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Turbulence

Training Manual

Chapter 9 Turbulence

Introduction to CFX

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Turbulence

What is Turbulence?

Training Manual

Unsteady, irregular (non-periodic) motion in which transported quantities (mass, momentum, scalar species) fluctuate in time and space
Identifiable swirling patterns characterize turbulent eddies Enhanced mixing (matter, momentum, energy, etc.) results

Fluid properties and velocity exhibit random variations


Statistical averaging results in accountable, turbulence related transport mechanisms This characteristic allows for turbulence modeling

Contains a wide range of turbulent eddy sizes (scales spectrum)


The size/velocity of large eddies is on the order of the mean flow
Large eddies derive energy from the mean flow

Energy is transferred from larger eddies to smaller eddies


In the smallest eddies, turbulent energy is converted to internal energy by viscous dissipation
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Turbulence

Is the Flow Turbulent?


Flows can be characterized by the Reynolds Number, Re External Flows
where Re L =

Training Manual

Re x 500,000 along a surface


Re d 20,000 around an obstacle
Internal Flows

U L L = x, d , d h , etc.

Re d h 2,300

Other factors such as free-stream turbulence, surface conditions, and disturbances may cause transition to turbulence at lower Reynolds numbers

Natural Convection 2 3 Ra g L3 T C p g L T 109 = where Ra = is the Rayleigh number Pr k Cp Pr = = is the Prandtl number k
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Turbulence

Observation by O. Reynolds

Training Manual

Laminar
(Low Reynolds Number)

Transition
(Increasing Reynolds Number)

Turbulent
(Higher Reynolds Number)
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Turbulence

Turbulent Flow Structures

Training Manual

Small structures

Large structures

Energy Cascade Richardson (1922)


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Turbulence

Governing Equations Conservation Equations Continuity Momentum Energy


+ ( ui ) = 0 t xi

Training Manual

P ij ( ui ) + ( ui u j ) = + t x j xi x j

T P ( htot ) + ( htot u j ) = (ui ij + ) + t x j t x j x j


ui u j 2 ui ij = + + ij x j xi 3 x j

where

1 htot = h + ui2 2

Note that there is no turbulence equation in the governing Navier-Stokes equations!


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Turbulence

Overview of Computational Approaches


Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS)

Training Manual

Theoretically, all turbulent (and laminar / transition) flows can be simulated by numerically solving the full Navier-Stokes equations Resolves the whole spectrum of scales. No modeling is required But the cost is too prohibitive! Not practical for industrial flows

Large Eddy Simulation (LES) type models


Solves the spatially averaged N-S equations Large eddies are directly resolved, but eddies smaller than the mesh are modeled Less expensive than DNS, but the amount of computational resources and efforts are still too large for most practical applications

Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) models


Solve time-averaged Navier-Stokes equations All turbulent length scales are modeled in RANS
Various different models are available

This is the most widely used approach for calculating industrial flows

There is not yet a single, practical turbulence model that can reliably predict all turbulent flows with sufficient accuracy
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Turbulence

RANS Modeling Time Averaging

Training Manual

Ensemble (time) averaging may be used to extract the mean flow properties from the instantaneous ones
The instantaneous velocity, ui, is split into average and fluctuating components

1 ui (x, t ) = lim N N

n =1

ui

(n )

(x, t )
ui (x, t )

ui(x, t )
ui (x, t )

ui (x, t ) = ui (x, t ) + ui(x, t )


Instantaneous Time-average Fluctuating component component component

Example: Fully-Developed Turbulent Pipe Flow Velocity Profile

The Reynolds-averaged momentum equations are as follows

u u p i + uk i = + t xk xi x j

ui x j

Rij + x j

Rij = uiu j
(Reynolds stress tensor)

The Reynolds stresses are additional unknowns introduced by the averaging procedure, hence they must be modeled (related to the averaged flow quantities) in order to close the system of governing equations
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Turbulence

RANS Modeling The Closure Problem

Training Manual

Closure problem: Relate the unknown Reynolds Stresses to the known mean flow variables through new equations
The new equations are the turbulence model

Equations can be:


Algebraic Transport equations

All turbulence models contain empiricism


Equations cannot be derived from fundamental principles Some calibrating to observed solutions and intelligent guessing is contained in the models
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Turbulence

RANS Modeling The Closure Problem


The RANS models can be closed in one of the following ways (1) Eddy Viscosity Models (via the Boussinesq hypothesis)

Training Manual

ui u j 2 uk 2 T uj = T Rij = ui k ij + x x 3 x ij 3 i k j
Boussinesq hypothesis Reynolds stresses are modeled using an eddy (or turbulent) viscosity, T. The hypothesis is reasonable for simple turbulent shear flows: boundary layers, round jets, mixing layers, channel flows, etc.

(2) Reynolds-Stress Models (via transport equations for Reynolds stresses)


Modeling is still required for many terms in the transport equations RSM is more advantageous in complex 3D turbulent flows with large streamline curvature and swirl, but the model is more complex, computationally intensive, more difficult to converge than eddy viscosity models

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Turbulence

Available Turbulence Models

Training Manual

A large number of turbulence models are available in CFX, some have very specific applications while others can be applied to a wider class of flows with a reasonable degree of confidence
RANS Eddy-viscosity Models:
1) Zero Equation model. 2) Standard k- model. 3) RNG k- model. 4) Standard k- model. 5) Baseline (BSL) zonal k- based model. 6) SST zonal k- based model. 7) (k-)1E model.

RANS Reynolds-Stress Models:


1) LRR Reynolds Stress 2) QI Reynolds Stress 3) Speziale, Sarkar and Gatski Reynolds Stress 4) SMC- model 5) Baseline (BSL) Reynolds' Stress model

Eddy Simulation Models:


1) Large Eddy Simulation (LES) [transient] 2) Detached Eddy Simulation (DES)* [transient] 3) Scale Adaptive Simulation SST (SAS)* [transient]

Not available in the ANSYS CFD-Flo product

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Turbulence

Turbulence Near the Wall


The velocity profile near the wall is important:
Pressure Drop Separation Shear Effects Recirculation

Training Manual

Turbulence models are generally suited to model the flow outside the boundary layer Examination of experimental data yields a wide variety of results in the boundary layer

The above graph shows nondimensional velocity versus nondimensional distance from the wall. Different flows show different boundary layer profiles.

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Turbulence

Turbulence Near the Wall

Training Manual

By scaling the variables near the wall the velocity profile data takes on a predictable form (transitioning from linear to logarithmic behavior)
Scaling the non-dimensional velocity and nondimensional distance from the wall results in a predictable boundary layer profile for a wide range of flows

Linear Logarithmic

Since near wall conditions are often predictable, functions can be used to determine the near wall profiles rather than using a fine mesh to actually resolve the profile
These functions are called wall functions
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Turbulence

Turbulence Near the Wall

Training Manual

Fewer nodes are needed normal to the wall when wall functions are used
y u y u

Wall functions used to resolve boundary layer


Boundary layer

Wall functions not used to resolve boundary layer

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Turbulence

Turbulence Near The Wall


y+ is the non-dimensional distance from the wall

Training Manual

It is used to measure the distance of the first node away from the wall y u
Boundary layer

y+

Wall functions are only valid within specific y+ values


If y+ is too high the first node is outside the boundary layer and wall functions will be imposed too far into the domain If y+ is too low the first node will lie in the laminar (viscous) part of the boundary layer where wall functions are not valid
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Turbulence

Turbulence Near the Wall

Training Manual

In some situations, such as boundary layer separation, wall functions do not correctly predict the boundary layer profile

Wall functions applicable

Wall functions not applicable

In these cases wall functions should not be used Instead, directly resolving the boundary layer can provide accurate results Not all turbulence models allow the wall functions to be turned off

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k-epsilon Model
Standard k- Model

Training Manual

The industrial CFD standard since it offer a good compromise between numerical effort and computational accuracy Wall functions are always used y+ should typically be < 300 for the wall functions to be valid There is no lower limit on y+
CFX uses Scalable wall functions If your mesh results in y+ values below the valid range of the wall functions, the nodes nearest the wall are effectively ignored This ensures valid results, within the model limitations, but is a waste of mesh

Known limitations:
Separation generally under predicted since wall functions are used Inaccuracies with swirling flows and flows with strong streamline curvature
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Turbulence

k-omega Model
k- Model

Training Manual

One of the advantages of the k- formulation is the near wall treatment for low-Reynolds number computations
Here low-Reynolds refers to the turbulent Reynolds number, which is low in the viscous sub-layer, not the device Reynolds number In other words low-Reynolds number computations means the near wall mesh is fine enough to resolve the laminar (viscous) part of the boundary layer which is very close to the wall

A low-Reynolds number k- model only requires y+ <= 2


If a low-Re k- model were available, it would require a much small y+

In industrial flows, even y+ <= 2 cannot be guaranteed in most applications and for this reason, a new automatic near wall treatment was developed for the k- models

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Turbulence

k-omega Model
k- Model (continued)

Training Manual

The Automatic wall treatment for the k- models switches between a lowReynolds number formulation (i.e. direct resolution of the boundary layer) at low y+ values and a wall function approach at higher y+ values This lets you take advantage of a fine near-wall mesh when present

Airfoil at Mach 0.5 showing the mesh and y+ values. y+ values are >2. A finer near wall mesh is required to achieve y+ < 2.
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Turbulence

SST Model
Shear Stress Transport (SST) Model

Training Manual

The SST model is based on the k- model and has the same automatic wall treatment It accounts for the transport of the turbulent shear stress and gives highly accurate predictions of the onset and the amount of flow separation This is a good default choice

k- fails to predict separation

SST result and experiment

Experiment Gersten et al.


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Turbulence

y+ for the SST and k-omega Models

Training Manual

When using the SST or k- models y+ should be < 300 so that the wall function approach is valid
This will not take advantage of the low-Reynolds formulation, which is necessary for accurate separation prediction However, the model can still be used on these coarser near-wall mesh and produce valid results, within the limitations of the wall functions

To take full advantage of the low-Reynolds formulation y+ should be < 2

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Turbulence

Estimating y+
It is useful to estimate y+ before obtaining a solution
Saves time!

Training Manual

Use the following formula based on flow over a flat plate:

y = L y

74 Re

13 / 14 L

y is the actual distance between the wall and first node L is a flow length scale y+ is the desired y+ value ReL is the Reynolds Number based on the length scale L

See the documentation for a derivation of this formula


ANSYS CFX-Solver Modeling Guide >> Turbulence and Near-Wall Modeling >> Modeling Flow Near the Wall >> Guidelines for Mesh Generation

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Turbulence

Other Turbulence Models

Training Manual

When RANS models are not adequate, Eddy Simulation models can be used
As already mentioned, these are more computationally expensive

Large Eddy Simulation (LES)


Resolves the large eddies, models the small eddies Problem: Requires a very fine boundary layer mesh, making it impractical for most flows

Detached Eddy Simulation (DES)


Uses a RANS model in the boundary layer, switches over to LES in the bulk flow A standard boundary layer mesh can be used Problem: the RANS to LES switch depends on the mesh, which can give unphysical results on the wrong mesh

Scale-Adaptive Simulation (SAS)


Like DES, but without the mesh dependency problems
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Turbulence

Inlet Turbulence Conditions

Training Manual

Unless turbulence is being directly simulated, it is accounted for by modeling the transport of turbulence properties, for example k and Similar to mass and momentum, turbulence variables require boundary condition specifications
Several options exist for the specification of turbulence quantities at inlets (details on next slide)

Unless you have absolutely no idea of the turbulence levels in your simulation (in which case, you can use the Medium (Intensity = 5%) option), you should use well chosen values of turbulence intensities and length scales
Nominal turbulence intensities range from 1% to 5% but will depend on your specific application

The default turbulence intensity value of 0.037 (that is, 3.7%) is sufficient for nominal turbulence through a circular inlet, and is a good estimate in the absence of experimental data
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Turbulence

Inlet Turbulence Conditions


Default Intensity and Autocompute Length Scale

Training Manual

The default turbulence intensity of 0.037 (3.7%) is used together with a computed length scale to approximate inlet values of k and . The length scale is calculated to take into account varying levels of turbulence. In general, the autocomputed length scale is not suitable for external flows This option allows you to specify a value of turbulence intensity but the length scale is still automatically computed. The allowable range of turbulence intensities is restricted to 0.1%-10.0% to correspond to very low and very high levels of turbulence accordingly. In general, the autocomputed length scale is not suitable for external flows You can specify the turbulence intensity and length scale directly, from which values of k and are calculated This defines a 1% intensity and a viscosity ratio equal to 1 This defines a 5% intensity and a viscosity ratio equal to 10 This is the recommended option if you do not have any information about the inlet turbulence This defines a 10% intensity and a viscosity ratio equal to 100 Use this feature if you wish to enter your own values for intensity and viscosity ratio Specify the values of k and directly Use this setting for fully developed turbulence conditions
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Intensity and Autocompute Length Scale

Intensity and Length Scale

Low (Intensity = 1%)


Medium (Intensity = 5%)

High (Intensity = 10%) Specified Intensity and Eddy Viscosity Ratio k and Epsilon

Zero Gradient

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Turbulence

Example: Pipe Expansion with Heat Transfer


Reynolds Number ReD= 40750 Fully Developed Turbulent Flow at Inlet Experiments by Baughn et al. (1984)

Training Manual

. q=const
H

. q=0
D Outlet

Inlet H
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d axis 40 x H
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Example: Pipe Expansion with Heat Transfer

Training Manual

Plot shows dimensionless distance versus Nusselt Number Best agreement is with SST and k-omega models which do a better job of capturing flow recirculation zones accurately

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Turbulence

Summary: Turbulence Modeling Guidelines


Flow physics Computer resources available Project requirements
Accuracy Turnaround time

Training Manual

Successful turbulence modeling requires engineering judgment of:

Near-wall treatments

Modeling procedure
Calculate characteristic Re and determine whether the flow is turbulent Estimate y+ before generating the mesh The SST model is good choice for most flows Use the Reynolds Stress Model or the SST model with Curvature Correction (see documentation) for highly swirling, 3-D, rotating flows

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