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Strip Theory (2‐D Potential Theory

In Aerodynamic analysis the motion of the fluid can be formulated as two-dimension problem for slender bod

Strip Theory
Formulating a problem into 2-D and applying strip theory it is noticed that there are much variations in the cross direction as compared to that of longitudinal direction The basic principle of strip theory is that the portion of the aerofoil, wing or craft submerged into the flow is divided into finite number of strips and then 2_D hydrodynamic coefficients for added mass can be computed for each strip and then integrated over the length of the body to yield the 3‐D coefficients.

panel method
A panel method (such as our Panel Flow add-on) is a surface-based, gas and liquid flow technique Panel methods can calculate the gas or liquid flow around complex 3D configurations, such as aircraft, with relative ease. However, that ease comes at a price: panel methods are incapable of modeling the viscous effects that are evident in all real-world flows

Panel methods are ideal for concept design analysis due to their rapid turnaround time and relatively easy surface modeling, but this is countered by their inability to predict boundary layers and flow separation. The lack of viscosity modeling in a panel method leads to another limitation: they can’t model rotational flows such as that found in a cyclone. Panel methods can’t model supersonic flow (Mach number > 1) either. When you consider that the majority of

skin-friction is significant at low angles of attack and therefore panel methods shouldn’t be relied upon for drag prediction. Total drag is the sum of the form drag and skin-friction drag. wing-body and whole aircraft as long as viscous effects are negligible i. .. high-Reynolds-number (> 105).e. Form drag is a useful quantity to calculate. Panel methods are adept at calculating the lift force and form drag force (also known as pressure drag) on a wing. A panel method performs best when modeling fully-attached. the aerospace industry was the first to develop and adopt panel methods. Not surprisingly. Playing to a panel method’s strengths reveals a useful engineering tool. submarines and yachts. followed by racing-car designers and more recently racingyacht designers. but without the skinfriction drag (which is dependent on viscous modeling) it doesn’t reflect the total drag. cars. the inability to model supersonic flows is a minor constraint compared to the lack of viscosity modeling. away from stall conditions. subsonic (Mach number < 1) flow. Such conditions are found in abundance around streamlined shapes such as aircraft.fluid flows relevant to engineers are subsonic. For airfoils.


Computational fluid dynamics. The influence of the thickness. the structural designers can start designing the load-bearing parts of the wings. With an initial estimate of the pressure distribution on the wing. vortex lattice methods are: Similar to Panel methods: • • • • • • • • • singularities are placed on a surface the non-penetration condition is satisfied at a number of control points a system of linear algebraic equations is solved to determine singularity strengths Different from Panel methods: Oriented toward lifting effects. while the VLM cannot compute the viscous drag. On the other side of the spectrum. For a rectangular wing it is enough to know the span and chord. Vortex lattice methods are based on solutions to Laplace’s Equation. such as a wing. The Vortex lattice method. Hence as the drag must be balanced with the thrust in the cruise configuration. not the actual surface Singularities are not distributed over the entire surface Oriented toward combinations of thin lifting surfaces (recall Panel methods had no limitations on thickness). is a numerical. of an aircraft as an infinitely thin sheet of discrete vortices to compute lift and induced drag. camber. It is the vortex lattice method (vlm). and was among the earliest methods utilizing computers to actually assist aerodynamicists in estimating aircraft aerodynamics. one can extract the pressure distribution or as in the case of the VLM. This knowledge is then used to compute the aerodynamic coefficients and their derivatives that are important for assessing the aircraft's handling qualities in the conceptual design phase. (VLM). kinks. As a comparison. The VLM models the lifting surfaces. fin and tail plane and other lifting surfaces. method used mainly in the early stages of aircraft design and in aerodynamic education at university level. VLMs can compute the flow around a wing with elementary geometrical definition.Vortex lattice method There is a method that is similar to panel methods but very easy to use and capable of providing remarkable insight into wing aerodynamics and component interaction. the propulsion group can also get important data from the VLM simulation . viscosity and other things. twist. around the simulated body. is neglected. and are subject to the same basic theoretical restrictions that apply to panel methods. and classical formulations ignore thickness Boundary conditions (BCs) are applied on a mean surface. Additionally. By simulating the flow field. the induced drag stemming from the production of lift can be estimated. the force distribution. trailing edge control surfaces and many other geometric features). they can describe the flow around a fairly complex aircraft geometry (with multiple lifting surfaces with taper.

some stall phenomena can be modeled.301(LOADS) Strength requirements are specified in terms of limit loads. Ideal flow is a simplification of the real flow experienced in nature.303(factor of safety) . The rules are designed to promote safe aviation. however for many engineering applications this simplified representation has all of the properties that are important from the engineering point of view. This redistribution must be taken into account. taking special care. If deflections under load would significantly change the distribution of internal or external loads. This method neglects all viscous effects.(the maximum loads to be expected in service). The influence of thickness on aerodynamic forces is neglected.Theory The vortex lattice method is built on the theory of ideal flow. subsonic compressible flow can be modeled if the Prandtl-Glauert transformation is incorporated into the method. The FARs are part of Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). typical airline flights. Turbulence. inviscid and irrotational. hot-air ballooning. flight attendants. prescribed loads are limit loads. such as airplane design. And ultimate loads (limit loads multiplied by prescribed factors of safety). obstruction lighting and marking. also known as Potential flow. FAR 25. dissipation and boundary layers are not resolved at all. and even model rocket launches and model aircraft operation. The angle of attack and the angle of sideslip are both small. However. However.unless otherwise provided. are rules prescribed by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) governing all aviation activities in the United States. lighter-thanair aircraft. or FARs. passengers and the general public from unnecessary risk. Assumptions The following assumptions are made regarding the problem in the vortex lattice method: • The flow field is incompressible. FAR 25. man-made structure heights. • • Federal Aviation Regulations The Federal Aviation Regulations. The lifting surfaces are thin. A wide variety of activities are regulated. pilot training activities. lift induced drag can be assessed and. protecting pilots. small angle approximation.

At any load up to limit loads the deformation may not interfere with safe operation. a factor of safety of 1. a factor of safety need not be applied unless otherwise specified. a positive load factor is one in which the aerodynamic force acts upward with respect to the plane.S. .305(strength and deformation) The structure must be able to support limit load without detrimental permanent deformation. FAR 25. When a loading condition is prescribed in terms of ultimate loads. These must be considered limit loads and must be investigated at airspeeds up to VC/MC.321(general) Flight load factors represent the ratio of the aerodynamic force component (acting normal to the assumed longitudinal axis of the airplane) to the weight of the airplane. Beyond the boundaries of the buffet onset envelop.307(proof of structure) Compliance with the strength and deformation requirements of this subpart must be shown for each critical loading condition. The airplane must be designed to withstand any vibration and buffeting that might occur in any likely operating condition up to VD/MD including stall and probable inadvertent excursions. The significant forces acting on the airplane must be placed in equilibrium in a rational or conservative manner. the airplane must be designed any forced structural vibration resulting from any failure. FAR 25.5 must be applied to the prescribed limit load which is considered external loads on the structure. structural analysis should be used only if the structure conforms to that for which experience has shown this method to be reliable. The Federal Aviation Act of 1958 created the organization under the name "Federal Aviation Agency". malfunction or adverse condition in the flight control system. FAR 25. and adopted its current name in 1966 when it became a part of the United States Department of Transportation. This must be shown by analysis.Unless otherwise specified. Unless shown to be extremely improbable. An agency of the United States Department of Transportation. The administrator may require ultimate load tests in cases where limit load tests may be inadequate . it has authority to regulate and oversee all aspects of civil aviation in the U. Federal Aviation Administration The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is the national aviation authority of the United States. flight tests or other tests found necessary by the administrator.

the agency has been given more tasks.S.S. taking over functions of the JAA (Joint Aviation Authorities). Safety analysis and research. manufacture and maintenance of aeronautical products. The FAA's major roles include: • • • • • • • • Regulating U. authorization of third-country (non EU) operators. including new aviation technology Issuing. taking the top priority. and it reached full functionality in 2008. especially through local offices called Flight Standards District Offices Developing and operating a system of air traffic control and navigation for both civil and military aircraft Researching and developing the National Airspace System and civil aeronautics Developing and carrying out programs to control aircraft noise and other environmental effects of civil aviation European Aviation Safety Agency The European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) is an agency of the European Union (EU) with offices in Cologne. These will be implemented before 2013. The agency’s responsibilities include:      giving advice to the European Union for drafting new legislation. or revoking pilot certificates Regulating civil aviation to promote safety.The Federal Aviation Administration is responsible for making sure that air travel in the United States or aboard U. carriers is safe and efficient — with safety. as well as the approval of organizations involved in the design. Germany. since those goals are not always aligned. which has been given regulatory and executive tasks in the field of civilian aviation safety. including inspections in the Member States. commercial space transportation Regulating air navigation facilities' geometry and flight inspection standards Encouraging and developing civil aeronautics. implementing and monitoring safety rules. suspending. type-certification of aircraft and components. EASA will now be able to certify Functional Airspace Blocks if more than three parties are involved . Amongst other things. EFTA countries have been granted participation in the agency. As part of Single European Sky-II k. It was created on 15 July 2002.

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