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JOURNAL OF COMPUTING, VOLUME 4, ISSUE 3, MARCH 2012, ISSN 2151-9617 HTTPS://SITES.GOOGLE.COM/SITE/JOURNALOFCOMPUTING/ WWW.JOURNALOFCOMPUTING.

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Exploring Statistical Aspects using Arena for Simulation Results of WRONs by OWns
Asima Nisar*
Abstract Arena contains a set of built-in functions for generating random variates from the commonly used probability distributions. These distributions appear on drop-down menus in many Arena modules where theyre likely to be used. They also match the distributions in the Arena Input Analyzer (except for the Johnson Distribution). Simulation refers to a broad collection of methods and applications to mimic the behavior of real systems, usually on a computer with appropriate software and Arena is the Best choice for this. SIMAN simulation language underlies Arena. These days simulation is more popular and powerful than ever since computers and software are better than ever [4]. Arena is used to interprete simulation results statistically, obtained by using OWns regarding Optical WDM networks. Index Terms OWns (Optical WDM network simulator), CBR (Constant Bit Rate), RWA (Routing and Wavelength Assignment), WDM (Wavelength Division Multiplexing), WRONs (Wavelength Routed Optical Networks),

1. INTRODUCTION
Xploring the statistical behavior for any dataset is an essential part of understanding that data. The paper understudy is the sequel of my first research paper in which I studied the Effects of Packet Size and Wavelength Numbers on Delay and Link Utilization in WRONs by using OWns. Exploring Statistical aspects using Arena for simulation results of WRONs by OWns is the main issue of this research paper. For two session traffics Exponential and CBR, the statistical behavior is noticed for both network performance parameters; Average Packet Delay and Link Utilization. These findings can be useful to understand nature of the data, so that it can be interpreted statistically. WDM, WRONs, Topology of Optical WDM networks, Optical Layers and Sub-Layers, Components and Architectural briefings of OWns are mentioned in Section 2 as Background, Related Work and Working with Arena is discussed in section 3 and 4. Conclusion and future work is mentioned in section 5. Finally, References are listed in section 6.

When there are no wavelength converters in the network, RWA must follow the wavelength continuity constraint such that each lightpath uses the same wavelength on all the links traversed [1].

2.1 Topology of Optical WDM Networks

Fig. 1 Topology of Optical WDM networks

Optical mesh networks enable a variety of dynamic services such as: Bandwidth-on-Demand (BoD), Just-in-Time Bandwidth, Bandwidth Scheduling, Bandwidth Brokering, and Optical Virtual Private Networks (OVPNs) [2].

2. BACKGROUND
WDM is a promising approach for using the extensive bandwidth available in an optical communication medium. The concept of multiple wavelengths carrying traffic belonging to different sessions along the same physical link is called WDM. There has been significant research on realizing WDM over OWANs. WRONs have great potential for better utilizing the large bandwidth provided by WDM technology. Network nodes in WRONs are capable of switching end-to-end all-optical connections, which are called lightpaths. RWA (Routing and Wavelength Assignment) provisions network resources for a lightpath.

2.2 Optical Layers and its Sub-Layers

Fig. 2 Optical Layers and its Sub-Layers

a.

* Asima Nisar is Assistant Professor in Dept. of Computer Science & I.T., Federal Urdu University of Arts, Sciences and Technology, Gulshan Campus, Karachi 75300, Pakistan.

b.

Optical Channel Layer provides wavelength routing and switching functions to establish end-to-end optical connections between network nodes for transparent data delivery. Optical Multiplex Layer is responsible for the aggregation of multiple signals.

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c.

Optical Transmission Layer handles transmission of optical signals on different types of optical fibers such as single-mode and/or multi-mode fibers [3].

OWns adopts a certain level of abstraction to build the specific switching schemes of WDM networks (e.g. circuit switching) based on the packet switching framework of ns2. A new class of traffic sources termed the session traffic is implemented to generate traffic sessions suitable for WDM circuit switching simulations. The traffic generator randomizes source and destination pairs according to their uniform distribution. By default, all generated multiwavelength links have the same wavelength number and all wavelengths have the same bandwidth [1].

3. RELATED WORK
In my previous research paper [1], I used OWns to run simulation instances to evaluate two network performance parameters Average Packet Delay and Link Utilization for both session traffics; Exponential and CBR.

Fig. 3 WRON with Mesh topology [1]

2.3 Why OWns? There are simulation tools available for developing, exchanging, and comparing results for research in optical networks. Optical WDM network simulators include; OWns, ONSS (Optical Network Simulation System), OPNET (Optimum Network Performance), and ONDES (Optical Network Design and Evaluation Simulator). OWns possess the high performance comparison parameters among all. 2.4 OWns: Components and Architecture The OWns architecture encompasses the key characteristics of WDM networks including optical switching nodes, multi-wavelength links, and RWA algorithms.

3.1 Working with OWns The default scenario generation tool of OWns is utilized to generate random topology and traffic. Exponential session traffic and CBR session traffic sources are used for a 100 node random topology separately under same simulation configurations while varying packet size ranging from 100 to 1000 bytes. The script presented in the simulator as Demo Topology is used to invoke topology generation tool and configure this simulation. Through this script the RWA algorithm with fixed-alternate shortest path routing and first-fit wavelength assignment is evaluated. The wavelength conversion factor, wavelength conversion distance, connectivity probability, traffic pair density, and load per traffic pair are set as 0.5, 4, 0.03, 0.6, and 0.3 Erlangs respectively. Wavelength routing is performed on the shortest path. Following are the simulation results shown by graphs obtained by working with OWns, as my previous research work [1].
3.2.1 Exponential Session Traffic with Static Routing Protocol

Fig.5 Exponential Session Traffic [1 Fig. 5a]

Fig.4 OWns Components Organization and Interactions [1]

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Input Analyzer has the ability to fit Nine (9) probabilistic models simultaneously and computes the Mean Square Error. These nine probabilistic models include Normal, Triangular, Beta, Uniform, Weibull, Erlang, Gamma, Lognormal, and Exponential. It also provides the relevant graph with Best-Fit curve having least mean square error. Input Analyzer tool is used repeatedly to compute the statistical properties of simulation data obtained by the Simulator OWns for both session traffics Exponential and CBR to know the behavior of Average Packet Delay and Link Utilization for WRONs.

4.1 Results obtained by Input Analyzer Tool for Exponential Session Traffic
Fig. 6 Exponential Session Traffic [1 Fig. 5b]

3.2.2 CBR Session Traffic with Static Routing Protocol

Table 1: showing the Statistical behavior of two comparison parameters for Simulation Results of Exponential Session Traffic Exponential Traffic
16 Wavelengths 32 Wavelengths 48 Wavelengths 64 Wavelengths

Average Packet Delay


Normal (1.83, 0.0589) Beta 1.72+0.27*Beta(1.21, 1.23) Beta 1.73+0.3*Beta(1.06, 1.09) Weibull 1.74+Weib(0.181, 1.81)

Link Utilization
Lognormal (0.00789, 0.00032) Weibull (0.0074, 26.3) Normal (0.00704, 0.000293) Lognormal (0.00694, 0.000285)

Fig. 7 CBR Session Traffic [1 Fig. 6a]

4.2 Results obtained by Input Analyzer Tool for CBR Session Traffic
Table 2: showing the Statistical behavior of two comparison parameters for Simulation Results of CBR Session Traffic Exponential Traffic
16 Wavelengths Fig. 8 CBR Session Traffic [1 Fig. 6b] 32 Wavelengths 48 Wavelengths 64 Wavelengths

Average Packet Delay


Beta 1.86+0.06*Beta(2.31, 2.71) Beta (1.3, 1.2) Normal (1.94, 0.038) Uniform (1.86, 2.06)

Link Utilization
No spread in data No spread in data No spread in data No spread in data

4. WORKING WITH ARENA


Arena is a true Microsoft Windows operating system application. Additionally, it is fully compatible with other Windows software, like word processors, spreadsheets, and CAD packages [4]. Input Analyzer tool of Arena is used to study the statistical behavior of Simulation results obtained by using OWns.

2012 Journal of Computing Press, NY, USA, ISSN 2151-9617 http://sites.google.com/site/journalofcomputing/

JOURNAL OF COMPUTING, VOLUME 4, ISSUE 3, MARCH 2012, ISSN 2151-9617 HTTPS://SITES.GOOGLE.COM/SITE/JOURNALOFCOMPUTING/ WWW.JOURNALOFCOMPUTING.ORG

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4.3 Statistical and Graphical Analysis by Input Analyzer Tool for Exponential Session Traffic
Arena Input Analyzer is a separate application which helps in fitting of probability distributions to data observed on quantities subject to variation [4]. Its tabular and graphical manipulation of observed simulation results for Exponential Session Traffic with 16 Wavelength Numbers is as under: Table 3: Statistical Analysis of Exponential Session Traffic with 16 Wavelength Numbers Function Sq Error ----------------------------------Normal 0.126 Triangular 0.128 Beta 0.137 Uniform 0.14 Weibull 0.143 Erlang 0.166 Gamma 0.167 Lognormal 0.199 Exponential 0.202

6. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Special thanks to Dr. Qamar Saeed, Professor in GSESIT - Hamdard University, who facilitated in working with Arena.

7. REFERENCES
[1] Simulation with Asima Nisar, Effects of Packet Size and Wavelength Numbers on Delay and Link Utilization in WRONs by using OWns, Journal of Computing, Volume 2, Issue 8, August 2010, ISSN 2151-9617, pp (43-48) [2] Ning Zhang, Hong Bao. Design of Protection Technology in WDM Optical Network, IEEE DOI 10.1109/ICNDS.2009.121 [3] Ning Zhang, Hong Bao. Research on Protection Scheme in WDM Mesh Network, IEEE DOI 10.1109/ETCS.2009.685 [4] Simulation with Arena, Third Edition, W. David Kelton, Randall P.Sadowski, David T. Sturrock, pp (38, 49, 53, 86, 156-163)

Fig. 9 Graphical Analysis of Exponential Session Traffic with 16 Wavelength Numbers

Table 1 in section 4.1 and Table 2 in section 4.2, are generated by using Arenas Input Analyzer tool for Exponential and CBR both type of session traffics separately with 16, 32, 48 and 64 Wavelength Numbers to compare the two network perofrmance parameters, namely Average Packet Delay and Link Utilization.

5. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK


Arena provides a sound platform for elaborating the simulation results by its Input Analyzer tool. Arenas Input Analyzer Tool provides a deep statistical analysis by fitting different probabilistic models with Best-Fit graphs. Pareto session traffic must be integrated with OWns to study traffic analysis over OWANs.

Asima Nisar is born on 06th. of March, 1977. She is the Chairperson in Department of Computer Science & IT, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Sciences & Technology, Gulshan Campus, Karachi, Pakistan. She is the Ph.D. (Computer Science) candidate of Hamdard University, GSESIT (Graduate School of Engineering, Sciences & Information Technology), Karachi, Pakistan from Spring 2011. She did her MS (Computer Science) from PAF-KIET in Summer - 2010. She did her M.Sc. (Computer Science) from NED University of Engineering & Technology in 2001. She has published two survey research papers in Technology Forces, Journal of Engineering and Sciences, ISSN 1994-862x. She has two publications in Journal of Computing, ISSN 2151-9617. Her fifth paper has been published in Market forces Journal of Management Thought, ISSN 1816-8434. This paper is her sixth research paper. Her research interests include: Survivability Issues against Multi-link Failures in Multi-domain Optical WDM Networks.

2012 Journal of Computing Press, NY, USA, ISSN 2151-9617 http://sites.google.com/site/journalofcomputing/