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We are asked to compare the Qorifice to the Qvolumetric tank in a given coefficient of discharge of 0.72. In the previous laboratory exercise we calibrated the orifice by getting its coefficient of discharge, now we use CD to know if we are doing the right procedure on getting the actual rate of discharge. Rate of discharge will be the true value because we all know that it is the average rate of discharge considering the friction of the wall on the orifice. After the laboratory exercise Qorifice now is 4.99 x 10-5 m3/s (without friction) and Qvolumetric tank is 4.93 x 10-5 m3/s. If you notice the Qvt is smaller than the Qorifice, it is because of the friction. If you consider friction velocity will drop down so by the formula the rate if discharge will also go down. And if Im right, group 2, 3, and

5 have a wrong data because their Qvt is higher than Qorifice. Our percentage error is 1.22% 3rd to the lowest and 2nd in the correct data. It is only student who will make error on this laboratory exercise not the instruments being used. The possible source of error are; first, the timing of the persons holding the stopwatch and the graduated cylinder. Second, is how read the caliper, in the previous laboratory exercises caliper is one of the important instruments it is very useful on measuring small sizes of things like the opening of the orifice. Third, the behavior of the water in the circular orifice, it is very important that the water is table so that it will not affect the velocity of the water in the opening of the orifice.

Conclusion

After this laboratory exercise 13, determination of rate of discharge through a circular orifice, I was able to understand the factors affecting the rate of discharge through a circular orifice. One of the factors is the height of the water level or what you called the head. This height can affect the velocity of the water discharge at the orifice. Next factor is the size of the opening of the orifice, the bigger the size of the orifice greater rate of discharge will occur, vice versa. Another factor is the coefficient of discharge we all know that it is the ratio between rate of discharge actual and rate of discharge theoretical.

I now understand why it is important to calibrate first the orifice you use to know what is the ratio between the actual and theoretical value of the rate of discharge. In dam operations all of the gate has a known coefficient of discharge so that they can easily compute the volume of the water and the time of the interval in releasing the water. All in all the laboratory exercise 13 is a successful one, although the highest percentage error is 3% it is acceptable. On our group having a percentage difference of 1.22% is okay enough to tell that we performed well.

Sketch/Picture of the set-up Note: Set-up shows the procedure for determining the rate of discharge through a circular orifice.

1. In order to know if we understand the previous laboratory exercise we change the orifice we use.

3. The stopwatch used to get the time during the water is being collected by the graduated cylinder. Shows 13.40 seconds

2. Shows how we collect the water in the circular orifice to the graduated cylinder at a certain amount of time.

Answer the following: 1. The air space in the closed tank presented below has a pressure of 50 kPa. It contains a liquid having a of 8.8 kN/m3. Calculate the rate of discharge through the 3-cm orifice having a coefficient of discharge of 0.68. (Hint: use Bernoullis equation and assume an ideal condition in the system.) Given:

Solution:

2. Considering again the figure above, what will be the increase in the rate of discharge if the pressure moves up to 60 kPa? Solution:

3. Percentage error, | |

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