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# Strip Theory (2‐D Potential Theory

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In Aerodynamic analysis the motion of the fluid can be formulated as two-dimension problem for slender bod

Strip Theory
Formulating a problem into 2-D and applying strip theory it is noticed that there are much variations in the cross direction as compared to that of longitudinal direction The basic principle of strip theory is that the portion of the aerofoil, wing or craft submerged into the flow is divided into finite number of strips and then 2_D hydrodynamic coefficients for added mass can be computed for each strip and then integrated over the length of the body to yield the 3‐D coefficients.

panel method
A panel method (such as our Panel Flow add-on) is a surface-based, gas and liquid flow technique Panel methods can calculate the gas or liquid flow around complex 3D configurations, such as aircraft, with relative ease. However, that ease comes at a price: panel methods are incapable of modeling the viscous effects that are evident in all real-world flows

Panel methods are ideal for concept design analysis due to their rapid turnaround time and relatively easy surface modeling, but this is countered by their inability to predict boundary layers and flow separation. The lack of viscosity modeling in a panel method leads to another limitation: they can’t model rotational flows such as that found in a cyclone. Panel methods can’t model supersonic flow (Mach number > 1) either. When you consider that the majority of

skin-friction is significant at low angles of attack and therefore panel methods shouldn’t be relied upon for drag prediction. Total drag is the sum of the form drag and skin-friction drag. wing-body and whole aircraft as long as viscous effects are negligible i. .. high-Reynolds-number (> 105).e. Form drag is a useful quantity to calculate. Panel methods are adept at calculating the lift force and form drag force (also known as pressure drag) on a wing. A panel method performs best when modeling fully-attached. the aerospace industry was the first to develop and adopt panel methods. Not surprisingly. Playing to a panel method’s strengths reveals a useful engineering tool. submarines and yachts. followed by racing-car designers and more recently racingyacht designers. but without the skinfriction drag (which is dependent on viscous modeling) it doesn’t reflect the total drag. cars. the inability to model supersonic flows is a minor constraint compared to the lack of viscosity modeling. away from stall conditions. subsonic (Mach number < 1) flow. Such conditions are found in abundance around streamlined shapes such as aircraft.fluid flows relevant to engineers are subsonic. For airfoils.

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Computational fluid dynamics. The influence of the thickness. the structural designers can start designing the load-bearing parts of the wings. With an initial estimate of the pressure distribution on the wing. vortex lattice methods are: Similar to Panel methods: • • • • • • • • • singularities are placed on a surface the non-penetration condition is satisfied at a number of control points a system of linear algebraic equations is solved to determine singularity strengths Different from Panel methods: Oriented toward lifting effects. while the VLM cannot compute the viscous drag. On the other side of the spectrum. For a rectangular wing it is enough to know the span and chord. Vortex lattice methods are based on solutions to Laplace’s Equation. such as a wing. The Vortex lattice method. Hence as the drag must be balanced with the thrust in the cruise configuration. not the actual surface Singularities are not distributed over the entire surface Oriented toward combinations of thin lifting surfaces (recall Panel methods had no limitations on thickness). is a numerical. of an aircraft as an infinitely thin sheet of discrete vortices to compute lift and induced drag. camber. It is the vortex lattice method (vlm). and was among the earliest methods utilizing computers to actually assist aerodynamicists in estimating aircraft aerodynamics. one can extract the pressure distribution or as in the case of the VLM. This knowledge is then used to compute the aerodynamic coefficients and their derivatives that are important for assessing the aircraft's handling qualities in the conceptual design phase. (VLM). kinks. As a comparison. The VLM models the lifting surfaces. fin and tail plane and other lifting surfaces. method used mainly in the early stages of aircraft design and in aerodynamic education at university level. VLMs can compute the flow around a wing with elementary geometrical definition.Vortex lattice method There is a method that is similar to panel methods but very easy to use and capable of providing remarkable insight into wing aerodynamics and component interaction. the propulsion group can also get important data from the VLM simulation . viscosity and other things. twist. around the simulated body. is neglected. and are subject to the same basic theoretical restrictions that apply to panel methods. and classical formulations ignore thickness Boundary conditions (BCs) are applied on a mean surface. Additionally. By simulating the flow field. the induced drag stemming from the production of lift can be estimated. the force distribution. trailing edge control surfaces and many other geometric features). they can describe the flow around a fairly complex aircraft geometry (with multiple lifting surfaces with taper.