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European Union Brite EuRam III

Light Weight Aggregates

EuroLightCon Economic Design and Construction with Light Weight Aggregate Concrete
Document BE96-3942/R15, June 2000
Project funded by the European Union under the Industrial & Materials Technologies Programme (Brite-EuRam III) Contract BRPR-CT97-0381, Project BE96-3942

The European Union Brite EuRam III

Light Weight Aggregates


EuroLightCon Economic Design and Construction with Light Weight Aggregate Concrete

Document BE96-3942/R15, June 2000 Contract BRPR-CT97-0381, Project BE96-3942

Although the project consortium does its best to ensure that any information given is accurate, no liability or responsibility of any kind (including liability for negligence) is accepted in this respect by the project consortium, the authors/editors and those who contributed to the report. Acknowledgements This report is an overall publication on LWA from Task 2 Light weight aggregates. The participants of task 2 were: Edda Lilja Sveinsdttir (IBRI, Task Leader), Arne Monsen (ExClay Int.), Erich Kwint (Vasim) and Karl-Christian Thienel (Lias Franken) Information Information regarding the report: Edda Lilja Sveinsdottir, Icelandic Building Research Institute, RB Keldnaholt, IS-112 Reykjavik, Iceland Tel. +354 5707311, e-mail sveinsdottir.e@rabygg.is Information regarding the project in general: Jan P.G. Mijnsbergen, CUR, PO Box 420, NL-2800 AK Gouda, the Netherlands Tel: +31 182 540620, e-mail: jan.mijnsbergen@cur.nl Information on the project and the partners on the Internet: http://www.sintef.no/bygg/sement/elcon

ISBN 90 376 0118 9

The European Union Brite EuRam III

Light Weight Aggregates


EuroLightCon Economic Design and Construction with Light Weight Aggregate Concrete

Document BE96-3942/R15, June 2000 Contract BRPR-CT97-0381, Project BE96-3942

Selmer Skanska AS, NO SINTEF, the Foundation for Scientific and Industrial Research at the Norwegian Institute of Technology, NO NTNU, University of Technology and Science, NO ExClay International, NO Beton Son B.V., NL B.V. VASIM, NL CUR, Centre for Civil Engineering Research and Codes, NL Smals B.V., NL Delft University of Technology, NL IceConsult, Lnuhnnun hf., IS The Icelandic Building Research Institute, IS Taywood Engineering Limited, GB Lias-Franken Leichtbaustoffe GmbH & Co KG, DE Dragados y Construcciones S.A., ES Eindhoven University of Technology, NL Spanbeton B.V., NL

Light Weight Aggregates

Table of Contents
PREFACE SUMMARY 1 2 3 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 4 5 6 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.6.1 6.6.2 6.6.3 6.6.4 6.6.5 7 8 INTRODUCTION NEW LWA MATERIALS LWA PRODUCTS DATA SHEETS General Pumice and scoria Expanded clay Expanded glass Expanded Shale and slate Sintered and cold-bound Fly-ash Blast furnace slag TEST METHODS FOR LWA (CEN AND OTHER METHODS) TESTING OF SELECTED TYPES OF LWA RESULTS AND DISCUSSION General Results of LWA testing at IBRI Results of LWA testing at Vasim Results of LWA testing at ExClay Results of LWA testing at Lias-Franken Discussion Freeze-thaw tests on LWA Water absorption Particle strength crushing resistance Alkali-silica reactivity testing General on requirements of LWA for structural concrete REFERENCES NOMENCLATURE 4 7 8 9 11 11 11 11 12 12 12 12 13 16 17 17 17 18 20 20 21 21 22 23 23 23 24 25

BE96-3942 EuroLightCon

Light Weight Aggregates

PREFACE
The lower density and higher insulating capacity are the most obvious characteristics of LightWeight Aggregate Concrete (LWAC) by which it distinguishes itself from ordinary Normal Weight Concrete (NWC). However, these are by no means the only characteristics, which justify the increasing attention for this (construction) material. If that were the case most of the design, production and execution rules would apply for LWAC as for normal weight concrete, without any amendments. LightWeight Aggregate (LWA) and LightWeight Aggregate Concrete are not new materials. LWAC has been known since the early days of the Roman Empire: both the Colosseum and the Pantheon were partly constructed with materials that can be characterised as lightweight aggregate concrete (aggregates of crushed lava, crushed brick and pumice). In the United States, over 100 World War II ships were built in LWAC, ranging in capacity from 3000 to 140000 tons and their successful performance led, at that time, to an extended use of structural LWAC in buildings and bridges. It is the objective of the EuroLightCon-project to develop a reliable and cost effective design and construction methodology for structural concrete with LWA. The project addresses LWA manufactured from geological sources (clay, pumice etc.) as well as from waste/secondary materials (fly-ash etc.). The methodology shall enable the European concrete and construction i n dustry to enhance its capabilities in terms of cost-effective and environmentally friendly construction, combining the building of lightweight structures with the utilisation of secondary aggregate sources. The major research tasks are: Lightweight aggregates: The identification and evaluation of new and unexploited sources specifically addressing the environmental issue by utilising alternative materials from waste. Further the development of more generally applicable classification and quality assurance systems for aggregates and aggregate production. Lightweight aggregate concrete production: The development of a mix design methodology to account for all relevant materials and concrete production and in-use properties. This will include assessment of test methods and quality assurance for production. Lightweight aggregate concrete properties: The establishing of basic materials relations, the influence of materials characteristics on mechanical properties and durability. Lightweight aggregate concrete structures: The development of design criteria and -rules with special emphasis on high performance structures. The identification of new areas for applic ation. The project is being carried out in five technical tasks and a task for co-ordination/management and dissemination and exploitation. The objectives of all technical tasks are summarised below. Starting point of the project, the project baseline, are the results of international research work combined with the experience of the partners in the project whilst using LWAC. This subject is

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Light Weight Aggregates

dealt with in the first task. Tasks 2-5 address the respective research tasks as mentioned above: the LWA itself, production of LWAC, properties of LWAC and LWAC structures. Sixteen partners from six European countries, representing aggregate manufacturers and suppliers, contractors, consultants research organisations and universities are involved in the E uroLightCon-project. In addition, the project established co-operation with national clusters and European working groups on guidelines and standards to increase the benefit, dissemination and exploitation. At the time the project is being performed, a Working Group under the international concrete association fib (the former CEB and FIP) is preparing an addendum to the CEB-FIP Model Code 1990, to make the Model Code applicable for LWAC. Basis for this work is a state -of-the-art report referring mainly to European and North-American Standards and Codes. Partners in the project are also active in the fib Working Group. General information on the EuroLightCon-project, including links to the individual project partners, is available through the web site of the project: http://www.sintef.no/bygg/sement/elcon/ At the time of publication of this report, following EuroLightCon-reports have been published: R1 Definitions and International Consensus Report. April 1998 R1a LightWeight Aggregates Datasheets. Update September 1998 R2 LWAC Material Properties State-of-the-Art. December 1998 R3 Chloride penetration into concrete with lightweight aggregates. March 1999 R4 Methods for testing fresh lightweight aggregate concrete, December 1999 R5 A rational mix design method for lightweight aggregate concrete using typical UK materials, January 2000 R6 Properties of Lytag-based concrete mixtures strength class B15-B55, January 2000 R7 Grading and composition of the aggregate, March 2000 R8 Properties of lightweight concretes containing Lytag and Liapor, March 2000 R9 Technical and economic mixture optimisation of high strength lightweight aggregate concrete, March 2000 R10 Paste optimisation based on flow properties and compressive strength, March 2000 R11 Pumping of LWAC based on expanded clay in Europe, March 2000 R12 Applicability of the particle -matrix model to LWAC, March 2000 R13 Large-scale chloride penetration test on LWAC-beams exposed to thermal and hygral cycles, March 2000 R14 Structural LWAC. Specification and guideline for materials and production, June 2000 R15 Light Weight Aggregates, June 2000 R16 In-situ tests on existing lightweight aggregate concrete structures, June 2000 R17 Properties of LWAC made with natural lightweight aggregates, June 2000 R18 Durability of LWAC made with natural lightweight aggregates, June 2000 R19 Evaluation of the early age cracking of lightweight aggregate concrete, June 2000 R20 The effect of the moisture history on the water absorption of lightweight aggregates, June 2000 R21 Stability and pumpability of lightweight aggregate concrete. Test methods, June 2000 R22 The economic potential of lightweight aggregate concrete in c.i.p. concrete bridges, June 2000

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R23 R24 R25 R26 R27 R28 R29 R30 R31 R32 R33 R34 R35 R36 R37 R38 R39 R40 R41 R42 R43

Mechanical properties of lightweight aggregate concrete, June 2000 Prefabricated bridges, June 2000 Chemical stability, wear resistance and freeze-thaw resistance of lightweight aggregate concrete, June 2000 Recycling lightweight aggregate concrete, June 2000 Mechanical properties of LWAC compared with both NWC and HSC, June 2000 Prestressed beams loaded with shear force and/or torsional moment, June 2000 A prestressed steel-LWAconcrete bridge system under fatigue loading Creep properties of LWAC, June 2000 Long-term effects in LWAC: Strength under sustained loading; Shrinkage of High Strength LWAC, June 2000 Tensile strength as design parameter, June 2000 Structural and economical comparison of bridges made of inverted T-beams with topping, June 2000 Fatigue of normal weight concrete and lightweight concrete, June 2000 Composite models for short- and long-term strength and deformation properties of LWAC, June 2000 High strength LWAC in construction elements, June 2000 Comparison of bridges made of NWC and LWAC. Part 1: Steel concrete composite bridges, June 2000 Comparing high strength LWAC and HSC with the aid of a computer model, June 2000 Proposal for a Recommendation on design rules for high strength LWAC, June 2000 Comparison of bridges made of NWC and LWAC. Part 2: Bridges made of box beams post-tensioned in transversal direction, June 2000 LWA concrete under fatigue loading. A literature survey and a number of conducted fatigue tests, June 2000 The shear capacity of prestressed beams, June 2000 A prestressed steel-LWA concrete bridge system under fatigue loading, June 2000

BE96-3942 EuroLightCon

Light Weight Aggregates

SUMMARY
This report is an overall-report from the Task 2: Light Weight Aggregates (LWA), giving summarized information on the work involved in the task. The over-all objective of the project that is directly involving aggregates was to develop a reliable and cost-effective design and construction methodology for structural concrete with LWA of natural (pumice) as well as artificial aggregates (expanded clay or flyash). The project work program contained the main innovation claimed for LWA: 1. 2. 3. The improvement of production processes regarding the cost, energy consume and friendliness to the environment. Further development of LWA from waste materials. A classification system offering a correct and generally applicable relation between aggregate properties and concrete performance.

According to this, Task 2 was performed. The following chapters address these issues; starting with chapter 2 on the development of new LWA made from by-products or waste. This work is described in details in the Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Structural Lightweight Aggregate Concrete (Kristiansand, 2000) and is only briefly told here. Chapter 3 - LWA data sheets is a summary from the baseline report, sub-task 1.1, report BE963942/R1A, where data sheets of the commercially available LWAs that are produced in Europe are listed. Chapter 4 test methods for LWA (CEN and other methods) - describes the current status of the standardization work being carried out by the CEN. Other, national test methods used for LWA are also described. Chapter 5 testing of selected types of LWA gives an overview of the testing that each partner of Task 2 performed on LWA. Chapter 6 results and discussion is a discussion on the results obtained and the test methods given a critical view.

Keywords Lightweight aggregates (LWA), test methods for LWA, new LWA materials

BE96-3942 EuroLightCon

Light Weight Aggregates

INTRODUCTION

This report is an overall publication on LWA from Task 2: Lightweight aggregates, to be used for dissemination of results from this task. The following objectives of the project are directly related to the LWA: To develop a reliable and cost-effective design and construction methodology for structural concrete with LWA of natural (pumice) as well as manufactured aggregates (expanded clay or sintered fly ash). To further develop, improve and utilize the option of converting by-products or pollutants into LWA. To reduce the depletion of traditional aggregate sources by further developing and improving the technology of utilizing natural sources. To develop the application technology in order to obtain maximum utilization of the raw materials, i.e. to minimize the amount of waste from aggregate production.

The main innovation of the project that is claimed for LWA: 1. 2. 3. The improvement of production processes regarding the cost, energy consume and friendliness to the environment. Further development of LWA from waste materials. A classification system offering a correct and generally applicable relation between aggregate properties and concrete performance.

Task 2 was initially split up into three sub-tasks: Materials sources, environmental issues, Evaluation and classification system and Quality assurance for LWA production. The last sub-task was later merged with the sub-task 3.3 Quality assurance for LWAC production and one report Structural LWAC. Specification and guideline for materials and production was published (BE96-3942/R14).

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NEW LWA MATERIALS

Sub-task 2.1 Materials sources, environmental issues covered this part of task 2. Its objective was to identify and evaluate new and unexploited sources of raw materials for LWA production that can offer a combination of environmental and technical issues; i.e. utilizing waste and secondary materials in a production of aggregates that can meet the relevant requirements for structural use. Traditionally, concrete is being produced in close dependence on the quality of the aggregates in the way nature and more or less adjusted/improved have provided this quality industrially. For LWAC there is a higher degree of industrial influence on the aggregate properties, but still a significant dependence on the selection of good quality materials sources for production. However, the total volume and the practical availability of acknowledged aggregate sources is rapidly decreasing, at the same time as the volume of urban and industrial waste and secondary materials is becoming an increasing matter of concern in great parts of Europe. Already successful initiatives have been taken by the concrete, cement and LWA industry to convert such secondary products into construction materials. Most types of the LWAs that are used by the construction industry today are manufactured materials, made from natural resources like clay and slate or from industrial by-products such as fly ash and glass. The products are commercially available LWAs such as Leca, Solite (USA), Liapor and Lytag. In order to find potential new LWAs, some by-products and waste materials were tested in the production lines of Vasim in the Netherlands. Traditionally they produce Lytag, a type of sintered fly ash. The work covers the following items: The history of LWA production including the available materials, production methods and identified re-uses of wastes in LWA production. Identification of resources their locations, health risk regarding their production, commercial value and evaluation of the materials Production of new LWA, reporting the trials and mix design and production methods Results of the production trials including specification of the new materials, health risk regarding leaching, manufacturing and evaluation for each application Technology of the production of new LWA that covers suitable production methods on reuse of waste, investments and commercial consequence, recommendations and evaluation The new LWA materials produced by Vasim were made from the following raw materials: 1. 2. 3. 4. Fly-ash from burnt silt of sewage works Fly-ash from incineration of refuse Fly-ash from bio-mass conversion Fly-ash from incineration of paper residue

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5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Pumice fines Spoil from polluted dredged harbours, rivers and canals Silt from quarries/sea gravel Silt from recycled concrete Silt from water treatment works

Materials number 2, 4 and 6 were only produced in a laboratory scale as it was later decided that their full-scale production would never be allowed because of environmental issues. The other partners of task 2 did thus not test these LWAs.

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3 3.1

LWA PRODUCTS DATA SHEETS General

In the baseline report, report BE96-3942/R1a, most of the commercially available LWAs are listed, that are produced in Europe. A datasheet is given for each material. The data sheets contain information regarding: 1. commercial name 2. supplier/manufacturer 3. general properties 4. densities 5. crushing resistance 6. water absorption 7. loss on ignition 8. chloride content 9. sulphate content 10. chemical composition 11. production location 12. number of years of experience of application in concrete The following LWA products are listed in the document and classified according to their origin / process method:

3.2

Pumice and scoria


Vikur (from Snfellsjokull) sizes 1-4 and 4-16 mm, supplier: Nesvikur, Iceland Hekla pumice, sizes 0-10, 4-16mm, supplier: Pumice Products Ltd., Iceland Hekla pumice, F 8/16 W, B 0/9 W, F 0/8 W, supplier: Jarefnainaur hf., Iceland Scoria, size 0-100 mm, supplier: AMC Lettsteinn ehf, Iceland

3.3

Expanded clay
Ares, types 4, 5, 6, 8, supplier: Cementi Buzzi, Italy Argex, types 0.5/4, 4/10, 10/16, supplier; N.V. Gralex, Belgium Arlita, types F3, F5, F7, A5, F3/3-8, F3/3-6, F5, F7, G3, A4g, A5m, supplier: Aridos Ligeros, S.A., Spain Fibo, sizes 0-2, 2-4, 4-8, 8-16 mm both crushed and closed cubic rounded, supplier: Fibo ExClay Deutschland GmbH, Germany Leca Austria, types NW 0-2, 0-4, NW 1-4 RK, NW 2-4, NW 4/8, HD 4/8, NW 8/12, HD 8/12, supplier: sterreichische Leca Gestellschaft GmbH, Austria

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Liapor, types CS 0-4, CS 4-8, CS 8-16 K-Sand, supplier: Lias-Vintirov, Czhechia Liapor, types 3, 4, 5, 6 (4-8), 6 (8-16), 6.5, 7, 8, 9.5, supplier: Lias-Franken Leichtbaustoffe GmbH and Lias Leichtbaustoffe Tuningen GmbH, Germany Fibo, types 0-4 crushed, 4-8 mm DIN, supplier: Fibo Vrket, Denmark KS 810 (8-10) and KS (10-20), supplier: Optiroc Oy Ab, Finland Leca, types 600 (4-12 mm), 700 (4-12 mm), 800 (4-12 mm), 600 Borge 4-12 mm, Lttklinker 4-10 mm, LWA 2-4 mm, LWA 4-10 mm, LWA 10-20 mm, supplier: a.s. Norsk Leca, Norway

3.4

Expanded glass
Liaver, sizes 0.25-0.5, 0.5-1.0, 1-2, 2-4, supplier: Liaver, Germany Poraver, sizes 0.25-0.5, 0.5-1.0, 1-2, 2-4, 4-8, supplier: Dennert Poraver GmbH, Germany

3.5

Expanded Shale and slate


Berwilit, sizes 0-2, 0-4, 2-4, 4/8 N, 4/8 S, 8/16 N, 8/16 S, supplier: Wittgensteiner Blhschiefer GmbH & Co KG, Germany Granulex, types 0.5/4, 4/10, 8/12, 10/20, 15/25, supplier: GEM, France Stalite, types 0.15/5, 1/13, 2/19, 5/25, supplier: Carolina Stalite Company, USA Ulopor, sizes 0-2, 2-4, 4-8, 8-16, supplier: VTS GmbH, Germany

3.6

Sintered and cold-bound Fly-ash


Aardelite, types 1400 2-4 I, 1430 4-8 I, 1400 4-16 I, 1430 8-16 I, supplier: Provag B.V., The Netherlands Fa-Light 5-15, supplier: Kyushu, Kyundensangyo, Kobe Steel, Japan Lytag, types L2 Fines, 4-8 mm Granular, 4-12 mm Granular, 6-12 mm Granular, supplier: Lytag, United Kingdom Lytag, types 0.5/4, 0.5/6, 0.5/8, 0.5/12, 4/8, 4/10, 4/12, 6/12, supplier: B.V. Vasim, The Netherlands Pollytag, types 0.5/4, 4/8, 4/12, 6/12, supplier: Pollytag SA, Poland

3.7

Blast furnace slag


Grobalith, types 0-4 and 0-4 S (crushed), supplier: BauMineral GmbH, Germany Safamolith, types 0/4 vA, M 0/4 vA, supplier: Safa Saarfilterasche-Vertriebes-GmbH, Germany Steasint 0/4, supplier. Steag Entsorgungs-GmbH, Germany

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TEST METHODS FOR LWA (CEN AND OTHER METHODS)

The LWA will normally exhibit, in contradiction to other aggregates, higher permeability and porosity as well as lower strength and rigidity than the cementitious paste. Thus, the LWA will play the major role with respect to concrete properties. Concrete density is a principal parameter and determined by the LWA used. For the concrete producer, a need is for more thorough i n formation on the aggregate. The great variety of materials, spanning manufactured aggregates from a variety of sources - geological and waste deposits, natural deposits, further underlines the need of a classification system. One of the major objectives of Task 2 on LWA was to develop a classification and evaluation system being applicable for all types of LWA, regardless of sources and production technology applied. The system shall enable the industry to choose the cheapest LWA that fulfils the required properties in any case. The material characteristics needed will be specified as well as the test methods and quality criteria for the different LWA classes. This objective was later changed to: to use the impact of the project to ensure that the classif ication and evaluation system being drafted by the TC-154- group on LWA (SC-5), will cover all types The reason for that decision was that the CEN-committee on LWA, called CEN/TC154/SC-5, had been working on a standard for LWA since 1995 and the final standard from them is due by the year 2003. It was thus felt that the ELC project should not duplicate the work of this committee, rather use its resources to ensure that the draft would cover all LWA types for structural concrete. The latest version of the proposed production standard for LWA, prEN 13055-1 for concrete, mortar and grout, is from February 2000, Doc. N 387. It specifies the properties and technical requirements for LWA, with the note that additional requirements may prove to be necessary for recycled materials. It should be pointed out that all the test methods referred to in the prEN 13055-1 are designed for normal weight aggregates (NWA), except a method for freezing and thawing that has been found to be suitable for some LWA. The method is described in prEN 13055-2 (Lightweight aggregates for unbound and bound applications excluding concrete, mortar and grout) Annex C. The test methods referred to in prEN 13055-1 are listed here below and they are described and discussed where necessary.
EN 932-1. Tests for general properties for aggregates. Part 1: Methods for sampling. prEN 932-2. Tests for general properties of aggregates. Part 2: Methods for reducing laboratory samples. prEN 932-5. Tests for general properties of aggregates. Part 5: Common equipment and calibration.

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prEN 933-1. Tests for geometrical properties of aggregates. Part 1: Determination of particle size distribution Sieving method. prEN 933-2. Tests for geometrical properties of aggregates. Part 2: Determination of particle size distribution Test sieves, nominal size of apertures. prEN 933-10. Tests for geometrical properties of aggregates. Part 10: Determination of fines grading of fines grading of fillers (air jet sieving). prEN 1097-3. Tests for mechanical and physical properties of aggregates. Part 3: Determination of loose bulk density and voids. prEN 1097-5. Tests for mechanical and physical properties of aggregates. Part 5: Determination of the water content by drying in a ventilated oven. prEN 1097-6. Tests for mechanical and physical properties of aggregates. Part 6: Determination of particle density and water absorption.

The description of this test method is the following: The test portion is dried in an oven at 110C to constant mass, and allowed to cool to ambient temperature. The material is then placed in pre-weighted pyknometer and weighted. The pyknometer is then filled up with water at 22 +/- 1C and the aggregate is gently stirred by rolling and tapping the pyknometer. The water filled pyknometer with the test sample is then weighted, and placed in a water bath at 22 +/- 1C. The operation is repeated after 2 h and 24 h. This test method and its limits are discussed further in chapter 6.
prEN 1744-1. Tests for chemical properties of aggregates. Part 1: Chemical analysis. ISO 3310-1: 1990. Test sieves Technical requirements and testing. Part 1: Test sieves of metal wire cloth. ISO 3310-2: 1990. Test sieves Technical requirements and testing. Part 2: Test sieves of perforated metal plate. prEN 13055-2. Lightweight aggregates for bituminous mixtures and surface treatments and for unbound and bound applications excluding concrete, mortar and grout. Annex C: Guidance on the freezing and thawing resistance of lightweight aggregates.

This proposal for a frost resistance test is derived from the German (DIN 52104-1) freeze-thaw test. A test portion of LWA, having been soaked in water at atmospheric pressure, is subjected to 20 freeze-thaw cycles. This involves cooling down to below 15C in air and then thawing in a water bath at about 20C. After completion of the freeze-thaw cycles, the LWAs are examined for any changes such as crack formation and/or loss in mass. The method differs from the earlier proposed prEN1367-1:1996 method for normal weight aggregates, that involves freezing down to 17,5 C in ice and has on the other hand only 10 freeze-thaw cycles. The freeze-thaw tests on LWAs are discussed in chapter 6.

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prEN 13055-1. Lightweight aggregates for concrete, mortar and grout. Annex A: Determination of a crushing resistance index. Determination of crushing resistance.

A sample is placed in a steel container and compacted by vibration. The test is then performed as an unconfined compression test where the load is continuously applied. The force required is measured and expressed as the resistance to crushing. Further discussion is in chapter 6.
prEN 13055-1. Lightweight aggregates for concrete, mortar and grout. Annex B: Determination of resistance to disintegration.

Until the proposed CEN-test methods will be adapted by most of the European countries, different test methods for LWA are used in each country. The test methods that were used in this project and are not listed above, are as follows:
Freeze-Thaw resistance (prEN 1367-1:1996)

Test portion of single sized aggregates, having been soaked in water at atmospheric pressure, for 24 hours, is subjected to 10 freeze-thaw cycles. This involves cooling to 17,5C under water and then thawing in a water bath at about 20C. After completion of the freeze-thaw cycles, the aggregates are examined for any changes (crack formation, loss in mass, and if appropriate, changes in strength). The limits for frost resistant concrete are <1% loss of weight for severe conditions, <2% for moderate and <4% for normal.

The Nordtest method, NT-Build 485, 1998-11


This method is almost the same as the prEN 1367-1:1996, but instead of soaking the aggregate in water, the aggregates are soaked in 1% NaCl solution for 24 hours. This method is used for testing aggregates in roads and there the limits are <2% loss of weight very frost resistant material, 2-4% frost resistant, 4-9% medium, 9-14% poor and 9% very poor frost resistance.
DIN 52104-1 (method P)

The description is almost the same as prEN 13055-2 (see above freeze-thaw test, Annex C), but in air and at 15C and 20 freeze-thaw cycles used. Limits similar to the prEN 1367-1.
Alkali silica reactivity (ASTM-1260)

The ASTM-1260 test on alkali-silica reactivity has been used to measure the potential alkali reactivity of NWA as well as of LWA. It is measured on mortar bars made with the aggregate to be tested. The bars are immersed in 1N-NaOH solution at 80C. The test takes only 14 days. It has been considered to be a rather harsh test for determining if the aggregates are reactive or not. The expansion limits are < 0,1% for very good performance, but if the sample shows more than 0,2% expansion they fail the test.

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TESTING OF SELECTED TYPES OF LWA

In order to obtain comparison between the LWA types used in the project, at least one type of LWA was selected from each category of the commercially available materials and each of the new materials from Vasim were tested as well. The partners from Tasks 2 and 3 did each several tests on the same and/or different materials. Table 1 shows the selection of materials and where they were tested. The task was split between the partners such that the new materials were all tested by Vasim and then double -tested by the other partners, except material number 3, which was only tested by Vasim. At IBRI, at least one type of each LWA was run through all the proposed LWA tests of prEN 13055-1 and the results from the producers are obtained on their own materials according to the prEN 13055-1 and/or their own, local methods. The reason for this testing scheme was to obtain a good comparison by running all these LWA materials through the proposed CEN-standard methods, compare the results to the currently used methods and point out the differences/complications if any occurred. Table 1. Selection of LWA materials tested
LWA- materials ExClay IBRI Lias-Franken Vasim

Leca 290 (ord) 4-10 mm, round Leca 700 4-8 and 8-12 mm Leca 800 4-8 and 8-12 mm Liapor 3 4-8 mm Liapor 4 4-8 and 8-16 mm Liapor 5 4-8 Liapor 8 4-8 Liapor 9.5 4-8 Solite USA 4-16 mm Seyishla -scoria 4-8 and 8-12 mm Hekla pumice Snfellsjkull pumice Lytag (UK) 4-12 mm Lytag (NL) 0.4-4, 4-8, 6-12 mm New material Vasim no. 1 New material Vasim no. 3 New material Vasim no. 5 New material Vasim no. 7 New material Vasim no. 8 New material Vasim no. 9

x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x

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6 6.1

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION General

All test results are listed in this chapter, as tested by the different partners, set up in separate tables. The results are discussed in chapter 6.6.

6.2

Results of LWA testing at IBRI

Table 2. Measurements made at IBRI according to test methods in prEN-13055 and others as indicated: Materials/ Test methods
Loose bulk (kg/m3 ) Particle density (kg/dm3 ) Moisture (%) 24 hr water absorpt. (%) Crushing resistance. (N/mm2 ) Freeze-thaw resist. (%)prEN1367 Freeze-thaw resist. (%) Nordtest Freeze-thaw resist. (%) DIN Alkali reactivity (%exp .) ASTM Resistance to disintegration (%) Chloride content (%) Sulphate content (%) Loss on ignition (%)
PumiceH PumiceS (4-8) (4-16) Scoria (0-64) Liapor 8 (4-8) Lytag UK Vasim 5 Vasim 8 Vasim 9 Solite US (4-12) (4-8) (4-8) (4-8) (4-16)

304 0,8 110 19,3 15,2 1,9 0,0 3,0 0,019 2,26 0,0037 0,0127 1,11

368 1,6 54 9,9 14,4 1,4 0,1 2,4 0,042 1,39 0,0024 0,0074 1,1

693 1,9 18 6,3 19,4 0,2 0,0 0,9 0,034 0,98

807 1,5 20 12,1

765 1,6 11 8,6

793/ 825 1,5 28,5 21,8

954 1,7 27,2 10,8

937 1,6 20,9 11,9

769 1,4 6,3 8,4

0,6 0,3 0,9 0,057 0,25

0,7 0,4 1,0 0,036 2,23 0,0022 0,0646 4,97

1,7 9,7 1,7 0,043 0,14

0,3 0,0 0,009 0,3

0,1 0,0 0,4 0,018 0,3

0,2 0,0 0,4 0,052 0,45

0,0008 0,0017 0,0025 0,2479 0,11 0,11

0,0036 0,0014 0,0004 <0,00002 0,0801 0,0184 0,0235 0,0617 11 4,75 4,95 0

Most of the results do not indicate any significant differences compared to local test methods used (which are in some cases the same as in prEN13055-1). This can be observed by comparing these to the values given in the data-sheets (Document BE96-3942/MG/R1a). There seems to be the most difference in values given for the particle density and water absorption as well as for the crushing resistance. This is further discussed in chapter 6.6.

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6.3

Results of LWA testing at Vasim

Table 3. Results of LWA testing and concrete mix tests at Vasim on all new materials and Lytag basic production
LWA-Materials Loose bulk density [kg/m] Particle density [kg/m] Particle geometry Aggregate size Particle size distribution Sieve (mm), rest % 20 16 12,5 8 6,3 5,6 4 2 1 0,5 0,125 Fines, < 0,063mm Water absorption 30 minutes [% by mass] 24 hours [% by mass] Crushing resistance NEN 3543 Concrete mix-test Cement: CEM I 32,5 R W/c ratio: 0,47 Sand : 40% LWA : 60% Absorption water Slump Density kg/m (wet) Cube strength 28 days Tensile strength 28 days Vasim 1 4-8 mm 840 1470 Clo-sphr 4-8 mm Vasim 1 8-16 mm 850 1480 Clo-sphr 8-16 mm Vasim 3 4-8 mm 710 1360 Clo-sphr 4-8 mm Vasim 3 6-12 mm 720 1370 Clo-sphr 6-12 mm Vasim 5 4-16 mm 720 1230 Clo-sphr 4-16 mm Vasim 7 4-12 mm 780 1460 Clo-sphr 4-12 mm Vasim 8 4-12 mm 740 1370 Clo-sphr 4-12 mm Vasim 9 4-12 mm 760 1400 Clo-sphr 4-12 mm

0 5 93 99

0 29 92 99 100

0 3 29 49 92 97

0 7 85 97 97 98 98

0 16 33 62 77 84 96 99

0 2 69 92 95 98 98

0 5 64 87 91 96 97

0 0 41 84 91 96 98

0,5 31 33 5,2 MPa

0,4 30 32 4,8 MPa 320 kg 150 litre 761 kg 425 kg 124 litre 2054 kg 50,3 3,5

2 14 15 5,5 MPa

1 16 19 5,0 MPa 320 kg 150 litre 761 kg 384 kg 61 litre 1911 kg 44,4 3,2

0,3 24 25 5,1 MPa 320 kg 150 litre 761 kg 530 kg 143 litre 1904 kg 40,1 3,2

1 13 15 7,0 MPa 320 kg 150 litre 761 kg 629 kg 101 litre 1961 kg 48,3 3,6

2 16 18 6,1 MPa 320 kg 150 litre 761 kg 590 kg

1 14 16 6,8 MPa 320 kg 150 litre 761 kg 603 kg

213 kg 61 litre

205 kg 30 litre

1928 kg 40,3 3,0

1937 kg 47,7 3,5

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Table 3, continued
LWA-Materials
Loose bulk density [kg/m] Particle density [kg/m] Particle geometry Aggregate size Particle size distribution Sieve (mm), rest % 20 16 12,5 8 6,3 5,6 4 2 1 0,5 0,125 Fines, < 0,063mm Water absorption 30 minutes [% by mass] 24 hours [% by mass] Crushing resistance NEN 3543 Resistance to disintegration Chloride content Sulphate content Total sulphur content Loss on ignition Harmful components Concrete mix-test Cement: CEM I 32,5 R W/c ratio: 0,47 Sand : 32 % LWA : 68 % Absorption water Slump Density kg/m (wet) Cube strength 28 days Tensile strength 28 days

Lytag 0,5-4 mm
780 Clo-sphr 0,5-4 mm

Lytag 4-8 mm
780 1420 Clo-sphr 4-8 mm

Lytag 6-12 mm
760 1400 Clo-sphr 6-12 mm

0 < 15 55-75 > 85 < 5,0 good < 0,02 % < 1,0 % < 5,0 % none

0 < 15 % > 85 > 97

0 < 15 > 85 >97

< 2,0 15 18 >5,0 MPa good < 0,02 % < 1,0 % < 5,0 % none

< 2,0 15 18 >4,0 MPa Good < 0,02 % < 1,0 % < 5,0 % None 320 kg 150 litre 622 kg 523 kg 94 litre 1918 kg 48,5 3,7

177 kg 32 litre

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6.4

Results of LWA testing at ExClay

Table 4. Leca materials and Vasims new materials 1, 7 and 8 tested at ExClay
Materials Test method L290 (4-10r) L700 (4-8) L700 (8-12) L800 (4-8) L800 (8-12) Vasim 1 (8-16) Vasim 7 Vasim 8 (4-12) (4-10)

Bulk density dry (kg/m3 ) prEN Bulk density moist (kg/m3 ) prEN Moisture (%) prEN

291 322

669 670 0,1 10,1 13,8 0 5,75 7,3

659 660 0,2 10,1 13,8 0,1 6,69 6,3

803 805 0,2 7 11 0,1 5,75 9,8

772 775 0,4 9,4 12,9 0,2 6,7 8,5

825 1,65
part-den

748 835 11,6 15,7 18,4 2,2 6,21 5,1

810 980 21 11,6 14,2 2,2 6,12 7

10,7 1 hr water absorpt. (%) Ex- 9


Clay method 24 hr water absorpt. (%) ExClay method Filler (%)ExClay method method Crushing resist. (N/mm2 ) ExClay meth

29 28 30 0 6,75 5,72

12

4,2 Fineness modulus ExClay 6,24 1,1

6.5

Results of LWA testing at Lias-Franken


Table 5. Liapor materials tested at Lias-Franken Leichtbaustoffe
Liapor 3 (4-8) 327 331 0,61 0,3 12,5 16,1 12,7 14,5 Liapor 4 (4-8) 414 420 0,79 0,1 10,8 15,6 23,7 28,3 Liapor 5 (4-8) 490 503 0,91 0,3 8,0 17,2 41,2 55,1 Liapor 9.5 (4-8) 922 945 1,65 0,3 6,5 11,0 179,7 325,3 Materials/ Test method Bulk density dry (kg/m3 ) prEN Bulk density moist (kg/m3 ) prEN Particle density (kg/dm3 ) prEN Moisture (%) prEN 1 hr water absorpt. (%) prEN 24 hr water absorpt. (%) prEN Crushing resist. (kN) DIN 4226-2 Crushing resist. (kN) prEN

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6.6

Discussion

Results that show the greatest difference between the test performed according to the proposed prEN 13055-1 and the national or local methods are from particle density and water absorption tests as well as the crushing resistance tests. The relevance of these tests to concrete performance is discussed in the Structural LWAC. Specification and guideline for materials and productionreport BE96-3942/R14. Other tests that show different results are the three freeze -thaw tests that were carried out at IBRI.

6.6.1

Freeze-thaw tests on LWA

At some point during the work of CEN/TC154/SC5 on LWA, the freeze-thaw resistance method prEN1367-1 was suggested to be used for LWA, but was then withdrawn from the draft of 130551. The reason for this is the following: The freeze-thaw method prEN 1367-1 is specially designed for normal weight aggregates. It is mostly based on the test method DIN-52 104, part 1, method N. The aggregates are submerged in water and go through 10 cycles of freezing at -17,5 C and thawing at 20 C. This method is fully valid and has certain references to the performance of the final product made by normal weight aggregates (NWA), but does not seem to apply to the majority of LWA. During this test, the LWA is totally submerged in water, thus saturating completely (or most of) the aggregate and when subject to - 17,5 C, the water expands when transformed to ice and breaks the walls between the pores in the aggregate. NWA are not subjected to this harsh treatment as the water is not inside the sample, but only in what fractures might be there or other weaknesses and therefore this test is excellent for this type of material to test its weaknesses. The porosity of a LWA is their benefit, not a weakness, and therefore most LWA in concrete, or other final structure, have good frost resistance as expected. Most LWAs designed for concrete withstand very well the concrete freeze-thaw tests performed on them and LWAC have a record of good durability even in harsh environments. Several types of LWA that have been used for years and have proved good performance in their final structures, fail the freeze-thaw test prEN 1367-1. These materials are for example natural pumice and some types of Liapor and Leca. In the latest version of prEN-13055-1 a new type of freeze-thaw test is included and required in the case of absence of long-term experience. This test is the method P of the German standard DIN-52 104, part 1 and is described here in chapter 4. Instead of testing the LWA submerged in water/ice, it is frozen in air (after soaking in water) and thawed in a water bath. The cycles are 20 instead of 10 and the freezing at 15 C instead of -17,5 C. These two tests and the Nordtest method (see description in chapter 4) were all carried out on the materials tested at IBRI. The results are summarized in figure 1. It is obvious from the figure, that the tests do show different results. It should be pointed out that on the legends in figure 1, the new prEN-13055-2 test is the same as DIN 52104-1. The reason for these different results is both the different temperatures used, different number of cycles and difference due to submerging in ice or air.

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Frost resistance
12,0 10,0 W 8,0 eig htl os 6,0 s (% 4,0 ) 2,0 0,0 Pumice Liapor Lytag H 8 Scoria Pumice Solite S Vasim Vasim Vasim 5 8 9

prEN 1367-1 Nordtest DIN52104-1

Figure 1. Difference between the three freeze-thaw tests performed on the LWAs at IBRI

An explanation for the higher breakdown of LWA in the new test is that the cycles are twice as many as in the prEN-test and even though tested in air, the material is soaked in water prior to testing. This causes the more porous materials (natural materials that do not have a burnt, glassy surface) to absorb water that expands during the freezing cycles. The freeze-thaw resistance tests of LWA have not any proven relation to their performance in concrete and these tests should be used for production control only.

6.6.2

Water absorption

It was discussed by the EuroLightCon-partners that the test results from this test method do not give the concrete-producers the absorption information they require for their mix-design. This method gives the initial reading after 5 minutes and then 2 and 24 hrs. The initial (before the 5 minutes) absorption is thus lost information as the very porous LWA do absorb most of their moisture in the very first minutes after immersion in water. Furthermore the material is completely dried prior to testing, which is very rare in reality as the LWA are usually in some moist condition. They are either drying out or in the wetting stage and their absorption behaviour depends on which moisture condition they actually possess (see also report R14). The test method does only cover materials in the size range 4-31.5 mm and no test on the sand fraction is given or referred to. Report R14 (Structural LWAC. Specification and guideline for materials and production) discusses this and gives a reference to an alternative method for testing the particle density of LWA sand.

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6.6.3

Particle strength crushing resistance

As pointed out in the report R14 no method exists to measure the strength of LWA directly. Instead the crushing resistance test is taken as an indirect measure for particle strength. From the results presented in chapter 5.5 on Liapor material, it is obvious that the method used has a large impact on the results. There, both the prEN method is used and the method from the German LWA standard. The difference is large, and increases as the materials have higher crushing resistance. It was observed in addition, that the already high standard deviation for the strength values was even higher for the new test procedure in prEN 13055-1 for strong spherical LWA (e.g. Liapor 9.5). Thus it may be concluded that the new test gives sometimes less reliable than the old test procedure. It is also pointed out in the mentioned report that the crushing resistance should not be considered for the prediction of concrete strength as in general; there does not exist any correlation between the crushing resistance and the concrete strength. The determination of crushing resistance is intended only for production control.

6.6.4

Alkali-silica reactivity testing

The prEN 13055-1 does not give reference to any test method for alkali-silica reactivity, but briefly discusses the phenomena. The potential alkali-silica reactivity is explained in the report 3.3 and some methods discussed. The ASTM-1260 test on alkali-silica reactivity has been used to measure the potential alkali reactivity of NWA as well as of LWA. It is measured on mortar bars made with the aggregate to be tested. The bars are immersed in 1N-NaOH solution at 80C. The test takes only 14 days. It has been considered to be a rather harsh test for determining if the aggregates are reactive or not. The expansion limits are < 0,1 % for very good performance but if the sample shows more than 0,2 % expansion they fail the test. In task 2.2, nine samples of different types of LWA were tested according to ASTM-1260. The materials were chosen from each category: expanded clay, expanded glass and natural materials as well as some experimental LWAs made of recycled materials (see table 2, chapter 8.2). All samples pass the test with very low expansions of only 0,01-0,06 %.

6.6.5

General on requirements of LWA for structural concrete

The producers in Task 2 all share the opinion that the information on the LWA itself is of importance, but only tells half the story of the LWA when incorporated in LWAC. Therefore the tests on LWA should be limited to basic needs for the mix-designer of the concrete and the producer should give information on the limits for their material instead. This is further explained in report R14.

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REFERENCES

EuroLightCon. Baseline report data sheets. Report BE96-3942/1A, 1997 EuroLightCon. Structural LWAC. Specification and guideline for materials and production. Report BE96-3942/R14 CEN/TC154/SC5 DOC. N 387: Lightweight aggregate for concrete, mortar and grout prEN 13055-1. Working document revised February 2000. CEN/TC154/SC5 DOC. N 378: Lightweight aggregates. Part 2: Lightweight aggregates for unbound and bound applications excluding concrete, mortar and grout. Draft prEN 13055-2. Working document revised October 1999. Nordtest Method NT-Build 485 "Aggregates: Frost resistance test using 1% NaCl", approved 1998-11 (UDC: 666.97,691.3; Proj.1214-95; ISSN0283-7153)

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8
LWA LWAC NWA NWC w/b w/c CEB CEN CTR ELC EN FIB FIP TC

NOMENCLATURE
Lightweight aggregate Lightweight aggregate concrete Normal weight aggregate Normal weight concrete water binder ratio water cement ratio Comit Euro-international du Bton Comit Europen de Normalisation Cost Time Resources (form) EuroLightCon European Standard Fderation Internationale du Bton Fderation Internationale de la Prcontrainte Technical Committee (CEN)

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