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The socio-economic consequences of a disease should be considered in terms of how they can impact the development of the country

or region affected. This is linked to topic Chapter 11 - 2.11 Issues in Development. Examination Tip! Consequences are also referred to as impacts or effects. Always keep in mind that consequences can be positive or negative. Also, remember that consequences can be short, medium and long term. Answer the question below with eight detailed bullet points. I have done the first three for you! With reference to specific examples, describe and explain the socio-economic impact of a named disease on a country or region affected (8 marks). According to UNAIDS, more than 1% of children in 19 countries have experienced a teacher who has died from AIDS. In Zambia and Zimbabwe, the percentage is more than 3%. Thus, it is inevitable, that educational opportunities will be hindered in terms of a larger teacher to pupil ratios or students no longer being able to attend school if teachers are not available. The impact on local businesses will depend on the benefit package offered by individual firms. These could include: - cost of treatment and funerals, absenteeism and replacement workers. This will increase the total costs for a business and result in less profit, hence maybe less money for future investments. It may also result in bankruptcy and unemployment, which will directly impact the local population in terms of jobs and spending power in the local economy. A case study of urban dwellers in Cote dIvoire showed that families with a member sick from AIDS reduced food consumption by about 40% as they struggled to cover health expenditure. This could result in increased malnutrition and associated illnesses.

You will note that I have made specific references to named locations and I have used statistics to support some of the points. Also, note that I have not only described the impact but explained it too. Examination Tip! It is strongly recommended that you take a highlighter pen into the examination so that you can highlight key words like specific examples, describe, explain, socio-economic etc. This way you can guarantee that you are answering the question that is being asked rather than the question that you are hoping for or have practised!

Activity 7 Complete the answer, with five additional points, in this box

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Voluntary Migration - Poor to Rich Location - Filipino Overseas Contract Workers (OCWs) who migrate from the Philippines to Singapore, Hong Kong, Saudi Arabia, Japan, Canada and the UK to work in the domestic (nannies and housemaids) and entertainment (singers and dancers) sectors. Almost 10% of the total population are OCWs making the Philippines one of the worlds biggest exporters of free labour. One thousand eight hundred Filipinos emigrate from Ninoy Aquino International airport every day. Cause - Push - Low wages and limited employment opportunities in the capital Manila and surrounding rural areas. Pull higher wages that can be easily remitted back to their families in the Philippines on a monthly basis to pay for land, housing, medical costs and educational opportunities. Consequences at origin Positive US$6.74 billion was remitted to the Philippines in 2003 alone and US$36.8 billion since 1982. As a consequence of their economic value, OCWs are known as modern day heroes. Many children are educated in the Philippines as a direct consequence of remittance payments promoting medium and long term development in the country. Negative brain drain e.g. a university-educated engineer can earn three times the income earned in the Philippines as a nanny in Toronto, Canada. Thus, many well qualified people leave the country in order to earn higher incomes and the country loses its future work force and talent. This inevitably hinders the medium and long-term development prospects of the country. Many children in the Philippines are brought up without one or both parents but by the extended family. This has a direct impact on the Catholic tradition of the family unit and many children are left with social and behavioural scars although materially they maybe far better off as a result of presents sent to them from their parents working abroad. Consequences at destination Positive Cheap and abundant labour in sectors where maybe the local population are unwilling to work, thus migrants fill unwanted jobs, keep wages lower and meet skills shortages. All legal OCWs will also pay taxes that contribute to the local economy. If a large Filipino community is established in a city then this may provide potential trading and economic contacts with the origin countries e.g. to provide Filipino-specific goods and services. A diverse ethnic and cultural community can provide greater awareness and tolerance of differences in society. Negative Almost all OCW employment is in low skilled and poorly paid jobs and many Filipinos are treated as second-rate citizens and sometimes even as slaves. There have been many reported cases of abuse, rape and even the murder of Filipino OCWs in the host country. It may be that migrants pose a threat to employment prospects of less-educated native workers that can result in racial tension within the host society. Racial tension can also be fuelled if the host society perceives that the migrant work force to be making demands on already pressured education and health services. Activity 4 Voluntary Migration - Rural Urban Migration complete the missing information below using the rural to urban migration case study that you have studied in class. Location

Cause

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A decrease in food production in the Former Soviet Union (regional scale) Food production in the Former Soviet Union has declined in recent years due to a number of factors:

Collapse of government supported giant farms of the Communist era; Lack of finance for the food processing industry, storage facilities and transport and distribution systems as a direct result of the post Communist economic crisis and associated debt. Severe competition from external markets has hit food production hard. One quarter of all meat consumed and fifteen per cent of all milk drunk is now imported. Prior to the Communist collapse, farms were protected from competition by government subsidies. Today, some farmers are struggling to compete on the global market. Fertility of soils decreased catastrophically. Mass irrigation schemes in the south have left soils salty and infertile. Answer Section

Activity 1 Irrigation systems irrigation systems provide regular access to water supplies and thus increase food production. E.g. the River Mahaveli irrigation project in Sri Lanka resulted in 120 000 hectares of new land being irrigated for food production. Also, the Narmada river valley dam project has resulted in irrigation across 1.8 billion hectares in a drought-prone area of India. Changes to farming methods land reform and reclamation. Land reform in China has resulted in many more rural farmers having access to land. In the past, many farmers worked for a wage or paid a rent or equivalent to a landlord. Often it was not in the interest of the farmer financially to develop efficient and sustainable methods of food production. However, once land is owned by a farmer productivity levels increase, at least in the short and medium term. Also, hopefully, in the longer term if they are educated about the importance of sustainable farming techniques. Land reclamation is also an important factor determining increased food productivity. Land may be reclaimed from the sea or, increasingly, advances in genetically modified crops allow farmers to access land that was once too dry or too wet. Thus, marginal land is reclaimed. Technological innovations appropriate technology is technology that is appropriate to the skill and income levels of the farmer and the natural environment, e.g. at the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) in the Philippines scientists have developed small, hand held farming equipment that is more appropriate for women and children to use on the land rather than heavy machinery only accessible to men. This is particularly important considering that many women and children in the Philippines work on the land. Also, the new equipment is cheap, thus affordable for the poor, rural farmer without the need to take out a loan and is easy to repair if it breaks down. Such simple, yet appropriate technological advances, have resulted in an increase in food production in the Philippines. Other technological advances include the Green Revolution in the Indian sub continent since the 1960s (including the use of High Yielding Variety (HYV) crops) and the Gene Revolution today, with the development of artificial insemination, embryo transfer and tissue culture all increasing food production. These modern day advances are classified as biotechnology, the application of modern, laboratory-developed, high technology in food production. You will note that I have focused on the exact wording in the question. I have used a range of examples, at a global scale, to demonstrate what factors have resulted in an increase in food production.

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