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Electromotive Force

Ming MENG

School of Electrical Engineering, North China Electric Power University

No. 619 Yonghua North Road

Baoding 071003, China

Abstract- According to the principle of electromechanical flux and even arbitrary flux [3]. The vector control can be

energy conversion and reference frame transformation theory, realized through current vector or voltage vector. Induction

it is demonstrated that rotor field orientation decouples not only motors may be fed by current-source inverter (CSI) or

flux linkage and torque but also rotor transformer voltage-source inverter (VSI) [4]. After field-oriented

electromotive force (TEMF) and rotor motion electromotive

control, direct torque control (DTC) [5] and direct self control

force (MEMF). The rotor MEMF is controlled in field-oriented

control (FOC), direct torque control (DTC) and direct self (DSC) [6] were developed and applied to induction motors

control (DSC). The control of torque and speed in high performance drives successfully.

variable-frequency induction motor drives can be achieved by On the other hand, the principle of electromechanical

control of rotor MEMF. Moreover, a voltage vector controller energy conversion is the basic principle of electromechanical

for rotor field-oriented control of induction motor based on energy converter which transforms electrical into mechanical

control of MEMF is presented and it can achieve not only energy. Induction motor is classed as a very complex and

constant torque control but also constant power control. The important electromechanical device [7]. FOC, DTC and DSC

results of simulation show that the proposed control scheme has put too much emphasis on decoupling flux and torque control.

good dynamic performance and an effective new way for the

Although the principle of electromechanical energy

high performance speed control of induction motors is provided.

conversion is an important tool for rotating electrical machine

I. INTRODUCTION analysis, it is rarely used to analyze induction motors’ FOC.

Induction motors with squirrel-cage rotors are the In this paper, based on the principle of electromechanical

workhorse of industry due to their reliability, low cost and energy conversion and coordinate transformation theory, it is

rugged construction. However, compared with DC motors, demonstrated that the function of TEMF and MEMF in the

induction motors are more difficult in speed control and not process of electromechanical energy conversion is decoupled

suitable for high dynamic performance applications because by transformation from phase reference frame to two-phase

of their complex inherent nonlinear dynamics. So induction orthogonal reference frame and rotor field orientation

motors commonly run at essentially constant speed, whereas decouples not only flux linkage and torque but also rotor

dc motors are preferred for variable-speed drives. The TEMF and rotor MEMF. The rotor MEMF is controlled in

situation has changed dramatically with the advent of FOC, DTC and DSC. The control of torque and speed in

field-oriented control (FOC) or vector control theory [1] and variable-frequency induction motor drives can be achieved by

the advances in power electronics and modern control of rotor MEMF. In addition, a voltage vector

microcomputers [2]. Field-oriented control techniques controller for rotor field-oriented control of induction motor

incorporating fast microprocessors have made induction based on control of MEMF is proposed and it can achieve not

motors attractive candidates for high performance drives. only constant torque control but also constant power control.

Induction motors have competed with and will replace dc The performance of the proposed scheme is investigated in

motors in high-performance control areas. simulation using MATLAB/SIMULINK at different

As the flux and torque control variables of DC motors are operating condition. It is found that the presented control

inherently physically decoupled by commutators and brushes, technique provides good dynamic performance and the

DC motor drives can have very good dynamic behavior. analysis is valid. An effective new way for the high

Based on this principle, the field-oriented control made performance speed control of induction motors is given.

induction motor drives similar to separately excited DC motor The rest of this paper is organized as follows. Firstly, the

drives in the independent control of flux and torque by means MEMF control principles are described in Section II. In

of coordinate transformation and rotor flux vector orientation SectionIII, the voltage vector controller for rotor FOC of

[1]. The oriented field may be rotor flux, airgap flux, stator induction motor based on control of rotor MEMF is

developed. SectionIV represents and analyzes the simulation

results using MATLAB/SIMULINK. Finally, the conclusions

This work was supported by the PhD Teacher Research Foundation of

North China Electric Power University. are given for the whole paper.

1531

1-4244-0737-0/07/$20.00 2007

c IEEE

II. MEMF CONTROL PRINCIPLES which are reactive powers and the latter, namely MEMFs,

produce active powers. Equation (3), (4), (5) and (6) show

A. Decoupling TEMF and MEMF

that the function of TEMF and MEMF in electromechanical

The reference frame transformation and field orientation energy conversion is decoupled by transformation from

are the elements of FOC. In the analysis of AC motor vector three-phase stationary coordinate to two-phase synchronously

control, the commonly used reference frames are three-phase rotating coordinate.

stationary coordinate, two-phase synchronously rotating In rotor field-oriented coordinate, equation (5) and (6) may

coordinate and field-oriented coordinate [8]. be expressed as repectively [2]

In three-phase stationary coordinate, the induction motor

voltage equation may be expressed in matrix form as [7] 0 = Rr ird + pψ r (7)

di ∂ L 0 = Rrirq + ωslψ r . (8)

u = Ri + L + ωr i. (1)

dt ∂θ

Equation (7) and (8) show that rotor TEMF and rotor

Where u is voltage vector, i is current vector, R is resistance

MEMF are decoupled by rotor field-orientation in two-phase

matrix, L is inductance matrix, ș is electrical angle between A

synchronously rotating coordinate. Hence, the rotor field

phase axis and a phase axis, Ȧr=dș/dt is rotor electrical

orientation decouples not only flux and torque but also TEMF

frequency, Ldi/dt is TEMF vector and L/șȦri is MEMF

and MEMF in rotor.

vector.

If equation (1) is multiplied by iT, the power balance B. Modeling

equation is obtained as The rotor MEMF is defined as er=Ȧslȥr. So in rotor

di 1 ∂L 1 ∂L field-oriented coordinate, the induction motor voltage

T

iNu 䰉 iN T

䯴 i L + iT

Ri 䯷 T

ω r i䯵 + i T ωr i . equations can be expressed as

Input dt 2 ∂θ

Ohmic

2

∂θ

(2)

electrical loss Ouput

power power Stored magnetic power

mechanical Rs (1 + Tr p) σ L (1 + Tr p) p

power usd = ψr + s ψr

Lm Lm (9)

As follows from (2), the stored magnetic power, which is L σ LsTr

reactive power, is all of the sum of the powers defined as the + m pψ r − ωs er

Lr Lm

products of the current by the TEMF, and half the sum of the

powers defined as the products of the current by the MEMF. RsTr σ LT p

The mechanical power, which is active power, is equal to half usq = er + s r er

Lm Lm (10)

the sum of the powers defined as the products of the current

and the MEMF. Therefore, we may conclude that σ Ls (1 + Tr p) L

+ ωs ( + m )ψ r

electromechanical energy conversion involves only the Lm Lr

MEMF, whereas the TEMF does not contribute to this

conversion [9]. The above analyses show that the function of Lm

ψr = isd (11)

TEMF and MEMF in electromechanical energy conversion is 1 + Tr p

not decoupled.

In two-phase synchronously rotating coordinate, the Tr

isq = er . (12)

induction motor voltage equation may be expressed as [2] Lm

usd = Rsisd + pψ sd − ωsψ sq (3) Where Lm is magnetizing inductance, Ls is stator

self-inductance, Lr is rotor self-inductance, ı=1-L2m/LsLr is

usq = Rsisq + pψ sq + ωsψ sd (4) leakage factor and Tr=Lr/Rr is rotor time constant.

The electromagnetic torque can be expressed as

0 = Rrird + pψ rd − ωslψ rq (5)

ψr

Te = np er . (13)

0 = Rr irq + pψ rq + ωslψ rd . (6) Rr

Where usd is d-axis stator voltage, usq is q-axis stator voltage, Where np is number of pole pairs.

isd is d-axis stator current, isq is q-axis stator current, ird is C. Control Principles of Rotor MEMF

d-axis rotor current, irq is q-axis rotor current, ȥsd is d-axis

stator flux, ȥsq is q-axis stator flux, ȥrd is d-axis rotor flux, ȥrq As for rotor field-oriented control of induction motor, it is

is q-axis rotor flux, Rs is stator resistance, Rr is rotor found that control of rotor-oriented flux and rotor MEMF can

resistance, Ȧs is synchronous speed, p is differential operator control torque and speed from equations (11), (12) and (13).

and Ȧsl=Ȧs-Ȧr is slip frequency. pȥsd, pȥsq, pȥrd and pȥrq are Similar conclusion can be obtained for DTC and DSC. The

all TEMFs. Ȧsȥsd, Ȧsȥsq, Ȧslȥrd and Ȧslȥrq are all MEMFs. The basic principles of DTC and DSC are that the magnitude and

former, namely TEMFs, produce stored magnetic powers rotating speed of stator flux space vector are controlled by

means of stator voltage space vector and the aim to control of er

torque and speed of induction motor is achieved. From the

standpoint of MEMF, the control of stator flux space vector ω* e r* usq*

R sT r

has the same function as control rotor MEMF. Therefore, the Lm

rotor MEMF is controlled in DTC and DSC. ω σ L sTr

×

In summary, the control of torque and speed in ω sl* ωs Lm

Ls θ

×

control of rotor oriented flux and rotor MEMF. Lm

Rs

ψr* Lm

usd*

III. VOLTAGE VECTOR CONTROLLER us

ψr

In the conventional vector control, the flux and torque are ψr

is

er ωm

controlled respectively and the speed controller generates

torque command or torque current command. As Fig. 1. The control system of direct rotor field-oriented based on control

above-mentioned the control of torque and speed in of REMF.

variable-frequency induction motor drives can be achieved by

control of rotor oriented flux and rotor MEMF. According to

above principle the rotor field-oriented control of induction

motor based on motional electromotive force is presented in

this paper. The main difference between the proposed vector

control method and the conventional method is that the speed

Speed (rad/s)

controller generates the rotor MEMF command.

A. Decoupling Voltage

The combine of feed and feedforward can make control

better [10]. The computer can make feedforward implement

easily. From (9) and (10) the steady equations are obtained as

Rs σLT (14)

usd = ψ r − ωs s r er Time (s)

Lm Lm Fig. 2. Speed response.

RsTr L (15)

usq = er + ωs s ψ r .

Lm Lm

decoupling equations.

Torque (Nm)

B. Control System

The proposed direct rotor field-oriented control system

using voltage vector is shown in Fig.1. The rotor flux and

rotor MEMF can be obtained through rotor flux current

model.

IV. SIMULATIONS Time (s)

Fig. 3. Torque response.

In order to verify the validity and dynamic performance of

the proposed control system based on rotor MEMF, the

numerical simulations have been carried out using

MATLAB/SIMULINK. The motor started with no-load.

When the motor ran at steady angular speed 100rad/s the

motor began to accelerate until its steady angular speed is

Rotor MEMF (V)

rotor speed, torque and rotor MEMF are shown in Fig. 2 and

Fig. 3 and Fig. 4. It can be seen from these simulation results

that the proposed voltage vector controller based control of

rotor MEMF has good dynamic performance and can achieve

not only constant torque control with constant field but also

constant power control with weakening field.

Time (s)

Fig. 4. Rotor MEMF response.

V. CONCLUSIONS Rotor resistance 0.228 ȍ

Based on the principle of electromechanical energy Stator leakage inductance 0.8 mH

conversion and reference frame transformation theory, it is Rotor leakage inductance 0.8 mH

demonstrated that rotor field orientation decouples not only Magnetizing inductance 34.7 mH

flux linkage and torque but also rotor transformer Inertia 1.662 kg.m2/s

electromotive force (TEMF) and rotor motion electromotive REFERENCES

force (MEMF). The rotor MEMF is controlled in [1] F. Blaschke, “The principle of field orientation as applied to the new

field-oriented control (FOC), direct torque control (DTC) and TRANSVECTOR closed loop control system for rotating field

direct self control (DSC). The voltage vector controller for machines,” Siemens Rev., vol. 34, pp. 217-220, 1972.

rotor field-oriented control of induction motor based on [2] B. K. Bose, Modern Power Electronics and VC Drives. New Jersey:

Prentice-Hall, 2002.

control of MEMF is presented and it can achieve not only [3] R. W. De Doncker and D. W. Novotny, “The universal field oriented

constant torque control but also constant power control. The controller,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Applicat., vol. 30, pp. 92-100, 1994.

theory analysis and simulation results show that the proposed [4] I. Boldea and S. A. Nasar, Vector Control of AC Drives. Boca Raton:

control scheme has good dynamic performance. The control CRC Press, 1992.

[5] I. Takahashi and T. Noguchi, “A new quick-response and high

of torque and speed in variable-frequency induction motor efficiency control strategy of an induction machine,” IEEE Trans.

drives can be achieved by control of rotor MEMF. An Ind. Applicat., vol. 22, pp. 820-827, 1986.

effective new way for the high performance speed control of [6] M. Depenbrock, “Direct self-control (DSC) of inverter-fed induction

induction motors is provided. machine,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 3, pp. 420-429, 1988.

[7] S. A. Nasar, L. E. Unnewehr, Electromechanic and Electric

APPENDIX Machines. New York: Wiley, 1983.

[8] P. Krause, Analysis of Electric Machinery. New York: McGraw-Hill,

Induction motor parameters used in simulation [11] 1986.

[9] A. Ivanov-Smolensky. Electrical machines. Moscow: MIR

Power 37.3 KW Publishers, 1982.

[10] S. Tadakuma, S. Tanaka, H. Naitoh, K. Shimane, “Improvement of

Voltage 460 V robustness of vector-controlled induction motors using feedforward

Frequency 60 Hz and feedback control,” IEEE Trans. on Power Electronics, 12(2):

Maximum torque 300 Nm 221-227, 1997.

Rating speed 183 rad/s [11] Le-Huy H. Comparison of field-oriented control and direct torque

control for induction motor drives. Thirty-Fourth IAS Annual

Stator resistance 0.087 ȍ Meeting, 1999,2:1245-1252.

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