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Social movement A type of collectivity acting with some continuity either to promote or resist change in the society of which

it is a part. This kind of social movement is directed towards the change of the established folkways and mores of the past. Emphasizes social change and is characterized by restless, random and spontaneous activities which develops social unrest A non-institutionalized effort to change society through collective action Serves as social experiment Unusual behavior that compared with other forms of collective behavior, usually involves more people, more prolonged, more organized and focuses on social change

Normally, group behavior is organized and structured in accordance with cultural norms. However, occasions arise in an organized and in structured situations when the cultural guides do not operate. This results in behavior which is null, deviant, and spontaneous. Sociologists refer to such type of behavior as collected behavior, weakness of the social organization, mechanisms of social control and deprivation. These are usually the result of rapid social change. When the collective behavior process becomes so organized that rules and norms are put up and leader arises, the grouping assumes the proportion of a social movement. The purpose of the social movement is to promote a change or resist a change. Social movement, the resistance movement, the reform movement compared to the widespread and extensive revolutionary movement. Although collective behavior does not always bring about change, in some instance, new organization, folkways, mores, values, may result from it. Why social movements exist: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Social unrest serves as fertile ground for SM (social movement) SM express dissatisfaction with current conditions and promise something better SM is highly organized SM attracts committed followers, including core of true believers SM attempts to change social conditions SM potentially lead to extensive social change and transformation society

4 Principle Characteristics of a Social Movement: 1. A new perspective, such as an altered view of the proper role of women or the status of blacks. 2. An idealism, which sustains the members of the movement and helps them remain loyal to their abstract concepts of change during the difficult periods when the movement encounters resistance from the established social order.

3. A commitment to activism, which enhances the conviction that something must be done to bring about change. 4. No central, controlling organization at the helm. Types of Social Movements: 1. Expressive movements is a form of dissent resulting from the existing structure power, attempts to provide emotional satisfaction, an identity and distinct lifestyle for its members. 2. Resistance movements this movement is aiming at the existing trends in society and is a kind of reaction to the social order brought about by some form of structural strain. 3. Reform movements this is directed at changing certain aspects of social cases or a segment of the power distribution of a social system. 4. Revolutionary movements this aim to change the whole social order and replace the leadership, seek more radical changes in society than reform movements, the goal to overthrow the existing social structure and replace it with a new one. 5. Alternative seek total change among individuals. Examples are students, organizations, civic societies, non government organization (NGOs) or government organizations (GOs) campaigning to people, especially the young ones, to steer clear of prohibited drugs 6. Transformative work for total change in society. An example of this kind of movement is a revolution. 7. Utopian movements refer to the members vision of radical change and a blissful life either on a large scale sometime in the future or on a small scale at present. Several contemporary religious cults are examples of utopian movements. 8. Escapist or Retreatist movements do not seek to change society, but to withdraw from it and not to experience its corruption. Certain religious sects are examples of this type of movement where the group members isolate themselves from contact with outsiders. 9. Expressive social movements aim to change the psychological and emotional states of their individual members. The basic forms of expressive social movements are religious movements and fashion movements which do not aim to change the world, but give members opportunities for engaging in ceremonial and related behavior so that inner feelings can be satisfactorily expressed. 10. Reformative aim to change not only ones behavior, but also the behavior of the whole society. These are nationally organized efforts to change the norms of society. Life courses of social movements 1. Agitation: is the early stage of the social movements life course. Members of the new movement are too idealistic to strip up public opinion in favor of their viewpoints. 2. Legitimization: is the second stage of social movements life course and happens when agitation is successful. The movement gains support for the furtherance of the groups objectives and becomes respectable. It now possesses a legal personality to make valid and legitimate representations.

3. Bureaucratization: is the third stage of the social movements life course. The social movements organization grows steadily, becomes more bureaucratized and tends to become more engrossed in day-to-day administrative tasks. 4. Reemergence of the Movement: the reemergence of the movement happens when the members become discontented with how the movement is managed and they begin to question the relevance of the policies, programs and the organization Additional (not in the handout): Target of Social movements: 1. Individual 2. Society Degree 1. Total 2. Partial