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DecemerZ0TT VoIume16 No13
AChngngWorId
The shape of the Earh has remained
unchanged, for mi l l ions of years, but
not so its map. The map of the world is
constantly changing as the boundaries
of countries change. The boundaries of
old countries crumble, only to form new
ones, yet others merge to form new,
larger countries. Wars and confl icts
constantly redraw the boundary l i nes of
our world map, World War I I is perhaps
the best example of this.
In modern times, technological ad
vances have made us al l neighbours. A
single touch on the key pad, and people
thousands of mi les away are right be
fore us in an instant. The world is shri nk
ing to a large village - a global vil lage.
Even then geographical boundaries
do exist. A better understanding among
people about every land, its people, its
way of life is definitely a need of the
hour.
This issue ofTel l Me Why takes you to
some of the countries of the world. As
you know, it is an impossible task to fea
ture al l the countries in a single issue,
but we have included the maximum
number possible. We are planning to
publ ish another title soon, including the
remaining countries.
4
W h y
hasAtme-
n|a been
f|etce|y pte-
tect|veef|tscu|-
tuteandttad|t|ensI
Armeni a is located in the
Southern Caucasus, and is the
smal l est of the former Soviet
republ ics. It's a l and of rugged
mountai ns and extinct volca
noes.
Over the centuries, Armeni a
has been conquered by Greeks,
Romans, Persians, Byzanti nes,
Mongols, Arabs, Ottoman Turks,
and Russi ans. From the 1 6th
century through Worl d War I,
The National Assembly oj
Armenia
Ceetg|a
Ceetg|a|ss|tuatedatthesttateg|-
ca||y|mpettantctessteadswheteu-
tepemeetsAs|a.|etestedmeunta|ns
Pompey's Bridge in Georgia
major portions of Armeni a were con
trol led by thei r most brutal i nvaders,
the Ottoman Turks. Divided between
the Persians and Ottomans in the 1 6t
h
century, Eastern Armeni an territories
became part of the Russian Empi re in
the
early 1 9th century, whi l e the rest
stayed withi n the Ottoman Empi re.
Throughout most of its l ong history,
Armeni a has been i nvaded by a suc
cession of empi res. Under constant
thr
eat of domi nati on by forei gn forc
es, Armeni ans became both cosmo
politan as wel l as fierce protectors of
thei r cul ture and tradition. This i n
clu
des a strong tradition of rel igious
mus
ic, and the maki ng of stone carv
i n
gs
cal l ed khatchkars.
Coun
tries of the World
cevetmuchefthe
|and,andCeetg|a|s
neted fet |ts feed
and hesp|ta| |ty.
0vet the centut|es,
Ceetg|a was the
ebjecteft|va|tybe-
tween ets|a, 1ut-
key,andkuss|a,be-
fete be|ng eventu-
a| |y annexed by
kuss|a |n the 1 9

centuty. Ceetg|a
emetged ftem the
ce||aps|ng Sev|et
un|en as an |nde-
pendent state |n
1 991 .
pL

As|a|sthe|atg-
estef the cent|- j
nents, beth |n
'
.
ateaand pep-
.
u|at|en.

& .
5
Why |s 8azakhstanassec|atedw|th
kuss|aI
Oficially known as the Republic of Ka
zakhstan, the country is mostly situated
in Central Asia, though part of it is also
located in Europe. Russia conquered Ka
zakhstan about 1 00 years ago, and Kaza
khstan became a part of the Soviet Union.
It is now an independent state.
Kazakhstan's varied landscape stretch
es from the mountainous, heavily popu
lated regions of the east, to the sparsely
populated, energy-rich lowlands in the
west, and from the industrialized north,
with its Siberian climate and terrain,
through the arid, empty steppes of the
centre, to the fertile south. The Kazakhs
make up over half the population, while
the Russians comprise just over a quar
ter. Smaller minorities of Uzbeks, Kore
ans, Chechens and others account for
the rest. The main religion, Islam, was
suppressed like all others under Com
munist rule, but has enjoyed a revival
since the collapse of the Soviet Union.
Kazakhstan is also the world's largest
producer of uranium.
The Bayterek tower in Kazakhstan
Presidential Palace o/Turkmenistan
Why ate 1utkmen|stan and Uz-
bek|stan| mettantI
Turkmenistan has the smallest
population of the five former Soviet
republics in Central Asia. It is made up
mainly of desert, and is important a
.
s
it has the world's fifth largest estI
mated reserves of natural gas.
Turkmenistan declared its sover
eigntyin1990,and becamea member
of the Commonwealth of Independ
ent States in 1991, together with ten
other former Soviet republics.
CO11Oh,
CO11Oh every
where!
Cou
ntries of the World
Uzbekistan' s
majestic cities
such as Bukhara
and Samarkand,
famed for their
ar chi t ect ur al
opulence, once
flourished as
trade and cul
tural centres.
Today, it is one
of the world's
biggest produc
ers of cotton.
Landef
1aj|ks
1
aj|k|stan
| sa tug-
ged,
meunta|n-
eus ceun-
ttythatwasafetmet
Sev|etkepub||c.1he
name1aj|k|stanmeans
'Landefthe1aj|ks'.1he
1aj|ks ate
descendedftemthe
ets|ans,whef|tst
sett|edhetetheusands
efyeatsage.1he1aj|ks
wetesuccess|ve|ytu|ed
bytheUzbeksandthen
theAfghansunt||
c|a|medbykuss|a|n
the1 860's.|tbecame
|ndeendentefthe
Sev|etUn|on|n1 M1 .
Tajik Children
Whyhavemanyceuntt|esfeughtevet
Afghan| stanI
Afghanistan's strategic position sand
wiched between the Middle East, Central
Asia, and the Indian subcontinent along
the ancient 'Silk Route' was the reason that
this country has long been fought over
despite its rugged and forbidding terrain.
It has a history and culture that goes back
over 5000 years.
Afghanistan is a rugged mountainous
country with a climate that ranges from
extreme heatto biting cold. It is completely
landlocked and a narrow pass, the Khyber
Pass links it to Pakistan. The Khyber Pass is
one of the most important passes in the
world, from the time of Alexander the
Great. Did you know that he marched his
Soviet troops withdrawing fom Afg
Soldiers ofAfghan
National Army
army through it to
reach India? There
are about 20 differ
ent ethnic groups
living here, and each
group has its own
language and tradi
tions.
At the turn of the
21 '1 century, the
country was more
synonymous with
war and terrorism.
Today, Afghanistan
is on the road to re
covery, aftw dec
adesQfwar:
Cyptus
Accetd|ngte|egend,Cyptus|s
theb|tthp|aceeftheanc|ent
y
CteekCeddessefLeve,
Aphted|te.Cyptusewes|ts
nametethewetdfetceppet
|nanc|entCteek,'8yptes.'

@
1he|s|andhast|chceppet
depes|ts.1h|s|s|andhasp|ayedan
|mpenantpan|ntheh|stety,fet|t||es
atthectessteadsef thteecent|nents.
Legendary Walls of Troy
Why|s1utkeyaceuntty| ntwe
c
ent| nentsI
Turkey is a vast and varied coun
try boasting incredible landscapes
and natural wonders, bordered by
four different seas. Its landscape is
dotted with battlegrounds, ruined
castles, and the palaces of great
empires. It is a large peninsula that
ac
ts like a bridge between two
::
o
u ntries of the World
The Moufon - National
Animal of Cyprus
continents- Europe and
Asia, and its strategically
important location has giv
en it major influence in the
region - and control over
the entrance to the Black
Sea.
Turkey is also a land of
lakes and rivers. About half
the population lives in large
towns, while the plains
along the coast of the Black
Sea are home to farmers
who keep animals and grow
fruits, nuts, and tobacco.
The capital of Turkey is An
kara, while another very
important city is Istanbul.
The Bosphorus suspension
bridge connects Asian part
of Turkey to Europe.

Why de !ews eveqhete


cens|det|stathe|themeI
The state of Israel was formed
in 1 948, as a Jewish state
and a democratic republic.
Its borders in the West are
the Mediterranean Sea and
the Gaza Strip, while in the
North, its borders are Leba
non and Syria. Jordan and
the Palestinian Authority's
autonomous territories lie to
the East, and in the South, lie
Egypt and the Red Sea. Israel
is a land of deserts, moun
tains, plains and beaches.
Jews all over the world con
sider Israel their home. Israel is
par of a historic land called Pal
estine, where a Hebrew king
dom was established in 1000
Be. Palestine was later split into
the kingdoms of Judah and Isra
el, which were subsequently in
vaded by the Assyrians, Babylo
nians, Egyptians, Persians, Ro
mans, and Alexander the Great.
For a Jew, Israel is more than a
place - it is their Holy Land,
y
8ytgyzstan|s
m
knewnasthe

'Sw|tzet|andef
)
p
_
Centta|As|a'.
1
f
Why |s |taq cens|deted se
t| ch| nh|stetyI
Iraq is the home of one of the
earliest of civilizations. Modern
Iraq was Ancient Mesopotamia,
from the Greek word meaning
'between two rives'. It was
here that human beings first
began to cultivate their land,
where writing was invented,
and where the Assyrians,
Sumerians, and Babylonians
all made Iraq the centre of the
ancient world. The country
remains rich with a glorious
past, but recent history has
dealt less kindly with Iraq.
Indeed, in recent years, few
where their history began. For
over 2000 years, the Jews were
exiled from this sacred land of
theirs, and persecuted, and it
was only after World War II
ended, that they were able to
return home to Israel.
Tell Me Why
| taqc/e'|nd|a'
D|dyeuknewthat |taq
wasencea anef|nd|aI
Dut|ngWet|dWat|, | taq
came undet the 8t|t|sh
tu|e.|nd|awasa|seundet
the8t|t|sh.Ahetthewat,
an |ntetnat|ena| etgan|-
zat|enca||edthe'League
ef Nat|ens' was fetmed.
| taq came undet|ts tu|e.
8t|ta|nundeneekthead-
m|n|sttat|en ef |taq fet
the League ef Nat|ens,
thteugh the 8embay
adm|n|sttat|en. |taq was
thenaanefthe8embay
State- ftem1 920to1 932.
overthrown and later killed.
Iraq is a land of deserts and
mountains, and at its heart is
its capital city of Baghdad. To
day, Iraq has oil and and sugar
refineries. Its econom"y is built
on its oil reserves, which have
also been the cause of much
strife and turbulence.
countries have experienced
such external interference
as Iraq has, culminating in
the 2003 American-led inva
sion of the country. Sadam
Hussein, ruler of Iraq was
May these
civilizations rest
in peace.
8ytgyzstan
8ytgyzstan|saCentta|As|anstate
betdet|ngCh|na.|twasaaneftheSev|etun-
|en,andbecame|ndeendentaftettheSev|et
un|en'sce||ase|n 1 991 . |thassemee||and

gasandadeve|e|ngge|dm| n|ngsectet
.Men-
stet meunta|ns and the|tassec|ated sctaggy

va||eys,g|ac|ets,and |ce-b|ue|akesdem|nate
evet90%eftheceuntty
.
1heee|eatemest|ynemads,
ta|s|ngsheepand|gsetpeasantsgtew|ngcettenandte-
bacce.1eut|sm|savety|mpenant|ndusttyteday.
Co
untries of the World 11
Why|s| tanam|xtuteefep-
pes|tesI
.
Iran was known as Persia be
fore 1 935. It was one of the
greatest empires of the ancient
world, and the country has its
own language, Persian. It has an
abundance of energy resources
that include substantial oil re
serves as well as natural gas.
Iran lies within the Alpine
Himalayan mountain system.
The centre of Iran is a vast pla
teau that is an empty desert of
salt, sand, and gravel. Narrow
coastal plains are found along
A|phabetC|ty
Syt|a |sthe|andthat
gave human|ty the M
wet|d'sf|tsta| phabet.A
the shores of the Persian Gulf,
Gulf of Oman, and the Caspian
Sea. Iran is subjectto numerous,
and often severe earthquakes
and volcanic eruptions.
Iran's central position has
made it a crossroads of migra
tion, and it has a Persian core
that includes over half of the
people. It is a country where the
desert glory of ancient king
doms exists alongside the dy
namic present of today's world.
Tehran - Capital City of
Iran
counttyeffen||ep|a|ns,

meunta|nsanddesetts,

_^
|t|shemeto many d|f-
fetentethn|candte||g|ousgteups.Mod-
etnSyt|aga|ned|ts|ndependenceftom
Clay tabletfom Syria
|tance|n1946.
1 Z
Tell Me Why
Kuwait Towers
A
sma||, mounta|nous
countty |n the M|dd|e
ast,Lebanonwasundet
the |tench unt|| |nde-
pendence | n 1943. 1he Lebanon
Mounta|ns,wh|ch tun pata||e|tothe
westetncoast,covetmostofthecoun-
tty,wh||eontheeastetnbotdet|sthe
Ant|-Lebanonkange.8etweenthetwo
||esthefett||e8ekaaVa||ey.Lebanon
|sfamousfot|tscedatwood.
Countries of the World
Whyis 8uwait cen-
sideted ene ef the
tichest ceuntties in
thewet|dI
Kuwait is a small, oil
rich country nestling at
the top of the Persian
Gulf. Its neighbours are
Saudi Arabia to the south,
Iraq to the north, and Iran
to the east. This low-ly
ing desert land is mainly
sandy and barren. There
are no lakes or rivers in
Kuwait, so distilled sea
water is the main source
of fresh water. Kuwait
has large oil felds, and
huge profts have been
made by exporting oil,
making it one of the rich
est countries in the world.
Lebanese Parliament
Building
1 d
Baan Palace - Seat of the
Goverment of Kuwait
Kuwait is bel i eved to have
been part of an early civi l iza
tion in the 3rd mi l l enni um BC
and to have traded with Meso
potami an cities. In the late 1 8th
and earl y 1 9
t
h
centuries, the
shei kdom bel onged to the
fri nges of the Ottoman Empi re.
Kuwait obtai ned Bri ti sh pro
tection in 1 897. l n 1 961 , Kuwait
became i ndependent.
Kuwait i s best described as a
city state. The capital Kuwait
City has been attracti ng
Bedoui n peopl e from the Ara
bi an i nteri or, in search of a sea
breeze and an escape from re
curri ng drought, for centuries.
Today the metropol i s i s sti l l an
oasi s in a l and of desert pl ai ns.
I n 1 990, Kuwait was i nvaded by
I raq, but i n 1 991 , the I raqi s
were d riven out by troops from
the United Ki ngdom and Unit
ed States.
1
Why| s Saud|Atab|aene
efthewea|th|estceuntt|es
| nthewet|dI
Saudi Arabia occupies most
of the Arabian Peni nsul a. I t is
a barren desert with no per
manent rivers or lakes. Yet i t
i s one of the wealthiest na-
Riyadh
!etdan
!
etdan |sa sma||ceun-
tty |n the hean ef the
M|dd|e ast. |t has few
natuta|teseutces,and|ts
s|gn|f|cancetesu|tspan|y
ftem |ts sttateg|c |eca-
t|en.1hedesenk|ngdem
emetgedeutefthepest-
wet|d wat | d|v|s|en ef
tions in the world! Saudi Arabia
has emerged from bei ng an un
derdevel oped desert ki ngdom to
become one of the wealthiest
nations i n the regi on, thanks to
vast oil resources. Saudi Arabia
sits on more than 25% of the
world's known oi l reserves. It is
the M|dd|e ast by 8t|ta|n and
|tance.un| | kemanyef thestates
|ntheteg|en,!etdanhasnee||ef
|ts
ewn. |ts teseutces
ate
||m|ted te phes-
phatesandagt|cu|tut-
a|
pteduce.1heecene-
my
depends|atge|yen
setv
|ces, teut|sm, and
fete|
gna|d.
Count
ries of the World
capabl e of producing more
than 1 0 mi l l ion barrels per day.
It contai ns the world's l argest
conti nuous sand desert, the
Rub AI-Khal i, or Empty Quar
ter. Its oi l region l ies pri mari l y
i n the eastern provfnce al ong
the Persi an Gulf.
The ki ngdom of Saudi Arabia
i s al most entirely the creation
of Ki ng Abdul Aziz bin Saud,
who lived from 1 882 to 1 953.
Saudi Arabia is not only the
homel and of the Arab peoples
- it i s thought that the first Ar
abs ori gi nated on the Arabi an
Peni nsul a - but al so the home
l and of I sl am, the world's sec
ond-l argest rel i gi on. The two
hol y pi l gri mage cities of Mecca
and Medi na are also in Saudi
Arabi a.
Jordan
wh|ch em| tates make
uptheUn|tedAtab6m|t-
ates et UA6I
The United Arab Emi r
ates, or UAE is a federation
of seven states formed in
1 971 . These states were
earl i er ruled by Arab
pri nces. Si nce then, it has
grown from a quiet back
water to one of the Mi ddl e
East's most i mportant
economi c centres. Al
though each state - Abu
Dhabi , Dubai , Aj man, Fu
jai rah, Ras al Khai mah,
Sharjah and Umm al Qai
wai n - mai ntai ns a l arge
degree of i ndependence,
the UAE is governed by a
Supreme Counci l of rul ers
Burj Khalifa
The Tallest
Building in the
World
|tank|ncenseCeuntty
0man|seneefthemetettad|-
t|ena| ceuntt|es|nthe Cu|fte-
g|en. 0ccupy|ng the seuth-
east cetnet ef the Atab|an
en|nsu|a,|t hasa sttate-
g|ca||y |mpettant pes|-
t|enat the meuth ef
theCu|f.0|||sthe
made up of the seven emi rs, who
appoi nt the pri me mi ni ster and the
cabi net. Before oil was discovered i n
the 1 950's, the UAE's economy was
dependent on fishi ng, and pearl i ng
i ndustry. But si nce 1 962, when Abu
Dhabi became the first of the emi r
ates to begi n exporting oi l , the
country's society and economy have
been transformed.
Abu Dhabi
Capital city of U
but0man |s tenewned fet |ts
ftank| ncense, a scented gum
that|sebta|nedftemadesett
`

1
1

why|satatana| | embtac-
|ngwe|fatestateI
Qatar occupi es a smal l peni n
sul a that extends i nto the Per
sian Gul f from the east side of
the Arabi an Peni nsul a. Qatar,
once one of the poorest Gulf
states, is now one of the richest
countries in the regi on, thanks
to the exploitation of l arge oi l
shtub. 0man has an anc|ent
seattad|ngttad|t|en,andfet
centut|es,wasfamedfetthe
expettefftank|ncense .
Muscat- Capital of
Oman
and gas fields si nce
the 1 940's. The mai nl y
barren country was a British
protectorate unti l 1 971 , when
it decl ared i ts i ndependence. It
did not join the United Arab
Emi rates. The popul ation i s
smal l . Forei gners - i ncl udi ng l a
bourers attracted bya construc
tion boom - outn umber natives.
Oi l money funds an al i-embrac
ing welfare state, with many
services bei ng free, or heavi l y
subsi di zed.
A Desert Lndscape in Bahrain
Why ate 8ahta|n and 1he
Ma|d|vesfasc|nat|ngI
Bahrai n i s made up of 30 i s
l ands that l i e off the coast of
Saudi Arabi a i n the Persi an Gulf.
The mai n i sl ands are joi ned by
bridges, and the l argest i sl and,
whi ch is al so cal l ed Bahrai n, i s
l i nked to Saudi Arabi a through
a causeway. It was one of the
fi rst states i n the Gul f to discover
oi l , and to bui ld a refi nery, and
so, i t benefited from oi l wealth
before most of its nei ghbours.
From vast quantities of oil to
natural gas, you j ust have to
name it, and Bahrai n has it. Fi sh
stocks are also abundant i n thi s
part of the worl d. Di d you know
that Bahrai n - the name means
An Island in
The Maldives
\8
'two seas' - was once viewed by
the anci ent Sumeri ans as an i s
l and paradise to whi ch the wi se
and the brave were taken after
they died?
The Mal dives are a series of
anci ent coral reefs in the I ndi an
Ocean that grew up around the
si des of towering prehi storic
volcanoes. These i mmense
structures have l ong si nce sunk
i nto the ocean, leavi ng behi nd
coral i sl ands of i ncredi bl e natu
ral beauty. There are about
1 200 i sl ands, but only 200 are
i nhabited. The Mal dives be
came tradi ng posts for the Por
tuguese and the Dutch from
the 1 500's, and were rul ed by
the Bri ti sh from 1 887, unti l the
i sl ands got thei r i ndependence
in 1 965. The economy revolves
around touri sm, and scores of
i sl ands have been developed
for the top end of the tourist
market.
Yeah
,
our cou

try is
growing
e
sma||est
ceuntty|n
As|a|nbeth
ateaand
pepu|at|en
|s the
Ma|d|ves
emen
emenhasbeen
atthectessteadsef
Aft|ca,theM|dd|e
astandAs|afet
theusandsefyeats.
1h|s|sduete|tspe-
s|t|enenthean-
c|entsp|ceteutes.
1henettheast|sa
bak|ngstenydesen
wheteyeatscan
passw|theutta|n.
Mewevet,the
meunta|nsand
ceasta|p|a|nsdete-
ce|veta|nevety
yeat.0||andthe
censttuct|en|ndus-
ttyatevety
|mpenanttethe
ecenemy.1he
cap|ta|c|ty|sSana,
andthema|nex-
p
ensatepette|eum
pte
ducts,cetten,
and
f|sh.
o
untries of the World
A Foot Bridge in Yemen
Whywasak|stanfetmedI
Pakistan was born out of the parti
tion of the I ndi an sub-continent i n
1 947. Pakistan was ori gi nal ly existed i n
two parts. The east wi ng - present-day
Bangl adesh - is on the Bay of Bengal ,
bordering I ndia and Burma. The west
wi ng - present-day Pakistan, stretches
from the Hi malayas down to the Arabi
an Sea. The name Pakistan
is derived from the Urdu
words 'Pak' meani ng pure,
and 'stan' meani ng
country.
Islamabad
1
Karachi
The northern and western hi gh
l ands of Paki stan contai n the tower
ing Karakoram and Pami r mountai n
ranges, whi ch i ncl ude some of the
world's hi ghest peaks. The Bal uchi stan
Plateau l i es to the west, and the Thar
Desert and an expanse of al l uvial
pl ai ns, the Punjab and Si nd, l i e to the
east. The 1 ,600 ki l ometres l ong I ndus
River and its tri butaries flow through
the country.
What i s now Pakistan was, in prehis
toric ti mes, the I ndus Val ley civil iza
tion. A series of i nvaders - Aryans, Per
sians, Greeks, Arabs, Turks, and others
- control led the region for the next
several thousand years. In 1 526, the
l and became part of the Mogul Em
pi re, which rul ed most of the I ndi an
subconti nent from the 1 6th to the
mi d-1 8th century. By 1 857, the
B
riti sh
became the domi nant power i n the
regi on. Pakistan came i nto bei ng as
an i ndependent nati on when I ndia
won her i ndependence from the
Bri ti sh.
Z
Why| s| nd| aca| | ed
the|andefcenttastsI
I ndi a is the worl d's
the l argest democracy
the second most popu
l ous country, and the
seventh largest i n
terms of size. I t i s mi l i
taril y strong, has a ma
jor cultural i nfl uence,
and a fast-growi ng
and powerful econo
my. I t is a l and of con
trasts from its snow
dusted mountai ns to
sun-washed beaches,
its tranqui l templ es to
feisty festivals, from
the lantern-l it vi l l ages
to software-supremo
cities. There are mas
sive mountai n ranges
with snowy peaks, vast
pl ai ns crossed by
Tell Me Why
broad rivers, parched
deserts, dense tropical
forests and pal m fringed
beaches. I ndi a i s rich in
natural resources, yet
there is not enough food
for everyone. I ndustry has
transformed the cities,
yet poverty sti l l abounds.
In fact, I ndi a has been
cal l ed the rich country
where poor peopl e l i ve!
I ndi a is home to over a
bi l l ion people, speaki ng
around a thousand l an
guages and di al ects, wi th
a l arge number of reli
gions. Did you know that
four of the worl d's reli
gions- Hi ndui sm, Bud
dhism, Jai ni sm and
Si khi sm, ori gi nated i n I n
di a? I ndia is al so home to
o
ne of the greatest of an
ci
ent ci vil izations, and has
se
en the ri se and fal l
Countries of the World
Parliament Building ofIndia
many empi res based on rel i gi on. By
the 1 800's, the Engl i sh East I ndi a
Company control l ed l arge areas, and
i n 1 858, I ndia became a part of the
Bri tish Empi re. I n 1 947, I ndi a gai ned
its i ndependence and adopted the
federal pol iti cal system, whereby
power i s shared between the central
government and 28 states.
India Gate
M
m

Landef
the1hundet
0tagen
8
hutan|sat|nyceunttythat
|s en|y 1 77 k||emettes ftem
nenhteseuth,and321k||eme-
ttesftemeasttewest.|tnest|es
|ntheM|ma|ayasbetween|nd|a
andCh|na.A| mestcemp|ete|y
cutefffetcentut|es,|thastt|ed
te |et |n seme aspects efthe
euts|de wet|d wh||e f|etce|y
guatd|ng|tsanc|entttad|t|ens.
1he 8hutanese namefet8hu-
tan,Dmku|,means'Landef the
1hundet Dtagen', and |ts f|ag
shewsatampag|ngdtagen.
National Flag a/Thailand
ZZ
Why| sNepa| faveut|t
dest|nat|enfetteut|stsI
Perched on the roof ofthe
Hi malayas, Nepal shares a
snowy border wi th Chi na
and I ndi a. A l andl ocked
country, it had been rul ed
by monarchs or a rul i ng
fami l y for most of i ts modern
hi story in relative i sol ati on
unti l it became a republ ic i
May 2008. Here, the tal l est
mountai n in the worl d,
Mount Everest, soars above
range afer range of icy
peaks. It's a l and of yaks and
yetis, stupas and Sherpas,
and some of the best trek
ki ng on Earth. Is it any won
der that Nepal is a hot fa
vourite with touri sts from al l
over the worl d?
The first ci vi l izati ons i n
Nepal , whi ch flouri shed
around the 6th century BC,
were confined to the ferti l e
Barun Valley
in Nepal
eyeuknewwhat |scemmenabeutthe
nat|ena|anthemsef|nd|aand8ang|adeshI
8ethwetewt|ttenbythesamepetsen|0ut
'!anaCanaMana'and8ang|adesh's 'Amat
Shenat8ang|a'wetebethtakenftemseng
cempesedbykab|ndtanath1agete.
Kathmandu Val l ey
where the present
day capital of the same
name i s located. It was
i n thi s regi on that
Prince Si ddhartha
Gautama was born i n
563 BC Gautama
achi eved enl i ghten
ment as Buddha, and
gave riseto Buddhi sm.
Most of the peopl e i n
Nepal are farmers.
Others herd sheep
and yaks. However,
today, touri sm is the
mai n i ndustry.
ydoes B ngladesh have a sp
O rerationship ith Indi I
The regi on that is now Bangl adesh
was once part of the I ndi an province of
Bengal . Later, when I ndia was di vi ded
i nto I ndia and Paki stan, it was known
as East Pakistan. Bangl adesh came i nto
bei ng onl y in 1 971 , when the two parts
of Paki stan spl it, after a bitter war in
which I ndia pl ayed a major role i n
hel pi ng Bangl adesh become i nde
pendent. Most of Bangl adesh i s very
We are
free from
Pakist an!
low l yi ng, flat l and.
I t i s one of the most
densel y populated
regi ons in the
worl d. The two
great rivers, the
Ganges and the
Brahmaputra,meet
here, to form a
maze of waterways
that make up the
world's l argest del
ta. As a result,
Bangl adesh i s
prone to frequent
floods that cause
great damage.
Zd
Why|sSt|Lankaknewn
as'the]ewe|bex'efthe
| nd| an0cean'I
Sri Lanka l i es off the
southern ti p of I ndia. Thi s
tropi cal i sl and has fasci
nated travellers for centu
ries, with its pal m-fringed
beaches, diverse l and
scapes and hi storical
monuments. Known as
'Serendi p' to Arab geogra
phers, the i sl and fel l under
Portuguese and Dutch i n-
D
|d yeu knewthat
k|ckbex|nget|g| nat-
ed |n 1ha||andI 1h|s
teugh spen eften
takes p|ace |n a t|ng
whete cembatants
may ut|||ze k|cks,
punches, e| bew
stt|kes, head butts,
knee stt|kes, and
thtews aga| nst ene
anethet. 8|ck bex| ng
|snewavetypepu|at
spen a|| evot tho
wet|d.
Myanmat
Myanmat, et8utmaas| twas
eat||etknewn,|s|nthe|ndeCh|-
nesepen|nsu|a.|t|st|mmedw|th
fl uence and fi nal ly came under Brit
ish rule when it was cal l ed Ceyl on.
The i sl and became i ndependent i n
1 948, and changed i ts name to Sri
Lanka in 1 972. Agriculture i s the
mai n occupation, and the i mportant
crops produced are tea, coconuts,
rice, and rubber. Sri Lanka i s al so
known as the 'jewel box of the I ndi an
A Rock Fortress in Sri Lnka
ta||
meunta|ns that
sutt
eund the btead
fen||
e va||ey ef the
Aye
yatwady k|vet.
|ntheeat|y1 9

cen-
tuty,
the8t|t|sh ast
|nd|a Cempany ex-
pandedtethewhe|e
ef8utma.8utmabe-
came an |ndepend-
ent nat|en ahet
wet|dwat||.
Ocean', and has yi el ded
precious stones and fine
gems in a great profu
sion of species and vari
eties. Gems from Ceylon
became famous all over
the world, and today
there is even a town
called Ratnapura or
' gem town'!

.
9
.
.
Co
untries ofthe World
Buddhist Images in Thailand
What makes 1ha||and un| que | n
SeuthastAs|aI
Thailand i s situated i n South East Asia,
and is a l and of emerald paddy fields,
mi sty mountai ns, and gol den beaches.
The Buddhi st rel i gion, the monarchy,
and the mi l itary have hel ped to shape
its soci ety and pol iti cs. The Thais first
began settl i ng in thei r present home
l and i n the 6th century, and by the end
of the 1 3th century, ruled most of the
western porti on. Duri ng the next 400
years, theyfought sporadi cal l y with the
Cambodi ans to the east and the Bur
mese to the west. Thailand was formerly
called Siam.
1ha| | and|stheen|y
Seuth-eastAs|an M
ceunttynevettehave

been ce|en|sedby _
utepean pewets.
Zb
1ho
8|ngdemef
M| |||en
|ophants
Pha That
Luang- The National
Symbol of Laos
Laes |s a ceuntty ef tuggod
meunta|ns and donsofetosts
that||os|nthohoattefSeuth
WhyCh|na|scens|doto
eno ef tho mest pewotfu|
ceuntt|osenatthI
ast As|a. Laes |s a|se
knewnas'tho8|ngdem
efam| || |eno|ophants',
Chi na stretches 5000 ki l ometres
from east to west, and 5500 ki l ome-
bocausothocap|ta|ef
thoanc|ontk|ngdem
usod te bo sut-
teundod by |atgo
pastutos that
wotothogtaz|ng
gteundsfetw||d
o|ophants.
tres from north to south. It occupi es
one fi fh of Asi a's area, and i s the thi rd
l argest country i n the worl d. It is the bi g-
gest i n terms of population- 50,000 babi es
are born i n Chi na every day! It has hi gh
mountai ns, pl ateaus, sandy deserts, and
dense forests and thousands of rivers of
whi ch the Yangtze is the most i mportant.
Beijing - Capital city of China
Chi na is home to the
Dl dest of ci vi l izations- i n
fact, many of the ele
ments that make up the
foundati on of the mod
ern worl d ori gi nated i n
China, i ncl udi ng paper,
gunpowder, credit
banki ng, the compass,
and paper money. Chi
nese hi story is divi ded
i nto dynasties, and the
l ast emperor was over
thrown in 1 91 2, and Chi
na became a Republ i c.
The Peopl e's Republ i c
of Chi na was founded i n
1 949 afer the Commu
nist Party defeated the
previ ously domi nant
national ist Kuomi ntang
i n a ci vil war. However,
after the death of its
leader Mao in 1 976, a
new l eadershi p and
economi c reforms were
ushered i n. Nowadays,
China i s one of the
world's top exporters,
and i s attracti ng record
a
m
ounts of forei gn i n
v
estment. l n turn, it i s i n
v
esti ng bi l l i ons ofdol l ars
abroad, and is emergi ng
as one of the most pow
erful countri es on Earth.
Countries of the World
Seoul - South Korea
Whywas Korea divided?
Korea is an East Asi an country
that i s at present divi ded i nto two
countries - North Korea and South
Korea. But why did this divi si on take
place?
The Soviet Uni on occupi ed the
northern hal f of Korea after Worl d
War I I ended i n 1 945. At the same
ti me, Southern Korea was control
led by the United States. The peni n
sul a was formal ly spl i t i n two i n
1 948.The pol itical differences be-
Support
communism! r
Support
capitalism!
Z1
Angket Wat,
|nS|emkeap,
Cambed|a,
|sthe|atgest
te||g|eus
temp|e |n
thewet|d
Whyis!aanknewnas the'Landefth
kising5un'I
Japan is an archi pelago, whi ch means
group of i sl ands. Though there are around
3000 i sl ands i n the archi pelago, Japan's fou
mai n i sl ands are Honshu, Hokkaido, Kyushu,
and Shi koku. Legend attributes the creation O
Japan to the sun goddess, from whom the em
perors were descended, and that i s why Japan
i s known as the ' Land of the Ri si ng Sun'.
Al most four fifths of Japan i s covered with
mountai ns. The highest peak i s Mount Fuj i . I t is
Toko - Capital Cit
o/Japan
tween the two rival states led to
the outbreak of a horrific war i n
1 950.Three years later, a cease
fire agreement ended the Ko
rean War. Butthe North Koreans
28
and South Koreans have to thi s
day, never si gned a peace treaty.
South Korea has developed i nto
one of Asia's most affl uent
countries si nce parti ti on i n
Tell Me Why
a cone shaped volcano. Japan
als
o has around 200 volca- .
noes, 60 of whi ch are active.
Modern farmi ng methods
make maxi mum use of the
scarce l and avai l abl e for cul ti
vation. Fi shi ng i s al so an i m
portant occupati on, and Ja
pan's manufacturi ng pl ants
have ushered in an economi c
boom.
A World Heritage Site in Japan
Whi l e retai ni ng its ti me
honoured cul ture, Japan rap
idly absorbed Western tech
nolo
gy.
I n
spite of its devastati ng
defeat i n Worl d War I I, Japan
re
covered, to become a trul y
p
owerful nati on.
1
9
48. North Korea, on the other
hand, has been oneoftheworld's
most secretive societies. It i s one
of the few countri es still under
nomi nal l y communi st rul e.
Countries of the World
Angkor Wat
Cambed|a
Cambed|a
|s|ecated
|ntheseuthetnpanefthe
|ndech|naen|nsu|a.1he
ateathat|sptesent-day
Cambed|acameundet
8hmettu|eateundthe
yeat600 AD,whenthe
teg|enwasatthecentteef
avastemp|tethat
sttetchedevetmestef
SeutheastAs|a.undetthe
8hmets,amagn|f|cent
temp|ecemp|exwascen-
sttuctedatAngket.1h|s
beaut|fu|,fett||e|andhas
beenthesceneefmany
cenf||cts ,andth|s|egacy
has|eft|tapeetceuntty.
Z
Why |s S| ngapete cens|d-
etedeneefAs|a'secenem|c
't|gets'I
Si ngapore i s made up of 50
i sl ands that l i e just above the
equator, of the southern ti p of
the Mal ay Peni nsul a. Accordi ng
to legend, thi s city state was
founded bya Mal ay pri nce
who l anded on the i s
l and i n 1 299. The
l argest of the
i sl ands
Menge| | a
M
enge||aspteads
actess1.5 m| | ||ensqkm
The Port ofSingapore
is l i nked by road to Mal aysia.
Si ngapore was once a col oni al
outpost of Britai n, but became
i nternal l y self-governi ng i n
1 959. Si ngapore united wi th
other former British territories
to form Mal aysia i n 1 963 and
became a ful l y i ndependent
state two years l ater after sepa
ration from Malaysia. I n spite of
the fact that there i s very l ittle
agri cultural land and the rai n-
eftheCentta|As|anp|ateau.0nce
thehean|andefanemp|testtetch|ngte
utepeundetthe|eadet
Cengh|s8han,Menge||a|sa
|and|eckedceuntty
dem|natedbyspatse|y
pepu|atedsteppeand
sem|-desen.Ana|ystssay|t
ceu|dbecemeeneefthe
wet|d'sfastestgtew|ng
ecenem|esteday.
M
enge||a|s
ca||edthe
'Landefthe
8|ueSky'.
Tell Me Why
forests have been cut for bui l d
ing homes, Si ngapore i s a very
rich country. I n fact, Si ngapore
is often referred to as one of
Asia's economi c 'tigers'. Its
economy i s driven by electron
ics manufacturi ng and fi nanci al
services, shi ppi ng, and i nterna
tional trade.
Hig
hspeed Railway in Taiwan
1a|wan
a|wan, fetmet|y knewn as
|et
mesa, |s an |s|and that |s
tepatatedftemMa|n|andCh|-
nabyanattewstta|t.| n1949,
Countries of the World
TaipeilOl
One of the World's
Tallest Buildings
when the Cemmun|sts teek
evet Ch|na, many ef the de-
feated |eadetsf|ed te 1a|wan
and sett|ed thete. 1heugh
fatmets gtew cteps | |ke t|ce
andp|neapp|es,andf|sh|ng |s
an |mpenant eccupat|en, |n-
dustty new eccup|es centte
stage.1a|wan's factet|es pte-
ducegeedsthatateexpetted
a| | evetthewet|d.
d 1
Why is Ma|aysiaa
faveued
.
teutist
destinatienI
Malaysia i s on the
Mal ay Peni nsul a i n
Southeast Asi a. Most
of Mal aysia is covered
Ma
|aysiaistheen|y
ceunttyinthewet|dte
haveatetatingsystem
efkings.
by forest, with a mountai n range runni ng
the l ength of the peni nsul a.
The ancestors of the peopl e that now
i nhabit the Mal aysian peni nsul a first mi
grated to the area between 2500 and
1 500 BC British and Dutch i nterest i n the
regi on grew i n the 1 800's, with the British
East India Company's establ i shment of a
tradi ng settl ement on the i sl and of Si ng a-
Malaysian Houses of Parliament
WhyatetheFhi|-
iines ca||ed by this
nameI
The Phi l i ppi nes l i e between the Chi na
Sea and the Pacific Ocean i n South Eastern
Asia. I t is a nation made of more than 7000 i sl ands,
but onl y one thi rd of the i sl ands are i nhabited. The
l arger isl ands are mountai nous. There are over 30 active
volcanoes in the Phi l i ppi nes, and much of the l and is forest
cl ad. The mai n crops are rice, sugar cane, pi neapples, bananas,
and coconuts. The economy i s based on agri culture, ti mber
l i ght i ndustries, and services. The peopl e are mai nl y of Malayan
descent. The Phi l i ppi nes were, di scovered by Ferdi nand Magel
l an i n 1 52 1 , and col oni zed by the Spani sh i n 1 565. The Uni ted
pore. Trade soared, and Malaysia be
came a Bri ti sh protectorate in the
1 880's. At about the same time, rubber
trees were i ntroduced from Brazil. With
the mass production of automobi les,
rubber became a val uabl e export
The i ndependent state of Ma-
M
m
Hassanal Bolkiah
Sultan o/Brunei
laysia came i nto existence i n
1 963. Today, Mal aysia i s a federa
tion of 1 3 states and three federal
territories. I t i s one ofthe region's
key tourist des
tinati ons, with
its breathtak
ing beaches.

r
p

k|chku|et
1heSu|tanate
of8tune||san
S t a t e s
brought the
Phi l i ppi nes for
20 mi l l ion dol
lars i n 1 898.
Thi s country
Have you
come from Spain
to rename my
country?
was granted
i ndependence
in
1 946.
o||t|chcountty
|ocatedonthe|s|and
of8otneo|nSouth
astAs|a.At|ny
counttyw|thasma||
popu|at|on,8tune|
wastheon|yMa|ay
state|n1 963to
choosetotema|na
8t|t|shdependency,
tathetthanjo|nthe
Ma|ays|an|edeta-
The Phi l i ppi nes are named afer Ki ng Phi l i p
t|on. |tbecame
|ndependent|n
1 984, and,
II
of
Spai n because it was duri ng hi s rei gn that
the i sl ands came under Spani sh rul e.
thanksto|ts
|atge te-
setvesofo||
andgas,|ts
su|tan|s
one ofthe
t|chesttu|-
ets |n the
wot|d|
dd
Whyis| ndenesiaafascinat-
ingceunttyI
Indonesi a' i s a fasci nati ng
country. Ri ppl i ng across the
equator for nearly 5000 km, I n
donesia encompasses more
than 1 7,000 i sl ands, two-thi rds
of whi ch are i nhabited. The i s
l ands are bl essed with abun
dant rai n, cl ear lakes, coastal
mangrove swampand some
of the most spectacul ar rai nfor
ests on Earth.
Sophi sticated kingdoms ex
isted before the arrival of the
Dutch, who consol idated thei r
hol d over two centuries, even
tual ly uniti ng the archi pel ago
around 1 900. Afer Japan's
wartime occupation ended, i n
dependence was procl ai med i n
| ndenesia
m
isthe|atgest
is|andnatien
inthe wet|d.

An i
.
s|ad
naten1s a
state|ecatedeneneet
meteis|andstathetthan
enthecentinenta|
main|and.
1 945.The economy is based on
agri cul ture, forestry, and fish
i ng.
I ndonesia, i s part of the chain
of volcanoes cal led the 'Pacific
Ri ng of Fi re'. It has the l argest
number of active vol canoes i n
the world, and earthquakes are
frequent.
Jakarta - Capital cit
of Indonesia
V|etnam
Shaped | | ke an e|en-
gated '5', V|etnam
sttetchesthe|engthef
the|ndech|neseen|n-
su|a. |t |s a beaut|fu|
ceunttythathasseen
thteedecadesefb|ttet
wats, dut|ng wh|ch
they feught f|tst
aga|nst |tance,then
aga|nst Seuth V|et-
namand|tsuSback-
ets. |tbecameaun|-
f|ed ceuntty ence
mete|n1 975.
V|etnam
|seften
m
desct|bedas

'twet|ce
bew|s en a
bambee
st|ck.'1h|s|sbecause
V|etnamhasa|engand
nattewceasta|| |ne
w|thtwefen||et|vet
de|tas|nnenhand
seuth,wh|chate
cennectedbyath|n
stt|pefmeunta|neus
|a
nd.
Colombia
Dominican Republic
Georgia
Kiribati
Marshall Islands
Mauritius
Mozambique
Nicaragua
Philippines
Rhodesia
l0|00|0000l|000w0
b8htKitts 8hdNevis
Saint Lucia
Saint Vincent and
the Grenadines
San Marino
Saudi Arabia
Seychelles
Solomon Islands
Swaziland
USA
h8r8th
l0!00|0000!|00|
- Simon Bolivar
- Sage Kambu
Swayambhuva
- Christopher
Col umbus
- Saint Dominic
- Saint George
- Thomas Gi l bert
(Gil bert Islands)
- John Marshall
- Maurice of Nassau
- Mussa Mbiki
- Nicarao
- King Phi l i p I I
of Spain
- Cecil Rhodes
- Saint Christopher
- Saint Lucy
- Saint Vincent of
Saragossa
- Saint Marinus
- Muhammad bin
Saud
- Jean Moreau de
Seychelles
- King Solomon
- King Mswati II
- Amerigo Vespucci
or Richard Amerike
- King Bharatha
Buddhist Monks
' Me|y'
Sutveyets|
|nthe1 9thcentuty,the8t|t|shem-
batkedonaptoject- 1heCteat1t|go-
nomett|c Sutvey of |nd|a. As pattof
th|s ptoject, the 8t|t|sh a|so wanted
|nfotmat|en on the |ands futthet
notth.1h|sseemed|mposs|b|e,s|nce
1|bet,wou|dnotevena||owwestetn-
etstoevenentetthete.8utthe8t|t|sh
teamfoundawaytogetatoundth|s
ptob|em.1henat|vesftom|nd|anbot-
detstateswetetta|nedtobesutvey-
ots, andwete sent toexp|otethe te-
g|on.1heywetetomakethe|tobset-
vat|onsd|sgu|sedasho|ymen ca||ed
|amas.1hesesutveyots wete taught
somett|cks,too,tomakethe|tobset-
vat|onsw|thoutbe|ngfoundout.1hey
wete tta|ned to make exact|y 2,000
pacestothem| |e.1ocountthem,they
usedwhat|ooked | |kea8uddh|stto-
saty. 8ut |nstead of the usua| 1 08
beads |t had 1 00, evety tenth be|ng
s||ght|y|atget.vety1 00pacesabead
wasdtopped.A|so,theptayetwhee|
they he|d d|d not ho|d the usua|
ptayet,butmapsandnotes.
d
Which is the| atg-
est ceuntty en
anhI
Russia is the l argest
country on Earth i n
terms of surface area.
This vast l and mass
covers more than
1 7 mi l l i on sq kms, and
has a cl i mate that
ranges from the Arctic
Welcome
t o t he l argest
count ry in t his
world.
utope
|sthe

second
m
sma||-

estcon-
t|nent
aftetAustta||a.
Tell Me Why
north to the general ly temperate
south. Russi a borders 1 4 countries,
and has eight time zones. Most of
Russia l ies in Asia, but the western
part of it lies in Europe, and the Ural
Mountai ns form the divi di ng l i ne be
tween European Russia and Asi an
Russia.
Coogtaph|ca||y,
utopo|snota
cont|nont.|t|s
c|ass|f|odasa
cont|nontfot
cu|tuta|andh|s-
tot|ca|toasons.|t
|sasubcont|nont
oftho|andmass
utas|a.
The majority of Rus
si ans are descended
from a peopl e cal led the
Sl avs, but there are about
1 00 other ethni c groups
as wel l . The Bal kan peo
pl e were l i vi ng in Russia
U55k
1he USS0
(un|enefSe-
v|et Sec|a||st
0 e p u b | | c )
wasafedetat|enef1 5 tepub-
||cs,cempt|s|ngmestefastetn utepe,andNetthetnand
Centta| As|a, wh|ch unt|| |ts d|sse|ut|en |n 1 991 , je|nt|y
fetmedthe|atgestsevete|gnstate|nthewet|d.
even before the Slavs ar
rived, and Russi a was a part
of the Mongol Empi re for
200 years, unti l a l ong l i ne of
Russi an rul ers cal l ed thetsars
began thei r rei gn. Later, the
St. Petersburg
tsars were overthrown, and a com
munist government establ i shed
the Uni on of the Soviet Soci al i st
Republ i cs or the USSR. By the
1 980's it was pretty obvious that
that the peopl e were becomi ng
di ssati sfied with Communi sm, and
many reforms were i ntroduced,
whi ch eventual ly led to the
breakup of the USSR, and the
emergence of independent states.
Russi a has a rich traditi on of art
and culture, and has been a world
l eader i n l iterature, drama musi c
bal l et as wel l as i n sports.
Why is Iceland called
'Th
e Land of Ice and Fire'?
Icel and l ies between
Greenl and and the Europe
an coast in the icy seas near
the Arcti c Ci rcl e. It was
formed by volcani c erup
tions j ust 20 mi l l ion years
ago, as magma poured from
a tear in the sea bed. Today,
it boasts more than two
dozen active volcanoes.
Icel and i s al so cel ebrated for
its geysers. I n fact, the very
word 'geyser' comes from a
si ngl e spri ng i n I cel and that
ever so ofen fl i ngs its wa-
White Russia
8e|atuswas knewn
h|stet|ca||y as 'wh|te
0uss|a'.when|twasa
tepub||cefthe uSS0,
|t was cemmen|y te-
fetted teas '8e|etus-
s|a. Aftet the bteak-
upefuSS0,theceun-
tty
get |ts ptesent
n
ame.
unt
ries of the World
Reykjavik - Capital ofIeland
ters, heated to boi l i ng poi nt by the
volcani c magma below, i nto the
ai r. There are many other hot
spri ngs that provide I cel anders
wi th geothermal energy.
Ice, too, pl ays a key rol e in shap
i ng I cel and. About ten percent of
the i sl and is covered by gl aciers. I n
short, I cel and i s a l and of extremes,
where some of Europe's bi ggest
gl aci ers are j ust next to some of the
continent's hottest volcanic springs.
Hence thi s pl ace i s called 'The Land
of I ce and Fi re'.
d
Why |s Netway ca| |ed
'1heLandeftheM| dn| ght
Sun'I
Norway i s Europe's north
ernmost country. I t i s situat
ed in the western part of the
Scandinavian Peninsula, and
extends into the Arctic Circle.
Norway i s famed for its
mountai ns and spectacul ar
fjord coastl i ne. Si nce the
northern hal f of Norway l i es
north of the Arctic Ci rcle, it
experiences the phenome
non of the mi dni ght sun. I n

Oslo - Capital o/Norway


summer, these areas experience
dayl i ght throughout the ni ght ti me
hours. Even in Southern Norway,
true darkness never occurs be
tween late May and mi d August . . .
and thi s is why Norway i s known as
'The Land of the Mi dni ght Sun' . Of
course, the opposite i s al so true . . .
there i s very l ittle sun north of the
Arctic Ci rcl e duri ng the wi nter
months.
' \
Dear Mr. Sun,
Please go t o sl eep
i t ' s already
,
mi d nigh t !
Tell Me Whv
Ch| na
I. | nd|a
3. uSA
4. | ndenes|a
5. 8taz||
0. ak|stan
. N|get|a
8. kuss|a
. 8ang|adesh
J . !apan
J. Vat|canC|ty
I. 1uva| u
3. Nautu
4. a| au
5. SanMat|ne
0. Menace
1 ,339,724,852
1 ,21 0, 1 93,422
31 2,582,000
237,641 ,326
1 90,755,799
1 77,771 ,000
1 62,471 ,000
1 42,91 4, 1 36
1 42,31 9,000
1 27,720,000
L|echtenste|n
800
1 0,000
1 0,000
20,000
32,386
33,000
35,904
52,000
62,000
67,000
8 St.8|tts- Nev|s
. Matsha| | |s|ands
J.Dem| n|ca
Co
untries of the World
1heLandef
A1heusandLakes
||n|and|sknewn
as the |and ef a
theusand |akes. |t
||es between Swe-
den and 0uss|a | n
Nenhetnutepe.| t
|sheav||yfetested,
and centa|nstheu-
sandsef|akes, nu-
meteust|vets, and
extens|ve ateas ef
matsh|and.
||n|and|sabeau-
t|fu| and dtamat|c
ceuntty. 1he cyc|e
ef the yeat |s
matked by huge
centtasts, such as
the pe|at n|ght |n
w|ntet, w|th |ts
awesemeNetthetn
L|ghts, and by the
m|dn|ght sun |n
summet. 1he f|tst
|nhab|tants ef || n-
|andwetetheSam|
etLapppeep|e.
1
0mbudsman
Anembudsman,| s
aneff|c|a|appe|nted
te |nvest|gate |nd|-
v|dua|s' cemp|a|nts
aga|nst pub||c au-
thet|t|es.1hesystem
ef hav|ng an em-
budsman was stan-
ed |n Sweden, te
ptetectthet|ghtsef
the c|t|zen aga|nst
thestateauthet|t|es.
Anyenewhef|sthat
he et she has been
unfa|t|ytteated can
appteach the 0m-
budsmanefthecen-
cetneddepanment.
Santa's8| tthp|ace
1h|nkefCht|stmas,and
yeu temembet Santa
C|auswhettave|sactess
the wet|d bt|ng|ng the
jeyefCht|stmas,Deyeu
knew whete th|s|egen-
datychataoet|sbe||eved
Z
Stockholm, Sweden 's Capital
Why|sSwedenseptespeteusI
Sweden i n Northern Europe has
l ush forests that cover over hal f the
country. Li ke Norway and Fi nl and,
Sweden enjoys sunl i ght even at mid
ni ght duri ng the summer months. I n
spri ng and fal l , the dazzl i ng Northern
Lights can al so be seen.
The southern part of the country is
chiefly agri cultural, with forests cover
i ng an i ncreasi ng percentage of the
l and, the further north one goes. Its
forests, rivers, and abundant natural
resources have made it a prosperous
country. In fact, a study has shown it
to be the thi rd most prosperous coun
try i n the worl d. Sweden exports cars,
tecemeftemI1heanswet|sLap|and,
wh|ch|sateg|en|ntheNetthetnu-
tepthatsttetchesactessnenhetn
Netway,Sweden,and||n|and.1hete
|s,|nfact,ap|aceca||edSantaC|aus
V|||age|nthetewnef0evan|em|. |t|s
des|gned aswendetwet|d efe|ves
and||nn|shCht|stmasttad|t|ens|
Tell Me Why
Why| sDenmatkintetesingI
Denmark i s based i n Northern Eu
rope, di rectly north of Germany. I t i s
made up of a peni nsul a and nearl y
five hundred i sl ands. The capital Co
penhagen i s l ocated on the l argest is
l and. Al most compl etely surrounded
by the sea, Denmark is a flat, low l yi ng
green l and that i s i ntensely cultivated.
Fi shi ng i s an i mportant i ndustry. The
manufacturi ng sector's mai n areas of
activity i ncl ude food products, el ec
troni c equi pment, paper and wood
products. Between the 8th and 1 1 th
centuries, the Danes were known as
One
,
t wo
,
t hree
,
four, five
Once caught a
hali ve.
the Vi ki ngs. They colo
nized, raided and traded
i n al l parts of Europe.
engi neeri ng products, steel,
electroni c devices, commu
nicati ons equi pment and pa
per products.
.
.
.
. . . .
.

. g
.

.
Sweden is, without doubt,
one of the worl d's most hi ghly
devel oped post-i ndustri al so
cieties.
` c-.__

.
Cteen|and,
the |atgest
.
|s|and|nthe .
'
.
wet|d|san
.
'
.
autenemeuspan ef the
.
.
k|ngdem ef Denmatk.
:
`
.
Cteen|and |sfu||y|nde-
pendent|n|ntetna|af-
, fa|ts,wh||e|tsfete|gn

Countries of the World


: pe||cy |s hand|ed

byDenmatk.
.
.
.
.
.

-
*
.

.
.
.
P
.
_
. .
.
.
.
d

8| ueteeth
euhaveheatd
ef8|ueteeth,the
techne|egyused
fettheshett-tange
w|te|ess|ntetcen-
nect|enefmeb||e
phenes,cemput-
ets,andethete|ec-
tten|cdev|ces.
|t|ssa|dtebe
namedaftet8|ng
Mata|d8|ueteeth,
cted|tedw|thun|t-
|ngDenmatkand
Netway,as8|ue-
teethtechne|egy
un|f|escemmun|-
cat|enandcem-
put|ng.
Copenhagen,
Capital ojDenmark
Palace oJ Westminster, London
Why |s the u8cens|deted a
ma]etwet|dpewetI
The United Ki ngdom, or UK,
consi sts of four countries united
under one monarch and govern
ment. The countries are Engl and,
Scotl and, Wales, and Northern
I rel and. Each of these countries
has a di sti nct cul ture and feel of
its own. Engl and has traditional l y
been the domi nant nati on withi n
the UK. People i n Scotl and and
Wal es have proud national tradi
ti ons and l anguages. 'Home Rule,'
for I rel and became a major i ssue
i n the 1 9 thcentury. I rel and was
partitioned, and Northern I rel and
became a part of the UK.
Cit ofLondon
At the begi nni ng of the
century Britain com
manded a world-wide
empi re that was so vast
that it was cal l ed 'the
Empi re on whi ch the sun
never sets'. I n spite of
two world wars and the
end oftheempi re, the UK
remai ns a major power,
with considerabl e influ
ence around the world.
ng| and'skea|
Name|
ng|and|soften
usedasasynonym
fot the u8. 1h|s
maybebecauseof
ng|and's pte-
dom|nance |n the
un|on w|th Scot-
|and, wa|es and
Notthetn |te|and.
1he8t|t|shusua||y
usethe names u8
ot 8t|ta|n, as the
name of the|t
countty.
Land efthe
Dutch
1he Nethet-
|ands ||e on the

coast of the
Notth Sea. 1he wotd Nethet-
|andsmeansthe'|ow|ands'- a
goodnamefotacounttywhete
s|xtypetcentofthepeop|e| |ve
be|ow sea |eve|. |n fact, sc|en-
t|stsateoftheop|n|onthatsome
ofthe |ands|nthecounttyate
notevenametteh|ghftomsea-
|eve|.1h|shasmadetheteg|on
ptonetof|oodsandothetnatu-
ta| ca|am|t|es. 0ec|amat|on of
|andftomtheseathtoughdykes
|s an |mpottant featute of the
Nethet|ands. 1he peop|e who
||veheteateca||edtheDutch.
Amsterdam, Capital of
the Netherlands
7heLandef
the8tavest |
8e|g|m
|s asma||,
dense|y
pepu|ated
ceuntty
w|ththtee
eff|c|a||anguages- Dutch,
|tench,andCetman.
|t||esbetdet|ngtheNetth
Sea,w|th|tanceandthe
Nethet|andsas|ts
ne|ghbeuts.Seme8e|g|an
tewns,netab|y1engeten
and1eutna|,dateback
te0emant|mes,when
!u|| usCaesatdec|ated
anc|ent8e|g|anstebe
the'btavestefa| |
Cau|s'.7eday,
8e|g|um|seneefthe
mestheav||y
|ndustt|a||zedutepe-
annat|ens.
Whis Ireland called
Emerald Isle?
I rel and was for a l ong ti me
under the rul e of the Briti sh.
Thi s l ush green i sl and, l yi ng
off the coast of Britai n i n the
Atlantic Ocean has been the
scene of much strife. After
World War I, the country
divided i nto the Republ i c
I rel and whi ch became an
Town Hall of Brussels,
Capital ofBelgium
Irish City of Belast
dependent nati on, and North
ern I rel and, whi ch remai ned a
part of the United Ki ngdom.
After the Republ i c of I rel and
joi ned the European Commu
nity i n 1 973, it was trans
formed from a l argel y agri cul
tural society i nto a modern,
hi gh-technol ogy economy.
Luxembeutg
Luxembeutg |s a t|ny
countty |y|ng between
8e|g|um, Cetmany, and
|tance. 1he netth has
Agri cultural lowl ands make
up most of the i nterior, whi ch
i s broken i n pl aces by l ow hi l ls,
and i ncl udes consi derabl e ar
eas of bogs and l akes. There
are coastal mountai ns to the
west. Dubl i n i s the . capi tal .
I rel and i s often cal l ed the Em
eral d I sl e. Do you know why?
It i s cal l ed thi s because the
mi ld wi nters and pl entiful rai n
have created countrysi de of
l ush green. Rol l i ng farml ands,
whi ch are mai nl y pasture,
cover much of the central part
of the country. In Gael i c, the
anci ent l anguage of Irel and,
the country i s cal l ed Ei re.
Capital City of
Luxembourg
fotested h| ||s, and the
southhasgteenpastutes
knewn as 'ben pays' et
'geod|and'.Luxembeutg
|sbestknewnfet|tssta-
tus as utepe's mest
p
owetfu| |nvestment
managementcentte.
Whyate Cetmany'scentt| but|ens
teutee|mettantI
Germany is a country of i ncredi bl e
variety that l ies i n the heart of Europe. I t
is the seventh l argest country i n Europe, l
and i ts landscapes range from coastal
flats beside Baltic Sea to river val l eys,
rol l i ng hi l l s, and the snow covered Al ps.
After Worl d War II, Germany was di
vi ded i nto the democratic West and the
communi st East which was known as
the German Democratic Republ i c. The
Berl in Wal l became the symbol of thi s
Cologne
Reichstag, German
Parliament Building
`
Worl d,
sing wi th me!
Dut|ng wet|d wat ||, theCetman
c|tyefCe|egnewas a| mest cemp|ete|y
destteyed by the bembets ef the un|ted
Statesand8t|ta|n.1hetewete262a|tstt|kes|n
a||,butm|tacu|eus|y,theughthe
c|ty was teduced te tubb|e, the
magn|f|centcathedta|efCe|egne
wasneth|t.Aftetthewat,thedam-
aged bu||d|ngs wete qu|ck|y te-
bu||t,andCe|egne|stedayapepu-
|atteut|stdest|nat|en.
Tell Me Why
division. It fel l in 1 989 and Ger
many was reunited a year later.
Germany is the world's thi rd
l argest economy, producing
automobi l es, electronic
equi pment, pharmaceuticals,
and much more besides. As
the bi rthpl ace of musical gen
i uses l i keBachandBeethoven.
Germany's gift to European
cl assical music is i mportant.
In thought and word too,
Germany has made val uabl e
contri buti ons for its i mpres
sive heritage whi ch i ncl udes
the works of the al l ti me
greats l i ke Luther, Goethe,
Schi l l er, Ni etzsche, Kant,
Brecht and Thomas
Mann.
Why is 5witzet| and a|se
knewnasMe|vetiaI
Switzerl and, the beautiful ,
smal l country of snowy moun
tai ns, and misty lakes l ies in the
heart of Europe. Switzerl and is
al so known as Helvetia, whi ch
was the name that the ancient
Romans gave thi s l and. It was
once a part of the Roman Em
pi re afer the Helvetii peopl e
who had settled here were con
quered by Rome. Even today,
the name Helvetia appears on
Swiss coins and stamps. Si nce
1 81 5, Switzerl and has remained
neutral and avoided the many
wars that swept across Europe. As
a result, many organizations that
depend on i nternational co-opera
tion l i ke the World Health Organiza
P leas e h el p
me to get to th e
Swiss Bank.
tion are located here.
Moreover, it has be
come the world centre
for banki ng.
The Parliament
Sui/ding o!
Switzerland
Menace
Menace|sthe
secendsma||-
est|ndepend-
entstate|nthe
wet|d.|t|sjust
undettwe
squate
k||emettes.
1h|snattew
s|ep|ngstt|p
a|engtheMed-
|tettanean
Sea,be|ewthe
ceasta|h|||sef
Seutheastetn
|tance |s a
p|aygteund
fetteut|sts
wheateat-
ttactedby|ts
ba|myc||mate
andthebeauty
ef|tssett|ng.|t
|s a|sethe
hemeefthe
t|ch,wheate
dtawnby|ts
advantageeus
tax|aws.
Monaco
Why|sAustt|asttateg|ca||y| mpettantI
Austria i ncl udes much of the mountai n
ous territory of the Eastern Al ps, and i s a
country of snowfields, gl aciers, and snow
capped peaks. Its position at the geographi
cal heart of Europe on the key trade route of
the River Danube has made it strategi cal l y
i mportant.
Austrian Parliament Building
The central Euro
pean l and that i s
now Austri a was
overrun i n pre-Ro
man ti mes by vari
ous tri bes. I n 1 252,
Ottokar, Ki ng of
Bohemi a, gai ned
possessi on, only to
lose the territories
to Rudol f of
Hapsburg i n 1 278.
The powerful
Hapsburg fami ly
rul ed Austria for
many years, bui l d
i ng a mi ghty em
pi re i n the process.
After World War I,
the Hapsburg Em
pire col l apsed, and
the country was
torn apart agai n
duri ng Worl d War I I .
Today, Austria i s a
federal republ ic,
consi sti ng of ni ne
states. I t i s a hi ghl y
i ndustri al ized na
tion, and the capi
tal , Vienna, i s home
to key i nternati onal
o
rgani zations, i n
cl u
di ng the Interna
tio
nal Atomi c Ener
g
y
Agency.
Cou
ntries of the World
Why is France called 'I'hexagone' by
its people7
Akey player on the worl d stage and a
country at the pol itical heart of Europe,
France i s sometimes cal led 'I 'hexagone'
or the hexagon by its peopl e because of
its si x sided shape. Mountai ns and seas
form natural boundaries on all si des, ex
cept the northeast.
France's col oni al past is a major con
tri buti ng factor in the presenceofa ri chl y
diverse multi cultural popul ati on. It i s
home to more than five mi l l i on peopl e
of Arab and Afri can descent. The French
Revol uti on of 1789 made France one of
the first Europ an nati ons to overthrow

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|he|

1ewet,the|cen
ef |tance,was \
namedahet|tsat- ,
ch|teuCustave|f- !
fe|. |twasbu||tfetthe
at|swet|d's|a|tef
1 889,cenduoedte
cemmemetatethe
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a monarchy and set up a
Republ ic. FraJce today
has a number of territo
ries overseas which, to
gether with mai nl and
France and Corsica, go
to make up the 26 re
gi ons whi ch the country
comprises. It is one of
the world's major eco
nomic powers, and has
an advanced i ndustrial
economy and an efi
cient farm sector. The
main i ndustries i ncl ude
automobil e manufac
ture, aerospace, infor
mation technology,
el ectronics, chemical s
and pharmaceuticals
and fashi on.
France is the thi rd
l argest country in Eu
rope. I t is al so a l and of
great thi nkers, politi
cians, writers, pai nters,
mUSI Ci ans, architects,
scientists, fi l m makers
and fashi on designers.
Among them were Vol
tai re, Mol i ere, Victor
Hugo, Jean Paul Sartre,
Al bert Camus, Monet,
Gaugui n. Napoleon Bo
naparte was a great
French general .
bZ
sma| |est |ndependent state |s
Vat|can C|ty, the headquattets
ef the 0eman Cathe||c Chutch
Whydewesaythatettuga| has
atichseafat|ngh| stetyI
Portugal occupies the western part
of the Iberi an Peni nsul a, and is bor
dered on the north and east by Spai n.
It is mai nl y a flat country, and farmers
grow a variety of crops in its coastal
Belem Tower, A World
Heritage Site in
Portugal
that|sheadedbytheope.|t|sa| | thattema|nsofwhatwas
oncea|atgeateaof|ta|ythatwastu|edbytheChutch.|ts|nde-
pendenceasasepatatecounttyw|th|n|ta|ywasagteedon|n
1 929.Vat|canC|ty|scomp|ete|ysuttoundedby0ome,and|s
thetefote,acounttyw|th|nac|ty|1het|nypopu|at|on|smade
upa| mostent|te|yofoff|c|a|softheChutch.
pl ai ns. There are al so rocky
mountai n ranges, and its moun
tai ns are rich i n deposits of coal
and copper. One thi rd of the
l and is covered by forest- much
of i t being val uabl e cork oak.
Fi shi ng is al so a very i mportant
i ndustry, with sardines and tuna
bei ng the mai n catches.
Over the past 3 000 years, Por
tugal has witnessed a constant
ebb and flow of different civi l i
zati
ons. lt is a country with a rich
hi s
tory of seafari ng and di scov
ery. In the 1 5th century, Portu
gal's i ntrepi d mariti me explor
ers led by Vasco da Gama dis
covered new territories, leadi ng
tothe bui l di ng upofan overseas
empi re. Portugal ' s power start-
Countries of the World
ed to decline i n the late 1 500's,
and it gradual l y l ost al l its colo
ni es. Dictators ruled Portugal
from 1 926 to 1 976, when a revo
l uti on ushered in the era of De
mocracy.
iwant t o
di scover more and
more count ri es!
bd
Spanish Cit ofBarcelona
Why is Spain a pepu| at
teutistdestinatienI
Hi gh pl ateaus and moun
tai n ranges such as the Pyr
enees and the Sierra Nevada
domi nate mai nl and Spai n.
Located at the crossroads of
the Atl anti c and the Mediter
ranean, Europe and Africa,
Spai n's hi story and cul ture
are made up of a rich mi x of
diverse el ements. Spai n has a
proud tradi ti on of art, music,
and dance. I ts hi storic ci ti es
and fine beaches attract
tourists by the droves, and
touri sm i s vital to the econo
my, because Spain has few
natural resources.
Through exploration and
conquest, Spai n became a
.
worl d power in the 1 6th cen
tury, and it mai ntai ned a vast
overseas empi re until the early
1 9th centur. Today, Spain is a
democratic country.
1 . 0!!I 1 ,05, 0005q km
I. L00 ,0, 135qkm
3. LhI0 ,501,0005q km
4. 0Sk ,3I,0145q km
5. 6|t| 8,511,055q km
0. k0!lr| ,08I,3005qkm
. |00I 3,I8,I03 5q km
8. k|g00l|0 I,0,0545qkm
. KtK0!l0I,1 ,3005qkm
10S000 I,505,8135qkm
As per some l i sti ngs USA i s i n the
3'`position with J, O3 l ,! bSq km
and and China i n '",with
V,bVO,VOUSq km.
keman| a
0oman|awasencea
panefthekeman
mp| te,andthe
counttytakes|ts
nameftemthe
0omanswheO
ccup|ed|t|engage.
|thasseen
numeteusemp|tes
comeandge,ftem
the0eman,tethe
Ottemans,tethe
Austte-Mungat|ans.
Aftetwet|dwat||,
theceunttywas
undetcemmun|st
tu|e.Demectat|c
e|ect|enswetehe|d
|n1 990and1 992,
and0eman|a|snew
a
mu|t|patty
tep
ub||c.
0tacu|a'sCast|e
CeuntDtacu|a,thevamp|te|sthefa-
meus chatactet ef 8tam Steket's
neve|'Dtacu|a'wt|tten|n1 897,set|n
1tansy|van|a,|nkeman|a.1hechat-
actet Dtacu|a |s based en V|ad | | |
Dtacu|a,1 5'" centutytu|etefwa| | a-
ch|a|n keman|a,whebtuta||yk|||ed
peep|eanddtankthe|tb|eed.8tan
Cast|e, ef1tansy|van|a
|s often desct|bed as
Dtacu|a'scast|e.
1 Vat|canC|ty 0.44Sqkm
I. Menace 1 .95Sqkm
3. Nautu
21 .1 0 Sq km
4. 1uva|u 26.00Sqkm
5. SanMat|ne 61 .00Sqkm
0. L|echtenste|n 1 60.00Sqkm
. Matsha| | | s|ands 1 81 .00Sqkm
8. St.8|tts- Nev|s 269.00Sqkm
. Ma| d|ves 298.00Sqkm
1 0.Seyche| | es 308.00Sqkm
Why|sCteececa| | edthectad| eefc|v|| |za-
t|enI
Situated in the far south of the Bal kan Peni n
sul a, Greece combi nes the toweri ng mountai ns
of the mai nl and, with over 1 400 i sl ands scat
tered in the deep bl ue of the Aegean and I oni an
Seas. It is the southernmost country i n Europe
and the one with the l ongest coastl ine. The
l argest i sl and is Crete, and Mount Ol ympus is
the hi ghest point i n the country. Greece has
natural harbours, deep val leys, and mountai ns.
Its magnificent l andscapes and
warm sunny cl i mate have attract
ed droves of tourists, and touri sm
i s a very i mportant i ndustry today.
Greece has one of the bi ggest
merchant fleets in the worl d, and
there are al so many peopl e work
ing i n cement or chemi cal facto
ries, and processing foods for ex
port.
Greece is one of the cradl es of
European civil ization, whose an
ci ent schol ars made great ad
vances i n phi losophy, medi ci ne, mathematics,
and astronomy. Their city-states were pioneers
in devel opi ng democratic forms of govern
ment. In fact, the word 'democracy' comes
from the Greek word ' demos' which means
peopl e, and 'kratia' which me"ns authority. So,
is it any wonder that Greece is cal led 'the cradl e
of democracy'?
Bulgarian
Cit ofSofa
A| ban| aand8u|gat|a
A|bao|a|sasma||,meuota|oeusceuotty|e-
catod|otho8a|kaooo|osu|a,eothooastoto
shetoefthoAdt|at|cSoa.|othoA|bao|ao|ao-
guago,thooamomoaos'oag|o',aodA| bao|a
hasbooooamodaftotthomajost|coag|osthat
seatevot|ts| akosaodh|ghmeuota|os.|tem
1 468t||||tget|ts|odopoodooco| o1 91 2,A|ba-
o|awasapatteftho1utk|shOttemaomp|to.
| o1 946,thoceuottybocamoacemmuo|stto-
pub||c.
8u|gat|a|ss|tuatod| othoastotn8a|kaos.
|twas|eog|of|uoocod by 8yzaot|nocu|tuto
aodwaspattefthoOttemaomp|tofet500
yoatsbofetoga| o| og|ts|odopoodooco.| otho
1 9thcootuty.Aftotwet|dwat||,|tbocamoa
pattefthoSev|otuo|eo,but|soewao| odo-
poodootstato.
0|ymp|cs
1hovotyf|tstOI-
ymp|cCamos
teekp|aco| otho
aoc|ootCtookc|ty
efO|ymp|a|o7768C.
1hof|tstO|ymp|csefmedoto
t|moswotoho|d| oAthoos|o
1 896.
Whyisitsaidthat|ta|yhas
had an imettant inf| uence
enuteeI
Italy is on a peni nsul a i n the
very south of Europe, southeast
of France. I t i s a l and famous for
its beauty, from the snowy
peaks of the Al ps, to its green
vi neyards.
I tal y has played a very i mpor
tant role in shapi ng the hi story
and cul ture of Western Europe.
Two thousand years ago, it was
58
Leaning Tower ofPisa in Italy
the centre of the vast Roman
Empi re whi ch lef a huge ar
chaeologi cal , cul tural and l iter
ary heritage. The l anguage of
Rome was Latin, and it i s at the
root of many modern European
l anguages. I tal y was the bi rth
pl ace of medi eval humani sm
and the Renai ssance, whi ch was
a time when artists and sci en
tists experi mented with many
new ideas. The l i st of famous
I tal i an artists i s l ong and i n
cl udes Giotto, Botti cel l i, Leon
ardo, Mi chel angel o, Ti ntoretto
and Caravaggi o.
Tell Me Why
LandefSteppes
Lecated|nSeuthastutepe,ukta|ne|sutepe'ssecend|atg-
estceuntty.|t|sa |andefSteppesetw|degtassyfett||ep|a|ns
thatate|dea|fetfatm|ng.|thas|atgepecketsefheavy|ndustty
|nthe ast.ukta|ne|seneefthewet|d'sma|ncenttesefsugat
pteduct|en.ukta|nega|ned|ndependenceahetthece||apseef
theSev|etun|en|n1 991 .
whyatetheCzechkepub| | candS|e-
vak|acennectedI
The Czech Republ i c l ies in the heart of
Central Europe. It became an i ndepend
ent state i n January 1 993, after Czecho
slovakia spl it i nto the Czech Republ i c and
the Sl ovak Republ ic, or Sl ovakia. The
Czech capital , Prague, has a weal th of
hi storic architecture of diferent styl es.
Today, the Czech Republ i c has a robust
democrati ctradi tion,a hi ghly-developed
economy, and a rich cul tural heri tage.
The Sl ovak Republ ic or Sl ovaki a was al
so created by the divi sion of Czechosl o
vaki a. Sl ovakia has a hi story i ntertwi ned
with that of its neighbours, yet it has
p
roudl y preserved its own l anguage and
disti nct cul tural traditi ons.
Prague, Capital o/Czech Republic
h0Ch05t
L0u0tf050th0
W0f0
1 . uSA
2. Ch| na
3. !apan
4. | nd| a
5. Cetmany
6. kuss|a
7. u8
8. |tance
9. 8taz||
1 0. |ta| y
The World Bank
ranking of zUJ U,based
on Gross Domestic
Product (GOP).
Landef
Ceu|ash
M
Mungaty, | n
m
Centta| u-
tope|sa|and

_
efto| | |ngh|||s
and p|a|ns. |t
|s a |and|ocked state. 1he
ancestots of the ethn|c
Mungat|answetetheMag-
yattt|bes.Aftetcentut|esas
a powetfu| med|eva| k|ng-
dem,Mungatywaspatt of
the Otteman, and then
Mapsbutgemp|tesftomthe
1 '" centuty onwatds,
emetg|ng as an |ndepend-
ent countty aga|n aftet
wot|dwat|.Mungaty'sna-
t|ona|d|sh|stheCou|ash- a
de||c|eus stew made of
meat,petatoesandon|ons,
and setved w|th nood|es
andb|ackbtead.
Presidential Palace
a/Slovakia

WhywasWet|dWat| | atet-
t|b|et| mefete|andI
Pol and is i n North-central Eu
rope. A nation with a proud cul
tural heritage, Pol and can trace
its roots back over 1 ,000 years.
In the 1 6t
h
century, Pol and was
one of the most powerful coun
tries in Europe. There have been
periods of i ndependence as
wel l as periods of domi nation
by other countries. Several mi l
l ion people, hal f of them Jews,
died in World War I I . Duri ng thi s
war, Pol and di sappeared from
the map, as it was over run by
the Soviet Uni on and Nazi Ger
many.
Today, Pol and has a huge
farmi ng sector - agri cul ture ac
counts for about si xty pe
of the country's total l and area
Pol and is ri ch in natural mi neral
'esources, i ncl udi ng i ron, zi nc, copper,
md rock salt. The Wiel iczka sal t mi ne,
:onstructed i nthe 1 3th century, contai ns
m enti re town below ground wi th a
; anatori um, theatre, church, and cafe!
'verythi ng from stairs to chandel i ers i s
made from salt. The country has had
some success i n creating a market econ
omy and attracting foreign i nvestment,
Famous Pol es i ncl ude the astronomer
Coperni cus, the composer Chopi n, the
scientist Maria Skl odowska Curie, fi l m-
Coun
tries of the World
Poland's Capital
Warsaw
makers Roman Pol anski
and Krzysztof Kies
lowski, and the late
Pope, John-Paul I I .
Wh er e i s
Pol and?
1
WhydewesaythatCteat|a
hadatutbu|entpastt
A country of stri ki ng natural
beauty with a stunni ng coast
I i ne, Croatia is a former Yugoslav
republ i c on the Adriatic Sea. I t is
made up of flat pl ai ns al ong
the Hungari an border, low
mountai ns and hi ghl ands near
the Adri ati c coastline, and is
l ands. The l ands that today
comprise Croatia were part of
the Austro-Hungari an Empi re
unti l the close of Worl d War I . l n
1 91 8, the Croats, Serbs, and
Sl ovenes formed a ki ngdom
known afer 1 929 as Yugosl avia.
Croatia became an i ndepend
ent state i n 1 99 1 , fol l owi ng the
break-u of the ormer Yugo-
A Beach in Croatia
S|even|a
|eutmajetutepeangeegtaph|cteg|ensmeet| nS|even|a- the
A| ps,theD|nat|catea,theannen|an|a|n,andtheMed|tetta-
nean. 1h|s meunta|neusceunttywasencepatteftheAustte-
Mungat|anmp|te.Latet,|tbecameeneefuges|av|a'ss|xcen-
st|tuenttepub||cs.tesent-dayS|even|abecame|ndependent|n
1 991 , asuges|av|afe||apatt. S|even|a||esenthema|ntead,
and ta|| teutesbetweenutepeand the8a|kanceuntt|es,and
th|shashe|ped|ndeve|ep|ngttadebetweenS|even|aandceun-
tt|es| |keAustt|a,|ta|y,|tance,andCetmany.
62
Tell Me Why
sl avi a. Si x worl d heritage sites
and ei ght nati onal parks bear
witness to Croatia's i mmense
cultural and natural weal th.
Touri sm i s an i mportant i n
dustry, and the mai n ex-
ports are chemi cal s,
clothes, food and ma-
chi nery. Mavrovo Lake in Macedonia
I
Why is Macedonia's history i nterest
ing?
The hi storic country of Macedoni a was
once the Ki ngdom of Macedon, rul ed by Al ex
ander the Great. It is a smal l, l andl ocked country
located in the central Bal kan Peni nsul a in Southeast
ern Europe. Over many centuries it was expl oited by the
Romans, Byzanti nes, Bulgars and the Serbs before fi nal l y
bei ng conquered by the Ottoman Empi re. When the Ottoman
Empi re broke up, Macedoni a was divided up between Greece,
Bul garia and Serbia. Later, it became a part of Yugosl avi a, unti l
1 99 1 , when it became an i ndependent state.
I ' m from
Macedonia.
I ndustries produce cement, steel and
cotton goods. Copper, l ead, zi nc and chr
omite are mi ned. Touri sm is a consi dera
ble factor in Macedoni a's economy, as
the country abounds in natural beauty
and cultural attracti ons.
Lake Ohrid in Macedonia

whydeesuges|av|ahave
atteub| edh| stetyI
At the end of World War I , a
new country whi ch was com
posed of more than twenty
ethni c groups was formed. I t
was Yugosl avia. The name
means ' Land of the South Sl avs'
and country was named after
the South Sl av peopl e who had
i nvaded the Bal kan Peni nsul a
around 500 AD.
Today, Yugosl avia as a nati on
no l onger exists, but the coun-
Sarajevo, Capital of
Bosnia and Herzegovina
tries that created the
former Yugosl avia sti l l
do. They are Serbia, Mon
tenegro, Macedoni a,
Croatia, Kosovo, Si ovania,
Bosnia, and Herzegovi na.
There were many reasons
for the spl i t and destruc
tion of what was Yugosl a
vi a.
Bosnia Herzegovina
1he teg|en thatmakesup 8esn|a and Metze-
gev|nawaspattefthe0emanmp|te|nanc|ent
t|mes. Aftetwet|dwat|,the|andbecamepattef
uges|av|a,butga| ned|ndependencewhenu-
ges|av|abtekeup|nted|ffetentstates. Satajeve,
thecap|ta|ef th|sceunttyhas agteath| stet|ca|
s|gn|f|cance. Atchduke|tanz|etd|nand ,he|tteAustt|an
thtene,andh|sw|feweteassass| nated en1une28'
,1 1 9
bya8esn|anSetbnat|ena| |stCavt||et|nc|p,| nSatajeve,
wh|chwasthett|ggetfetwet|dwat|.
Why ate Metecce
andWestetn Saha-
ta spec|a|ameng
Netth Aft|can
ceuntt|esI
Morocco is
situated wi th
both Atl antic
and Mediterra-
nean coast
l i nes, but with a
rugged moun
tai nous i nterior,
it stayed i nde
pendent for centu
ries whi l e devel opi ng
a ri ch cul ture bl ended
fromArab, 8erber, European
and Afri can i nfluences. I ts ferti l e
pl ai ns stretch al ong the Mediterranean
and Atl antic coasts, and are backed by
the green val l eys of the Atl as Mountai ns.
Beyond the Atl as Mountai ns l i es the Sa
hara desert, whi l e to the south of Morocco
is the Western Sahara that Morocco
cl ai ms as its own. Morocco annexed the
te
rritory i n 1 975, and a guerri l l a war wi th
Al geri an-backed pro-independence forc
es ended i n 1 991 . UN eforts have fai l ed
to break the pol itical deadl ock.
Aft|ca| sthe
secend|atgest
cent|nent,and
|sthteet|mes
thes|zeef
utepe.
Why |s A| get|a a vety het
ceunttyI
.
Al geria is a gateway between
Africa and Europe. It l i es in North
west Africa, and extends from the
shores of the Mediterranean al l
the way south to Mal i and Niger. I t
i s a country that has been battered
by vi ol ence over the past half-cen
tury. It was under the French for
1 20 years, and gai ned its i nde
pendence in 1 962. More than a
mi l l i on Al geri ans were ki l led i n
the fight for i ndependence from
France in 1 962, and the country
has recently emerged from a bru
tal i nternal conflict that fol l owed
scrapped elections in 1 992.
The Sahara desert covers more
than four-fifths of the l and, so Al
geria is a very hot country i ndeed!
The i nhabitants of the Sahara are
Constantine Bridge,
Algeria
Ooops!
1 Vanished!

-
_
-
N
concentrated in oases sur
rounded by deser. The coun
try suppl ies large amounts of
natural gas to Europe.
3.Sae1emeand
t|nc|pe
4. M|ctenes|a
5.1enga
0. Dem|n|ca
. St.8|ttsandNev|s
8. Samea
. Cemetes
1.Ctenada
The World Bank ranki ng of
zUJ U,based on Gross
Domestic Product (GDP).
ALake's0wnCeuntty|
Chad |s a |and|ecked
ceuntty that ||es |n the
hean efNenhAft|ca. A
huge |ake, Lake Chad,
||es w|th|n |ts betdets.
1he|andtetheseuthef
the|ake|sfett||e,andhas
ttep|ca|fetests. |twasa
|tenchce|enyftem1 920
te1 960.
why|s 1un|s|aa | | nkbe-
tweentwecu|tutesI
Tuni sia, the Northernmost
nati on i n Africa, is the l i nk be
tween Europe that l i es be
yond the Mediterranean Sea
in the North, and the rest of
Africa in the South.
Wheat, oranges, and ol
i ves are grown i n the fer
ti l e northern val leys. The
south i s a dry and barren
region where salt l akes
dot the burni ng deser
sands. However, the
South i s i mportant, be
cause it has oi l and phos
phates that account for
half ofTuni sia's exports.
Chd Lke
I n the past, the Romans, Ar
abs, Ottoman Turks and
French had realized Tunisia's
strategic si gnificance, and
made it a hub for control over
the regi on. French col oni al
rul e ended i n 1 956, and Tuni
sia became an i n
dependent state.
Tuni si a is the first
Arabi c countr
i n which wom
en had the
vote.
Minaret oJ
Great Mosque
ojKairouan in
Tunisia
Dusty
Continent
Wecent|nentef
Aft|ca |s named af-
tet the Aft|d| tt|be,
whe ||ve |n 1un|s|a.
1he wetd 'aft|d|' |n
tutn, cemes ftem the
atab'afta'wh|chmeans
dusty, and Aft|ca can
tea||y be ca||ed 'the
dusty' cent|nent. 1he
nameAft|cacame|nte
westetn use thteugh
the kemans, whe
usedthenameAft|-
catettaet'|andef
the Aft|', fet the
netthetn pan
efthecent|-
nent.
Why is Egypt known as 'the
gift of theN||e'I
Egypt, the l argest Arab coun
try, is located i n north east Afri
ca-theSi nai Peni nsul a i stheonly
portion situated in Asi a.
In Egypt, the River Ni le creates
a ferti l e green val l ey across the
desert. The river floods every
year, leaving behi nd rich bl ack
mud that is ideal for growing
crops. It was al ong the banks of
the Ni l e that one of the ol dest
civilizations i n the worl d began.
Even today, Egypt's teemi ng cit
ies - and al most al l agricul tural
activity - are concentrated al ong
the banks of the Ni le, and on the
river's del ta. Without the Ni le,
Egypt woul d bea desert, for onl y
an i nch of rai n fal l s each year. It's
no wonder that Egypt is known
as 'the gif of the Ni l e'.
Senegal
ekepub-
||cefSenega|
Wow! What a
gifted bath!
Flag o/Senegal
|s a deve|cp-
|ngwestAft|-
can ceuntty.
|tscap|ta||sDakat.Senega|hasbeen
he|d upaseneefAft|ca's mede| de-
mectac|es.|thasanestab| |shedmu|t|-
panysystem.

1heSuezCana|
1he Suez Cana| |s a watetway
that||nkstheMed|tettanean Sea
and the kedSea.|tsepatatesthe
cent|nentsefAft|caandAs|a.1he
cana| sttetchesevet 1 93.30 k||e-
mettes,andhaschangedthefaceefmat|t|me |t|sene
efthegteatesteng|neet|ngfeatsefmedetnt|mes.1heSuezCana|
|s|mpenantbecauseethetw|se,|fanyenewantedtesa||ftemu-
tepeteAs|a,theyweu|dhavetettave|a||thewayateundAft|ca|
Why wasL|bya|nthenews
tecent|yI
Libya is a North African coun
try. A former Roman colony, Lib
ya is a mostly a desert country
which saw invasions by the Van
dals, Byzantines, Arabs, Turks
and more recently Italians, be
fore gaining independence in
1 95 1 . Oil was discovered in 1 959,
Libyan Capital Tripoli
and made the state wealthy. In
fact, Libya can be described as
water poor, oil rich country. The
largest water development
project ever devised, the Great
Man-Made River Project, brings
water from aquifers under the
Sahara tothecoastal cities. Since
1 969 this former Italian colony,
independent since 1 95 1 , has
been an authoritarian socialist
state under Muammar Gaddafi,
and his death at the hands of
rebels, supported by NATO
(North Atlantic Treaty Organiza-
tiOn) made headlines all over the
r
orld.
Ma| |
W| | |sa| andeft|vets
anddesens,s|tt|ng
astt|deeneefthewet|d's
mesth|stet|cttad|ng
teutes.Catavanteutes
havepassedthteugh
Ma||s|nceA.0.300.1h|s
|and|eckedceuntty||es
| nwestetnAft|ca.
|etseveta|decades
aftet|ndependence
ftem|tance|n1 960,
Ma||suheteddteughts,
tebe|||ens,aceup,and
23yeatsefm|||tatyd|c-
tatetsh|p.8uts|nce|ts
f|tstdemectat|ca0y-
e|ectedptes|dentteek
pewet|n1 992,|thas
hadac|v|||angevetn-
ment,andenjeyedte|a-
t|vepe||t|ca|stab|||ty.
1
h fruits
and vegetabl es
from Mali.
Why dees Sudan have a fast
gtew|ngecenemyI
Sudan i s a country i n Northeast
ern Africa. It is the l argest country i n
Africa, and tenth l argest i n the
world by area. Its huge area has
burni ng deserts, wi de grassy pl ai ns,
and steamy rai nforests. The River
Ni le and its vari ous branches wi nd
thei r way al l over the country. The
capital i s Khartoum, whi ch serves
as the pol i ti cal , cul tural , and com
merci al centre of the nati on.
After gai ni ng i ndependence i n
1 956, Sudan sufered years of ci vi l
war. By 1 983, di sputes developed
i nto a civil war that conti nued ti l l
2005 without any i nterrupti on. Su
dan spl i t i nto two countries i n July
201 1 , afer the peopl e of the south
voted for i ndependence. Ri ch i n
natural resources such as petrole
um and crude oi l , Sudan's economy
i s currently amongst the fastest
growi ng in the world.
Gebel Barkal- A UNESCO World
Heritage Site in Sudan
+

View of Bomi Lake
in Liberia
Why|sL|bet|aca| | ed
byth| snameI
Li beria i s i n Western
Afri ca. I t i s Africa's ol d
est republ ic, and was
founded by freed
American and Carib-

Countries of the World


ALandefLakes
anda|sa |and|ecked
ceuntty|nCentta|Aft|ca.
LakeV|ctet|a,thesecend
|atgestfteshwatet|ake|n
thewet|d,||es|nuganda.
S|nce | ndependence,
uganda has had an un-
sett|ed h|stety, w|th
manychangesefgevetn-
ment.ugandawasundet
thectue|d|ctatetsh|pef
|d| Am|n, ftem 1 925 te
2003. Mewevet, teday |t
|senthe teadtebecem-
|ng a te|at|ve|y stab|e,
and peacefu| ceuntty.
8ampa|a |s the cap|ta|
c|ty.
bean sl aves in 1 822 - hence its name,
whi ch means 'freed l and'. However, Li
beria i s mostly made up of native Afri
cans, wi th the slaves' descendants
compri si ng only five percent of the
popul ation. This has l ed to much unrest
and civil war. Fi nal ly, years of civil strife
were brought to a cl ose in 1 997, when
free and open presi denti al and l egi sl a
tive el ecti ons were hel d.
Li beri a i s hot and steamy, and the
coastal pl ai ns ri se to a mountai nous i n
terior that is covered by forests and wa
tered by rivers. Half the peopl e l ive in
vi l l ages of mud huts.
11
Cu| neaand
Cu|nea8|ssau
Cu|nea |s one of
the t|chest countt|es
|nAft|ca.S|tuatedon
thewestCoastofAf-
t|ca, Cu|nea became
a|tenchco|ony|nthe
1 9'centuty, and at-
t|ca.1he8a|ahat|
Desett,hometoa
dw|nd||ngbandof
8ushmanhuntet-
gathetets,makesup
muchofthetett|toty.
8otswana|soneof
Aft|ca'smoststab|e
countt|es,andthe
cont|nent's|ongest
cont|nuousmu|t|-
panydemoctacy.|t|s
te|at|ve|yfteeofcot-
tupt|on,andhasof-
tenbeenca||eda
mode|Aft|cancoun-
tty. |t|sa|sothe
wot|d's|atgestpto-
ducetofd|amonds,
andthettadehas
made|tptospetous.
72
Why was Chana ca||ed the 'Co|d
Ceast'I
Ghana i s a country in Africa that l ies
on the Greenwich Meri dian. Present
day Ghana was made up number of i n
dependent ki ngdoms. I n 1 482, the
Portuguese establ i shed the first Euro
pean fort at El mi na. Trade was begun,
l argel y in gol d and sl aves, and i ntense
competition developed among many
European nations for tradi ng advan
tage. l n addition to ivory and gold, Ghana
was exporti ng pal m oi l , pepper, and
corn by the mi d-1 800's. By 1 902, the
British had driven out al l other Euro
pean powers, and named thei r new
Independence Arc
in Ghana
ta|ned |ndependence
|n1 958.
Cu|nea 8|ssau |s a
sma||ceunttywedged
between Senega| and
Cu| nea.|twasaenu-
guesece|enythatbe-
came |ndependent |n
1 974.
Wh ere do you
keep all th e gold of
th is gold coast?
Briti sh col ony the Gol d
Coast. The country be
came i ndependent i n
1 957, and was renamed
Ghana. I t emerged as
the first country i n Afri
ca, south of the Sahara
to regai n i ndepend
ence from coloni al rul e.
:ountries of the World
Obudu Plateau- A Grassland Plateau
in Nigeria
Why |sN|get|a ehenca| |ed'the
g| antefAft|ca'I
Ni geria is located i n West Africa. It i s
often cal led 'the gi ant of Africa,' be
cause of the vastness of the l and, and
i ts huge popul ati on. I n fact, Ni geria
has the l argest popul ation in the
conti nent, with over 1 50 mi l l i on peo
pl e. Nigeria gets its name from the
River Ni ger that flows through the
country.
Today, Ni geria is the most i mpor
tant country, pol iti cal l y and economi
cal ly, i n West Africa. I t has huge oi l re
serves, whi ch have made it the richest
country i n the area.
Oh my
river Ni ger, iam
a Ni gerian. Help
me.
73
whatmakesth|-
ep|asespec|a|I
Ethiopia i s a l and
l ocked country i n the
northeast Afri can re
gi on known as the
Horn of Africa. Some
of the hi ghest, and
most stunni ng places
on the African conti
nent are found here,
such as the jaggedl y
carved Si mien Moun
tai ns. Some of the
lowest basi ns are
found here too, such
as the hot but fasci
nati ng Danaki l De
pression, with its sul
phur fumarol es and
l unar-l i ke l andscape.
Ori gi nal l y cal led
Abyssi ni a, Ethiopia i s
Africa's ol dest i nde
pendent country. A
1
Addis Ababa- Capital of Ethiopia
chaeol ogi sts have found the remai ns of
the ol dest known human ancestors i n
Ethi opi a.
Cameteen

Cameteen |s a Centta|
Aft|can nat|en en the
Cu|fefCu|nea.|t|sthe
heme ef the westetn
|ew|andget|||awh|ch|s
fac|ngext|nct|en.MeuntCameteen,
theh|ghestmeunta|n|nCameteen,
|stheh|ghestpe|nt|nthewhe|eef
Centta|Aft|ca.Cameteen|sfameus
fet|tspass|enfetfeetba| | . aeunde
|sthecap|ta|.
Z010World Cup Team of Cameroon
9
1anzan|a
1anzan|a
|sthe|atgest
ceuntty| n
Mount Kilimanjaro
astAft|ca.
Aft|ca'sh|ghest
pe|nt,Meunt
8|||manjate,the
detmantve|ca-
ne,|s|n1anza-
n|a.1anzan|aas-
sumed |ts
ptesentfetm|n
1 964,afteta
metgetbetween
thema| n|and
1angany|kaand
the|s|andef
2anz|bat.
the hi ghl ands, where Nai robi , the capi tal is
si tuated. West of Nai robi , the l and descends
to the Great Rift Val ley, whi ch i s a 6437 ki l o
metres l ong tear in the Earth' s crust.
Why has 8enya
been desct|bedas
'the ctad| e ef hu-
man|ty'I
Kenya i s a country
i n East Africa that
lies on the equator.
Most Kenyans l ive in
Kenya has been described as
'the cradl e of humanity,' be
cause sci enti sts have di scov
ered some of the earl i est evi
dence of man's ancestors i n
the Great Rift Val l ey. With its
sceni c beauty and abun
dant wi l dl ife, Kenya i s one
of Africa's major safari
desti nati ons.
No chance
of get t ing a
fossil from
h ere.
1heShenestWat| nM|stety
We8t|t|sh- 2anz|batwatef1 896,wh|ch|astedfetabeut38
m|nutes,|stheshenestwat|nh|stety|1hesecend senef
theSu|tanef2anz|batfetcedh|swayentethethtene|nthe
be||efthathehadthesuppenefCetmany.1he8t|t|sh|m-
med|ate|ydec|atedwat,andbembatdedtheSu|tan'spa|-
ace.w|th|n38m|nutes,theSu|tansuttendeted.
Countries of the World
1b
1hekepub| | cef
Cenge
Cenge||es| nCentta|Aft|ca,nextdeettethe
Demectat|c kepub||c ef Cenge, wh|ch was eat||et
knewnas2a|te.|twasafetmet|tenchce|eny,andwas
gtanted|ndependence|n1 960.|thasasma|| pepu|at|en
that|scencenttated|ntheceuntty'sseuthwest,w|th
av|nua||yun| nhab|tedjung|e|nthenetth.
8tazzav| | | e|sthecap|ta|.
Why|sAnge| aapeetceun-
ttyw|th h|gh tate ef | nfant
metta||tyI
Angola i s i n Southwest Africa.
Expl ored by the Portuguese
navigator Diego Cao in 1 482,
Angol a became a l i nk in trade
with I ndi a and Southeast Asi a.
I t was a Portuguese col ony for
500 years, and was a major
source of slaves for Portugal . I n
1 975, Angol a became i nde
pendent. However, civil war for
27 years has ravaged the coun
try after i ndependence. As a re
sult, Angol a is one of the poor
est countries in the worl d, al
though it i s one of Africa's major
oil producers. Al most half An
gola's chi l dren are out of school ,
45 percent suffer chroni c mal
nutrition, and a quarter of al l
chi l dren di e before thei r fifth
bi rthday, accordi ng to UNICEF.
Tazua Falis in Angola
WhywasNam| b| ag|venth| snameI
Nami bi a i s bordered on the West by the
Atlantic Ocean, and shares l and borders
with South Africa, Botswana, and Angol a. It
i s a l arge and sparsely popul ated country.
Deserts occupy much of the l andscape, and
thei r dunes take on shapes and col ours ac
cordi ng to the elements. The country gets
its name from the coastal Nami b Desert. It
al so boasts game-rich grassl ands and a
semi-arid Central Plateau, l arge tracts of
whi ch are given over to l i vestock farmi ng.
Tintenpalast- The Centre a/Namibia's
Goverment
Germany took control of the area, which
it cal l ed South West Africa, in the l ate
1 800's. The di scovery of di amonds i n 1 908
prompted an i nflux of Europeans. South
Africa seized it duri ng Worl d War I, and ad
mi ni stered it under a League of Nations
mandate. The Nami bi ans achi eved i nde
pendence in 1 990 afer a bush war of al
most 25 years. Today, Nami bi a's economy
i s based on mi ni ng -mostly di amonds,
sheep and cattle ranchi ng, and fishi ng.
Countries of the World
Mezamb| que
Mezamb|que
||esentheeast
ceastefAft|ca.
Sanddunesand
swampsg|ve
waytef|at
p|a|ns and a
h|gh,gtassyp|a-
teau.1he|and|s
t|ch| nnatuta|
teseutces,|n-
c|ud|ngcea|and
d|amends.Mew-
evet,fatm|ng|s
st| | | thema|n
eccupat|en.
1heenuguese
havedem| nated
Mezamb|que's
h|stetyfeta|-
mest500yeats.
|n1 975,aftet
yeatsefguett||-
|awanate,Me-
zamb|que
f| na||ywen
fteedem.
11

m '

^A~
UNCeuntt|es
C u t t e n t | y
un|ted Nat|ens
have1 93mem-
bets.
Why| sSeuthAft|-
ca ca| |ed 'the ta|n-
bewnat|en'I
South Africa i s on
Africa's southern ti p.
Around 24,000 years
ago, tri bes of hunter
gatherers known as
San or Bushman oc
cupied the l and. I n
love
my rainbow
nation.
1
The Drakensberg Mountains in South Aica
the 1 400's, the Europeans arriyed. The
Netherlands establ i shed Cape Town in
1 652, and Dutch farmers cal l ed Boers, be
gan settl i ng around the city. In 1 91 9, the
Bri ti sh created South Africa by uniti ng
four of thei r colonies. South Africa has
been a democratic republ ic si nce 1 994.
Agri cul ture, touri sm, and manufacturi ng
have made South Africa a prosperous
country. South Africa i s also rich in dia
monds, pl ati num, gol d, and other mi ner
al s. Did you know that its col ourful mi x of
peopl e a nd cu Itu res has given South Africa
its nickname of 'the rai nbow nati on'?
1hteeCap|ta|s
SeuthAft|cahasthtee
cap|ta|s. tetet|a |s |ts
adm|n|sttat|ve cap|ta|,
Cape1ewn|sthe|eg|s|at|vecap|ta|,
and8|eemfente|n|sthehemeefthe
jud|c|aty.
Tel l Me Wh
Tower o/Great Zimbabwe
Hewd| dZ|mbabweget|tsnameI
Zi mbabwe i s a l andl ocked pl ateau i n
southern Africa. The Shona peopl e ruled
the land unti l the first Bri ti sh expl orers
arrived in the 1 850's. There was a mas
sive i nfl ux offorei gners, whi ch led to the
establ ishment of the territory Rhodesia,
named afer Ceci l
Rhodes of the Brit
ish South Africa
Company. The new
state of Zi mbabwe
became ful l y i nde
pendent i n Apri l
1 980, afer 1 5 years
of ci vi l war. The
country takes its
name from Great
Zi mbabwe, a forified
tradi ng hub bui lt i n
medieval times by
the Shona tribe.
Old is not
gold. Our new
name is good.
Port Louis- The Capital 0/
Mauritius
0ede

s Land
Maut|t|us|sa
gteupef|s|ands.
7heceuntty'sna-
t|ena|symbe||s
thedede- af||ght-
|essb|tdthathas
newbecemeex-
t|nct.Maut|t|us
became|nde-
pendent|n1 968,
and|n1 992,be-
cameatepub||c.
7he8| ueenny|s
eneefthetatest
andmestva|ua-
b|estamps|nthe
wet|d.|twas|s-
sued|nMaut|t|us
|n1 847. 0n|y
e|ghtused,and
feutunused
stampsate|eh|n
thewet|d.
Why |s Madagascatsemet|mesca| | ed
the'e|ghthcent|nent'I
Welcome
t o our own
cont inent !
Madagascar i s an i sl and i n the I ndi an
Ocean of the coast of south east Afri ca. I t
broke away from conti nental Africa about
1 50 mi l l i on years ago, and from conti nental
Asi a 90 mi l l i on years ago. Because of its iso
lation, most of its mammal s, bi rds, and
pl ants exist nowhere el se on Earth. Today,
Madagascar is one of the few pl aces on

Earth that sti l l has largely unexpl ored areas


:
-
" "
It's nei ther Africa nor Asi a, but a world
apart. In many ways, it i s l i ke a
mi niature conti nent and
that i s why i t has been
sometimes cal l ed
the 8th conti-
Wh y
has Se-
nent.
ma| | a be-
ceme a centte
fetp|tacyI
Somal ia, si tuated
in the Horn of Africa,
l ies along the Gulf of
Aden and the I ndi an
Ocean. Somal i a became i n-
A b igs hip
is comi ng. May be
a good cat ch for
me!
80
d e pend-
ent i n 1 960, but has re
mai ned a troubl ed and poor
country. I n fact, Somal i a has
been without an efective gov
ernment si nce 1 99 1 .
Somal ia waters are ri ch i n fish,
but the weak government had
no authority to patrol its coastal
waters. As a result, forei gn com
mercial vessels swooped in to
cast their nets. This prompted
local fishermen to attack for
ei gn fi shi ng vessels and de
mand compensati on. The suc
cess of these early rai ds in the
mi d-1 990's persuaded many
young men to hang up thei r
nets, and make pi racy thei r oc
cupati on. From there, they got
greedy, and started attacki ng
everyone. By the earl y 2000's,
they were hijacki ng any vessel
they coul d .seize.
Tell Me Why
why |s
Canada a
t|chceun-
ttyI
NenhAmet|ca
|sateundtw|ce
thes|zeef
utepe.
Canada i s
the second
l argest coun
try i n the
world. The Eski
mos were possi bl y
the first settlers of
the freezi ng North. The
first Europeans to arrive
were the Vi ki ngs in 1 000 AD.
The rich fi shi ng grounds,
and the chance to trade i n
furs, attracted the French
and the Bri ti sh, and they
cl ai med the l ands i n the east.
I n 1 763, Britai n gai ned con
trol of Canada. Today, Cana
da i s governed by i ts own
House of Commons.
Canada i s a ri ch country
because of its vast natural
resources. It i s the world's
l argest exporer of ti mber,
paper, and forest products.
Canada has a hi ghl y mod-
ernized manufacturi ng i n
dustry too, produci ng every
thi ng from cars to canned
fruit.
Why |s the Un|ted States te-
fettedteas 'ame| t|ngpet'I
The United States of America is lo
cated in North America. It is made up
of 50 states, and the District of Co
l umbi a. It has hi gh mountai ns in the
west, and a vast central pl ai n. The
l andscape varies from tropical
beaches and forests, soari ng snow
cl ad peaks, jagged mountai ns, roi l
i ng prai ries and barren deserts. There
are many natural wonders too, l i ke
theawe-i nspi ri ng Grand Canyon, the
mighty Mississippi River, and the
majestic Yosemite Valley.
For centuries, native people had
occupied the region that i s now
known as The United States. In the
1 7th century, settlers moved from
evetty| nUSA

tatue

fU etty
Statuee
@
|benyat
theenttancete New
etk Matbet, |s a
symbe| ef we|ceme
te|mm|gtants.Ded|-
cated|n1 886,|twas
theg|ftefthe |tench,
cemmemetat|ngthe
a| ||ance ef |tance
and the uS dut|ng
the Amet|can keve-
|ut|en.
Europe to America, whi ch
they cal l ed the New Worl d,
and Britai n establ ished a
colony here. The settlers
fought for thei r i ndepend
ence from Britai n i n the
1 8th century, and decl ared
i ndependence in 1 776.
Throughout its hi story, the
United States has been a
We|atesttepente|easedbytheCensus8uteauef

Amet|cashewsthat metethan49 m|| ||en ( 1 6%)ef

thepeep|e|nthewet|d'st|chestnat|enwete||v|ng|n
peveny|n201 0.1hepevenytateseatedte|tsh|gh-
est|eve|s|nce1 993aspettheeh|c|a|ca|cu|at|en.
Z
Tell Me Why
Land
ef theMap| e
1tee
National
Flag of
Canada
e map|e
|eaf|sthe centtep|ece ef the
nat|ena| f|ag efCanada, and has be-
cemethemestptem|nentCana-
d|ansymbe||ntetnatien-
WhyhasMex|ce
been | nf| uenced
by d| ffetent cu|-
tutesI
a||ya|se.
Mexico i s a l and of great

r-
ci vi l izations - the Mayas, the
nati on of i mmi-
grants. Peopl e
from Engl and,
France, I tal y, Ger
many, Scandi navia,
and East Europe, i n
cl udi ng Jews, al l
flocked here in
search of a better
l ife. In addition, there
are the descendants
of the sl aves who
were brought here
from Africa, as wel l
as Asi ans and Latin
Americans too. I s it
anywonder, that the
United States is
known as a 'mel ti ng
pot' of peopl e from
al l over the worl d? It
is sti l l the richest
country in the world
and a mi ghty mi l i
tary power.
Countries of the World
Ol mecs, the Toltecs and the
Aztecs. The Aztecs were conquered by
the Spanish i n 1 521 .The Spani sh then
rul ed Mexico for the next 300 years, un
ti l the Mexi cans revolted, and won in
dependence i n 1 821 . Mexico i s without
doubt, a ri ch mi x of cul tures. The peopl e
are the descendents of the Mayans, Az
tecs, or other Native Americans. Others
are mestizo, with mixed Spani sh and
Native ancestry.
Mexico has the second-l argest econ-
omy in Latin erica.
Mexican Capital - Mexico Cit
84
why| s N|catagua fac| ng
d|ff|cu|tt|mesI
Nicaragua i s the l argest
country i n Central Ameri ca. I t
i s a beautiful country, wi th
steep forested val l eys and
several volcanoes.
The Spani sh first settled
Nicaragua i n 1 522. The coun
try won i ndependence i n
1 838. For the next century,
Ni caragua's pol itics were
domi nated by the competi
tion for power between the
Liberal s and the Conserva
tives. The United States be
came i nvolved in the strug
gl e, and its troops stayed in
the country for nearly 20
years, unti l they were driven
out i n 1 936.
Today, Nicaragua i s faci ng
dificult ti mes, and i s striving
to overcome the afer effects
of dictatorshi p, ci vi l war and
natural cal amities, whi ch
have l ef i ts economy i n
shambl es.
Managua - Nicaraguan Capital
Atgent|na
Atgent|na|sthesecend|atgestceuntty| nSeuth
Amet|ca.1heSpan|shcameteAtgent|nabe||ev|ng
|ttebet|ch|ns||vetdepes|ts.| nfauthenameAt-
gent|na|s ftemtheLat|nwetd'atgentum,'mean|ng
s| |vet.Atgent|nabecame|ndependent|n1 81 6,and
8uenesA|tesbecame|tscap|ta|.
Tel l Me Why
San SaLvador - CapitaL of EL SaLvador
Mewd| d| Sa|vadetget|tsnameI
EI Sal vador is the smal l est, and most
densel y populated country in Central
America. I t borders the Pacific Ocean,
and its narrow pl ai n i s backed by a chai n
of volcani c mountai ns, and a ferti l e pl a
teau. Here there are many smal l farms as
wel l as forests of oak and pi ne. The ri ch
vol cani c soi l s make it i deal for coffee
pl antati ons.
The name EI Salvador, i s the Spani sh
for 'the savi our,' - or Jesus Christ. The
Spani sh conquered this regi on i n 1 524.
EI Salvador, with the other countries of
Central America, decl ared its i ndepend
ence from Spai n i n 1 82 1 , and was par of
a federati on of Central Ameri can states.
However, that uni on dissolved in 1 838.
Today, EI Salvador has a democratic gov
ernment, which has shown success in
provi di ng manufacturi ng jobs -butfaces
the chal l enges of poverty, cri me, and
natural disasters.
Countries of the World
1t| n|dadand
1obage
1
t|n|dad and 1e-
bage||e|n theCat-
|bbean Sea eh the
Nenheast ceast ef
Venezue|a. 1he
Span|sh, and then
the 8t|t|sh tu|ed
these |s|ands unt||
1 962, when |t
ga|ned |ndepend-
ence.|n1 976,1t|n|-
dad and 1ebage
became a tepub||c.
Mestefthe|s|and-
etsatedescendants
efs|aves

ftemAft|-
ca.0|| |stheb|ggest
|ndustq.
B 5n8hdkdO
Port of Spain -
Capital of Trinidad
and Tobago
8anana0epub||c
M
endutas,wh|chmeans'depth'|nSpan|sh,
|snamedaftetthedeepCat|bbeanSeathat
thatfetms|tsnenhetnbetdet. 8ananasate
the ma|n ctep efthe Mendutas, and |n the
eat|y1 990's,theuSAewneda||thebanana
p|antat|ens |n the Mendutas, wh|ch gave
them gteat pewet evet the weak gevetn-
ment.1h|sgavet|setethephtase'bananate-
pub| |c,'wh|chhascemetemeanasma||,pe-
||t|ca||yunstab|eceunttythat|secenem|ca||y
dependentenas|ng|eexpettcemmed|ty.
Tikal Temple
Why|s1|ka|fasc|nat|ngI
Ti kal was one of the major cities of
the Mayan ci vi l ization, and it flour
i shed from the 6th to the 1 0th century
AD. It had magnificent temples, pal
aces, shrines, tombs, terraces, pl azas
and homes.
In the ni nth century, the Mayan
worl d was turned upsi de down. Many
of the great centres l i ke Tikal were
deserted- no one real l y knows
Soon the jungl e covered al l
the magnificent
structures. They
remai ned hid
denforcenturies,
unti l the rui ns
were discovered
i n 1 850, and thei r
spl endour has
astoni shed the
worl d. Ti kal i s i n
Guatemal a.
Tell Me Why
Honduras
Why |s Cesta k|ca
ca||ed 'the Sw|tzet| and
efCentta|Amet|ca'I
Costa Rica i s i n Central
Ameri ca. Costa Rica was
i nhabited by an esti mated
400,000 I ndi ans or Native
Ameri cans when Col um
bus expl ored it i n 1 502.
The Spani sh conquest be
gan in 1 524, and they
cal l ed the land Costa Rica,
or the rich coast, because
they thought i t mi ght be
ri ch in gol d.
8e||v|a
8
e||v|a|ss|tuated|nthehean
efSeuthAmet|ca.Medetn8e||v-
|awasenceapanef|ncamp|te.
1heSpan|atdsdefeatedthe|ncas
|nthe1 6'centuty,andtu|edthe
|andfet200yeats.1heceuntty
wen|ts|ndependence|n1 825,
andwasnamedahetS|mn8e|i-
vat,thefameus| |betatetefthe
SeuthAmet|canWatsef| nde-
pendence.
Costa Rica achi eved i ndependence
in 1 821 . lt became a republ i c in 1 848.
Costa Rica has stood out for its sta
bi l ity, and has benefited from the
most developed welfare system i n
the regi on. It has no standi ng army,
and its citizens enjoy one of the high
est l ife expectancy levels i n the
Western hemi sphere, and better l iv
i ng standards than most of Central
America. It i s ofen cal led 'the Swit
zerland of Central America,' because
of its reputation for peace, pol itical
stabi l ity, and prosperity.
San Jose - Capital ofCosta Rica
WhywasCubaca| | ed'sugat|s|and'I
Cuba is the l argest i sl and in a group of 1 500 i sl ands i n the
Cari bbean that are al so known as Cuba.
Christopher Col umbus l anded on the i sl and i n 1 492, and
by 1 5 1 1 , Spani ards had establ i shed settl ements here. Ac
cordi ng to l egend, it was the Spani sh who brought sugar
cane cutti ngs to the i sl and. The cutti ngs were pl anted and
grown by the l ocal people, who were quickl y turned i nto
slaves. In the earl y 1 800's, Cuba's sugarcane i ndustry
boomed, requi ri ng massive numbers of bl ack slaves and
sugar quickl y became the cornerstone of the Cuban econo
my. By mi d-1 9th century Cuba provided about a thi rd of the
worl d' s sugar, and Cuba came to be known as ' sugar i sl and' .
I n 1 933, a group of army officers, overthrew Presi dent Ger
ardo Machado. Ful genci o Batista, became presi dent i n
1 940. He was later overthrown by Fi del Castro, after a revo
l uti on. Fi del 's brother Raul Castro is now presiqent.


Veedee
V
eodeo |sa te||g|enthathas |ts
ot|g|n |nAft|ca.1h|ste||g|on|ssa|d
to be fameus fet an|ma| sact|f|ces
andb|ackmag|c.
Tobacco Plantation in Cuba
Veedeeatt|ved|nMa|t|
w|thAft|cans|aves.1hey
weteen|yfteeteptact|ce
|tahettheteve|ut|en|n
1 804.
Ma|t| |atet became a
Tell Me Why
Why|s8atbadesateut-
|st'spatad|seI
Barbados i s an i sl and,
north of Venezuela. I t i s ci r
cl ed by fi ne beaches and
narrow coastal pl ai ns. Bar
bados became i ndepend
ent i n 1 996. Today, thi s
eastern Cari bbean nati on
has seen touri sm as its
mai n revenue earner. The
beauty this i sl and has
captivated the worl d. Here,
beaches of fine white sand
stretch along a bl ue-green
sea and coral reefs fri nge
the shorel i ne to provide
excellent snorkel i ng and
scuba divi ng.
Lntt|esOftheWOr|d
Mewd| dCe| umbusde-
sct|be!ama|caI
Jamaica i s an i sl and i n
the West I ndi es. Arawak
I ndi ans i nhabited i t when
Col umbus explored it i n
1 494. I n hi s l og,
'
Col umbus
described it as 'the fai rest
i sl and that eyes have be
hel d; mountai ns and the
l and seem to touch the
sky, al l ful l of val leys and
fiel ds and pl ai ns'. It re
mai ned under Spanish
rul e unti l 1 655, when i t
became a Bri ti sh posses
si on. In 1 953, Jamaica
ga i ned i nternal autonomy,
and became i ndependent
i n 1 962.
Jamaica's beauty has
made touri sm the most
i mportant i ndustry.
ABeuchnBurbms
89
Why |s e-
tte|eum | m-
pettant te
Ve n e z u e
|aI
Venezue-
la occupies
most of the
n o r t h e r n
coast of
South Amer
ica on the Car
i bbean Sea. Its
name means 'lit
tle Venice,' and it
wasgiventothecountry
by European expl orers, be
cause the natives who l ived
there bui l t thei r houses on
stilts over the water of Lake
Maracaibo, and thi s remi nd
ed them of Venice.
Venezuel a has some of the
world's l argest proven oil de
posits as wel l as huge quanti
ties of coal, bauxite, and gol d.
Amet|ca|s
thefeutth
|atgest
cent|nent.
The l argest petroleum de
posits are located under the
eastern shores of Lake Ma
racaibo. Venezuela i s the
eighth largest oil produci ng
country i n the worl d, and the
petrol eum i ndustry accounts
for more than half the gov
ernment's revenue.
|tenchCu| ana
enchCu|ana||esabevetheequatet,and|sahetand
steamy|andthat|scevetedw|thta|nfetests.|tenchCu|ana
|snetan|ndependentnat|en,buthasbe|engedte|tance
s|nce1 667.|etevet1 50yeats,|twasap|acewhete|tance
sent|tsdangeteuspt|senets.
Why |s Cuyanad|ffetent
ftem|tsne|ghbeutsI
Guyana was known as Brit
ish Guyana and was ruled by
Britai n for 1 50 years unti l it
became i ndependent in
1 966. Guyana's origi nal i n
habitants were the Cari b
people. The Dutch and the
British arrived i n the 1 6th cen
tury, and brought slaves from
Africa to work on the sugar
pl antations. After slavery was
abol ished, labourers were
brought from Portugal , Chi
na, and I ndia, and the de
scendents of the I ndi ans now
form the largest popul ation
group. Guyana is di fferent
from its neighbours in that it
is the onl y Engl i sh speaki ng
country i n South America.

1heMede|||nCatte|
Ce|emb|a|ssemet|mesca||ed'1heCatewayteSeuthAmet|ca'
becauseef|ts|ecat|enatthejunc-
An Airport in Columbia
t|enefSeuthandCentta|Amet|ca.
1heMede|||nCane|wasanetgan-
|zednetwetkefsmugg|ets |nthe
c|ty ef Mede|||n, Ce|emb|a. 8y
1 993,theCe|emb|angevetnment
had successfu||yd|smant|ed the
cane|by|mpt|sen|ng,etgunn|ng
dewn|tsmembets.
Mewd|d8taz||get|tsnameI
Brazil covers nearly hal fofSouth Ameri
ca, and is the continent's largest nation.
Over a thi rd of Brazil is drai ned by the Am
azon, the longest river on Earth, and its
tributaries. Brazil is famous for its rainfor
ests, especially the Amazon Rai nforest,
which is the world's l argest jungle.
Brazil i s the only Latin American nation
that derives its l anguage and cul ture
from Portugal , whi ch cl ai med the terri
tory i n 1 500. The early expl orers brought
back a wood that produced a red dye,
'pau-brasi l ', from whi ch the l and received
its name. In 1 889, Brazil became a repub
l ic, Today, Brazi l is without doubt, South
America's most i nfl uental cQuntry, a
economi c giant.
ACeunttyw|theut
Cuttency
cuadet|s|nthe
netthwestpattef
SeuthAmet|ca.1he
equatetpasses
thteughtheceun-
tty,andthename
'ecuadet'|sSpan-
|shfet'equatet'.
cuadetdeesnet
haveacuttencyef
|tsewn.1heuSde|-
|at|stheeff|c|a|
cuttency.cuadet
d|dhave|tsewn
cuttency,wh|ch
wasknewnasthe
sucte.Mewevet,
seat|ng|nf|at|en
madecuadet
abandenthesucte
and|twastep|aced
w|ththeuSde||at.
Tell Me Why
Why |s etuasse-
c|ated w|th the | n-
casI
Peru i s i n western
South America. Peru
i s divi ded by the An
des Mountai ns into
three sharpl y differ
enti ated zones. Pe
ru's rich and varied
heritage i ncl udes the
anci ent l ncan capital
of Cuzco, and the l ost
city of Machu Picchu.
The country boasts
spectacul ar scenery,
i ncl udi ng Lake Titi
caca, the worl d's
hi ghest navigabl e
l ake.
Peru was once part
of the great I ncan
Empi re- i n fact, it was
the homel and of the
I ncas. The Spani sh
who rul ed Peru for 300 years, destroyed
the I nca Empi re. I n 1 820, Peru won its i n
dependence from Spai n after a series of
battles.
Peru i s a farmi ng nati on, and farmers
work on smal l farms hi gh in the Andes
Peruvian Capital Lima
Mountai ns. Potatoes are bel i eved to have
ori gi nated in Peru. Peru i s al so rich in cop
per, si l ver, lead, zi nc, oi l and gol d. Nowa
days, Peru is sai dtohaveoneoftheworl d's
fastest-growing economies.
ataguayandUtuguay
ataguay|sa |and|ecked countty |nthe centte ofSeuth
Amet|ca.ataguaywen|ndependenceftemSpa|n|n1 81 1 ,
but|twasfo||owedbyyeatsofb|netwatw|th|tsne|ghbeuts.
utuguay |s a sma|| countty on theeast ceast of South
Amet|ca.1heottuguesewete|tsf|tst utopean sett|ets.
Spa|nwtestedthecounttyftemonuga||n1 778. |ndepend-
encewaswen|n1 825,andthetepub||cwassetup|n1 828 .
Nnu Dkl
V
-

.
.
.
.
.
. . .

. .

.
.
.
e astet | s

.
| andand

.
.
.
Ca|apages _
|s|and

;
stet |s|and be|engs te
;
Ch||e.|t|sfameusfet|tsg|ant
:
stenescu|ptutesca||edMea|s,
:
,wh|chwetecteated by|tsan-
. c|entpeep|e. :
; 1heCa|apages|s|andsate
;
; hemetethe|atgesttene|ses j

|nthewet|d. 1h|sgteupef j
|s|ands|sapanefcuadet.
_ 1hey wete the s|te ef .
.
Chat|es Datw|n's 1 835 _

exped|t|en, wh|ch [
.
.
he|pedh|mtefetm ;
h|stheetyefnat-
.
uta| se|ec-
t|en.
Why can Ch| | e |eek fet-
watdtegteatetptespet|tyI
Chi l e i s situated in South
America. It i s the l ongest,
thi nnest, strip of a country i n
the worl d. Its unusual , rib
bon-l i ke shape - 4,300 km
long, and on average 1 75 km
wide - has given it a hugel y
vari ed cl i mate, and made it a
l and of dramatic extremes.
Chi l e was origi nal l y under
the control of the I ncas i n the
north, and nomadi c tribes i n
the south. Today, Chi l e i s one
of South America's most sta
ble and prosperous nations.
Farmi ng and fi shi ng are im
portant occupations. The
country i s rich i n mi neral s,
and oi l and natural gas have
been found in the southern
i sl ands, and this heralds an
era of greater prosperity for
Chi le.
Moai on Easter Island
Why |sAustta|-
|a a un|que
ceunttyI
Austral i a i s
located be
tween the
I n d i a n
Ocean and
the South
P a c i f i c
Ocean. It i s
uni que i n
that i t i s both
a country and
a continent by
itself. Australia i s
al so the onl y nation
to govern an entire
continent and its outlyi ng
i sl ands. The mai nl and i s the larg
est i sl and- and it i s al so the
world's smal l est, flattest conti
nent. Although Austral ia i s the
sixth l argest country i n the

-
()
Austta||a|s
thesma||est
cent|nent .
world, it has the lowest popula
tion density. Austral i a became a
nation under a si ngl e constitu
tion in 1 901 .
LUNLbLLPN P
Wete ate feuneen ceun-
tt|es |n 0cean|a. 1hey ate
Austta||a,||j|, 8|t|bat|,Mat-
sha|| |s|ands, M|ctenes|a,
Nautu, New2ea|and,a|au,
apua NewCu|nea, Samea,
Countries of the World
Se|emen|s|ands,1enga,1u-
va|u,Vanuatu.Austta||aand
0cean|acempt|seevet7,500
|s|ands.AteundZ,100|s|ands
ate |nhab|ted, ptev|d|ng
hemete35.9m|| ||enpeep|e.
b
N0Xl |55u0
Why|sNewZea|andagteat
fatm| ngceunttyI
i ncl udes several smal l er i sl ands,
some of whi ch l i e far away i n
the South Pacific. Thi s beautiful
country has many unique spe
cies of bi rds, reptiles, and
pl ants.
New Zeal and i s made up of
two i sl ands, North I sl and and
South I sl and, whi ch l i e i n the
Southwest Pacific Ocean. It al so

Cht|stmas| s| and
Cht|stmas|s|and|sanAustta||antett|tety,|ecated|nthe| n-
d| anOceanenthet| mefSeuthastAs|a.|twasd|sceveted
enCht|stmasDayef1 643byCapta|nw||||amMynets .
1hete|sa|seanethetCht|stmas|s|andthat|spattefthe
0epub||cOf8|t|bat|,wh|ch|saceunttyencempass|ng33
ac|f|c ate||s and |s|ands.1h|s |s|and was d|sceveted by
!amesCeekenCht|stmasveef1 777.
Awndbhof
Tell Me Wh
y
apua
Cu| nea
a p u a
New Cu|n-
eaeccup|es
theeastetn
ha|f ef the
|s|andefNewCu|nea,]ust
nenh ef Austta| |a. 1he
f|tst|nhab|tantsefthe|s-
|and New Cu|nea wete
apuan,Me|anes|an,and
Negt|tett|bes.
Frdv88nAgdrwd/
The ori gi nal i nhabitants of
New Zeal and were the Maoris,
who sai l ed here in l arge canoes
from i sl ands that were located
further north. Europeans first
visited New Zeal and in 1 624,
and started to settle here by the
1 700's. New Zeal and was a Brit
ish col ony from 1 840 to 1 907.
New Zeal and is sometimes
cal l ed 'the worl d's bi ggest
farm', with an economystrongl y
based on agri cul ture and horti
cul ture. Its mi l d cl i mate, pl enti
ful rai nfal l , abundant sunshi ne,
and ferti l e soil make it i deal for
farmi ng. Meat, dai ry products,
and wool sti l l remai n among
New Zeal and's major overseas
export earners.
Countries of the World
ca:tic:os
arcios
It is our policy to correct errors,
and present dif ering views and
clarifcations about the contents
in previous issues. Please send in
your feedback, mentioning the
title and page number.
Arnob Chakrovorty, a stu
dent of cl ass 9, I nternational
Publ i c School of Kol kata, has
sent us some i nteresting add
- on information for our Octo
ber issue, Amphi bi ans.
He writes about the La Pal
ma Gl ass Frog (Hyal i nobatra
chi um valerioi) al so cal l ed the
Reticulated Gl ass Frog. It is so
cal led because the skin on its
underside is nearly transpar
ent, and its internal organs
are visible. Its head and
smooth back are yel l ow, or
sl ightly orange yellow with a
net pattern that is green with
black spots. Its hi nd legs are
l ong and thi n. Its toes are
compl etely transparent and
have some webbi ng. They are
found in Central and South
American countries.
/un/ yOu /||O!, |O| yOu|
vu|uu!|c|ccd!uc/.
|d||O|
1
l
\
.
-

,
y

The
q
uesti on

of the month
Aren't there many little things you have wondered about, but didn't know whom to
ask? Send us your questions, and we will give you the fascinating reasons behind the
incredible mysteries of life.
WhydewesneezeI
Sneezing is our body's way of
saying 'NO!' to tiny particles that
enter through our nose.
The nose has its ways of keep
i ng out bits of dust and di rt -ei
ther the hai rs in our nostrils stop
them, or they get stuck in the
mucus in our nasal passages.
When these particles i rritate the
l i ning of our nose, we feel a tickle
i n our nose, triggering a sneeze.
During a normal sneeze, we take
in a big breath, then expel the ai r
very forceful ly out through our
ACmLLLLLLL. . .
nose and mouth, expel l i ng the
offendi ng particle from our ai r
ways.
If you are al lergic to plant pol
len, ani mal hai r or some food
items, it may end up in a bout of
sneezing. You al so sneeze when
you catch a cold.
Have you noticed that you
close your eyes when sneezi ng?
The muscles involved i nsneezing
are the belly muscles, the chest
muscle, the diaphragm or the
large muscle beneath your l ungs,
the muscles that control your vo
cal cords, and the muscles at the
back of you r th roat.
There is the custom of saying
'gesundheit' i n Germany and
'bless you,' i n other parts of the
world, when you sneeze. It was
believed that sneezi ng means
that you are about to fal l i l l and
the person standi ng near you
says 'bless you,' wishing you
good health soon .
K.P.5ukumdr
MANORAMA TELL ME WHY COUS OF THE WORLD
Editor: Ammu Mathew Editor-inCharge: N.M. Mohanan'
Printed and Published by N. Sajeev George, on bhalf of M .M. Publications Ltd.
P. B. No. ZZD,Kottayam DD at M.M. Publications Ltd, P.B. No. ZZD, KOllayam DD
and Malayala Manora Press, KOllayam " DD3Vand published from
M.M. Publications Ltd. P.B. No. ZZD,KOllayam - DD .
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