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Voltage Vector Controller for Rotor Field-Oriented

Control of Induction Motor Based on Motional


Electromotive Force
Ming MENG
School of Electrical Engineering, North China Electric Power University
No. 619 Yonghua North Road
Baoding 071003, China

Abstract- According to the principle of electromechanical flux and even arbitrary flux [3]. The vector control can be
energy conversion and reference frame transformation theory, realized through current vector or voltage vector. Induction
it is demonstrated that rotor field orientation decouples not only motors may be fed by current-source inverter (CSI) or
flux linkage and torque but also rotor transformer voltage-source inverter (VSI) [4]. After field-oriented
electromotive force (TEMF) and rotor motion electromotive
control, direct torque control (DTC) [5] and direct self control
force (MEMF). The rotor MEMF is controlled in field-oriented
control (FOC), direct torque control (DTC) and direct self (DSC) [6] were developed and applied to induction motors
control (DSC). The control of torque and speed in high performance drives successfully.
variable-frequency induction motor drives can be achieved by On the other hand, the principle of electromechanical
control of rotor MEMF. Moreover, a voltage vector controller energy conversion is the basic principle of electromechanical
for rotor field-oriented control of induction motor based on energy converter which transforms electrical into mechanical
control of MEMF is presented and it can achieve not only energy. Induction motor is classed as a very complex and
constant torque control but also constant power control. The important electromechanical device [7]. FOC, DTC and DSC
results of simulation show that the proposed control scheme has put too much emphasis on decoupling flux and torque control.
good dynamic performance and an effective new way for the
Although the principle of electromechanical energy
high performance speed control of induction motors is provided.
conversion is an important tool for rotating electrical machine
I. INTRODUCTION analysis, it is rarely used to analyze induction motors’ FOC.
Induction motors with squirrel-cage rotors are the In this paper, based on the principle of electromechanical
workhorse of industry due to their reliability, low cost and energy conversion and coordinate transformation theory, it is
rugged construction. However, compared with DC motors, demonstrated that the function of TEMF and MEMF in the
induction motors are more difficult in speed control and not process of electromechanical energy conversion is decoupled
suitable for high dynamic performance applications because by transformation from phase reference frame to two-phase
of their complex inherent nonlinear dynamics. So induction orthogonal reference frame and rotor field orientation
motors commonly run at essentially constant speed, whereas decouples not only flux linkage and torque but also rotor
dc motors are preferred for variable-speed drives. The TEMF and rotor MEMF. The rotor MEMF is controlled in
situation has changed dramatically with the advent of FOC, DTC and DSC. The control of torque and speed in
field-oriented control (FOC) or vector control theory [1] and variable-frequency induction motor drives can be achieved by
the advances in power electronics and modern control of rotor MEMF. In addition, a voltage vector
microcomputers [2]. Field-oriented control techniques controller for rotor field-oriented control of induction motor
incorporating fast microprocessors have made induction based on control of MEMF is proposed and it can achieve not
motors attractive candidates for high performance drives. only constant torque control but also constant power control.
Induction motors have competed with and will replace dc The performance of the proposed scheme is investigated in
motors in high-performance control areas. simulation using MATLAB/SIMULINK at different
As the flux and torque control variables of DC motors are operating condition. It is found that the presented control
inherently physically decoupled by commutators and brushes, technique provides good dynamic performance and the
DC motor drives can have very good dynamic behavior. analysis is valid. An effective new way for the high
Based on this principle, the field-oriented control made performance speed control of induction motors is given.
induction motor drives similar to separately excited DC motor The rest of this paper is organized as follows. Firstly, the
drives in the independent control of flux and torque by means MEMF control principles are described in Section II. In
of coordinate transformation and rotor flux vector orientation SectionIII, the voltage vector controller for rotor FOC of
[1]. The oriented field may be rotor flux, airgap flux, stator induction motor based on control of rotor MEMF is
developed. SectionIV represents and analyzes the simulation
results using MATLAB/SIMULINK. Finally, the conclusions
This work was supported by the PhD Teacher Research Foundation of
North China Electric Power University. are given for the whole paper.

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1-4244-0737-0/07/$20.00 2007
c IEEE
II. MEMF CONTROL PRINCIPLES which are reactive powers and the latter, namely MEMFs,
produce active powers. Equation (3), (4), (5) and (6) show
A. Decoupling TEMF and MEMF
that the function of TEMF and MEMF in electromechanical
The reference frame transformation and field orientation energy conversion is decoupled by transformation from
are the elements of FOC. In the analysis of AC motor vector three-phase stationary coordinate to two-phase synchronously
control, the commonly used reference frames are three-phase rotating coordinate.
stationary coordinate, two-phase synchronously rotating In rotor field-oriented coordinate, equation (5) and (6) may
coordinate and field-oriented coordinate [8]. be expressed as repectively [2]
In three-phase stationary coordinate, the induction motor
voltage equation may be expressed in matrix form as [7] 0 = Rr ird + pψ r (7)
di ∂ L 0 = Rrirq + ωslψ r . (8)
u = Ri + L + ωr i. (1)
dt ∂θ
Equation (7) and (8) show that rotor TEMF and rotor
Where u is voltage vector, i is current vector, R is resistance
MEMF are decoupled by rotor field-orientation in two-phase
matrix, L is inductance matrix, ș is electrical angle between A
synchronously rotating coordinate. Hence, the rotor field
phase axis and a phase axis, Ȧr=dș/dt is rotor electrical
orientation decouples not only flux and torque but also TEMF
frequency, Ldi/dt is TEMF vector and ˜L/˜șȦri is MEMF
and MEMF in rotor.
vector.
If equation (1) is multiplied by iT, the power balance B. Modeling
equation is obtained as The rotor MEMF is defined as er=Ȧslȥr. So in rotor
di 1 ∂L 1 ∂L field-oriented coordinate, the induction motor voltage
T
iNu 䰉 iN T
䯴 i L + iT
Ri 䯷 T
ω r i䯵 + i T ωr i . equations can be expressed as
Input dt 2 ∂θ
Ohmic 
2
 ∂θ
(2)
electrical loss Ouput
power power Stored magnetic power
mechanical Rs (1 + Tr p) σ L (1 + Tr p) p
power usd = ψr + s ψr
Lm Lm (9)
As follows from (2), the stored magnetic power, which is L σ LsTr
reactive power, is all of the sum of the powers defined as the + m pψ r − ωs er
Lr Lm
products of the current by the TEMF, and half the sum of the
powers defined as the products of the current by the MEMF. RsTr σ LT p
The mechanical power, which is active power, is equal to half usq = er + s r er
Lm Lm (10)
the sum of the powers defined as the products of the current
and the MEMF. Therefore, we may conclude that σ Ls (1 + Tr p) L
+ ωs ( + m )ψ r
electromechanical energy conversion involves only the Lm Lr
MEMF, whereas the TEMF does not contribute to this
conversion [9]. The above analyses show that the function of Lm
ψr = isd (11)
TEMF and MEMF in electromechanical energy conversion is 1 + Tr p
not decoupled.
In two-phase synchronously rotating coordinate, the Tr
isq = er . (12)
induction motor voltage equation may be expressed as [2] Lm
usd = Rsisd + pψ sd − ωsψ sq (3) Where Lm is magnetizing inductance, Ls is stator
self-inductance, Lr is rotor self-inductance, ı=1-L2m/LsLr is
usq = Rsisq + pψ sq + ωsψ sd (4) leakage factor and Tr=Lr/Rr is rotor time constant.
The electromagnetic torque can be expressed as
0 = Rrird + pψ rd − ωslψ rq (5)
ψr
Te = np er . (13)
0 = Rr irq + pψ rq + ωslψ rd . (6) Rr
Where usd is d-axis stator voltage, usq is q-axis stator voltage, Where np is number of pole pairs.
isd is d-axis stator current, isq is q-axis stator current, ird is C. Control Principles of Rotor MEMF
d-axis rotor current, irq is q-axis rotor current, ȥsd is d-axis
stator flux, ȥsq is q-axis stator flux, ȥrd is d-axis rotor flux, ȥrq As for rotor field-oriented control of induction motor, it is
is q-axis rotor flux, Rs is stator resistance, Rr is rotor found that control of rotor-oriented flux and rotor MEMF can
resistance, Ȧs is synchronous speed, p is differential operator control torque and speed from equations (11), (12) and (13).
and Ȧsl=Ȧs-Ȧr is slip frequency. pȥsd, pȥsq, pȥrd and pȥrq are Similar conclusion can be obtained for DTC and DSC. The
all TEMFs. Ȧsȥsd, Ȧsȥsq, Ȧslȥrd and Ȧslȥrq are all MEMFs. The basic principles of DTC and DSC are that the magnitude and
former, namely TEMFs, produce stored magnetic powers rotating speed of stator flux space vector are controlled by

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means of stator voltage space vector and the aim to control of er
torque and speed of induction motor is achieved. From the
standpoint of MEMF, the control of stator flux space vector ω* e r* usq*
R sT r
has the same function as control rotor MEMF. Therefore, the Lm
rotor MEMF is controlled in DTC and DSC. ω σ L sTr
×
In summary, the control of torque and speed in ω sl* ωs Lm

variable-frequency induction motor drives can be achieved by ÷


Ls θ
×
control of rotor oriented flux and rotor MEMF. Lm

Rs

ψr* Lm
usd*
III. VOLTAGE VECTOR CONTROLLER us
ψr
In the conventional vector control, the flux and torque are ψr
is
er ωm
controlled respectively and the speed controller generates
torque command or torque current command. As Fig. 1. The control system of direct rotor field-oriented based on control
above-mentioned the control of torque and speed in of REMF.
variable-frequency induction motor drives can be achieved by
control of rotor oriented flux and rotor MEMF. According to
above principle the rotor field-oriented control of induction
motor based on motional electromotive force is presented in
this paper. The main difference between the proposed vector
control method and the conventional method is that the speed

Speed (rad/s)
controller generates the rotor MEMF command.
A. Decoupling Voltage
The combine of feed and feedforward can make control
better [10]. The computer can make feedforward implement
easily. From (9) and (10) the steady equations are obtained as
Rs σLT (14)
usd = ψ r − ωs s r er Time (s)
Lm Lm Fig. 2. Speed response.

RsTr L (15)
usq = er + ωs s ψ r .
Lm Lm

Equation (14) and (15) are the voltage feedforward


decoupling equations.
Torque (Nm)

B. Control System
The proposed direct rotor field-oriented control system
using voltage vector is shown in Fig.1. The rotor flux and
rotor MEMF can be obtained through rotor flux current
model.
IV. SIMULATIONS Time (s)
Fig. 3. Torque response.
In order to verify the validity and dynamic performance of
the proposed control system based on rotor MEMF, the
numerical simulations have been carried out using
MATLAB/SIMULINK. The motor started with no-load.
When the motor ran at steady angular speed 100rad/s the
motor began to accelerate until its steady angular speed is
Rotor MEMF (V)

240rad/s in the field-weakening. The simulation results of


rotor speed, torque and rotor MEMF are shown in Fig. 2 and
Fig. 3 and Fig. 4. It can be seen from these simulation results
that the proposed voltage vector controller based control of
rotor MEMF has good dynamic performance and can achieve
not only constant torque control with constant field but also
constant power control with weakening field.
Time (s)
Fig. 4. Rotor MEMF response.

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V. CONCLUSIONS Rotor resistance 0.228 ȍ
Based on the principle of electromechanical energy Stator leakage inductance 0.8 mH
conversion and reference frame transformation theory, it is Rotor leakage inductance 0.8 mH
demonstrated that rotor field orientation decouples not only Magnetizing inductance 34.7 mH
flux linkage and torque but also rotor transformer Inertia 1.662 kg.m2/s
electromotive force (TEMF) and rotor motion electromotive REFERENCES
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