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Seminar Report 2011-12

Oiling Machine

Introduction
It is evident that concern over the plastic problem is certainly not going away, despite encouraging bans on and decreases in the use of plastic shopping bags. Many think that this type of recycling is not a solution, but that instead the world should be seriously focused on the first R which is reducing. We should shun single-use plastic (such as your average PET bottle or disposable container) altogether, they argue. The worlds oil resources are diminishing; does technology like this enable our denial of that fact, or is it a hopeful and constructive step in the right direction? The plastic waste problem as a global issue and take actions globally with main focus on the advancing countries. The plastic wastes dont return to nature, get to the rivers and have harmful effects on the natural ecosystem involving birds, fishes and other lives. They eventually get flown in to the sea from the rivers, and it is said that the superficial content of such adrift wastage in the sea is equivalent of the size of Australian continent. The total amount of plastic produced worldwide in 2008 was 245,000,000 tons, 63.9% of which (156,476,000 tons) was produced in the Western and Asian major countries including Japan, China and Korea. (Based on the Japan Plastics Industry Federation data) About 54% of the plastics produced in the major countries are turned into polyethylene, polypropylene and polystyrene packaging containers, massive amounts of waste incinerated and wind up in landfills. Out of the same amount of plastic, we could reproduce about 67,201,000 tons of petroleum oil using the oil reproduction technology. In calories, this is equivalent of producing 780,000,000,000 kWh of electricity. In a global scale, this means we have 131,521,000 tons of plastic that can be made back into oil, and from that amount of oil, we can produce 1,525,651,525,120kWh of electricity. Others have concerns about pollution or toxic residue from the conversion process. Blest tells us that, if the proper materials are fed into the machine (i.e., polyethylene, polystyrene and polypropylene PP, PE, PS plastics), there is no toxic substance produced and any residue can be disposed of with regular burnable garbage. They also explain that while methane, ethane, propane and butane gasses are released in the process, the machine is equipped with an off-gas filter that disintegrates these gases into water and carbon. Lastly, commenter from around the world are anxious to know if and where they can purchase a machine. Though the company still mainly produces larger, industrial-use machines, Blest Co. will be more than happy to hear from you. We are all well aware of plastics rap-sheet. It has been found guilty on many counts, including the way its production and disposal raises resource issues and lets loose extremely negative environmental impacts. Typically made from petroleum, it is estimated that 7% of the worlds annual oil production is used to produce and manufacture plastic. That is more than the oil consumed by the entire African continent.

Plastics carbon footprint includes land filling and incineration, since sadly; its recycle rate is dismally low around the globe.

Seminar Report 2011-12

Oiling Machine

Plastic trash is also polluting our oceans and washing up on beaches around the world. Tons of plastic from the US and Japan are floating in the Pacific Ocean, killing mammals and birds. Perhaps this tragedy is best captured in the TED presentation by Capt. Charles Moore of the Algalita Marine Research Foundation.

Practical tips can help further1. Generate less waste (reusing and recycling).
2. Take your own bag (Reduced plastic consumption will reduce the problem of disposal). 3. Segregate waste at home. 4. Promote two bin system (one for bio-degradable and other for no bio-degradable like plastics) in your society /colony.

Seminar Report 2011-12

Oiling Machine

Using less, or use it better?


Thankfully, there are those who fully appreciate that plastic has a higher energy value than anything else commonly found in the waste stream. A Japanese company calledBlest created a small, very safe and easy to use machine that can convert several types of plastic back into oil.

If we burn the plastic, we generate toxins and a large amount of CO2. If we convert it into oil, we save CO2 and at the same time increase peoples awareness about the value of plastic garbage.Akinori Ito, CEO of Blest. Though Japan has much improved its effective utilization rate over the years to 72% in 2006 that leaves 28% of plastic to be buried in landfills or burned. According to Plastic Waste Management Institute data, effective utilization includes not just the 20% that is actually recycled, but also 52% that is being incinerated for energy recovery purposes, i.e., generating heat or electric power. If we burn the plastic, we generate toxins and a large amount of CO2. If we convert it into oil, we save CO2 and at the same time increase peoples awareness about the value of plastic garbage, says Akinori Ito, CEO of Blest. Blests conversion technology is very safe because it uses a temperature controlling electric heater rather than flame. The machines are able to process polyethylene, polystyrene and polypropylene but not PET bottles. The result is a crude gas that can fuel things like generators or stoves and, when refined, can even be pumped into a car, a boat or motorbike. One kilogram of plastic produces almost one liter of oil. To convert that amount takes about 1 kwh of electricity, which is approximately 20 or 20 cents worth. The company makes the machines in various sizes and has 60 in place at farms, fisheries and small factories in Japan and several abroad.

Seminar Report 2011-12

Oiling Machine

To make a machine that anyone can use is my dream, Ito says. The home is the oil field of the future. Perhaps that statement is not as crazy as it sounds, since the makeup of Japanese household waste has been found to contain over 30 % plastic, most of it from packaging. In India, waste is a material that no longer serves a purpose and so is thrown away. In some cases what one person discards may be re-used by somebody else. All wasters is particularly hazardous: If not carefully disposed of, it will have an impact on the environment, whether it be unsightly litter in urban streets or contaminated air, soil or water. But what is equally important about waste is that it is recyclable. For example, if all human, animal and solid wastes are recycled back to soil, then we do not need inorganic fertilizers to maintain the high yields of crops. Today India produces 180 million tonnes of food grains and consumer 13 million tonnes of inorganic fertilizers at a huge cost. Therefore, time has come when we have to look at the waste not merely as an environment polluter but a recyclable material of great potential and energy saver. In India we produce 300 to 400 gms. of solid waste per person per day in town of normal size. The figure is 500 to 800 gms. per capita per day in cities like Delhi and Bombay. The problem in these cities is how to dispose such large mass of solid waste daily and this poses a massive and expensive problem to the authorities. The composition of average domestic dustbin can be broken down as follows : 10% Glass 30% Paper/Cardboard 9% Metals 3% Textiles 4% Plastics 23% Vegetable Waste 21% Dust, Cinders, Miscellaneous

Seminar Report 2011-12

Oiling Machine

Changing how we think


But it is the educational application of the small model of the machine that Ito is most passionate about. Hes taken it on planes on many occasions as part of a project that began some years ago in the Marshall Islands. There he worked with local government and schools to teach people about recycling culture and the value of discarded plastic, spreading the Japanese concept of mottainai, the idea that waste is sad and regrettable. In such remote places, the machine also serves as a practical solution to the plastic problem, much of it left behind by tourists: the oil produced is used for tour buses or boats, Ito says.

Seminar Report 2011-12

Oiling Machine

Plastics carbon footprint includes land filling and incineration, since sadly, its recycle rate is dismally low around the globe. Teaching this at schools is the most important work that I do, Ito reflects. In Japan too, he visits schools where he shows children, teachers and parents how to convert the packaging and drinking straws leftover from lunch. If we were to use only the worlds plastic waste rather than oil from oil fields, CO2 emissions could be slashed dramatically, he says. Its a waste isnt it? Ito asks. This plastic is everywhere in the world, and everyone throws it away.

A mountain to climb down


The wonderful invention of plastics has spawned a huge problem that we are struggling to solve. With peak oil looming, things are set to change, but we find ourselves on top of an oil and plastic mountain, and the only way forward is down. So while many solutions like this are not without hiccups or detractors, they are a step forward in coming to terms with our oil and plastics dependence and help raise awareness of the carbon footprint of its production and use. Somehow we all know that plastics is a habit we need to kick. But that doesnt seem to make it any easier. Perhaps the best thing you can do is to look more deeply into this issue. A good place to start is the 2008 Addicted to Plastic documentary from Cryptic Moth productions. You can watch the trailer online and maybe request it at your local video rental store. According to the blurb, the film details plastics path over the last 100 years and provides a wealth of expert interviews on practical and cutting edge solutions to recycling, toxicity and biodegradability. Next it is just a matter of taking action to break our love affair with plastic.

Seminar Report 2011-12

Oiling Machine

Principle
How to revert to oil the plastic, it was well known that plastic has been developed from the time. The principle is very simple, is varied by heating [solid] [liquid] to [gas], and finally back to the oil to cool the gas. Divided it has led tens of thousands as the chain of carbon and hydrogen in the process, to lead of about six to 15 final (~ A heavy oil minute gasoline). When lower than this in the normal temperature will not go back to liquid (methane and ethane and propane). Machine to work on this series is over oil equipment. Plastic is made from naphtha=crude gasoline, which is produced in the process of petroleum refining. By applying heat further to naphtha, the raw materials of plastic, such as ethylene-propylene (gas) and benzene (liquid) are produced. Plastic materials, including polyethylene and polypropylene (solid), are made of many of these molecules combined together. There are various kinds of plastic with wide variety of characteristics and usages, but they basically all have the chainlike molecule with carbon bond. When these chains are broken by heat, chemical agent and/or catalyser, different types of oils including gasoline, paraffin, light oil, heavy oil etc can be derived, depending on the number of carbon atom cut off (weight of the molecule), from the fractional distillation. When its done mainly by heat, it is called thermal cracking, and when the material is plastic, it is called plastic thermal cracking oil or hydrocarbon oil in broader sense. This series of process is called oil reproduction and the waste plastic oil reproduction machine, which enables people to obtain hydrocarbon oil from plastic thermal cracking oil, is produced and distributed in Japan. While there are approximately 50 companies in Japan that make oil reproduction machines, we needed to choose the one that allows us to obtain high-quality oil in order to be used as fuels for cars and electric generators, from specific types of plastic. High-quality oil can be acquired from polyethylene (PE), polypropylene(PP) and polystyrene(PS), all of which have broad utility and are used for containers and packaging This cool technology out of Japan called the "Blest Machine" by inventor, Akinori Ito. It converts certain plastics into oil, and it is presently commercially available in sizes ranging from a batch processing, tabletop version for home or experimental use; to larger continuous feed versions for small industrial use. Basically, you can put plastic items, as they are, into the hopper, and a few minutes later you have the oil from which the plastics were made in the first place. To operate, you put your plastic trash in a hopper on the machine, then screw on a lid. The temperature inside rises, slowly melting the plastic, which becomes a liquid and then a gas. The key to the process is a regulated electric heater that heats the plastic enough to melt but never to the point where it burns, thus avoiding any CO2 fumes. As the plastic boils, the gaseous fumes are vented into a water bubbler, which cools the gas, resulting in oil floating to the top of the water, due to the natural tendency for water and oil to separate.

Seminar Report 2011-12

Oiling Machine

Because it doesn't burn the feedstock, the device is safe to use at home. The resulting oil can be burned as it is, being a crude gas that can fuel things like generators or stoves. Or it can be processed further into gasoline, diesel, or kerosene. There are many fuel efficiency technologies emerging that have a much wider tolerance for the fuel feedstock, while burning the fuel much more efficiently with greatly diminished emissions. It's conceivable that this home plastic-to-oil gadget could enable a person to run their vehicle on plastic they used to throw away. Micro production of oil a fuel version of distributed power becomes a real possibility. Two pounds of plastic fed to the machine gets you a quart of oil. In metric, one kilogram of plastic produces almost one liter of oil. To convert that amount takes about 1 kilowatt-hour of electricity, which is approximately 20 or 20 cents worth. Blest claims that if the proper materials are fed into the machine (i.e., polyethylene, polystyrene and polypropylene PP, PE, PS plastics , there is no toxic substance produced, and any residue can be disposed of with regular burnable garbage. PET bottles should not be run through their machine. They also explain that while methane, ethane, propane and butane gasses are released in the process, the machine is equipped with an off-gas filter that disintegrates these gases into water and carbon. One of the issues that will be faced with this technology is the question of what happens to all of the impurities and potentially toxic compounds, like paint, that are left behind when the machine is done turning the plastic into oil. These would have gone into the landfill anyway, but perhaps care could be taken to dispose of them in some other way that prevents the release of the toxins into the environment, by transforming them into something else. The biggest down-side to the Blest technology is its price. As of November 30, 2010, the improved home plastic-to-oil machine is now 106,000 (around US$12,700) without tax. [2] At that price, it is not likely to pay for itself, but early technologies are rarely a break-even proposition. Early adopters, willing to pay more to help the pioneering technology get a foothold in the market, can get social mileage from the good feeling to being part of the solution for what ails our civilization.

Advantages
The outside scope of the various regulations is subject to a lower hurdle for small License is not needed to operate the equipment Can be placed anywhere There is no need for excess equipment to limit the material Low setting is also easy to deploy for small price Garbage can purchase the equipment in the factories and businesses, began to yourself so inexpensive can be done to handle their own "local production for local consumption. Accurate temperature control is also no risk of explosion because of using an electric heater for heat source

Seminar Report 2011-12

Oiling Machine

Technology eliminates the need of special education and a simple structure also Plastic into oil that can be only three types PS(polystyrene),PP(polypropylene) and PE(polyethylene) Produced oil are mixed oil with light oil equivalent(equivalent to gasoline)kerosene equivalent and heavy fuel oil equivalent Expanding the range further by distillation of mixed oil

Disadvantage
The objects which cannot be recycled still remain as residues.

School Oilfield Caravan requires both large and small sizes of the machine as we do demonstrations at schools and in open spaces. Our ultimate choice was the products of Blest Co., Ltd., the manufacturer based in Hiratsuka, Kanagagwa, which makes and sells the oil reproduction machines for PE, PP and PS in large and small sizes. At present, certain of the elementary school in Kanagawa Prefecture, "to recover the plastic back to oil go to lunch when school oilfield working on. "This is the fuel that can be used Plastic school lunch again until now had been discarded as waste. Oilfield school is ". Oil made from oil is used in school, such as generator, has been used as film screenings, such as power of Hachiman candy machine. Considered such as the following benefits by doing a school oilfield. Reduction of waste, reuse as a resource Will be able to also separation of other resources that will taking sensible Conscious separation is spread to people large from around the children The environment becomes a part of the environmental education take to acquire knowledge

Generate the oil from the plastic school lunch

Seminar Report 2011-12

Oiling Machine

Oil Equipment Batch


Be-h

Product Name: Be-h (Bieichi) Processing capacity: 0.7 ~ 1.0kg / times Oil rate: 80% (about 3 hours once) Mechanical Dimensions: 560 (W) 320 (D) 500 (H) mm Weight: Approximately 50kg Power: AC100V / 14A maximum Running cost: 1KW / hour (as standard)

Features:
You can see the eyes of the oil we made You begin the oil out from around one hour How easy to use - anyone! Household 100V power available

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Oiling Machine

BOR-20'

Product Name: BOR-20 hydrocarbon oil distillation unit Processing capacity Processing Type 20 l Basic operating hours: Average of two hours; Cold case , it may take two hours or more. Mechanical Dimensions: 1150 (W) 770 (D) 1860 (H) mm Weight: About 200kg Power: Three-phase 200V/11A Running cost: 3.6KW / hour (as standard)

Features:
Means for mixing oil produced by distillation of oil equipment. Equivalent to light oil, kerosene equivalent, equivalent to light oil, heavy oil can be divided into equal

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Oiling Machine

B240

Product Name: B240 (continuous) Processing capacity: 10kg / hour Size: 2600 (W) 1950 (D) 2300 (H) mm Weight: About 2600kg

Features:
Capable of continuous operation 24 hours! Touch screen operation - all operated Residue (oil, raw materials cannot be) is automatically discharged. Rate of 80% or more - the oil!

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Oiling Machine

B120

Product Name: B120 Continuous Oil Equipment Processing capacity: 5kg / Time Size: 2500 (W) 1950 (D) 2450 (H) mm Weight: About 2400kg

Features:
Capable of continuous operation 24 hours! Touch screen operation - all operated Small Oil Equipment placed at each location one at a time!

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Specifications of waste plastic oil reproduction machine

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Oiling Machine

Specification of Electric generator

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Oiling Machine

Specification of the Crushing machine

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Oiling Machine

Experiment for converting Household plastic waste to oil


Desk-top Waste Plastic Oiling System Be-h

The examination is made by using this Be-h.

Household Plastic waste

There are Plastic garbage of food wrapping bags and plastic bags(PP, PE), etc... Household plastics waste, such as food wrapping bags, plastic bags and so on, are converted to oil.

Loading into the Be-h

Load household plastics waste into the reactor of Be-h.

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Oiling Machine

Operating

Operating time is three hours and half. Oil will begin to be generated in about one hour.

Oil

286g/380ml oil are generated. 400g household plastics waste are converted oil.

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Oiling Machine

Running cost to make oil from wasted plastic and the amount of CO2 emission

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Oiling Machine

Questions and Answers

What kind of plastics can be converted to oil? . Recyclable plastics are polypropylene (PP), polyethylene (PE) and polystyrene (PS). Plastics should be clean before putting into the Blest Machine.

What kind of oil is converted from plastics . Recycled oil can be used as fuel for boilers and incinerators and so on. In case of PP, PE,PP and PE will be converted to oil, which contains gasoline equivalent, kerosene equivalent, diesel equivalent and heavy oil. So, we call this oil "Mixed Oil. In case of PS, PS oil does not contain gasoline equivalent, kerosene equivalent, diesel equivalent and heavy oil.PS oil contains styrene monomer, styrene dimmer and styrene trimmer. PS oil can be used as assistant fuel. Or, if you purify PS oil, you can get Styrenemnomer rich, which is raw material for plastic. So, if you need gasoline equivalent or diesel equivalent, please process PP & PE.

What is a Hydrocarbon Oil Refiner? . We have BOR-20 and BOR-50. In case of PP, PE Oil (Mixed Oil).The BOR-20 and BOR-50 are capable of refining batches of mixed oil into Gasoline, Kerosene, Diesel Oil and Heavy Oil Equivalents. We cannot guarantee the above portion, because it depends on plastic materials. The specification of each oil is not exactly equal to Japanese Industrial Standards, nor equal to USA Standard Oil.

4How about the portion of each refined oil? . Averagely, Gasoline equivalent: 15-20% Kerosene equivalent: 20-30% Diesel oil equivalent: 20-30% Heavy oil equivalent: Remains.

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5How much oil can oiling machine convert 1kg plastic waste to oil? . Averagely, 1Kg plastic waste is converted to 1 L oil. It depends on plastic waste.

6 Why cannot our system accept PET or PVC? . 1) Hydrogen chloride and Dioxin are generated in processing PVC.

2) The pyrolysis gas from PET will be sublimated under our operating temperature range. T/fore, you cannot get oil (Liquid) from PET. Sublimation means solid - gas solid, that is , no Liquid condition. So, if you put some PET into our equipment, it can be solid in our equipment, and makes operation trouble. It is said that PET can be converted to oil at approx. 600. Our operating temperature range is 400 - 450.

7What is maximum size . Our highest capacity model is B1200.( 50Kgs/Hr X 24Hrs = 1,200Kgs/day ).

8How about gases or residue . The gases (Methane, Ethane, Propane, Butane and so on) are generated, as we call them Hydrocarbon Gas. But we install "Hydrocarbon Gas Filter" into our machine, which decompose Hydrocarbon Gas into harmless materials (Water and Carbon Dioxide).The residual product remains in a residue tank and that portion is very small, like a few percentages, which depends on plastics waste.

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Conclusion
CO2 from making oil is 71g less than combustion. Using alternative fuel would reduce 71g of CO2 emission per 1kg. By implementing effective separate collection of wastes, we could actually make wasted plastic back into oil and we could reduce CO2 emission by using oil as alternative fuel

The below figures (1-5) based on the above figures.

Assumption:
The total amount of production of the 3P (3 kinds of plastic) in the world is 131,521,683,200kg and we can produce 131,521,683,200 litres of oil from it. 1. Drum (200L) x 657,608,416 131,521,683,200200657,608,416 2. Humpback Whale x 131,521,683,2006,36020,679,509 3. A Mercedes Benz C-class can run: 1,052,173,465,600km 131,521,683,2008.01,052,173,465,600km 4. The distance of above 5. is as long as 26,304,336 circles of the Earth. * Assuming the equatorial line is approx. 40,000 km. 1,052,173,465,60040,00026,304,336 5. 1L of oil made from plastic is worth 11.6kWh of electricity, and in total 1,525,651,525,120kWh of electricity can be produced around the world. 131,521,683,20011.61,525,651,525,120

In short, plastic wastes become resources for future if collected and segregated properly.

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Reference

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