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A masters thesis defense presentation by Harsh Purwar final year student of Int. BS-MS course at Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Kolkata, India.

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Harsh Purwar

(07MS-76)

Department of Physical Sciences,

Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Kolkata

Email: harshpurwar@hotmail.com

Thesis Supervisor

Dr. Nirmalya Ghosh

April 26, 2012

Harsh Purwar (DPS, IISER-K) Quantitative MM Polarimetry April 26, 2012 1 / 41

Outline

1

Introduction

2

Motivation

3

MM Measurement Methods

4

Our MM Measurement Strategy

5

Experimental Setup

6

Eigenvalue Calibration Method

7

Mueller Matrix Decomposition Scheme

8

Results

9

Initial Applications on Biological Tissues

10

Applications towards nano-plasmonics

11

Conclusions

Harsh Purwar (DPS, IISER-K) Quantitative MM Polarimetry April 26, 2012 2 / 41

Introduction

Introduction

What is it?

Several calculi have been developed for analysing polarization, including those based on the

Jones matrix, coherency matrix, Mueller matrix, and other matrices

1

.

Stokes Mueller Formalism:

The Stokes parameters are a set of values that describe the polarization state of the

electromagnetic radiation rst introduced by George G. Stokes in 1852.

S =

_

_

_

_

S

0

S

1

S

2

S

3

_

_

_

_

=

_

_

_

_

I

Q

U

V

_

_

_

_

=

_

_

_

_

I

H

+ I

V

I

H

I

V

I

P

I

M

I

L

I

R

_

_

_

_

Degree of polarization (DOP) is a quantity used to describe the portion of an electromagnetic

wave which is polarized. In Stokes formalism we have,

DOP =

_

S

2

1

+ S

2

2

+ S

2

3

S

0

1

Shurcli, 1962; Gerrard and Burch, 1975; Theocaris and Gdoutos, 1979; Azzam and Bashara, 1987; Coulson,

1988; Egan, 1992.

Harsh Purwar (DPS, IISER-K) Quantitative MM Polarimetry April 26, 2012 3 / 41

Introduction

Introduction

Mueller Calculus

Mueller matrix (M) for a polarization-altering device is dened as the matrix which transforms

an incident Stokes vector S into the exiting (reected, transmitted, or scattered) Stokes vector

S

,

S

41

= M

44

S

41

Mueller matrices of some common optical elements with corresponding Stokes vectors:

For an ideal quarter waveplate with its fast axis oriented at an angle of 45

:

_

_

_

_

1 0 0 0

0 0 0 1

0 0 1 0

0 1 0 0

_

_

_

_

_

_

s

0

s

1

s

2

s

3

_

_

=

_

_

_

_

s

0

s

3

s

2

s

1

_

_

For an ideal linear polarizer, transmission axis 0

:

_

_

_

_

1 1 0 0

1 1 0 0

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0

_

_

_

_

_

_

s

0

s

1

s

2

s

3

_

_

=

_

_

_

_

s

0

+ s

1

s

0

+ s

1

0

0

_

_

Harsh Purwar (DPS, IISER-K) Quantitative MM Polarimetry April 26, 2012 4 / 41

Motivation

Motivation

Why are we interested?

MM contains information about all the polarization properties of the sample and

thus has been very useful in the following areas of (but not limiting to) science

and technology.

Material characterization,

Measuring the thickness and refractive indices of thin lms (ellipsometry),

Tissue characterization & dierentiation, monitoring of Glucose levels in

blood, etc.,

Remote sensing of the earth and astronomical bodies,

Applications in Metrology, Astronomy, Ophthalmology, Radar polarimetry

etc.

2

Stokes Mueller calculus is applicable to randomly, fully or partially polarized

light.

2

Handbook of Optics, Chapter 22, R.A. Chipman

Harsh Purwar (DPS, IISER-K) Quantitative MM Polarimetry April 26, 2012 5 / 41

MM Measurement Methods

MM Measurement Methods

Some commonly used approaches...

Several MM measurement methods have been proposed so far. Some of the most

adopted among them are:

1

Modulation-based methods:

Uses electro-optic, magneto-optic or photoelastic modulators to rapidly

change polarization states and a lock-in based detection.

Advantages: Single measurement is sucient to determine complete

MM with very high precession and accuracy.

Major Drawback: Spectral and imaging measurements are not

possible.

2

Direct Measurements, using dual rotating polarizers and retarders.

Advantages: Suits well for imaging and/or spectral measurements.

Major Drawbacks: Measurements are not very accurate and are

prone to huge errors.

Harsh Purwar (DPS, IISER-K) Quantitative MM Polarimetry April 26, 2012 6 / 41

Our MM Measurement Strategy

Our Measurement Strategy

Heres what we did...!

Dual rotating retarder approach:

Consists of two rotating quarter wave plates and two xed linear polarizers to generate sixteen

elliptically polarized states.

Polarization State Generator (W) comprises of a xed linear polarizer (P

1

) followed by a

rotatable quarter wave plate (Q

1

). It, in general can be used to generate any polarization state.

_

_

_

_

1 0 0 0

0 C

2

1

+ S

2

1

C

1

C

1

(1 C

) S

1

S

0 S

1

C

1

(1 C

) S

2

1

+ C

2

1

C

1

S

0 S

1

S

1

S

_

_

_

_

.

M

Retarder

_

_

_

_

1 1 0 0

1 1 0 0

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0

_

_

_

_

.

M

Pol

at Horizontal

_

_

_

_

1

0

0

0

_

_

_

_

.

Unpol.

W

1

=

_

1 C

2

1

+ S

2

1

C

1

S

1

(1 C

) S

1

S

_

T

For four dierent input polarizations we have,

W =

_

_

_

_

1 1 1 1

C

2

1

+ S

2

1

C

C

2

2

+ S

2

2

C

C

2

3

+ S

2

3

C

C

2

4

+ S

2

4

C

1

S

1

(1 C

) C

2

S

2

(1 C

) C

3

S

3

(1 C

) C

4

S

4

(1 C

)

S

1

S

2

S

3

S

4

S

_

_

_

_

Harsh Purwar (DPS, IISER-K) Quantitative MM Polarimetry April 26, 2012 7 / 41

Our MM Measurement Strategy

Our Measurement Strategy

Polarization State Analyser (A) comprises of a rotatable quarter wave plate (Q

2

) followed by a

xed linear polarizer (P

2

) crossed with P

1

. It is dedicated to the measurement of an unknown

Stokes vector.

_

_

_

_

1 1 0 0

1 1 0 0

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0

_

_

_

_

.

M

Pol

at Vertical

_

_

_

_

1 0 0 0

0 C

2

1

+ S

2

1

C

1

C

1

(1 C

) S

1

S

0 S

1

C

1

(1 C

) S

2

1

+ C

2

1

C

1

S

0 S

1

S

1

S

_

_

_

_

.

M

Retarder

PSA is followed by an intensity based detector, which just records total intensity or the very rst

element/row of the Stokes vector. Hence,

A

1

=

_

1 C

2

1

S

2

1

C

1

C

1

(1 C

) S

1

S

_

Similarly for four dierent angles we have,

A =

_

_

_

_

_

1 C

2

1

S

2

1

C

1

C

1

(1 C

) S

1

S

1 C

2

2

S

2

2

C

2

C

2

(1 C

) S

2

S

1 C

2

3

S

2

3

C

3

C

3

(1 C

) S

3

S

1 C

2

4

S

2

4

C

4

C

4

(1 C

) S

4

S

_

_

_

_

_

Harsh Purwar (DPS, IISER-K) Quantitative MM Polarimetry April 26, 2012 8 / 41

Our MM Measurement Strategy

Criteria for Stable Mueller Matrix

From A (PSA) and W (PSG) matrices, Mueller matrix of the sample M

s

is calculated as

follows. We know that,

M = A M

s

W

Hence if we dene,

Q

1616

= A

44

W

T

44

= (M

s

)

161

= Q

1

1616

M

161

(M

s

)

161

is then reshaped to a 4 4 matrix. The samples Mueller matrix is then decomposed

using Polar Decomposition scheme to get its basic polarization properties. Choice of orientation

angles of retarders (QWPs) is:

very crucial to get a stable and physically realizable MM.

made by maximizing the determinant of matrix Q.

For simplicity same four angles (35

, 70

, 105

& 140

Chosen angles were veried using a more rigorous approach.

Harsh Purwar (DPS, IISER-K) Quantitative MM Polarimetry April 26, 2012 9 / 41

Our MM Measurement Strategy

Verication of Chosen Angles (

i

s) using SVD

The Singular Value Decomposition of an mn real or complex matrix S is a factorization of the

form,

S = UDV

matrix. The diagonal entries of D are known as singular values of matrix S.

The angles of the polarizers and QWPs should be chosen so that

the corresponding Stokes vectors are distributed evenly inside the

Poincare sphere.

x y

z

1

This is achieved by making sure that the singular values obtained

after SVD of the PSG and PSA matrices are non-zero. We dene

the condition number for PSG and PSA matrices as,

C# =

Min{singular values}

Max{singular values}

Poincare sphere showing Stokes

vectors constituting PSG and

PSA matrices.

Harsh Purwar (DPS, IISER-K) Quantitative MM Polarimetry April 26, 2012 10 / 41

Experimental Setup

Experimental Setup

Our hard work!

Setup 1: Schematic of the experimental setup Setup 2: Schematic of the experimental setup

for elastic scattering. for inelastic (uorescence) scattering.

Harsh Purwar (DPS, IISER-K) Quantitative MM Polarimetry April 26, 2012 11 / 41

Eigenvalue Calibration Method

Need for Calibration

How does it help?

The polarizers and QWPs do not behave ideally (i.e. not as a perfect diattenuator

and as a perfect /2 retarder) over the entire spectral range. And hence the PSG

and PSA matrices constructed earlier will change with wavelength.

Eigenvalue Calibration,

provides exact PSG (W) and PSA (A) matrices over the entire spectral

range.

hence automatically corrects for the non-ideal behaviour of the involved

optical elements.

requires at least two extra measurements with samples whose form of the

MM is known.

Harsh Purwar (DPS, IISER-K) Quantitative MM Polarimetry April 26, 2012 12 / 41

Eigenvalue Calibration Method

Eigenvalue Calibration

Mathematical Formulation

Lets choose the two reference samples to be blank (no sample) and a diattenuating retarder and

call these measurements as b

0

and b respectively. Hence,

b

0

= aw, b = amw

= c = b

1

0

b = w

1

mw, c

= bb

1

0

= ama

1

By denition c, m & c

are similar matrices and hence have same eigenvalues. We do not know

m explicitly yet, but it has the following form,

m =

_

_

_

_

1 cos 2 0 0

cos 2 1 0 0

0 0 sin 2 cos sin 2 sin

0 0 sin 2 sin sin 2 cos

_

_

m has four eigenvalues (2 real & 2 imaginary),

R

1

= 2 cos

2

,

R

2

= 2 sin

2

C

1

= sin 2e

i

,

C

2

= sin 2e

i

Harsh Purwar (DPS, IISER-K) Quantitative MM Polarimetry April 26, 2012 13 / 41

Eigenvalue Calibration Method

Eigenvalue Calibration

A little more mathematics!

Hence,

=

R

1

+

R

2

2

, = tan

1

_

R

1

R

2

, = log

_

C

2

C

1

Mueller matrix m for the reference sample (diattenuating retarder) is constructed back from

these eigenvalues.

Now, consider the following two matrix equations,

mX Xc = 0, mX

= 0

with solutions: X = w and X

= a since, c = w

1

mw and c

= ama

1

.

Solving

3

these two linear equations gives us our PSG (w) and PSA (a) matrices.

3

Eric Compain, et. al., Applied Optics, Vol. 38, Issue 16, 1999.

Harsh Purwar (DPS, IISER-K) Quantitative MM Polarimetry April 26, 2012 14 / 41

Eigenvalue Calibration Method

Eigenvalue Calibration Results

PSG Matrix

Figure: Polarization State Generator Matrix (W) as a function of wavelength ().

Harsh Purwar (DPS, IISER-K) Quantitative MM Polarimetry April 26, 2012 15 / 41

Eigenvalue Calibration Method

Eigenvalue Calibration Results

PSA Matrix

Figure: Polarization State Analyser Matrix (A) as a function of wavelength ().

Harsh Purwar (DPS, IISER-K) Quantitative MM Polarimetry April 26, 2012 16 / 41

Eigenvalue Calibration Method

Eigenvalue Calibration Results

Condition Number for PSG & PSA Matrices

Figure: Plot of condition number for the PSG and PSA Matrices as a function of wavelength

(). Clearly, condition number > 0.25 .

Harsh Purwar (DPS, IISER-K) Quantitative MM Polarimetry April 26, 2012 17 / 41

Eigenvalue Calibration Method

Eigenvalue Calibration Results

Error Estimate

Figure: Plot of an estimate of error as a function of wavelength ().

Harsh Purwar (DPS, IISER-K) Quantitative MM Polarimetry April 26, 2012 18 / 41

Eigenvalue Calibration Method

Results

Mueller Matrix (blank)

Figure: Mueller Matrix (M) for blank (no sample) as a function of wavelength ().

Harsh Purwar (DPS, IISER-K) Quantitative MM Polarimetry April 26, 2012 19 / 41

Eigenvalue Calibration Method

Results

Null Elements from the MM for a quarter waveplate

Figure: Null (zero) elements of the Mueller matrix for a quarter waveplate plotted as a

function of wavelength () showing elemental error 0.01.

Harsh Purwar (DPS, IISER-K) Quantitative MM Polarimetry April 26, 2012 20 / 41

Mueller Matrix Decomposition Scheme

MM Decomposition

Polar Decomposition

Mueller matrix reects lumped eects hindering their unique interpretation.

Measured MM (4 4) is decomposed into three 4 4 matrices using Polar

decomposition scheme:

M = M

M

R

M

D

,

leading to three basic polarization properties diattenuation (D), retardance (R)

and depolarization ().

Depolarization (): If an incident state is 100% polarized and the exiting state

has a degree of polarization less than unity, then the system is said to be

depolarizing.

Retardance (R) is the phase dierence between the two orthogonal polarizations

of light for both linear and circular polarizations.

Diattenuation (D) is the dierential attenuation of orthogonal polarizations for

both linear and circular polarization states.

Harsh Purwar (DPS, IISER-K) Quantitative MM Polarimetry April 26, 2012 21 / 41

Results

Results

Diattenuation (D) for a wide-band linear polarizer

500 520 540 560 580 600 620 640 660 680 700

0.88

0.9

0.92

0.94

0.96

0.98

1

1.02

1.04

1.06

1.08

Wavelength (nm)

D

i

a

t

t

e

n

u

a

t

i

o

n

D

Ideal Value = 1.0

Figure: Polar decomposition derived Diattenuation (D) for a wide-band Glan-Thomson linear

polarizer as a function of wavelength ().

Harsh Purwar (DPS, IISER-K) Quantitative MM Polarimetry April 26, 2012 22 / 41

Results

Results

Linear Retardance () for a quarter waveplate

Figure: Polar decomposition derived Linear Retardance () for a 633 nm quarter waveplate

plotted as a function of wavelength (). At = 633 nm, measured = 1.54 rad.

Harsh Purwar (DPS, IISER-K) Quantitative MM Polarimetry April 26, 2012 23 / 41

Results

Advantages of Our Measurement Strategy

Independent of source and detector (spectrometer) polarization responses.

Simultaneous spectroscopic and spatial mapping (imaging). Can be

incorporated with microscopic arrangement.

Exact PSG and PSA matrices and their wavelength dependence need not be

known.

Is fully automated. Takes just a few minutes for measurement of complete

spectral (400 800 nm) MM.

Mueller matrix elemental error < 0.01.

Capable of detecting small polarization signal even in presence of large

background depolarization noise.

Harsh Purwar (DPS, IISER-K) Quantitative MM Polarimetry April 26, 2012 24 / 41

Initial Applications on Biological Tissues

Applications towards Tissue Characterization

Harsh Purwar (DPS, IISER-K) Quantitative MM Polarimetry April 26, 2012 25 / 41

Initial Applications on Biological Tissues

Fluorescence MM Polarimetry

Challenges & Prospects

1

Signicant change in tissue uorescence from normal to malignant stage.

2

Collagen and NADH identied as biomarkers for cancer.

3

Tissue uorescence spectra convolution of spectra of various uorophores.

4

Diagnostic parameters: Spectra, Yield & Decay Kinetics.

5

Only spectral signature can not be used to distinguish between the normal and cancerous

tissues for the following few reasons.

Spectral signatures of these biomolecules vary from patient to patient and also

depend on the region we are probing.

Are hugely inuenced by the absorption of light from absorbers like blood. Hence

not suited for in-vitro examination.

Also the emission and absorption bands of NADH and Collagen overlap to an extent

that it is not practically possible to study them separately.

Fluorescence MM on the other hand can bring out the structural dierences by targeting

specic molecules. The brous structure of collagen gives large diattenuation as opposed

to NADH, which is isotropic.

Hence this can be used as a tool for Cancer Diagnosis.

Harsh Purwar (DPS, IISER-K) Quantitative MM Polarimetry April 26, 2012 26 / 41

Initial Applications on Biological Tissues

Preliminary Results

M

11

Element of Fluorescence MM for Human Cervical Cancer Biopsy Slides

Collagen Em. Spectra

NADH Em. Spectra

Figure: M

11

element of uorescence Mueller matrix (un-normalized) measured from the Human

cervical tissue biopsy slides (thickness few m) shown as a function of wavelength ().

Harsh Purwar (DPS, IISER-K) Quantitative MM Polarimetry April 26, 2012 27 / 41

Initial Applications on Biological Tissues

Preliminary Results

Fluorescence MM for Human Cervical Cancer Biopsy Slides

Figure: Individual elements of uorescence Mueller matrix measured from the Human cervical

tissue biopsy slides (thickness few m) shown as a function of wavelength ().

Harsh Purwar (DPS, IISER-K) Quantitative MM Polarimetry April 26, 2012 28 / 41

Initial Applications on Biological Tissues

Preliminary Results

Diattenuation for Human Cervical Cancer Biopsy Slides

Figure: Diattenuation measured from the Human cervical tissue biopsy slides (thickness few

m) with dierent stages of cancer shown as a function of wavelength ().

Harsh Purwar (DPS, IISER-K) Quantitative MM Polarimetry April 26, 2012 29 / 41

Applications towards nano-plasmonics

Applications towards nano-plasmonics

Harsh Purwar (DPS, IISER-K) Quantitative MM Polarimetry April 26, 2012 30 / 41

Applications towards nano-plasmonics

Introduction to SPR

Surface Plasmon Resonance

Plasmon resonance: Collective oscillations of free electrons at the metal-dielectric interface in

resonance with the incident electromagnetic (EM) eld.

Can be propagating as on the planar metal-dielectric interfaces as well as localized as on metal

nanoparticles.

Numerous practical applications:

Contrast enhancement in optical imaging.

Ultra-high sensitive chemical and biomedical sensing, bio-molecular manipulation,

labelling, detection.

Surface enhanced spectroscopy (Raman and uorescence).

Development of new optical devices: Plasmonic wave guiding nano-devices, optical

information processing and data storage.

Harsh Purwar (DPS, IISER-K) Quantitative MM Polarimetry April 26, 2012 31 / 41

Applications towards nano-plasmonics

Methodology

The scattering matrices for Ag (silver)

nanoparticles and similar dielectric

particles were generated in its surface

plasmon spectral region

( = 380 600 nm).

Reported values of n and k (real &

imaginary part of refractive index)

were used in the calculation.

Decomposition analysis was performed

on S() (T-matrix computed) for

randomly oriented spheroidal

nano-particles (metal & dielectric) to

study the depolarization behaviour.

Similar decomposition analysis

performed on S() for preferentially

oriented spheroidal nano-particles to

understand the underlying mechanism

of depolarization.

Harsh Purwar (DPS, IISER-K) Quantitative MM Polarimetry April 26, 2012 32 / 41

Applications towards nano-plasmonics

Results

Depolarization for randomly oriented metal nanoparticles

Depolarization characteristics show distinct spectral features with a peak at around

380 410 nm.

Figure: For r = 20 nm and varying .

Harsh Purwar (DPS, IISER-K) Quantitative MM Polarimetry April 26, 2012 33 / 41

Applications towards nano-plasmonics

Results

Longitudinal & Transverse plasmon resonances in spheroids

The magnitude of depolarization peaks around the overlap spectral region of the two

dipolar plasmon bands.

Figure: For r = 20 nm and varying .

Harsh Purwar (DPS, IISER-K) Quantitative MM Polarimetry April 26, 2012 34 / 41

Applications towards nano-plasmonics

Results

Enhanced Retardance and Diattenuation in preferentially oriented metal nanoparticles

Parameters

Estimated values for the polarization parameters

at = 400 nm, = 45

and = 1.5.

Spheroidal metal Spheroidal dielectric Spherical metal

nanoparticle nanoparticle nanoparticle

d 0.435 0.388 0.333

0 0 0

(rad.) 1.99 0 0.011

Magnitude of linear retardance () peaks

around the overlap spectral region of the two

dipolar plasmon bands ().

Stronger diattenuation (D

metal

> D

dielectric

).

No depolarization 0.

For r = 20 nm, = 45

and varying .

Harsh Purwar (DPS, IISER-K) Quantitative MM Polarimetry April 26, 2012 35 / 41

Applications towards nano-plasmonics

Results

Retardance of preferentially oriented metal nanoparticles

Dielectric nanoparticle: Usual behaviour

Phase reversal ( >

2

rad.) in

backscattering > 90

.

(for any value of ) is either close to

zero or .

Metal nanoparticle at 400 nm: Phase reversal or

helicity ipping even in forward scattering angles

( >

2

rad. < 90

)

Additional scattering-induced due the inherent

phase retardation between the two orthogonal

dipolar plasmon polarizabilities.

Longitudinal and the transverse dipolar plasmon

polarizabilities oscillating with a phase dierence.

For r = 20 nm, = 1.5 at specic s.

Harsh Purwar (DPS, IISER-K) Quantitative MM Polarimetry April 26, 2012 36 / 41

Prospective Applications & Outlook

Quantitative MM Plasmon Polarimetry: Prospective

applications & Outlook

Quantitative dierences in intrinsic polarization parameters of non-spherical

metal nanoparticles & background tissue (cell) dielectric structures.

Polarization can be used as additional contrast mechanism to discriminate

against background Rayleigh / Mie scattering (with optimal choice of ).

Can be exploited in combination with other spectroscopic approaches

(Fluorescence & Raman).

In-situ monitoring and controlling of size & shape of nanoparticles during

synthesis.

May have implications in bio-sensing exploiting polarization to enhance

sensitivity.

Harsh Purwar (DPS, IISER-K) Quantitative MM Polarimetry April 26, 2012 37 / 41

Conclusions

Conclusions

A highly sensitive automated spectral Mueller matrix polarimeter for both

elastic and inelastic scattering (uorescence) has been developed and

calibrated using Eigenvalue Calibration method.

It had initially been used to characterize human cervical cancer tissues.

It had also been used to study the characteristics of some of the uorescent

dyes like Coumarin 102 and Coumarin 152.

Nano-plasmonics

Enhanced depolarization (and its spectral characteristics ()) for randomly

oriented spheroidal metal nanoparticles originates from the presence of

strong linear retardance () eect in the individual oriented nanoparticles.

Enhanced diattenuation d & linear retardance for preferentially oriented

spheroidal metal nanoparticles.

Harsh Purwar (DPS, IISER-K) Quantitative MM Polarimetry April 26, 2012 38 / 41

Acknowledgement

Acknowledgement

Dr. Nirmalya Ghosh, IISER-Kolkata.

Prof. Asima Pradhan, IIT-Kanpur.

Dr. Ayan Banerjee, IISER-Kolkata.

Dr. Uday Kumar, IISER-Kolkata.

I am also very thankful to my friends Jalpa Soni, Sayantan Ghosh, Satish Kumar,

Harshit Lakhotia, Shubham Chandel, Nandan K. Das and Subhasri Chatterjee for

numerous healthy discussions and for their constant help, motivation and support

throughout the project.

Harsh Purwar (DPS, IISER-K) Quantitative MM Polarimetry April 26, 2012 39 / 41

Publications

Publications

...in last one year!

Included in Thesis

Development and Eigenvalue calibration of an automated spectral Mueller matrix system

for biomedical polarimetry H. Purwar, et. al., Proc. of SPIE, Vol. 8230 No. 823019,

2012. (Full length manuscript is under preparation).

Quantitative polarimetry of plasmon resonant spheroidal metal nanoparticles: A Mueller

matrix decomposition study J. Soni, et. al., Optics Communications, Vol. 285 Issue 6,

2011.

Enhanced polarization anisotropy of metal nano-particles and their spectral

characteristics in the surface plasmon resonance band J. Soni, et. al., Proc. of SPIE,

Vol. 8096 No. 809624, 2011.

Other related Publications

Diering self-similarity in light scattering spectra: A potential tool for pre-cancer

detection S. Ghosh, et. al. Optics Express, Vol. 19 No. 20, 2011. Selected for further

impact by Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics, Vol. 6 Issue 10, 2011.

A comparative study of dierential matrix and polar decomposition formalisms for

polarimetric characterization of complex turbid media S. Kumar, et. al. to be submitted

to Optics Communications.

Harsh Purwar (DPS, IISER-K) Quantitative MM Polarimetry April 26, 2012 40 / 41

Thank you for your time.

Harsh Purwar

07MS-76

Department of Physical Sciences,

Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Kolkata

Email: harshpurwar@hotmail.com

Harsh Purwar (DPS, IISER-K) Quantitative MM Polarimetry April 26, 2012 41 / 41

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