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Annexure I

CLASS XI
CHAPTER 3 3.6. Proofs and Simple Applications of sine and cosine formulae Let ABC be a triangle. By angle A we mean the angle between the sides AB and AC which lies between 0 and 180. The angles B and C are similarly defined. The sides AB, BC and CA opposite to the vertices C, A and B will be denoted by c, a and b, respectively (see Fig. 3.15). Theorem 1 (sine formula) In any triangle, sides are proportional to the sines of the opposite angles. That is, in a triangle ABC
B a C A

sin A sin B sin C = = a b c Proof Let ABC be either of the triangles as shown in Fig. 3.16 (i) and (ii).
B
B

Fig. 3.15

c a h

c h

(i) Fig. 3.16

(ii)

The altitude h is drawn from the vertex B to meet the side AC in point D [in (i) AC is produced to meet the altitude in D]. From the right angled triangle ABD in Fig. 3.16(i), we have
h sin A = , i.e., h = c sin A c

(1) (2)

and

sin (180 C) =

h h = a sin C a

From (1) and (2), we get c sin A = a sin C, i.e.,


sin A sin C = a c

(3)

Similarly, we can prove that


sin A sin B = a b From (3) and (4), we get

(4)

sin A sin B sin C = = a b c

For triangle ABC in Fig. 3.16 (ii), equations (3) and (4) follow similarly. Theorem 2 (Cosine formulae) Let A, B and C be angles of a triangle and a, b and c be lengths of sides opposite to angles A, B and C, respectively, then
a 2 = b 2 + c 2 2bc cos A b 2 = c 2 + a 2 2ca cos B c 2 = a 2 + b 2 2ab cos C Proof Let ABC be triangle as given in Fig. 3.17 (i) and (ii)
B
B

c a h

c h

(i) Fig. 3.17 Referring to Fig.3.17 (ii), we have BC 2 = BD 2 + DC2 = BD 2 + (AC AD) 2
= BD 2 + AD 2 + AC 2 2AC.AD

(ii)

= AB2 + AC2 2AC AB cos A or a2 = b2 + c2 2bc cosA Similarly, we can obtain


b 2 = c 2 + a 2 2ca cos B

and c 2 = a 2 + b 2 2ab cos C Same equations can be obtained for Fig. 3.17 (i), where C is obtuse. A convenient form of the cosine formulae, when angles are to be found are as follows:
b2 + c2 a 2 2bc 2 c + a 2 b2 cos B = 2ac 2 a + b2 c2 cos C = 2ab cos A =

Example 25 In triangle ABC, prove that BC bc A cot = 2 b+c 2 CA ca B tan = cot 2 c+a 2 A B a b C tan cot = 2 a+b 2 tan Proof By sine formula, we have
a b c = = = k ( say ). sin A sin B sin C

Therefore,

b c k (sin B sin C) = b + c k (sin B + sin C) B+C BC sin 2 2 = B+C BC 2sin cos 2 2 2 cos
= cot (B+C) (B C) tan 2 2

A BC = cot tan 2 2 2

tan

BC 2 A cot 2

B C bc A = cot 2 b+c 2 Similarly, we can prove other results. These results are well known as Napiers Analogies. Example 26 In any triangle ABC, prove that a sin (B C) + b sin (C A) + C sin (A B) = 0 Solution Consider a sin (B C) = a [sinB cosC cosB sinC] (1)

Therefore,

tan

Now

sin A sin B sin C = = = k (say) a b c Therefore, sin A = ak, sin B = bk, sin C = ck Substituting the values of sinB and sinC in (1) and using cosine formula, we get

a 2 + b2 c2 c2 + a 2 b2 a sin(B C) = a bk ck 2ab 2ac

k 2 a + b2 c2 c2 a 2 + b2 2 = k (b 2 c 2 )

Similarly, b sin (C A) = k (c2 a2) and csin (A B) = k (a2 b2) Hence L.H.S = k (b2 c2 + c2 a2 + a2 b2) = 0 = R.H.S. Example 27 The angle of elevation of the top point P of the vertical tower PQ of height h from a point A is 45 and from a point B, the angle of elevation is 60, where B is a point at a distance d from the point A measured along the line AB which makes an angle 30 with AQ. Prove that d = h ( 3 1) Proof From the Fig. 3.18, we have PAQ = 45, BAQ = 30, PBH = 60
P
1 5

h 60 d 45 A 30 B H Q

Clearly

Fig. 3.18 APQ = 45, BPH = 30, giving APB = 15

Again PAB = 15 ABP = 150 From triangle APQ, we have AP2 = h2 + h2 = 2h2 (Why ?) or AP = 2h Applying sine formula in ABP, we get
AB AP d 2h = = sin15 sin150 sin15 sin150

i.e.,

d=

2h sin15 sin 30

(why?) = h( 3 1) Example 28 A lamp post is situated at the middle point M of the side AC of a triangular plot ABC with BC = 7m, CA = 8m and AB = 9 m. Lamp post subtends an angle 15 at the point B. Determine the height of the lamp post. Solution From the Fig. 3.19, we have AB = 9 = c, BC = 7 = a and AC = 8 = b.

Fig.3.19 M is the mid point of the side AC at which lamp post MP of height h (say) is located. Again, it is given that lamp post subtends an angle (say) at B which is 15. Applying cosine formula in ABC, we have a 2 + b 2 c 2 49 + 64 81 2 = = 2ab 278 7 Similarly using cosine formula in BMC, we get BM2 = BC2 + CM2 2 BC CM cos C. cos C =
1 Here CM= CA=4 , since M is the mid point of AC. 2 Therefore, using (1), we get

(1)

BM2

= 49 + 16 2 7 4

2 7

= 49 or BM =7 Thus, from BMP right angled at M, we have


tan = PM h = BM 7

or or

h = tan(15) = 2 7

(why ?)

h = 7(2 3) m . EXERCISE 3.5

In any triangle ABC, if a = 18, b = 24, c = 30, find 1. cosA, cosB, cosC
4 3 , , 0) 5 5 For any triangle ABC, prove that

(Ans.

2. sinA, sinB, sinC

(Ans.

3 4 , , 1) 5 5

AB cos a+b 2 3. c = C sin 2

AB sin a b 2 4. c = C cos 2

5. sin

BC bc A = cos 2 a 2
2

6. a (b cos C c cos B) = b2 c2
sin(B C) b 2 c 2 = 8. sin(B + C) a2

A 7. a (cos C cos B) = 2 (b c) cos 2

9. (b + c) cos

B+C BC = a cos 2 2

10. a cos A + b cos B + c cos C = 2a sin Bsin C

cos A cos B cos C a 2 + b 2 + c 2 + + = 11. a b c 2abc 13. 14.

12. (b2 c2) cotA + (c2 a2) cotB + (a2 b2) cotC = 0

b2 c2 c2 a2 a2 b2 sin 2A + sin 2B + sin 2C = 0 a2 b2 c2 A tree stands vertically on a hill side which makes an angle of 15 with the horizontal. From a point on the ground 35m down the hill from the base of the tree, the angle of elevation of the top of the tree is 60. Find the height of the tree. (Ans. 35 2m ) Two ships leave a port at the same time. One goes 24 km per hour in the direction N45E and other travels 32 km per hour in the direction S75E. Find the distance between the ships at the end of 3 hours. (Ans. 86.4 km (approx.)) Two trees, A and B are on the same side of a river. From a point C in the river the distance of the trees A and B is 250m and 300m, respectively. If the angle C is 45, find the distance between the trees (use

15.

16.

2 =1.44).

(Ans. 215.5 m)

CHAPTER 5 5.7. Square-root of a Complex Number We have discussed solving of quadratic equations involving complex roots on page 108-109 of textbook. Here we explain the particular procedure for finding square root of a complex number expressed in the standard form. We illustrate the same by an example. Example 12 Find the square root of 7 24i Solution Then Let x + iy = 7 24i

(x + iy )2 = 7 24i

or x 2 y 2 + 2 xyi = 7 24i Equating real and imaginary parts, we have x2 y2 = 7 2xy = 24 We know the identity

(1)

(x

+ y 2 ) = ( x 2 y 2 ) + (2 xy ) 2
2 2

= 49 + 576 = 625 Thus, x2 + y2 = 25 6

(2)

From (1) and (2), x2 = 9 and y2 = 16 or x = 3 and y = 4 Since the product xy is negative, we have x = 3, y = 4 or, x = 3, y = 4 Thus, the square roots of 7 24i are 3 4i and 3 + 4i EXERCISE 5.4 Find the square roots of the following: 1. 15 8i ( Ans. 1 4i, 1 + 4i) 3. 1 i 2. 8 6i (Ans. 1 3i, 1 + 3 i)

(Ans.

2 +1 2

2 1 i) 2

4. i

1 1 m i ) (Ans. 2 2

5.

1 1 i) (Ans. 2 2

6. 1 + i CHAPTER 9

(Ans.

2 +1 2

2 1 i 2 )

9.7. Infinite G.P. and its Sum G. P. of the form a, ar, ar2, ar3, ... is called infinite G. P. Now, to find the formula for finding sum to infinity of a G. P., we begin with an example. Let us consider the G. P.,
2 4 1, , ,... 3 9

Here

2 a = 1, r = . We have 3

2 1 2 n 3 Sn = = 3 1 2 3 1 3
2 Let us study the behaviour of as n becomes larger and larger: 3 n 1 5 10 2 3
n n

20 0.00030072866

0.6667

0.1316872428

0.01734152992

2 We observer that as n becomes larger and larger, becomes closer and closer to zero. Mathemati3
2 cally, we say that as n becomes sufficiently large, becomes sufficiently small. In other words as 3
n

2 n , 0. Consequently, we find that the sum of infinitely many terms is given by S = 3. 3 Now, for a geometric progression, a, ar, ar2, ..., if numerical value of common ratio r is less than 1, then

Sn =

a (1 r n ) a ar n = (1 r ) 1 r 1 r

In this case as n , rn 0 since |r| < 1. Therefore


Sn a 1 r

Symbolically sum to infinity is denoted by S or S.


a Thus, we have S = 1 r .

For examples (i)


1 1 1 1 1 + + 2 + 3 + ... = = 2. 1 2 2 2 1 2

(ii)

1 1 1 1 + 2 3 + ... = 2 2 2

1 1 2 = = 1 3 1 1 1+ 2 2

EXERCISE 9.4 Find the sum to infinity in each of the following Geometric Progression. 1. 3. 5. 6. 1, 5,
1 1 , , ... (Ans. 1.5) 3 9

2. 6, 1.2, .24, ... 4.


3 3 3 , , ,... 4 16 64

(Ans. 7.5) (Ans.


3 ) 5

20 80 35 , ,... (Ans. ) 7 49 3
1 1 1

Prove that 3 2 3 4 38... = 3 Let x = 1 + a + a2 + ... and y = 1 + b + b2 + ..., where |a| < 1 and |b| < 1. Prove that

xy 1 + ab + a2b2 + ... = x + y 1

CHAPTER 10 10.6 Equation of family of lines passing through the point of intersection of two lines Let the two intersecting lines l1 and l2 be given by A1 x + B1 y + C1 = 0 (1) (2) (3) 8 and A 2 x + B2 y + C 2 = 0 From the equations (1) and (2), we can form an equation

A1 x + B1 y + C1 + k ( A 2 x + B2 y + C2 )

= 0

where k is an arbitrary constant called parameter. For any value of k, the equation (3) is of first degree in x and y. Hence it represents a family of lines. A particular member of this family can be obtained for some value of k. This value of k may be obtained from other conditions. Example 20 Find the equation of line parallel to the y-axis and drawn through the point of intersection of x 7y + 5 = 0 and 3x + y 7 = 0 Soluion The equation of any line through the point of intersection of the given lines is of the form
x 7 y + 5 + k (3 x + y 7) = 0 i.e., (1 + 3k ) x + ( k 7) y + 5 7 k = 0

(1)

If this line is parallel to y-axis, then the coefficient of y should be zero, i.e., k 7 = 0 which gives k = 7. Substituting this value of k in the equation (1), we get 22x 44 = 0, i.e., x 2 = 0, which is the required equation. EXERCISE 10.4 1. Find the equation of the line through the intersection of lines 3x + 4y = 7 and x y + 2 = 0 and whose slope is 5. (Ans. 35x 7y + 18 = 0 ) Find the equation of the line through the intersection of lines x + 2y 3 = 0 and 4x y + 7 =0 and which is parallel to 5x + 4y 20 = 0 (Ans. 15x + 12y 7 = 0) Find the equation of the line through the intersection of the lines 2x + 3y 4 = 0 and x 5y = 7 that has its x-intercept equal to 4. (Ans. 10x + 93y + 40 = 0. ) Find the equation of the line through the intersection of 5x 3y = 1 and 2x + 3y 23 = 0 and perpendicular to the line 5x 3y 1 = 0. (Ans. 63x + 105y 781 = 0.)
Y Y'

2.

3.

4.

10.7. Shifting of origin

An equation corresponding to a set of points with reference P{(x, y) (x', y')} to a system of coordinate axes may be simplified by taking the set of points in some other suitable coordinate system such that all geometric properties remain unchanged. One such transformation is that in which the new axes are X' transformed parallel to the original axes and origin is shifted 0' M' to a new point. A transformation of this kind is called a k translation of axes. The coordinates of each point of the plane are h X changed under a translation of axes. By knowing the M O L relationship between the old coordinates and the new coordinates of points, we can study the analytical problem Fig. 10.21 in terms of new system of coordinate axes. To see how the coordinates of a point of the plane changed under a translation of axes, let us take a point P (x, y) referred to the axes OX and OY. Let OX and OY be new axes parallel to OX and OY respectively, where O is the new origin. Let (h, k) be the coordinates of O referred to the old axes, i.e., OL = h and LO = k. Also, OM = x and MP = y (see Fig.10.21) 9

Let O M = x and MP = y be respectively, the abscissa and ordinates of a point P referred to the new axes O X and O Y . From Fig.10.21, it is easily seen that OM = OL + LM, i.e., x = h + x and MP = MM + M P, i.e., y = k + y Hence, x = x + h, y = y + k These formulae give the relations between the old and new coordinates. Example 21 Find the new coordinates of point (3, 4) if the origin is shifted to (1, 2) by a translation. Solution The coordinates of the new origin are h = 1, k =2, and the original coordinates are given to be x = 3, y = 4. The transformation relation between the old coordinates (x, y) and the new coordinates (x, y) are given by x = x + h i.e., x = x h and y = y + k i.e., y = y k Substituting the values, we have x = 3 1 = 2 and y = 4 2 = 6 Hence, the coordinates of the point (3, 4) in the new system are (2, 6). Example 22 Find the transformed equation of the straight line 2x 3y + 5 = 0, when the origin is shifted to the point (3, 1) after translation of axes. Solution Let coordinates of a point P changes from (x, y) to (x , y ) in new coordinate axes whose origin has the coordinates h = 3, k = 1. Therefore, we can write the transformation formulae as x = x + 3 and y = y 1. Substituting, these values in the given equation of the straight line, we get 2(x + 3) 3 (y 1) + 5 = 0 or 2x 3y + 14 = 0 Therefore, the equation of the straight line in new system is 2x 3y + 14 = 0 EXERCISE 10.5 1. Find the new coordinates of the points in each of the following cases if the origin is shifted to the point (3, 2) by a translation of axes. (i) (1, 1) (Ans (4, 3)) (ii) (0, 1) (Ans. (3, 3)) (iii) (5, 0) (Ans. (8, 2) ) (iv) (1, 2) (Ans. (2, 0)) (v) (3, 5) (Ans. (6, 3)) Find what the following equations become when the origin is shifted to the point (1, 1) (i) x 2 + xy 3 y 2 y + 2 = 0 (ii) xy y 2 x + y = 0 (iii) xy x y + 1 = 0 CHAPTER 13 13.5. Limits involving exponential and logarithmic functions Before discussing evaluation of limits of the expressions involving exponential and logarithmic functions, we introduce these two functions stating their domain, range and also sketch their graphs roughly. (Ans. x 2 3 y 2 + xy + 3x 6 y + 1 = 0 ) (Ans. xy y 2 = 0 ) (Ans. xy = 0 )

2.

10

Leonhard Euler (1707AD 1783AD), the great Swiss mathematician introduced the number e whose value lies between 2 and 3. This number is useful in defining exponential function and is defined as f (x) = ex, x R. Its domain is R, range is the set of positive real numbers. The graph of exponential function, i.e., y = ex is as given in Fig.13.11.
Y

graph of y = e

Fig.13.11 Similarly, the logarithmic function expressed as log e : R + R is given by log e x = y , if and only if ey = x. Its domain is R+ which is the set of all positive real numbers and range is R. The graph of logarithmic function y = log e x is shown in Fig.13.12.
Y

graph of y = logex

Fig. 13.12 e x 1 = 1 , we make use of an inequality involving the expression x

In order to prove the result lim 0


x

ex 1 which runs as follows: x


x 1 e 1 1 + (e 2) |x| holds for all x in [1, 1] ~ {0}. 1+ x x

11

e x 1 =1 Theorem 6 Prove that lim x 0 x Proof Using above inequality, we get


x 1 e 1 1 + | x| (e 2), x [1, 1] ~ {0} 1+ x x

Also and

lim
x 0

1 1 1 = = =1 1 + x 1 + lim x 1 + 0
x 0

lim [1 + (e 2) x ] = 1 + (e 2) lim x = 1 + (e 2)0 = 1


x 0 x 0

Therefore, by Sandwich theorem, we get lim e x 1 =1 x 0 x


log e (1 + x ) =1 x

Theorem 7 Prove that lim x 0 Proof Let

log e (1 + x) = y . Then x

log e (1 + x) = xy
1 + x = e xy

e xy 1 =1 x

or

e xy 1 .y = 1 xy
lim e xy 1 lim y = 1(since x 0 gives xy 0) xy 0 xy x 0

e xy 1 lim y = 1 as lim = 1 x 0 xy 0 xy
lim log e (1 + x ) =1 x0 x
x

Example 5 Compute lim Solution We have

e3 x 1 0 x

lim

e3 x 1 e3 x 1 = lim 3 x 0 3 x 0 x 3x e y 1 = 3 lim , where y = 3 x y 0 y = 3.1 = 3


12

e x sin x 1 Example 6 Compute lim x 0 x Solution We have lim x 0 = lim Example 7 Evaluate Solution

e x 1 sin x e x sin x 1 = lim x 0 x x x

ex 1 sin x lim = 11 = 0 x 0 x 0 x x
lim

log e x x 1 x 1 Put x = 1 + h, then as x 1 h 0 . Therefore, lim

log e (1 + x) log e x log e (1 + h) = 1 since lim = 1 = lim x0 x 1 x 1 h0 x h EXERCISE 13.2 Evaluate the following limits, if exist

1. 3. 5. 7.

e4 x 1 lim x0 x e x e5 lim x 5 x 5
e x e3 lim x 3 x 3
lim log e (1 + 2 x) x 0 x

(Ans. 4) (Ans. e ) (Ans. e ) (Ans. 2)


3 5

2. 4. 6. 8.

lim

e 2+ x e 2 x 0 x

(Ans. e2) (Ans. 1) (Ans. 2) (Ans. 1)

e sin x 1 lim x 0 x x(e x 1) lim x 0 1 cos x lim log (1 + x 3 ) x 0 sin 3 x

13

Annexure II

CLASS XII
CHAPTER 5 Theorem 5 (To be inserted on page 173 under the heading theorem 5)
(i) Derivative of Exponential Function f(x) = ex. If f(x) = ex, then

lim f '(x) = x0

f ( x + x) f ( x) x

e x +x e x = lim x 0 x ex 1 = e lim x 0 x
x

eh 1 = e 1 [since lim = 1] h 0 h
x

Thus,

d x (e ) = e x . dx

(ii) Derivative of logarithmic function f(x) = logex. If f(x) = logex, then f '(x) = lim

log e ( x + x) log e x x 0 x

x log e 1 + x = lim x 0 x

x log e 1 + 1 x lim = x0 x x x
=

1 log e (1 + h) [since lim = 1] h0 x h

Thus,

d 1 log e x = dx x

14

CHAPTER 7 7.6.3.

( px + q)

ax 2 + bx + c dx.

We choose constants A and B such that


2 px + q = A ( ax + bx + c) + B dx

= A(2ax + b) + B Comparing the coefficients of x and the constant terms on both sides, we get 2aA = p and Ab + B = q Solving these equations, the values of A and B are obtained. Thus, the integral reduces to

A (2ax + b) ax 2 + bx + c dx + B ax 2 + bx + c dx
= AI1 + BI 2 where I1 =

(2ax + b)

ax 2 + bx + c dx

Put ax2 + bx + c = t, then (2ax + b)dx = dt So Similarly, I1 = I2 =


3 2 (ax 2 + bx + c) 2 + C1 3

ax 2 + bx + c dx

is found, using the integral formula discussed in [7.6.2, Page 328 of the textbook].
2 Thus ( px + q ) ax + bx + c dx is finally worked out.

2 Example 25 Find x 1+ x x dx

Solution Following the procedure as indicated above, we write

1 + x x2 + B x = A dx
= A (1 2x) + B Equating the coefficients of x and constant terms on both sides, We get 2A = 1 and A + B = 0 Solving these equations, we get A =

1 1 and B = . Thus the integral reduces to 2 2

15

2 x 1+ x x dx =

1 1 (1 2 x) 1 + x x 2 dx + 1 + x x 2 dx 2 2
1 2 1 I2 2
(1)

= I1 + Consider I1 =

(1 2 x)

1 + x x 2 dx

Put 1 + x x2 = t, then (1 2x)dx = dt Thus I1 =


2 (1 2 x) 1 + x x dx =
1 2 3 t 2 dt = t 2 + C1 3

3 2 2 2 = (1 + x x ) + C1 , where C1 is some constant. 3

Further, consider Put x

I2 =

1 + x x dx =
2

5 1 x dx 4 2

1 = t. Then dx = dt 2
I2 =

Therefore,

5 2 t dt 2

1 5 2 1 5 1 2t t t + sin + C2 2 4 2 4 5
1 ( 2 x 1) 5 1 5 2x 1 ( x ) 2 + sin 1 + C2 2 2 4 2 8 5

1 5 2x 1 (2 x 1) 1 + x x 2 + sin 1 + C2 , where C2 4 8 5
is some constant.

Putting values of I1 and I2 in (1), we get


3 1 1 x 1+ x x 2 dx = (1 + x x 2 ) 2 + (2 x 1) 1 + x x 2 3 8

+
C =

5 2x 1 sin 1 + C, 16 5
C1 + C 2 is another arbitrary constant. 2

where

16

Insert the following exercises at the end of EXERCISE 7.7 as follows: 12. x x + x 2 Answers 12.
3 1 2 (2 x + 1) x 2 + x 1 1 2 ( x + x) + log | x + + x 2 + x | + C 3 8 16 2
3 1 x 3 2 3 2 (2 x + 3) 2 + 2x2 + 3 + log x + x 2 + + C 6 2 4 2

13. ( x + 1) 2 x 2 + 3

14. ( x + 3) 3 4 x x 2

13.

14.

3 1 7 1 x + 2 ( x + 2) 3 4 x x 2 2 2 (3 4 x x ) + sin +C + 3 2 2 7

CHAPTER 10 10.7

r r r r r r r r (b c ) , i.e., a (b c ) is called the scalar triple product of a , b and c in this order and is denoted by rrr r r r [ a , b , c ] (or [ a b c ]). We thus have
[ a , b , c ] = a (b c ) Observations 1. Since (b c ) is a vector, a (b c ) is a scalar quantity, i.e. [ a , b , c ] is a scalar quantity.

Scalar triple product Let a , b and c be any three vectors. The scalar product of a and

r r

r r r

r r

r r

r r

r r r

2. Geometrically, the magnitude of the scalar triple product is the volume of a parallelopiped formed by adjacent r r r sides given by the three vectors a , b and c (Fig. 10.28). Indeed, the area of the parallelogram forming the base of the parallelopiped is b c . The height is the projection of

r r r a .(b c ) i.e., r r . So the required volume of the parallelopiped (b c ) r r r a .(b c ) r r r r r is r r | b c | = a .(b c ) , (b c )

r r r a along the normal to the plane containing b and c which is r r r the magnitude of the component of a in the direction of b c
Fig. 10.28

3.

r r r If a = a1i + a2 + a3k , b = b1i + b2 + b3k and c = c1i + c2 + c3k , then j j j


17

i j r r b1 b2 b c = c1 c2

k b3 c3

= (b2c3 b3c2) i + (b3c1 b1c3) + (b1c2 b2c1) k j


and so

r r r a.(b c ) = a1 (b2c3 b3c2 ) + a2 (b3c1 b1c3 ) + a3 (b1c2 b2c1 )

a1 = b1 c1
r r

a2 b2 c2

a3 b3 c3
r

4.

If a , b and c be any three vectors, then

[ a, b , c ] = [ b , c , a ] = [ c , a, b ] (cyclic permutation of three vectors does not change the value of the scalar triple product). r r r Let a = a1i + a2 + a3 k , b = b1i + b2 + b3k and c = c1i + c2 3k . Then, just by observation j j j above, we have

r r r

r r r

r r r

a1 rr =b r [ ab,c] 1 , c1

a2 b2 c2

a3 b3 c3

= a1 (b2c3 b3c2) + a2 (b3c1 b1c3) + a3 (b1c2 b2c1) = b1 (a3c2 a2c3) + b2 (a1c3 a3c1) + b3 (a2c1 a1c2)

b1 b2 b3 = c1 c2 c3 a1 a2 a3 r r r = [ b, c, a ]
Similarly, the reader may verify that = [ a, b , c ] = [ c , a, b ] Hence 5. [ a, b , c ] = [ b , c , a ] = [ c , a, b ] In scalar triple product a .(b c ) , the dot and cross can be interchanged. Indeed,

r r r

r r r

r r r

r r r

r r r

r r r

6.

r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r a .(b c ) = [ a , b , c ] = [ b , c , a ] = [ c , a , b ] = c .( a b ) = ( a b ). c r r r r r r = [ a , b , c ] = [ a , c , b ]. Indeed
18

= [ a , b , c ] = a .(b c ) = a .( c b ) = ( a .(c b )) = a,c ,b r r r 7. [a , a , b ] = 0. Indeed r r r r r r [a , a , b ] = [a , b , a , ] r r r = [b , a , a ] r r r = b .( a a ) r r r r r = b .0 = 0. (as a a = 0) Note: The result in 7 above is true irrespective of the position of two equal vectors. 10.7.1 Coplanarity of three vectors r r r r r r Theorem 1 Three vectors a , b and c are coplanar if and only if a (b c ) = 0 . r r r Proof : Suppose first that the vectors a , b and c are coplanar. r r r r r r r r If b and c are parallel vectors, then, b c = 0 and so a (b c ) = 0 . r r r r r r r r If b and c are not parallel then, since a , b and c are coplanar, b c is perpendicular to a . So a (b c ) = 0 .
r r r

r r r

r r r

r r

r r r

r r

r Conversely, suppose that a (b c ) = 0 . If a and b c are both non-zero, then we conclude that a r r r r r r r r and b c are perpendicular vectors. But b c is perpendicular to both b and c . Therefore a and b r r r and c must lie in the plane, i.e. they are coplanar. If a = 0, then a is coplanar with any two vectors, in
particular with b and c . If (b c ) = 0 , then b and c are parallel vectors and so, a , b and c are coplanar since any two vectors always lie in a plane determined by them and a vector which is parallel to any one of it also lies in that plane. Note: Coplanarity of four points can be discussed using coplanarity of three vectors. Indeed, the four uuu uuu r r uuu r points A, B, C and D are coplanar if the vectors AB, AC and AD are coplanar. r r r r r r Example 26: Find a .(b c ), if a = 2i + + 3k , b = i + 2 j + k and c = 3i + + 2k . j j

r r

r r

r r

2 1 3 r r r Solution : We have a .(b c ) = 1 2 1 = 10. 3 1 2


r r r Example 27: Show that the vectors a = i 2 + 3k , b = 2i + 3 j 4 k and c = i 3 + 5k are j j coplanar.

1 2 3 r r r Solution : We have a .(b c ) = 2 2 4 = 0. 1 3 5


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Hence, in view of Theorem 1, a , b and c are coplanar vectors. r r r j Example 28: Find if the vectors a = i + 3 + k , b = 2i k and c = i + 7 + 3k are coplanar. j j r r r r r r Solution : Since a , b and c are coplanar vectors, we have a , b , c = 0 , i.e.,

r r

1 3 1 2 1 1 = 0.

3
1 ( 3 + 7) 3 (6 + ) + 1 ( 14 + ) = 0 = 0.

Example 29: Show that the four points A, B, C and D with position vectors j 4i + 5 + k , ( + k ), 3i + 9 + 4k and 4( i + + k ) , respectively are coplanar. j j j uuu uuu r r uuu r Solution : We know that the four points A, B, C and D are coplanar if the three vectors AB, AC and AD are coplanar, i.e., if uuu uuu uuu r r r AB, AC, AD = 0 uuu r Now AB = ( + k ) (4i + 5 + k ) = 4i 6 2k ) j j j uuu r AC = (3i + 9 + 4k ) (4i + 5 + k ) = i + 4 + 3k j j j uuu r j j and AD = 4( i + + k ) (4i + 5 + k ) = 8i + 3k j

Thus

4 6 2 uuu uuu uuu r r r AB, AC, AD = 1 4 3 = 0. 8 1 3

Hence A, B, C and D are coplanar. r r r r r r r r r Example 30 : Prove that a + b , b + c , c + a = 2 a , b , c . Solution : We have r r r r r r r r r r r r a + b , b + c , c + a = (a + b ).((b + c ) (c + a )) r r r r r r r r r r = ( a + b ).(b c + b a + c c + c a )
r r r r r r r r r r r (as c c = 0 ) = (a + b ).(b c + b a + c a ) r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r = a .(b c ) + a .(b a ) + a .(c a ) + b .(b c ) + b .(b a ) + b .( c a )

r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r = a , b , c + a , b , a + [ a , c , a ] + b , b , c + b , b , a + b , c , a

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r r r = 2 a , b , c

(Why ?)

r r r r r r r r r r Example 31 : Prove that a , b , c + d = a , b , c + [a , b , d ] Solution We have r r r r r r r r a , b , c + d = a .(b (c + d )) r r r r r = a .(b c + b d ) r r r r r r = a .(b c ) + a .(b d ) r r r r r r = a , b , c + a, b , d EXERCISE 10.5 r rrr r j j Find a b c if a = i 2 + 3k , b = 2i 3 + k and c = 3i + j 2k (Answer : 24) 2. 3. 4.
r r r Show that the vectors a = i 2 + 3k , b = 2i + 3 4k and c = i 3 + 5k are coplanar. j j j j j j Find if the vectors i + k ,3i + + 2k and i + 3k are coplanar. (Answer : = 15) r r r Let a = i + + k , b = i and c = c1 i + c2 + c3k Then j j

1.

(a) (b) 5.

If c1 = 1 and c2 = 2, find c3 which makes a , b and c coplanar (Answer : c3 = 2) If c2 = 1 and c3 = 1, show that no value of c1 can makes a , b and c coplanar.

r r

r r

Show that the four points with position vectors


4 i + 8 + 12k , 2i + 4 + 6k , 3i + 5 + 4k and 5 i + 8 + 5k are coplanar. j j j j

6. 7.

Find x such that the four points A (3, 2, 1) B (4, x, 5), C (4, 2, 2) and D (6, 5, 1) are coplanar. (Answer x = 5) r r r r r r r r r Show that the vectors a , b and c coplanar if a + b , b + c and c + a are coplanar.

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MATHEMATICS