in one agroecosystem, its depend on plants and animal association, utilization technology, labor intensity, capital and market orientation. * Agro-ecosystems: complex and comprehensive elements of agriculture system.

Market Credit Extension Transport Processing

Farming System

Nonagricultural Systems

FARMING SYSTEM

Farm Household System

Crop Agroecosystem (s)

Livestock Agroecosystem (s)


Livestock Agroecosystem

Crop AgroecoSystem Environment System (Climate, Landform, Soil, Flora, Fauna Crop System (Crop Types, Cropping Pattern/ Rotation)

Environment System (Climate, Landform, Soil, Flora, fauna)

Animal System

AGRICULTURE HIERARCHY IN THE SYSTEM

SYSTEM PROPERTIES
Productivity Stability Sustainability (conserve soil, water and food security) Equity (labour division between genders)

SYSTEM BOUNDARY
Administrative boundary: village and commune Watershed / catchment and sub-catchments Production system: fallow-crop rotation, mono-cropping, forest plantation Landscape units: up-slope, middle-slope and down-slope, flat and sloping land

PaLA survey research process and scales

SYSTEM HIERARCHY
Catchment

Spatial scale

Watershed/catchment Village Community Farm Field Crop

Village

What, When, Why, How, by Whom


Past (years)

Landscape

(village sketch, transects)


Future (Years)

Plots

Time scale (Time lines)

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PATTERN ANALYSIS
Space: soil properties, crop and tree distribution Time: seasonality, time line (land use change over years) Flow: Soil movement and deposition, water runoff and underground water, extension information, knowledge sharing Decision: decision making

AGROFORESTRY LANDSCAPE
LANDSCAPE ~ ECOSYSTEM~ ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES Carbon sequestration Biodiversity conservation Water resources management Landscape beautification

We use science to understand the complex role of trees in livelihoods and the environment, and promote use of this knowledge to improve decisions and practices impacting on the poor

a. Access to technology; extension; education

Knowledge as public good: access & creation

c. Overall development pathway

b. Land reform
Land classification & tenure rules Land rent

Local know-how Land use options: Labour & components wage rate complementarity portfolio effects Input & output prices Urban & external job opportunities

Energy dependence

e. Roads,
Regional infrastructure

National & global markets

d. Taxes, Price policy

Institutions for linking knowledge to agroforestry action

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Livelihood impacts of agroforesty

Negotiation support, conflicts & incentives

1 5
Tradeoffs & avoided degradation Transforming lives & landscapes

Markets: opportunities & driver of change Transforming lives & landscapes Tree management in agroforesty

4 6

Tree-based ecological rehabilitation

3 2
Tree germplasm & domestication

Climate change adaptation in/through AF

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Open field agriculture


deforestation natural forest integrated, multifunctional landscape: crops, trees, meadows and forest patches

Tree plantations

intensive agriculture

loss of forest functions

Farm forestry, agroforests

Less trees More Less Fields,fallow, patchy: patchy: Tree cover: forest mosaic SegreInte- Deforestation, Reforestation gate grateIntegrate Segregate More trees

Fields, Forests & Parks

Segregate

Integrate functions
100% forest

Current legal, institutional Current reality & educational paradigm

See You Next Week


Hadi Susilo Arifin
Mobile: +81-80-4735-4859 E-mail/YM/FB/Skype: dedhsa@yahoo.com Blog www.hsarifin.staff.ipb.ac.id