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Physics 11
Motion
There are two types of motion: Constant (Uniform) Motion (no acceleration - constant speed) Accelerated Motion (motion at changing speed) Constant Motion obeys two conditions I. Motion must be in a straight line II. Motion must occur at constant speed Examples: The seconds' hand on a clock is moving at constant speed but because it is revolving in a curved path, it cannot be considered constant motion. An apple falling from a tree falls in a straight line but because its speed is increasing due to gravitational acceleration, it is not undergoing constant motion. Accelerated Motion

I. II.

Motion does not have to be in a straight line The speed of the object changes over time intervals

Distance is the change in position from an original point. The symbol for distance is "d". It is a scalar quantity Displacement is defined as the distance traveled in one direction. The symbol for displacement is Displacement is a vector quantity. Example: If you step out your door and walk on the side walk for 10 m and you turn around and go back home along the same path, you will have traveled a total distance of 20 meters. Your total displacement will be zero.

Speed is the rate of change of distance with respect to time. The symbol for speed is V units for speed is the [m/s] Velocity is the vector equivalent of speed; i.e. the speed an object travels in one particular direction. V and m/s Example: If you are walking with your dog in the park at 30 cm/s. How far will you have traveled in 20 minutes? Given: vaverage = 30 cm/s = 0.30 m/s d=0.3 x 20 min X 60 s/min = 360 m Acceleration is the rate at which speed increases or decreases. Acceleration involves a changes in speed or a change in velocity during a time interval. Acceleration can be both a scalar and a vector quantity. It is a scalar quantity when we consider only its magnitude. If we also indicate the direction in which an object is accelerating, then we are defining acceleration as a vector quantity. When an object slows down we say it is decelerating. Deceleration is negative acceleration. The symbol for acceleration is a. The units for acceleration are [m/s2 ] . Acceleration over a definite time interval is known as average acceleration. Acceleration calculated at each instant (very small time segment) along the motion path of an object is known as instantaneous acceleration.

Example: A police car is cruising at 50 km/h along a straight road. A motorist zooms past the cruiser. The police officer steps on the gas and catches up to the speeder 30 s later. At that time the police officer notices that her car was going at 80 km/h. What was the average acceleration during the 30 s? (m/s2) 1km/h = 1x1000 /3600 =0.28 m/s a ave. = dv/dt = (80-50)x 0.28/30 =0.28 m/s Example: A instant

A. Uniform Motion - Constant Speed - no acceleration We note that "m", the slope of the line (of the form, y = mx + b) is constant M=rise/run =d2-d1/t2-t1 B. Uniformly Accelerated Motion - Variable Speed line is not constant and the function (of the form y = ax2 + bx + c) is an increasing function. C. Acceleration 1. Uniform(constant) Acceleration
If the acceleration is constant the v-t graph will be a straight line. The slope of this line will give us the acceleration.

2. Non-uniform Acceleration Using a method similar to deriving velocity from distance-time graphs, we can obtain values of acceleration from velocity-time graphs. The slope of the tangent to a v-t graph at one point in time will give the instantaneous acceleration in the case where there is non uniform (changing) acceleration.

Average velocity
To obtain the average velocity between two points in time (say t1 and t2) we can draw the secant line between these two points and calculate the slope of the secant line.

slope = d/t Instantaneous Velocity

To obtain the instantaneous velocity, that is, the velocity at one instant (one point in time -- say t1), one must take the slope of the tangent line that touches the curve at that point (t1) i.e. Vinst = slope of tangent =d2-d1/t2-t1 if (t2,d2) is another point of the tangent line It is also important to note that the only time where the average speed (or velocity) and the instantaneous speed (or velocity) have the same value is at the "half time" point. Here the slope of the average secant line for the entire graph is the same as the slope of the tangent at the t1/2 point.

Mathematical Development of Linear Motion Equations

The equation of motion (v2 = v1 + at) developed in the previous section is really a linear equation of the form: y = mx + b y = mx + b is a liner function (a straight line) of v(t); "velocity as a function of time".

Summary of Equations of Linear Motion

"gravitational field intensity" or "acceleration due to gravity": g=9.81 kg/s2 Galileo noticed that objects (pendulums, and cannon balls) rolled down inclined planes at the same rate regardless of their mass but would speed up if the angle of the incline increased (that is of course if we ignore air resistance and keep all other things controlled -- like the frictional force). The steeper the slope of the incline, the higher the acceleration of the object down the ramp: ma=mg. sin a=g. sin Forces We Experience Daily (N= kg x m/ s2) 1) 2) 3) 4) Force of Gravity which pulls objects vertically downwards. Normal Force which is perpendicular to the surfaces of the objects in contact. Friction which is in the opposite direction of an objects motion (drag). Tension is a force exerted by ropes or cables (pulling).

The First Law of Motion: If the net force acting on an object is zero, the object will maintain its state of rest or constant velocity. The Second Law of Motion: If the net external force on an object is not zero, the object accelerates in the direction of the net force. F=ma The Third Law of Motion: For every action force, there is a reaction force equal in magnitude, but opposite in direction. OR 1- Every object in a state of uniform motion tends to remain in that state of motion unless an external force is applied to it. Objects at rest will stay at rest or will continue to move in the same direction and with the same speed, unless an external (unbalanced) force acts upon them". 2- The relationship between an object's mass m, its acceleration a, and the applied force F is F = ma. Acceleration and force are vectors (as indicated by their symbols being displayed in slant bold font); in this law the direction of the force vector is the same as the direction of the acceleration vector. Newton's Second Law states that the stronger the force acting on a mass, the greater its acceleration. If the mass increases, the acceleration will decrease if the force stays constant. 3- For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. The Newton -- a unit of force

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Friction:
Friction resists motion and acts in a direction opposite to the direction of motion.

When the applied force on an object is equal or less than the force of friction, the object will not move. If the applied force is slightly bigger than the force of friction, the object will move in the direction of the applied force. There are two types friction forces acting on the object.

Static friction: before the object starts to move. It represents the force that tends to prevent
stationary object from starting to move.

Kinetic friction: while the object is moving. It represents the force acting on an object in the opposite direction of motion of the object. There are several types of kinetic friction: 1. Sliding Friction- sled 2. Rolling Friction wheels 3. Fluid Friction- boats or planes

Static Friction (s) is larger than Kinetic (moving) friction (k) Ff = FN where is the coefficient of friction --------Frequency(1/sec) F = cycles /time = # cycles/sec. Example: What is the frequency of a yo-yo which is being constantly rolled up and down a total of 300 times in 3 minutes? 300/3x60 =5/3 = 1.7 hertz Period(sec) T = time/1 cycle = 1/F Example: What is the period of an ocean wave if on average 20 waves are seen striking the shore in 7 seconds. Given: # of waves = 20; time = 7 s T= 7 /20 =0.35 s Work
W= F. d

Work-Energy Theorem
This theorem states that when work is done on an object its energy state will change. Usually the object will experience a change of motion due to the action of the force. This will result in a net change in the kinetic energy of the object. Mathematically we can illustrate this theorem in the following manner:

Example: Calculate the work done by a 2000 kg truck to accelerate from 20 m/s to 40 m/s. Solution: According to the Work-Energy Theorem , the work done in bringing about this change in speed is equivalent to the resulting change in kinetic energy.

= 1.2 X 106 J = 1.2 MJ

Positive, Negative or Zero Work If force and displacement are in the same direction, work done is positive. If force and displacement are in opposite directions, work done is negative. If force and displacement are perpendicular, zero work is done. Mechanical Energy The total mechanical energy of a system is defined as the sum of the kinetic energy(EK) and potential energy (EP): ET= EK+ EP The stored energy of an object, a certain distance from the ground, has the potential to do work when it is released and is called potential energy; it is an energy associated with forces of attraction, or repulsion between objects. Gravitational Potential Energy (EP)represents the energy possessed by an object because of its position relative to a lower position. W= Fh W= mg h or EP= mgh (h=height)Where h is relative to a reference level such that hi= 0 Kinetic Energy (EK)represents the energy of a moving object. The kinetic energy of an object is related to its mass (m) and velocity.
EK = m x v2

Conservative Forces
When the work done on an object by a force (F) is independent of the path taken but depends only on the initial and final position of the object, we say that the force is a conservative force. The force of gravity is a conservative force. The elastic force of a spring is a conservative force. The force of friction is not a conservative force because it depend on the path taken when moving an object against it along a surface. The longer the path, the higher the force friction. Is the path is curved and not straight the force of friction along the path is also greater. Gravitational Potential Energy can only be defined for conservative forces since the final amount of Energy is independent of the path taken. When you lift an object off the floor onto a desk, for example, the final potential energy on top of the desk will always be the same regardless of which way you lift that object. Law of Conservation of Energy: When energy changes from one form to another, no energy is lost (Energy cannot be created or destroyed).

Kinetic Molecular Theory of Heat

The Particle Theory of matter explains that all matter is made up of particles and that all particles are always in constant motions. Solids - Vibration Energy Liquids -Vibration & Translational Gases - Vibration, Rotational,

Energies

Translational Energies

Heat & Temperature

The energy of the particles is effectively their internal energy. This internal energy is the amount of heat (Q) contained by the substance. Because the particles of matter are in motion they all posses Kinetic Energy. (Ek = mv2/2). Since kinetic energy depends on speed. The faster the motion of the particles, the higher their heat content. The speed of the particle is a measure of the object's temperature. The bigger the object the higher its heat content. This means that the heat content of an object depends ion its mass (m) as well as its temperature change (DT).

. .

Power (Watt=J/sec) is the rate at which energy is used up or work is done.

Mathematically, the above statement can be expressed as:

In symbols, this expression is written as:

and the unit of power is the WATT (W) 1 W = 1 J/s Example: A crane lifts a 250 Kg crate of roof shingles from the ground on top of a 15 m high roof in 20 s. How much power did the crane use up? Given: m = 350 Kg, g = 9.8 m/s2 , h = 15 m t = 20 s a) Force Required to Lift Shingles up = Fg = m x g (the force of gravity) = 350 Kg x 9.8 N/Kg = 3430 N b) Work Done = Work Done in lifting = Fg x h = 3430 N x 15 m = 51 450 Nm = 51 450 J c) Power = Work / time =W/t = 51 450 J / 20 s = 2573 W

Efficiency = (Output/Input)x100%
The efficiency of a system is a ratio of the useful energy you get out of a device compared to the amount of energy you put in. It is usually expressed as a %.Efficiency = energy output/ energy input x 100%

Thermal Energy and Heat Thermal Energy: The total kinetic energy and potential energy of the atoms or molecules of a substance Heat: The transfer of energy from a warmer body to a cooler one Temperature: A measure of the average kinetic energy of the atoms or molecules of a substance

Specific Heat Capacity ( c ): a measure of the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1.0 kg f a substance by 1.0C Q= m.c.T Q= heat gained or lost by a body; m= mass; c= specific heat capacity; T; change in temperature. Principle of Heat Exchange: when heat is transferred from one body to another, the amount of heat lost by the hot body equals the amount of heat gained by the cold body. Q lost+ Q gained= 0 Or m1c1T1+ m2 c 2T2= 0 Q gained= -Q lost

Free Body Diagram (FBD)

Example A simple free body diagram, shown above, of a block on a ramp illustrates this. All external supports and structures have been replaced by the forces they generate. These include: mg: the product of the mass of the block and the constant of gravitation acceleration: its weight. N: the normal force of the ramp. Ff: the friction force of the ramp. The force vectors show direction and point of application and are labeled with their magnitude. It contains a coordinate system that can be used when describing the vectors.

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1- Force of attraction between two masses with r distance. F(N) = m1.m2.G / r2

M1= mass of object 1 (in kg) M2= mass of object 2d= distance between centres of two objects (in metres) G= universal gravitational constant= 6.67x 11-11 Nm2 /Kg2

2- Force of Gravity on a mass, m, o the earth surface F(N) = m.g where g=9.81 m/s2 and m is in kg 3- Force of gravity on a mass m, above earth(M, mass of earth) F(N) = m.M.G / r2 =m.g Therefore: m. M. G / r2 =m.g M. G / r2 = g so g is independent of the object
Exercise 1: Use the information that the mass of the Earth is M=5.98 x 1024 kg and that its radius is r=6.38 x 103 km (6.38 x 106 m) to confirm that g on Earth is approximately 9.8 N/kg g=M. G / r2 g=5.98 x 1024 (6.67x 10-11 )/ (6.38 x 106 )2 =9.8 m/s2 Exercise 2: If the object is at a distance of d above the ground then find the new gravity using the mass and the radius of the earth New r=rearth + d New g= 9.81.mearth/r 2 new g is less than 9.81 F(N) = m of object x new g

Energy is defined as the ability to do work. Energy can take many forms. In mechanics the two
most common forms of energy are Kinetic Energy and Potential Energy. Potential Energy is the energy stored in an object when it has been lifted off the ground. EP = m x g x h Kinetic Energy is the energy of a moving object. EK = m x v2 m (mass), kg and v (speed), m/s WORK = ForceN X Parallel Distancem W = (F )(d)(cos q) Measured in Joules, J 1 Joule = 1 Newton-meter Exercise 1: An old lady pushes a cart with a force of 100 N, Through 50 m. How much energy is she using up, and how much work is she doing on the cart? W=Fxd = 100 N x 50 m = 5000 N-m (J) work and 5000 N energy (work=energy)

W = m x g x h = Ep = m x g x h
How much work is done if you move a mass of 4kn by a force of 3 n for 2 meter? 3x2=6? What is the normal if you hold a 500 gram light by a force of 5 n Static and kinetic energy, mew (n)=friction On a skating surface, static (at the start?), kinetic The 5 fomulas for d, t, v,a Ex. Energy is measured in Joules (J). 4.8 joules in calorie J= kg x m2/ s2

Force is measured in Newtons (N). N= kg x m/s2 Work (J) = Force x displacement =N x m; N=m.a (kg.m/s2) =kg. m/s2 .m =kg. m2/s2 Power: Watt (W) 1 W = 1 J/s Horsepower: The amount of energy a good horse can transfer continuously for aworking day (750 W = 1 hp). Speed is a scalar quantity (no direction) vs. Velocity is a vector The rate at which an objects displacement increases or decreases is called its velocity. My note The rate at which an objects velocity increases or decreases is called its acceleration.

Static/kinetic Friction
http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/frict2.html#kin