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B 18 B 503

1

1.1
1.1.1
:
x R x > 0, x = 0, x < 0

1.1.2

y = x x
x

y = x = 0
x

x<0
x = 0
x>0

x
y= x =
x

x a 0 x a
x = 0

x<0
x0

a x a a = 0

x a x a x a

1.1.3
1 x , y R x x x ,

0 x+ x 2x

x 2 + y 2 ( x + y )2 x2 + y2 x + y
2

x , y R x + y x + y

x 0, y 0

x , y R

1
( x + y)
2

x , y R

x + y =

x y x y

1 2
( x + y 2 ) xy
2

xy

x 2 + y 2 x + y 2( x 2 + y 2 )

x 2 + y 2 + 2 xy

2( x 2 + y 2 )

x 2 + y 2 x + y 2( x 2 + y 2 )
4 x [0,

)
2

sin x x tan x

(5) : 1) a > b > 1


b b 1
n
; 2) a 1 (1 + a ) > 1 + n a , n
>
a a 1
1

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B 18 B 503

3 n > m k > 0

m m+k

<
n n+k

x , y R sin( x + y ) cos( x y ) sin( x + y ) + cos( x y )


sin( x + y )cos( x - y ) 4
x , y R
x + y =

x 2 + y 2 x + y 2( x 2 + y 2 )

x 2 + y 2 + 2 xy

2 ( x 2 + y 2 )

x 2 + y 2 x + y 2( x 2 + y 2 )
1.1.4
1. 1 x 0 N ( x0 , ) = {x x x0 < , > 0}
x 0 < x < x 0 + x 0
x 0 N ( x 0 , ) = { x 0 < x x 0 < , > 0}
x 0

: (a , b) = x a < x < b, x R [a , b] = x a x b, x R

(a ,+ ) = {x x > a , x R} [a ,+ ) = {x x a , x R}
(,+) = {x x R} ( , b) = {x x < b, x R} (a ,+ ] = {x x b, x R},
12

1.2 X x y
y x y = f ( x )
f () x y
X f () f ()
f () Y f () f ()
f : X Y , X R f : X R , X R

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B 18 B 503

1.2.1

(1)
1.3 y = f ( x ) X x1 , x 2 X x1 < x 2

f ( x1 ) f ( x 2 ) y = f ( x ) X x1 < x 2
f ( x1 ) < f ( x 2 ) y = f ( x ) X

(2)
1.4 y = f ( x ) f ( x ) = f ( x ) y = f ( x )
y = f ( x ) f ( x ) = f ( x ) y = f ( x )

y = f (x ) x = a f ( a x ) = f ( a + x ) x
g ( x ) = f ( a x ) g ( x ) = f ( a + x ) = f ( a x ) = g ( x ) g ( x )
f ( x ) = f ( 2a x )
y = f (x ) ( a , 0) f ( a x ) = f ( a + x ) x
g ( x ) = f ( a x ) g ( x ) = f ( a + x ) = f ( a x ) = g ( x )
g ( x ) f ( x ) = f ( 2a x )
f ( x )
(3)
1.5 T y = f ( x ) f ( x + T ) = f ( x )

y = f ( x ) T

(4)

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B 18 B 503

1.6 y = f ( x ) X M x X

f ( x ) M y = f ( x ) X

1.2.2

1.7

X , Y , U R

f : U Y y = f ( u) g : X U u = g ( x )
y = f ( g ( x )) x
u = g ( x ) y = f ( u )

u = g ( x ) y = f ( u)

1.1 x ( 0, ) sin(sin x ) < sin x

x ( 0, ) 0 < sin x < 1 <

1.2 I 1 =

2
0

3
2

sin(sin x )dx I 2 = 2cos(sin x )dx ( A ).


0

A I 1 < 1 < I 2 B I 1 > 1 > I 2 C I 1 = I 2


D I 1 > I 2 > 1 .
x (0,

) sin x < x sin x

I 1 = sin(sin x)dx < 2 sin xdx = 1


2
0

cos x

I 2 = 2 cos(sin x)dx > 2 cos xdx = 1 > I 1 I 1 < 1 < I 2 (A)

1.2.3

1.8

F ( x , y ) = 0 N {( x 0 , y 0 ), }

y = y ( x ) F ( x , y ( x )) 0

y = y ( x ) N {( x 0 , y 0 ), } F ( x , y ) = 0

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B 18 B 503

X Y ( x 0 , y 0 ) N {( x 0 , y 0 ), }

N {( x 0 , y 0 ), } = ( x , y ) R 2 ( x x 0 ) 2 + ( y y 0 ) 2 < 2 , > 0

x + y 1 = 0 x + y = 1 ( 1,0) (1,0 )
2

y = y ( x ) (

y =

1 x 2 , ( x < 1) (

2 2
,
)
2 2

2
2
,
)
2
2

y = 1 x 2 , ( x < 1)
1.9 y = f ( x ) X Y y Y g ( y )
x X x = g ( y ) x = g ( y ) y = f ( x )
1 y = f ( x ) f

( x ) g ( x ) x

2 y = x
3 y = f ( x ) g ( x ) y = f ( x )
g ( x ) y = f ( x ) g ( x )
4 f (x ) g (x ) f ( g ( x )) = x g ( f ( x )) = x
1.2.4
1.9 t T

x = x( t )

y = y( t )

t T

( x , y ) t T y = f ( x ) x = g ( y )
t x, y
y = y ( t ( x )) = f ( x ) t = t (x ) x = x (t )
13

y = x
2

y = f ( x ) x

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B 18 B 503

x = x

y = f ( x)

x = x
x X
2
y = x

x ( ,+ )

t 1, , t 2 ( , ) = T , t 1 t 2 ( x1 , y1 ) ( x 2 , y 2 )

1.4 y =

1
( x + 1) 1 e 2 x

1 e 2 x > 0 x 1 x < 0 x 1

x0
sin x + ( x)

( x )
1.5 f ( x ) =
1
x
x
x
sin
(
)
0

+
<

1 x < 1
=
x 1 , f (x)
1

(x ) f ( x ) x 0
0 x < 1 x 1 x < 0 x < 1 (x )

sin x + 1

f ( x ) = sin x 1

1
sin x
2

1.6 y =

x 1
0 x 1
x<0

10 x 10 x

10 x + 10 x

y=

10 2 x 1
1+ y
1 1+ y
2x
10 =
x = lg

2x
1 y
2 1 y
10 + 1

y =

1+ x
1 1+ x

> 0
lg
1 x
2 1 x

1 + x > 0
1 + x < 0

x < 1

1 x > 0
1 x < 0
y ( 1, 1)
1.2.5

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B 18 B 503

( ),

(1 2 , 0)

( x, y) ,

x = ( ) cos = x ( )

y = ( ) sin = y ( )

(1 2 )

( )

1.7 ( x a ) + y = a (a > 0) x = 3
2

( x a ) + y = a (a > 0)
2

= 2a cos , (

).

x + y 2ay = 0 ( a > 0) = 2a sin ,


2

x = 3 =

(0 )

, < <
cos 2
2

1.8 f ( x ) , ( x ) , f ( ( x ))

(A) (B) , (C) (D)


(B)
1.10
(1) f ( x) = ln( x +

1
1
x 2 + 1) ;(2) y ( x) = f ( x) x
, f ( x ) .
2 +1 2

e x + ex
(3) f ( x) = x
,()
e e x
1 f ( x ) = ln( x +

x 2 + 1 ) = ln( x + x 2 + 1 ) = f ( x ) f ( x )

2 g ( x ) =

g( x ) =

1
1

2 +1 2
x

1
1
2x
1 1
1

=
= x
= g( x )
x
x
2 +1 2 2 +1 2 2 2 +1

y ( x )
3 f ( x ) = f ( x ) f ( x )
1.11 f ( x ) ( , ) . f (1) = a, x ( , )

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B 18 B 503

f ( x + 2) = f ( x ) + f ( 2)
(1) f (5) ;
(2) f ( x ) , T = 2 , a

1 x = 3 f ( 5) = f ( 3 ) + f ( 2) x = 1 f (1) = f ( 1) + f ( 2 )
f ( x ) f ( 2) = 2 f (1) = 2a f ( 3) = f (1) + f ( 2) = 3a

f ( 5 ) = 3a + 2a = 5a .
2 f (x ) , T = 2 , f (3) = f (1) 3a = a ,
1.12

a = 0

y = f (x ) x = a x = b, ( a < b) , y = f (x )

y = f (x ) x = a x = b

f (a x ) = f ( a + x ) x
a x = t f ( t ) = f ( 2a t ) f ( b x ) = f ( b + x )

f ( t ) = f ( 2b t ) f ( 2b t ) = f ( 2a t ) 2a t = u
f ( u) = f ( u + 2(b a )) f ( x ) = f ( x + 2( b a )) 2(b a ) > 0
y = f (x ) T = 2( b a )

1.13

1
1
f (x) [0,1] , f ( x + ) + f ( x ) (
4
4

(A) [0,1]

(B) [

1 5
, ] (C)
4 4

1 1
1 3
[ , ] (D) [ , ]
4 4
4 4

( D )

1
1
f ( x + ) f ( x )
4
4

1.14

y = + arctan

x
(
2

(A) y = 2 tan( x ), x (
(C) y = 2 tan

, )
2 2

3
x
, x ( , )
2
2 2

).

(B) y = tan

y=

(D)
8


x
, x ( , )
2
2 2


1
tan x, x ( , )
2
2 2
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B 18 B 503

( A ) y

= + arctan

x
x = 2 tan( y ) , x y ,
2

= 2 tan( x ) y = + arctan

1.15

x 2 , x 0
f ( x) =
,
2
x + x , x > 0

x
3
( , )
2 2
2

x 2 , x 0
(A) f ( x ) =
( x 2 + x) , x > 0

( x 2 + x) , x < 0
(B) f ( x ) =
x 2 , x 0

x 2 , x 0
(C) f ( x) =
x 2 x , x > 0

x 2 x , x < 0
(D) f ( x ) =
x 2 , x 0

D u = x , x < 0 , u > 0 ,

f ( x) = f (u ) = u 2 + u = x 2 x
1.16 f : R R , k > 0, u, v R f (u ) f ( v ) k u v
F ( x ) = f ( x ) + kx .

F ( x + x ) F ( x ) = f ( x + x ) + k ( x + x ) f ( x ) + kx

F ( x ) = ( f ( x + x ) f ( x ) ) + k ( x )

F ( x ) f ( x + x ) f ( x )
=
+k;
x
x
f ( x + x ) f ( x ) k x

f ( x + x ) f ( x )
k
x

F ( x ) f ( x + x ) f ( x )
=
+k 0
x
x

F ( x )
1.2.6

1 y = c
2

y = x

3 y = a

(a > 0, a 1) a
9

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B 18 B 503

y = e

4 y = log a x

(a > 0, a 1) a

y = ln x

y = sin x , cos x , tan x , cot x , sec x , csc x

y = arcsin x , arccos x , arctan x

y = x =

x 2

13
1.3.1

1.11 { x n } A n

x n A > 0 N > 0 A n > N


x n A < { x n } n A A
lim x n = A
n

A = 0 { x n } n
A { x n } n
1 lim x n = A
n

A
2 lim x n = A { x n } x n A < x n
n

x n A <

n
1.12 { x n } n x n G > 0

10

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62780040 15810102026
B 18 B 503

N > 0 n > N x n > G { x n } n


lim x n =

x n x N n > N { x n }

lim x n = +
n

G > 0 N > 0 n > N x n > G


x n x N n > N x n { x n }

lim x n =
n

G > 0 N > 0 n > N x n < G

1 + (1) n n
1+ n
1 n
1.17 x n =
x n =
x n =

2
2
2
x n =

1 + n sin
2

n
2

1.13 { x n } n n1 , n 2 , L , n k , L { x n }
{ x nk k = 1,2, L} { x nk } { x n }
1.14 { x n } { x n } { x nk } lim x n = { x n } n
k

G > 0 N > 0 x n x N > G


132
1
1 lim x n = A c lim cx n = cA
n

2 lim x n = A lim y n = B lim ( x n y n )


n

lim( x n y n ) = A B
n

3 lim x n = A lim y n = B lim x n y n = AB

4 lim x n = A y n 0,
n

lim y n = B 0 lim
n

11

xn A
=
yn B

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B 18 B 503

5 lim x n = ,
n

x n 0 lim

1
= 0
xn

1
{ x n } lim x n = A > 0 n x n > 0
n

N > 0 n > N x n > 0 lim x n = A < 0 n x n < 0


n

N > 0 n > N x n < 0


lim x n = A > 0 > 0 N > 0 n > N
n

A < x n < A + =
1

A
A
A
3A
x n >
> 0 < x n <
> 0
2
2
2
2

{ x n } N > 0 n > N x n > 0 lim x n = A 0


n

lim x n = A < 0 N > 0 n > N


n

x n < 0 lim x n = A 0
n

lim x n = A lim y n = B A > B N > 0 n > N


n

x n > y n a n = x n y n

2
{ x n } lim x n = A lim x n = B A = B
n

3
{ x n } { x n } n lim x n = A
n

M > 0 N > 0 n > N x n < M


lim x n = A > 0 N > 0 n > N
n

12

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B 18 B 503

A < x n < A + = 1 > 0


A 1 < x n < A + 1 M = max{ A 1 , A + 1} > 0
n > N x n < M

13.3
1
3.1 { x n } M R N > 0

n > N x n < M lim x n


n

lim 1 + = e
n +
n

2
3.2 lim a n = lim bn = A N > 0 n > N a n c n b n
n

{c n } lim c n = A
n

{x n } lim y n = 0, lim x n y n lim x n y n = 0

1.18

{x n } N1 M > 0 , n > N 1 , x n < M


lim y n = 0,
n

> 0 N 2 , n > N 2 , y n <

N = max{N1 , N 2 } n > N , x n y n <

M =

lim x n y n = 0
n

1.3.4

3.5 x n y n ( n ) y n 0 ( n = 1 , 2 , L )

lim
n

xn
=
yn

1 0 x n y n ( n ) = 1 x n y n

13

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B 18 B 503

( n )
2 = 0 x n y n ( n ) y n x n
( n )
3 = x n y n ( n ) y n x n
( n )
1.19 a1 = 2 a n +1 =

a n + 6 ( n = 1 , 2 , L) lim a n
n

{a n }

a 2 = 2 + 6 < 3 a n < 3 a n +1 = a n + 6 < 3 {a n } 3


lim a n a n +1 =

an + 6

a n +1 =

a n + 6

A=

A + 6 A1 = 2 A2 = 3

A 0 lim a n = A2 = 3
n

1.20

a > 0 lim a + a + a
n

1
2n n

0 < a 1 1 = (a ) n < a + a + a
1

lim a + a n + a 2 n

( ) < (a + a

a > 1 a = a
2

1
2n n

lim a + a + a
n

1
2n n

) (3 a )

1
2n n

1
n

+ a 2n

1
n

= 1

) < (3 a )
1
n

1
2n n

= a2

lim n a = 1
n

a lim n n = 1
n

1.21 (1) lim n a = 1, ( a > 0) ,


n

(2) lim n n = 1 .
n

(1) lim n a = 1, ( a > 0) :


n

14

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B 18 B 503

0 < a < 1 , > 0,

a 1 = 1 n a ,

a 1

1
ln a ln (1 )
n

ln a
.
ln (1 )

ln a
> 0, N =
+1, n N, 0 1 n a .

ln(1 )
a 1 , > 0,

a 1 = n a 1 ,

a 1+

1
ln a ln (1 + )
n

ln a
.
ln (1 + )

ln a
> 0, N =
+1, n N, 0 n a 1 .

ln(1 + )
2 lim n n = 1
n

0 < xn =

n 1 n n = 1 + x n n = (1 + x n )

n = 1 + n xn +

0 < xn <

n(n 1) 2
n(n 1) 2
xn + L >
xn
2
2

2
2
lim xn 0 lim x n = 0 lim n n = 1 .
lim
n
n
n 1 n n 1 n

1.22 lim ( x n y n ) = 0, N , n > N x n < a n < y n


n

lim a n
n

(A) .

(B) . (C). (D).

lim ( x n y n ) = 0 lim xn lim y n D

[] lim xn lim y n lim xn = lim y n


n

1.23 lim

a n =

n
k =1

n
k =1

+k

k
1
2
n

= 2
+ 2
+L+ 2
+ k n +1 n + 2
n +n

1
n(1 + n)
1 n(1 + n) 1 + n

< an < 2
=
2
2
2n
n +n
n
2

15

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B 18 B 503
n

k
1
=
n
2
k =1 n + k

lim

n
= 0
n a n

1.24 > 0 a > 1 lim

xn =

lim
n

n
( n + 1) 1 n + 1

x n +1 =
=
x n
a n
a n +1
an

x n +1 1
x
= < 1 N > 0 n > N n+1 < 1
xn
a
xn

x n +1 < x n n > N {x n } x n > 0

n
{x n } lim x n = lim n = A
n
n a

( n + 1)
1 n + 1
1
1
= lim
A = A (1 ) A = 0 a > 1
n +1
n
n

a
a n
a
a

A = lim

n
1
0 A = lim n = 0
n a
a
an
= 0
n n!

1.25 a > 0 lim

an
a
xn =
xn +1 =
xn
n!
n +1
1 a > 1 n +1 > a x n +1 < x n
{xn } [a ] xn > 0
lim x n = A x n +1 =
n

A = 0 A A = 0

a
xn , n
n +1

2 0 < a 1 n x n +1 < x n {xn }


1

1.26

n!
= 0
n n n

lim

16

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B 18 B 503

n! 1 2 n 1
= L < n
nn n n n n
n!
lim n = 0
n n
ln n
1.27 lim
=0
n n

0<

lim n n = 1

ln n
= lim ln n n = ln 1 = 0
n n
n

lim

ln n
n

n
n

ln n, n ( > 0 ), a n (a > 1), n! , n n


1.28 a1 = a > 1 a a n +1 =

a
1
(a n + 1 ) ( n = 1 , 2 , L)
2
an

lim a n

a n +1 =

a
a
1
1
(a n + 1 ) 2 a n 1 = a > 1
2
an
2
an

a n n
a n +1

a2
1
(a n + n ) = a n ( n = 1,2, L)
2
an

a n lim a n = A
n

A =

1
a
A +
2
A

lim a n = A = a A > 0
n

1.29

1+ 2 +L+ n
n
n2

1 lim

2 lim
n

( 2n

+ 2n 3 2n 2 + n

)
17

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B 18 B 503

11
1
1 n(1 + n)
1+ 2 +L+ n
1
= lim + 1 = ( 0 + 1) =
= lim 2
2
n
n n
n 2 n
2
2
n
2

1 lim

2 lim
n

( 2n

3
n

= lim
n

n3

+ 2n 3 2n 2 + n = lim

2+

2 3
1
+ 2+
n n
n

2n 2 + 2n 3 + 2n 2 + n

2 2

1.30 lim n
n

(n

+1 n = ?

1
1
=
lim n n 2 + 1 n = lim n
2
2
n
n
n
n
+
+
1

1.31 (1) lim sin n + 1 = ?


n

(2) lim sin


n

n2 + n = ?

(1) lim sin n + 1 = lim( 1) sin n + 1 n


n

(2) lim sin


n

1 n 1 +

1.32

1
n
= 0.
= lim ( 1) sin

2
n
n +1 + n

n 2 + n = lim sin 2 n 2 + n n
n

= lim sin 2
n

1.31 lim n 1 +

= sin 2 = 1

2
n2 + n + n
n

1
1
+L+ = ?
2
n

1
1
1
1
+ L + n n lim n 1 + + L + = 1
n
2
n
2
n

x n =

1 + n sin
2

n
2

n = 2k 1 {x n }

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x2 k 1 =

1 + (2k 1) sin(2k 1)

2 = 1 + (1)

k 1

(2k 1)

k = 1, 2 , L

lim x 2 k 1 = { x n }

n = 2k {x n } x 2 k =

1 + 2k sin k 1
= k = 1, 2 , L
2
2

{x n }

1, x < 0

x = 0
1.33 f ( x) = sgn x = 0,
1,
x>0

x0

x>0

0,
1,

1.34 f ( x) =

n,
n + 1,

1.35 f ( x) = [ x] =

n x < n +1

n +1 x < n + 2

1.36 f ( x ) = x [ x ] 1
[0, 2)

x,
f ( x) = x [ x] =
x 1,

0 x <1

1 x < 2

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