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III Convegno Nazionale AIGeo / III National AIGeo Conference


Il ruolo della geomorfologia nella gestione del territorio The role of geomorphology in land management
Modena & Alta Val Badia, 13-18 Settembre 2009

Valerio Agnesi Theo van Asch Carlo Bartolini Berthold Bauer Federico Boenzi Ludovico Brancaccio Denys Brunsden Alberto Carton Doriano Castaldini Giovanni Battista Castiglioni Antonio Cendrero Mauro Cremaschi Michael J. Crozier Antonio De Brum Ferreira

Comitato Scientifico / Scientific Committee

Tommaso De Pippo Francesco Dramis Paolo Roberto Federici Jean-Claude Flageollet Paola Fredi Mateo Gutirrez Elorza Elvidio Lupia Palmieri Franco Mantovani Giovanni Battista Pellegrini Albert Pissart Giuliano Rodolfi Leszek Starkel Jan Szuprycinski Herman Verstappen

Viola Maria Bruschi, Stefano Devoto, Paola Coratza, Mauro Marchetti, Daniela Piacentini, Mauro Soldati

Comitato Organizzatore / Organizing Committee

www.aigeomodena.unimore.it

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con laugurio che il suo lungo e prezioso operato in seno alla nostra comunit scientifica si protragga ancora nel tempo

Al Prof. Mario Panizza,

LAssociazione Italiana di Geografia Fisica e Geomomorfologia

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Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra Universit degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia Largo S. Eufemia, 19 - 41100 Modena, Italia

Editing SAP Societ Archeologica s.r.l.

www.archeologica.it

ISBN 978-88-900094-7-1
On the cover: Lake Pisciad over the Sella Group (photo by Mauro Marchetti)

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III National AIGeo Conference


in honour of Professor Mario Panizza

Modena - Alta Val Badia 13-18 Settembre 2009

The role of geomorphology in land management

ABSTRACT VOLUME
Edited by Mauro Marchetti & Mauro Soldati

Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra Universit degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia 2009

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CONTENTS
LECTIO MAGISTRALIS
M. Panizza Page 15

INVITED LECTURES
A. Cendrero M.J. Crozier G. Orombelli L. Starkel Th.W.J. Van Asch H.Th. Verstappen

Dolomites, the UNESCO World natural Heritage site: the contribution of Geomorphology

Is there an acceleration of geomorphic processes coupled to economic activity? Holocene glacier fluctuations: a global overview

Landslide occurrence, climate and global environmental change Shifting of climatic-vegetation belts in Eurasian Mountains and its expression in slope evolution The role of hydrology in the triggering and propagation of landslides Natural disaster reduction and environmental management: a geomorphologists view Long precipitation and temperature time series related climate indices for Piedmont (Italy) From the land survey to the computerised cartography an instrument for territorial management. Geomorphological map of the gorges of the Velino River (Central Apennines, Rieti - Italy)

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POSTERS

F. Acquaotta & S. Fratianni Agnesi & C. Di Maggio S. Angelini, P. Farabollini, R.M. Menotti, F. Millesimi & M. Petitta S. Angileri, C. Conoscenti, V. Ilardi & E. Rotigliano P.P.C. Aucelli, V. Amato, S. Baranello, L. Brancaccio, F. Filocamo, C. Maglieri, R. Monaco & C.M. Rosskopf

Geomorphological map of the Madonie Park (Northern Central Sicily)

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Application of RUSLE model for the assessment of soil erosion in the western sector of Palermo Mountains (north-western Sicily) The geosite census in the Molise region: first results

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I. Bollati, M. Pelfini & L. Pellegrini A. Bove, N. Fonte, L. Masciocco & M. Nicolino

P. Brandolini, F. Bulgarelli, F. Faccini & A. Robbiano V.M. Bruschi, P. Coratza, D. Piacentini, D. Saliba & M. Soldati M. Buccolini, B. Gentili, M. Materazzi & T. Piacentini

Flood risk and land planning in Belbo valley (Southern Piedmont) Landslide sediment transfer in formerly glaciated, mountain drainage basins Cultural geomorphology features of the Ponci Valley (Finalese karstic area, Ligurian Alps)

The didactic valence of a complex fluvial geomorphosite: dendrochronology, vegetation, petrography and history as tools for an integrated landscape reading

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F. Brardinoni & M.A. Hassan

C. Cappadonia, C. Conoscenti Geomorphological study of calanchi slopes of the & E. Rotigliano Scillato Basin, northern Sicily E. Cartojan & A. Valente Relationships between linear and areal erosion: an example in Sannio area (Campanian Apennines, Southern Italy)

D. Capolongo, E. Giachetta & A. Refice

Small catchments evolution in a clayey landscape of the peri-Adriatic belt (central Italy) since the Last Glacial Maximum Mountain front landscape evolution: insights from numerical modeling

An application for geo-tourism in the north-west coast of Malta: the case study of Il-Majjistral Nature and History Park

A. Carton, M. Meneghel & R. From glacial to paraglacial environment in the Seppi Dolomites: the Ghiacciaio dellUomo case study D. Castaldini, P. Coratza, D. Dallai, C. Del Prete, R. Dobre, M. Panizza, D. Piacentini, L. Sala, E. Zucchi & L. Bartoli D. Castaldini, P. Coratza & M. Panizza The new geomorphological map of the area of Mt. Cimone (Northern Apennines, Italy) The Tourist-Environmental map of Mt. Cimone (Northern Apennines, Italy) Geodiversity and geotourism as a challenge between scientific culture of geological landscape and new opportunity of works

D. Castaldini, P. Coratza, P. Farabollini & E. Miccadei E. Castelli, S. Devoto, M. Camin, F. Podda & D. Piacentini

A. Cavallin & S. Sterlacchini

GIS Techniques and Decision Support Systems to reduce Landslide Risk: the case study of Corvara in Badia

Geomorphological surveys to assess propagation of rock falls in the village of Cimolais (western Friuli Venezia Giulia, Italy)

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J. Clague & M. Giardino S. Cola, N. Calabr, G. Marcato, A. Pasuto, S. Silvano & P. Simonini

Geoheritage and Geohazards of the Vancouver 2010 Olympic Area

C. Compostella, L. Trombino & M. Caccianiga P. Coratza, J. De Waele & V. Panizza C. Conoscenti, F. Quagliana, A. Rizzitello & E. Rotigliano

New evolutionary scenarios on the Tessina landslide (north-eastern Alps) and possible mitigation measures Holocene environmental change in Northern Apennines: the Mt. Cusna paleosurface Thematic itinerary among the geomorphosites of Supramonte (central-east Sardinia, Italy) Susceptibility assessment for flows landslide in the upper Salso river basin (Sicily) Geomorphological processes in the central Sahara during the Holocene. Response of fluvial landforms and human adaptation to climate change: the case of the wadi Tanezzuft. Friuli Venezia Giulia geosite database

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M. Cremaschi, A. Zerboni, A. Perego & C. Pizzi F. Cucchi, L. Zini, F. Finocchiaro, G.B. Carulli, B. Figus, C. Venturini, C. Piano, A. Mereu, B. Grillo, S. Gerdol, G. Muscio, R. Marocco, G. Tunis, N. Pugliese, M. Ponton & A. Fontana V. Culotta, G. Madonia & M. Vattano

L. DAlessandro, E. Miccadei & T. Piacentini P. DAquila & M. Pecci

J. De Waele

M. Della Seta, M. Del Monte, P. Fredi, E. Lupia Palmieri & F. Vergari M. Della Seta, P. Fredi, O. Nesci, D. Savelli & F. Troiani

On the age of cave systems in Sardinia

Caratteristiche geomorfologiche del Gran Sasso dItalia nellarea compresa tra il Corno Grande e Corno Piccolo-Pizzo Intermesoli

Morphotectonic analysis of the fluvial landscape of Abruzzi piedmont area (Central Italy)

Morphometric analysis of dolines in the Carbonara Massif (Madonie Mountains - Northern Central Sicily)

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A contribute to the unbiased evaluation of geomorphological hazard

S. Del Piano Pastore & M.A. Pastore A. Di Lisio, S. Lo Curzio, F. Russo & M. Sisto

Gli indici climatici per la caratterizzazione geoambientale del paesaggio dellAppennino Sannita (Campania)

Preliminary study of the Specchie phenomenon in the Murgia of Taranto

New evidence of Late Quaternary differential uplift in the Northern Marche Apennines (Central Italy)

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A. Di Lisio, F. Russo & M. Sisto F. Di Trapani, C. Di Maggio & P. Madonia G. Diolaiuti & C. Smiraglia R. Duncan, S. Ginesu, F. Secchi & S. Sias F. Faccini & A. Robbiano F. Faccini, A. Lucchetti, A. Robbiano & A. Roccati F. Faccini, M. Piccazzo & A. Roccati M. Fazzini M. Fort F. Gerardi, A. Marsico, C. Pignatelli, A. Piscitelli, C. Pirrotta, M.S. Barbano & G. Mastronuzzi

Geomorphometry and Geographic Information System for the quantification of the erosive effects in Miscano River basin (Southern Italy) Il ruolo dei fenomeni vulcanici e dellattivit delluomo nel controllo di processi erosivi nellisola di Vulcano Changing glaciers in a changing climate: how vanishing geomorphosites have been driving deep changes in morphology and ecology of high mountain landscape

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The megakarren of the Logudoro landscape (northern Sardinia, Italy): age, significance and evolution Large-scale geomorphological mapping and highway engineering design: the case of the RapalloFontanabuona Valley tunnel (Eastern Liguria, Italy) Engineering geomorphological map of the Entella stream floodplain

Applied geomorphological map of the Magnasco and Cerisola areas between the Mt. Aiona and Gramizza stream (Aveto natural Park, Ligurian Apennine)

Relationship between climatic parameters and morphology and duration of snow cover at microscale: preliminary study in two major ski areas of the territory of Trentino (Italian Eastern Alps) Interactions between geomorphological processes and land management in a developing country examples from the Nepal Himalayas

Terrestrial laser scanner technique: 3D reconstruction of Vendicari and San Lorenzo boulders (southern-eastern Sicily, southern Italy)

C. Giusti

L. Ghiraldi, P. Coratza, M. Marchetti, M. Giardino, L. Perotti & E. Debiaggi

Study on the Geoheritage of the South-East sector of the Cuneo Plain Cultural Geomorphology: the Alps through De Martonnes sketchbooks

A. Gmez Gutirrez, S. Schnabel & F. Lavado Contador

The role of geomatics and data mining techniques in geomorphology: an applied example to gully erosion

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N. Grassi, M. Sirna & D. Sanseverino F. Grecu L. Gregori D. Guida, T. De Pippo, A. Cestari, V. Siervo & A. Valente L. Laureti

Metodi non tradizionali nella comunicazione scientifica e didattica delle Scienze della Terra Applications of the multiscalar hierarchic GIS based geomorphological mapping system

Current issues of mapping the relief microforms within the fluvial-lake plains (the Romanian Plain)

Analisi geomorfica quantitativa del bacino idrografico del F. Volturno nel tratto compreso tra la sorgente e la confluenza con il F. Cavaliere

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D.C. Ilie, L. Blaga, A. Ilie, I. Rus & N. Josan G. Leonelli, M. Pelfini & U. Morra Di Cella S. Lo Curzio & F. Russo

Typical geomorphosites of the Italian natural landscape: rivers with entrenched meanders Treeline altitude in the European Alps: where to expect stronger responses to climate change

Geosites-geomorphosites values in Metaliferi mountains, Apuseni sector (Romania)

F. Luino, M. Soldati & G. Esposito V. Maggi, B. Delmonte, F. Marino, S. Albani & C. Mazzola

Multitemporal soil erosion mapping from remote sensing and geomorphological data: the case-study of Saccione River basin area Multidisciplinary approach aiming at defining land critically of an alpine alluvial fan: a case study from Fusine (Valtellina, central Alps, Italy) Late Quaternary atmospheric dust evolution from three antartic ice cores Channel adjustment in a semi-natural vs an anthropized stretch of the Calore River (Campania)

P. Magliulo, A. Valente & E. Cartojan

S.A. Mahmood, F. Shahzad, R. Gloaguen & S. Siddiqui F. Mantovani, M. Fazzini, G. Tecilla & P. Billi R.T. Melis & G. Cucca

Avalanche map evolution as a tool for land planning

Monitoring surface deformation by non-linear analysis of drainage network in Hindukush-Pamir Region

P. Mozzi, F. Ferrarese, A. Fontana, A. Ninfo, S. Piovan, S. Rossato & F. Veronese H. Ozdemir

Geomorphology and Bronze Age Settlement in Central Sardinia: the Ruinas Nuraghe site (Arzana, OG) High resolution DTM for the analysis of fluvial and anthropogenic landforms in the alluvial plain of Padua (Italy)

The importance of basin morphometry on flood occurrence: a case study of Havran River basin (Turkey)

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M. Panizza, L. Borgatti, P. Coratza, A. Corsini, A. Ghinoi, L. Keim, M. Marchetti, A. Pasuto, D. Piacentini, S. Silvano & M. Soldati G.B. Pellegrini & L. Caneve I. Quaresma & J.L. Zzere E. Reynard, J.B. Bosson & S. Martin M.L. Rodrigues

Geomorphological map of the surroundings of Corvara in Badia (Dolomites, Italy) Carta geomorfologica delle Masiere di Vedana nel Vallone Bellunese

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M.C. Salvatore, C. Baroni & A. Carton M. Seppl R. Seppi, A. Carton, C. Baroni & M. Degasperi S. Siddiqui & S.A. Mahmood

Historical and present-day rockfalls and deep-seated movements in the Estremadura Limestone Massif, Portugal

Vineyards of the Upper Rhone valley (Valais, Switzerland) and geomorphology

Extent and impact of hydro-geomorphologic disasters in Portugal

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Surface displacement of two active rock glaciers in the Adamello-Presanella Group (Central Italian Alps): a 7-year monitoring series Remote sensing analysis of neotectonic development of drainage network in the Northern Apennines (Italy): preliminary results

Geomorphic map of the Tasman Glacier region, New Zealand

The glaciers of the Adamello Presanella Group and recent climatic variations

M. Soldati, J. Bonachea, V.M. Multidisciplinary research in the open-air laboratoBruschi, P. Coratza, S. ry of the island of Malta: an international network Devoto, A. Gonzlez-Dez, O. for landslide hazard assessment in coastal areas Magri, M. Mantovani, A. Pasuto, D. Piacentini, J. Remondo & J.A. Schembri M. Soldati & L. Borgatti J. Soriano Garca & A.M. Camarasa Belmonte H.Th. Verstappen Hydro-geomorphology applied to flood hazard estimation in Mediterranean ephemeral streams (Ramblas) Landslide occurrence as a proxy of climate change: evidence from the Italian Dolomites

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N. Surian, M. Rinaldi & L. Pellegrini

Channel adjustments of alluvial channels and implications for river management and restoration

E. Zavagno, I. Burla., S. Devoto & A. Fontana J. Zawiejska

On plate tectonics, landforms and environment of Indonesia in the context of disaster reduction and land management

Human impacts on the Czarny Dunajec River (southern Poland) and issues related to its restoration

Multi-disciplinary surveys for the new geological maps of the low Friuli plain (Italy)

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LECTIO MAGISTRALIS

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DOLOMITES, THE UNESCO WORLD NATURAL HERITAGE SITE: THE CONTRIBUTION OF GEOMORPHOLOGY
Dip. Scienze della Terra, Universit di Modena e Reggio Emilia e-mail: mario.panizza@unimore.it The Dolomites are a set of various mountain systems which, although in some places discontinuous, show an extraordinary geomorphological unity. They are of international significance for geomorphology as the exemplary site for the development of mountains in dolomitic rocks. The area presents a wide range of landforms related to their complex geological structure and to past and present climatic conditions. An original and modern key of interpretation of these mountains, followed for their nomination as World natural Heritage site UNESCO, is based on their morphological geodiversity. First of all they have specific geomorphological and landscape characteristics which distinguish them from all other mountains in the world: i.e., they have greatly accentuated extrinsic geomorphodiversity on a global scale. On a regional scale and in relation to morphostructural landforms, the Dolomites have a high degree of extrinsic geomorphodiversity compared with other alpine mountains in relation to morphotectodynamics, morphotectostatics and morpholithology. They also have greatly accentuated intrinsic geomorphodiversity on a regional scale from the morphoclimatic viewpoint, considering their polygenesis linked to pre- or inter-glacial, glacial, periglacial, fluvial, relict, dormant or active landforms. Nevertheless, when some geomorphological features, chosen with a subjective criterion, are examined in detail on a regional scale (for example talus cones or scree slopes), they show a limited intrinsic geomorphodiversity; whereas in other cases (as for landslides) they have a great intrinsic geomorphodiversity. Another example is offered by karst areas: they display in detail a vast array of landforms, that shows considerable intrinsic geomorphodiversity on a local scale. In conclusion, the Dolomites make up an important geoheritage that can be considered as a high-altitude field laboratory for research and development of geomorphological theories and understanding. Mario Panizza

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INVITED LECTURES

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IS THERE AN ACCELERATION OF GEOMORPHIC PROCESSES COUPLED TO ECONOMIC ACTIVITY? DCITIMAC, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Cantabria, Santander, Spain e-mail: antonio.cendrero@unican.es This contribution addresses the possible existence of a worldwide acceleration of geomorphic processes that could be due to human influence and represent a global geomorphic change not related to but concomitant with climate change. A model for interpreting possible relationships between human activity and intensification of geomorphic processes is presented. The model assumes that GDP growth is the driving force that determines a variety of pressures on land surface. These pressures produce impacts which trigger the response of geomorphic systems. The final expression of geomorphic processes is sediment generation and deposition. Therefore, sediment-accumulation rates offer the possibility to test the model described. Sedimentation rates for the last century have been determined, by means of Pb-210 and Cs-137 dating of sediment cores, in a number of study areas in northern Spain and in the Rio de la Plata basin, in South America. The study areas include densely and thinly populated ones; some with great demographic and economic growth and others with practically no human presence; coastal and mountain regions with climate from semi-arid to subtropical-humid. Data on sedimentation rates have been compared with natural (rainfall) and human (population, GDP, energy and cement consumption etc.) drivers, as well as with other indicators of geomorphic response, such as temporal occurrence of landslides and erosion landforms, or river discharge. Results so far obtained are not conclusive but show that, during the period analyzed, sedimentation rates have increased roughly five- to tenfold in most areas. Some areas with even sharper increases have been found, and they correspond to regions where human presence and activity have experienced a marked growth in recent decades. In study areas where no significant change in human activity has taken place, sedimentation rates tend to remain constant or vary slightly. There is less information on other geomorphic indicators, such as landslide and erosion landforms occurrence or river discharge, but they also show trends that suggest human influence could be the main controlling factor of the changes observed. In general, rainfall patterns during the period analyzed do not seem to explain the intensification of sedimentation rates. Certain indicators of human influence, particularly GDP, energy or cement consumption which are closely related to the extent and intensity of land surface modification by people, show trends and magnitudes of change that could explain the increase observed in the rates of sedimentation and geomorphic processes. Antonio Cendrero

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Data and literature concerning these processes in other regions of the world indicate that similar relationships exist in many other areas. As data obtained come from far apart and widely different parts of the World, the results described suggest that the trends observed might have a global significance and reflect a generally overlooked geomorphic dimension of global change, not determined by climate. This geomorphic change seems to imply a reduction of the resilience of land surface to the action of both natural and human triggers. If this is proven to be so, hazards linked to hydrogeomorphic processes should be expected to increase too, and hazard and risk assessments (based on the expected future frequency and intensity of processes) might have to be reassessed.

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LANDSLIDE OCCURRENCE, CLIMATE AND GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE


School of Geography, Environment and Earth Sciences, Victoria University, Wellington, New Zealand, e-mail: Michael.Crozier@vuw.ac.nz Increased landslide activity is commonly listed as an expected impact of human-induced climate change. This paper examines the theoretical and empirical basis for this assertion. It identifies the mechanisms by which climate can induce landsliding and examines the extent to which these may be enhanced under predicted future climate regimes. It is argued that inherent limiting stability factors, which vary for different terrain conditions and landslide types, ultimately govern the nature of response to changing climatic parameters. The literature on the subject is reviewed in order to assess how accurately it has addressed the critical issues. Secondary environmental changes such as enhanced runoff and sea level rise can also indirectly affect slope stability. In global terms, the rate of population growth, increasing demand for resources and accelerating economic activity have clearly been a factor in increasing risk and, demonstrably, the rate of loss from many hazards, including landslides. The extent to which these changes have also affected physical susceptibility and exposure to landslide hazard is discussed. Changes resulting from human activity are seen as a factor of equal, if not greater, importance than climate change in affecting the temporal and spatial occurrence of landslides. Examples from New Zealand are offered to illustrate the comparative influence of human activity and predicted climate change on landslide occurrence. Michael J. Crozier

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HOLOCENE GLACIER FLUCTUATIONS: A GLOBAL OVERVIEW


DISAT Dip. Scienze dellAmbiente e del Territorio, Universit di Milano-Bicocca e-mail: giuseppe.orombelli@unimib.it The ongoing global trend of glacier retreat is considered an unequivocal evidence of climate warming. Glaciers respond to climate changes with different modes and times, depending on their location, size, thermal and dynamic conditions. The most sensitive are the mountain glaciers; although they contain less than 1% of the total ice volume on Earth, their contribution to the eustatic component of the present sea level rise is about two times that of polar glaciers. Also, some marginal portions of polar glaciers show a fast response to climate change. A question often raised by the general public is if the present climatic conditions are entirely new or if they were already experienced in the recent past, in particular during the Holocene, which is the current interglacial. One way to answer to this question is to compare the present extent of glaciers and their rate of retreat with those they had in the past. Research on glacier fluctuations during the Holocene has a long tradition: in many mountain areas discontinuous records of glacial variations have been assembled, mainly concerning phases of glacier advance and maximum glacier extent. Only recently information on past minimum extent of glaciers have been locally obtained. The dating of glaciers fluctuations has generally a low resolution if compared to the climate variability; therefore, the correlation between different glacial records and other climate records is difficult. Recently, efforts were made to compile a global overview of Holocene glacier variations in both hemispheres, from the tropics to high latitudes. A high number of secular/decadal cycles have been observed in the different areas. In general mountain glaciers in the Southern Hemisphere reached their maximum extent in the first half of the Holocene, while in the Northern Hemisphere the opposite is true, according to the summer insolation precessional modulation. In many Northern Hemisphere mountain groups the glacier extent was reduced or minimal between 11 and 5 ka: evidence of glacier extent lower than present-day are common in the Alps. Several phases of neoglacial advance were reported from New Zealand to Arctic Islands. The best-documented glacial record, spanning the last 3500 years, is that of the Great Aletsch Glacier in Switzerland, showing three increasing glacial advance phases, culminating with the Little Ice Age. Glacier variations appear at times in phase, at times out of phase in the opposite hemispheres, implying that global and regional causes were operating. The Little Ice Age (XIV-XIX cent.) was a global event of glacier expansion, although the precise timing of advance and retreat sub phases differs in the various mountain groups. The present extent of mountain glaciers is still larger than the minimum achieved in the past, but glaciers are still not in equilibrium (except for the smaller ones) with the present climate conditions and a further loss of some 30% of their volume is expected for the end of the century, in the absence of a further warming. The rate of glacier retreat accelerated in the past decades, reaching the maximum values experienced in the Holocene. Giuseppe Orombelli

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SHIFTING OF CLIMATIC-VEGETATION BELTS IN EURASIAN MOUNTAINS AND ITS EXPRESSION IN SLOPE EVOLUTION
Dept. of Geomorphology and Hydrology, Institute of Geography, Polish Academy of Science, Krakow, e-mail: starkel@zg.pan.krakow.pl Quaternary fluctuations in temperature are expressed in latitudinal displacement of climatic vegetation zones, and fluctuations either towards oceanisation or continentality are reflected in their longitudinal shift. Parallel to this, in the mountains the oscillation of vertical climatic-vegetation belts follows, controlled mainly by changes in temperature. Among the most effective in terms of geomorphological dynamics are cryonival, glacial, and gravitational processes, limited in vertical zonality by the snowline, the lower limit of permafrost, the upper forest line, and finally the lower forest line, which is connected with reduced humidity. In the mountains of Eurasia there exist two main types of vertical zonality; oceanic and continental (arid). The extreme variant of the second type is connected with permafrost zones. The topoclimatic differentiation (exposure to insolation and precipitation, as well as inversions in temperature and rainfalls) create further modifications. During cold stages a lowering of the main limits and belts by as much as 800-1000 m occurs, combined with a shift towards aridity. In the present relief we observe either the inherited forms connected with former belts, or the transforming role of actual zonal processes prevails. Among these forms we may distinguish various sequences of slope elements, depending on relief energy and evolution. The most simple shift of morphodynamic belts is observed in the foothills and in low mountain relief, which contains now, as well as it contained during cold stages, one climatic belt. At present it is mainly the forest belt, and earlier it was the cryonival or subalpine vertical belt. These convex-concave slopes have developed colluvial glacis or cryopediments, which later in the Holocene underwent leaching of soil profiles and frequently also various types of dismembering by linear erosion and mass movements. Slopes of mid-sized mountains with a higher span in elevation did (and mainly still do) contain two morphodynamic belts. Their upper parts, with cryoplanation terraces and block fields, have been stabilized during the Holocene. In the cold continental climatic zone we observe a reversal of slope asymmetry between cold and warm stages, connected with the distribution of permafrost. Slopes in high mountains with relief energy above 1000-1500 m have their upper parts still under cryogenic belts, and are even rising above the snowline. Therefore the active parts (upper) deliver most of the debris, which is transported as avalanches or debris flows, displacing the upper treeline downslope. We observe a different evolution in U-shaped valleys which were glaciated formerLeszek Starkel

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ly or at present. The glaciers descend far down below the snowline and even reach the forest belt. Glacial erosion works during advancing phases but during deglaciation, the retreat is followed by the formation of steep rock walls with an expanding talus belt. These processes depend less on the sequence of vegetation zones and more on lithology and relief (steep crests or planations). Especially active are the slopes in valley sections left by ice not long ago, and exposed to weathering during several advances and retreats in the Holocene. Considering the role of the shifting of climatic-vegetation belts in the Eurasian mountains we confirm a dominant role of the relief inherited from the Pleistocene, now preserved under forests. Deforestation and soil cultivation in lower altitudes have intensified the areal denudation, frequently continuing the evolutionary trend from cold stages. When discussing the role of Quaternary climatic changes in mountain slope evolution, we should also take into account the duration and sequence in time of various climatic phases.

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THE ROLE OF HYDROLOGY IN THE TRIGGERING AND PROPAGATION OF LANDSLIDES


Utrecht University & Technical University Delft, The Netherlands e-mail: t.vanasch@geo.uu.nl Hydrology and especially pore water pressure play an important role in the triggering and propagation of landslides. Threshold values for the triggering of landslides are very variable and depends on the type and size of landslides, and the geomorphological and lithological configuration. A variety of landslide types within a certain area may respond in a different way to the meteorological input and therefore one cannot speak of a single meteorological triggering threshold for that area. Coupled hydrological slope stability modeling learns already that for the assessment of meteorological thresholds, shallow landslides (1-2 m) require different meteorological information than deeper landslides. For deeper landslides a larger window of antecedent precipitation of weeks or months, including any losses to evapo-transpiration, will determine the threshold for failure. For shallow landslides one has to consider only a few rain events or even one, with known intensity and duration, to forecast failure. Different hydrological sub-systems are linked to the triggering of different landslide types. A straightforward hydrological triggering model, generating debris flows, is a run off model, which describes Hortonian and saturation overland flow caused by heavy rainfall events. The run off water may cause severe channel and or sheet erosion in the source area and the eroded and transported material can transform into a debris flow. Another mechanism is the infiltration of the surface run-off water into accumulated debris in the source area. The rise in pore pressure will destabilize the debris material and additional infill of run off water may transform the debris into a fluid mass with high run-out potentials Another triggering system is the infiltration process of rain water in the unsaturated topsoil. Especially, on steep slopes in shallow soils landslips can be triggered, not by the generation of groundwater and positive pore pressure, but by a rapid drop in the cohesion caused by a decrease in matrix suction (negative pressure head) of a descending wetting front in the soil. This will lead to the development of a slip plane at a critical depth which depends on the intrinsic cohesion of the soil and the slope angle. In most cases landslides are triggered by a of groundwater table, which rises to a critical height, generating triggering pore pressure conditions. In shallow landslides perched groundwater tables are created during high intensity rain storms. The dominant factors in this hydrological system are the intensity of the individual rain Theodore W.J. Van Asch

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storms and the infiltration capacity and drainage capacity of the soil. For deeper landslides the hydrological system, which has to be considered to forecast triggering conditions is more complex and the antecedent precipitation window which has to be analyzed can span weeks to months. Rain intensity is less important than total amounts of rain. Evapotranspiration and hence land cover can play a dominant role in the water balance of the unsaturated zone and the recharge of the groundwater until a critical level. Therefore land use change and climate change will have great affect on this type of hydrological triggering systems changing the temporal and spatial landslide frequency. An important topic is the role of preferential flow in the hydrological triggering system of landslides which are characterized by a dynamic development of fissures. The presence of fissure systems may have a great influence on the water household in landslide complexes. The challenge is to describe, experimentally and mathematically, the hydraulic behavior of water in these fissures and the interaction with the soil matrix. Yet, it remains extremely difficult to quantify the influence of preferential flow on soil stability, especially because the architecture of the fissures and the flow processes in the fissures are difficult to detect. Water and pore pressure development play also an important role in the propagation of mass after failure. The transporting system is governed by hydro mechanical processes in which changes in stress, strain and pore pressure are interacting. These interacting processes are determinant for rapid critical surges in slow moving landslides, the transition by liquefaction of sliding material into (debris) flowing processes, the rheological (mobility) behavior of debris flows and acceleration of run-out material by undrained loading of the underground. Land management can play an important role in the prevention of landslides. A sustainable land cover planning will influence the hydrological system in preventing run-off water to concentrate on potential unstable spots and in extracting water from the soil by interception and evapo-transpiration. The root- and stem system of an appropriate vegetation cover may physically protect the slope against sliding and the impact of rapid gravitational mass propagation.

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NATURAL DISASTER REDUCTION AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT: A GEOMORPHOLOGISTS VIEW


ITC, Enschede, the Netherlands, e-mail: hergraverstappen@planet.nl NATURAL HAZARDS, threatening many parts of the world, are often ignored in the context of regional planning and environmental management, although this is necessary for avoiding, or at least substantially reducing the recurrence interval and magnitude of the related natural disasters. This is particularly the case for creeping disasters, related to environmental degradation caused by slow and in many cases almost imperceptible processes, including desertification, salinization, certain forms of soil erosion, pollution, etc. The more spectacular instantaneous disasters, resulting from high-intensity and low-frequency natural events of endogenous or exogenous origin, are nowadays reported about by the media world-wide. They are, however, soon out of focus again and adequate measures to prevent similar disasters in the future do not always remain a high priority of the responsible authorities. DISASTER REDUCTION is a complex management subject that requires interdisciplinary applied research related to the natural environment as well as to socio-economic situation of the endangered societies. For the implementation of adequate protection measures - ranging from hard engineering structures to soft management improvements optimal cooperation between the various sectors of the communities concerned is essential. This should lead up to a master-plan for long term regional management and a disaster scenario specifying tasks and responsibilities of organizations and individuals in case of an emergency situation. Apart from natural disasters, technical/industrial disasters and also the, often neglected, ecological disasters should be considered. Humanitarian disasters are outside the field of science. The UN-IDNDR program of the 19nineties concentrated on natural disasters only. Its follow-up, the UN-ISDR, also includes technological/industrial disasters. The fact that natural disasters are increasing is explained first and foremost by the growing population in endangered areas and particularly by its concentration as a result of rapid urbanization. However, the changes of geomorphologic processes and the degradation of the natural environment at large, brought about by human activities, such as unsustainable agricultural practices and inadequate engineering structures are another important factor too, notably where disasters of exogenous origin are concerned. Landslide disasters and river floods are examples and sea level rise caused by global warming is more recent element. Where disasters of endogenous origin are concerned, planners will have to develop coping strategies in which site analysis, hazard zoning and early warning play an important part. RESEARCH FOR DISASTER REDUCTION is evidently an important source of Herman Th. Verstappen

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information for planners and a tool for convincing municipalities, national authorities and other decision makers of the urgency of taking appropriate action. Geomorphologic mapping is a solid basis for the exact delineation of the existing landform units and for assessing the exogenous processes affecting each of them. It thus serves as a focal point for hazard zoning and for locating the optimal sites for monitoring tools and early warning systems. Aerial photographs and high-resolution satellite images are indispensable in this context. Sequential satellite data are an indispensable tool for monitoring that, in combination with other means of observation, lead up to reliable early warning systems. Monitoring using high frequency low-resolution satellite data form an integral part of studies about the global environment, and particularly of research on global terrestrial, oceanic and atmospheric changes. Much emphasis nowadays is also put on the reduction of creeping disasters, such as land degradation, pollution of land, water and air, and the shortage of food, water, energy, etc. These endanger the sustainability of human activities at a global scale and research in this field thus deserves high priority. EXAMPLES are given of research on volcanic hazards and disasters implemented by the author in Indonesia and Colombia. Investigations on gas emanations that caused numerous casualties on the volcanic Dieng plateau, Central Java, are mentioned first. Thereafter an overview is given of the pyroclastic flows and volcanic mudflows that frequently occur on the densely populated SW-slope of the Merapi volcano, situated somewhat farther to the East. The hazard zoning and monitoring systems are discussed and evaluated. The effects of the ill-famed eruption of the Nevado de Ruiz volcano, Colombia, that occurred in 1985 are shown as a preparatory to research on disaster mitigation of the municipality of Pereira, situated downstream of the nearby Nevado de St. Isabel volcano. Drought and desertification studies executed in northern Chad and in Botswana are discussed thereafter and are an introduction to an assessment of global sustainability problems.

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POSTERS

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LONG PRECIPITATION AND TEMPERATURE TIME SERIES - RELATED CLIMATE INDICES FOR PIEDMONT (NW ITALY)
Dip. Scienze della Terra, Universit di Torino Corresponding author: Simona Fratianni, e-mail: simona.fratianni@unito.it F. Acquaotta & S. Fratianni

The study of the temperature and precipitation deserves great attention because being part of a recent past, they allow us to analyse in detail the variations which have occurred and their causes. In order to correctly study these variations we must have at our disposal some homogeneous series. Unfortunately, most of the series dont present climatic factors that may hide the real changes. The discontinuity can be due to a change in the location of the station, to a replacement of the instruments or to a variation in the surrounding environment. In this report, we have studied the daily thermo-pluviometric series of 15 meteorological stations in Piedmont that have measured continuously for 95 years, from 1914 to 2008. As a first step, we have done a historical research (concerning each station) which has allowed us to determine the variations due either to the location or to the replacement of the equipment. Subsequently we have reconstructed some monthly amounts for creating a complete series (no missing data). We have chosen four different methods of spatial interpolation. These are defined as the 1) normal ratio method (NR), 2) simple inverse distance weighting (IDW), 3) multiple regression (MR) and 4) median of the previous three methods (MED). Then we have applied an implementation of well-known Standard Normal Homogeneity Test (SNHT) to the monthly series. This method, realised by the Climate Change Research Group (URV, Tarragona, Spain), allows to estimate and individuate the gradual or sudden change of the average value of a particular series comparing it to the reference series which has been obtained by evaluating the result of the adjacent series and which is considered homogeneous. In this way we have obtained the homogeneous series on which trends have been computed and the non-parametric Mann-Kendall test has been used to understand the statistical meaning of the trend. Finally, to illustrate the trend of temperature and precipitation average and extreme values, the indices proposed by CCL/CLIVAR Working Group on Climate Change Detection have been calculated over WMO 30-year periods (1951-80, 1961-90, 1971-2000). In order to better understand the consequences of climate variations on our environment and society, we have calculated the climate indices (number of frost days, days with no thaw, tropical days, dry and wet days, rainy days, density of precipitation) over the time and also the use of thermograms, pluviometric regimes and ombrothermal diagrams underline differences among the three 30-year periods. The values of temperature and precipitation have also allowed to begin the climatic analysis aiming at defining the principle local climates in Piedmont.

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GEOMORPHOLOGICAL MAP OF THE MADONIE PARK (NORTHERN CENTRAL SICILY)


Dip. Geologia e Geodesia, Universit di Palermo Corresponding author: Cipriano Di Maggio, e-mail: dimaggio@unipa.it V. Agnesi & C. Di Maggio

The 1:50,000 geomorphological map of the Madonie Park is presented. The Madonie Park area is located in the northern central sector of Sicily (Italy) and it includes the highest mountain of the Sicilian Maghrebian Apennine Chain (Pizzo Antenna or Pizzo della Principessa, 1977 m a.s.l.). The mapped area is approximate 750 km2 wide. The basic source of data for the achievement of the map has been derived from field survey and photo-geological interpretation. The map-legend includes 48 conventional symbols representing landforms that have been classed into eight main groups. Each group consists of symbols of landforms due to a specified process and pictured with an exclusive colour. Particularly, forms due to structure (selective erosion and/or tectonics), gravity (surface movement), deep-seated gravitational slope deformation (DSGSD), surface running water, karst phenomenon, marine process, planation and man activity have been mapped. Abandoned, dormant and active or erosion and accumulation forms have been distinguished too. 1:200,000 geological and morphotectonic sketches enclosed in the map, provide a further contribute to realize the geomorphology of the investigated area. The Madonie mountains constitute a massif made up of large carbonate reliefs bounded by mainly clayey hills and valleys sloping towards a sub-planar coastal area. Their climate can be defined as mediterranean. The annual rainfall is inhomogeneous, registering mean values of about 1000 mm (northern inner zones), 800 mm (southern mountain zones) and 700 mm (western and northern coastal zones) that usually occur between September and May. The air temperature at 930 m a.s.l. is +17,5C (warmest month), +13,6C (annual mean) and +9,8C (coldest month). The main winds are the humid Mistral and the drier Scirocco and Libeccio. From a geological point of view, the studied area comprises: 1) Mesozoic platform limestones of the Panormide Units, outcrop in Pizzo Carbonara and Pizzo Dipilo areas; 2) Mesozoic slope dolostones of the Imerese Units, outcrop in Monte Quacella and Isnello areas; 3) alternations of Mesozoic basin calcilutites, marls, clays, radiolarites and carbonate breccias of Imerese Units, lie in Monte dei Cervi and Rocca di Sciara areas; 4) from Mesozoic to Cainozoic conglomerates, arenites, sands, clays and marls of several units, site in broad hill and piedmont areas. Tectonic (overthrusts or high angle faults) or stratigraphic boundaries characterise the contacts among the units. Because of the geological setting, four large areas with a well-defined landform set and a typical geomorphological setting are here drawn: 1) Pizzo Carbonara and Pizzo Dipilo areas are marked by patches of planation surfaces, abandoned valleys, canyons, karst depressions and fault-line and/or fault scarps/slopes; 2) Monte Quacella and Isnello areas show downcutting rivers, deep channels with discharges of

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debris and wide talus cones or slopes; 3) Monte dei Cervi and Rocca di Sciara areas are characterised by structural forms and fluviokarst canyons; 4) hill and piedmont areas involve erosion glacis on soft rocks and forms due to surface gravitational movements, sheet/rill/gully erosion or river processes. Also: where brittle rocks are superposed on ductile rocks, forms due to phenomena of DSGSD are; along coastal areas, active forms due to marine processes and a number of marine terraces occur. The variety of the identified forms reveals a control on the old and current geomorphological processes produced by four causes: erosion base-level, climate, tectonics and relative altitude. Particularly: a) planation surfaces, wave-cut platforms and surfaces of fluvial terraces are produced during standstill phases of erosion base-level; b) deep fluvial incisions, fluviokarst canyons and fluvial/marine terraces or planation surfaces relatable to more cycles are consequent to erosion base-level lowering; c) alluvial plains are mainly due to last sea-level rise; d) forms due to physical weathering or mechanical erosion have been mainly favoured by cold climate phases; e) karst forms have been mainly developed during warm humid climate phases; f) fault scarps/slopes are produced by tectonic movements; g) forms related both to selective erosion and surface or deep-seated gravitational processes are due to the relative altitude rise. Finally, it should be noted that the variations of the erosion base-level were influenced by eustatic oscillations due to climate changes and tectonic uplifting.

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FROM THE LAND SURVEY TO THE COMPUTERISED CARTOGRAPHY: AN INSTRUMENT FOR TERRITORIAL MANAGEMENT - GEOMORPHOLOGICAL MAP OF THE GORGES OF THE VELINO RIVER (CENTRAL APENNINES, RIETI - ITALY)
1 LAC - Litografia Artistica Cartografica S.r.l., Firenze 2 Dip. Scienze della Terra, Universit di Camerino 3 I.F.A.C. C.N.R., Istit. Fisica Applicata Nello Carrara, Sesto Fiorentino (Fi) 4 Agenzia Regionale per la Protezione dellAmbiente Lazio, Rieti 5 Dip. Scienze della Terra, Universit di Roma La Sapienza Corresponding author: Riccardo Massimiliano Menotti, e-mail: r.m.menotti@ifac.cnr.it S. Angelini1, P. Farabollini2, R.M. Menotti3, F. Millesimi4 & M. Petitta5

The elaboration of the geomorphological cartography contained in this work is the result of a process of synthesis resulting from detailed technical-geological and geomorphological studies and from numerous land surveys carried out during the past ten years. The choice of the study area can be explained by the presence of important and complex phenomena involving the upper course of the Velino river, such as palaeo-landslides, mass-movements and debris flows, subsidence phenomena etc. In particular, these phenomena involve several towns (Posta, Micigliano, Sigillo, Villa Camponeschi), as well as a fundamental route (State Road 4), following the ancient consular road, named Salaria, roman in age. The information deriving from land surveys has been integrated and controlled by photo-interpretation (related at 1982 and 2000 aero-photographs). The result has been implemented by the 2006 cartography, which was obtained from the ortho-rectified images, subject to a spreading over the digital model of the terrain that was obtained from the regional topographic cartography at a scale of 1:10,000, promoted by the Lazio Region. Even if they have well-known limits of representation that derive from the approximate restoration of the basic regional maps that were realised in the 1980s, the latter represent a very up-to-date control instrument, depending on a critical analysis of the information. All the data have been computerised by exploiting the tools made available by the ESRI platform, through the development of an innovative logical pattern for the geomorphology, since the aforesaid data were treated by considering forms, processes and deposits on the basis of the prevailing morphogenetic agent. In this way, the problems deriving from the contiguity and superimposition of several polygonal forms in logical contrast and topological conflict have been overcome. GIS software was developed to create information rather than graphic features: their rasterizing processes still have several technical limitations and the user is forced to accept a low level of graphic quality. In spite of all database information are valid, but their actual representation is unsatisfactory. Several graphic improvements typical of the Italian publishing language and cartographic tradition will be the topic of the subsequent phase.

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Despite Italian tradition imposes extreme attention on the graphic aspect, it is very important to note that the territorial computer-related systems facilitate an analysis of the coverings, depending on the substrate on which they are imposed, and make it possible to define a model according to which the forms, processes and deposits evolve over time.

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APPLICATION OF RUSLE MODEL FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF SOIL EROSION IN THE WESTERN SECTOR OF PALERMO MOUNTAINS (NORTH-WESTERN SICILY)
1 Dip. Geologia e Geodesia, Universit di Palermo 2 Dip. Scienze Botaniche, Universit di Palermo Corresponding author: Silvia Angileri, e-mail: silviaangileri@unipa.it S. Angileri1, C. Conoscenti1, V. Ilardi2 & E. Rotigliano1

The aim of this work is to study the impact of vegetation cover on water erosion phenomena by exploiting an integrated approach to the assessment of soil loss rates. The investigated area is located in the western portion of the mountainous group named Monti di Palermo and occupies an area of approximately 475 km2; this area, which extends from sea level up to about 1300 m a.s.l., is mainly characterized by the presence of lithosols and luvisols laying above carbonate and terrigenous substrates. The assessment of erosion intensity was indirectly obtained by applying the RUSLE model, that allowed to estimate soil loss produced by rill-interrill erosion phenomena. Starting from topographical and thematic maps, pluviometric data and field surveys, a GIS grid layer, for each of the erosion control factors, was defined; by exploiting ArcView GIS 3.2 spatial analysis tools, all the factors grids were overlayed and multiplied to produce a grid map, made up of 89,001 square cells, showing the spatial variability of predicted erosion rates. The RUSLE application, here presented, distinguishes for the approach used to define the C factor (cover-management factor), which was calculated using a landscape and plant biodiversity map, rather than a land use one; this map was constructed by identifying and detecting plant communities with a phytosociological approach. The mean annual soil loss, which average value for the entire area is equal to 9.16 t ha-1 year-1, shows a spatial variability that is mainly controlled by the geographical distribution of topographic and cover-management factors. Sever soil erosion rates (>40 t ha-1 year-1), in effect, fall on abandoned fields, grasslands and garrigues areas, characterized by high altitude values and steep slopes, often affected by fire. In order to detail the spatial variability of the C factor, the analysis was focused on the Vallone San Vincenzo river basin, that extends for 33 km2 in the NW sector of the Monti di Palermo region. In this area, analysis of high-resolution orthophotos and field surveys of the phytosociological associations allowed to discriminate, within vegetation categories, some sub-categories related to percentage of area covered by canopy of trees and undergrowth, type and height of vegetation; these subfactors permitted to define a more detailed and reliable cover-management factor layer. By intersecting the latter with the others erosion factors layers, a mean annual soil loss map of San Vincenzo river basin was produced. The two differents approaches of evaluating the C factor result in different average values of mean annual soil loss rate in the San Vincenzo river basin; the second

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method provides an average value of soil loss equal to 9.3 t ha-1 year-1, which is about 10% lower than the correspondent one (10,6 t ha-1 year-1), obtained by applying the first method. This work reveals the possibility to define the C factor by exploiting phytosociological surveys; the latter permitted to comprise the effect of vegetation canopy and ground covers in reducing soil loss, providing a more comprehensive and multidisciplinary approach in evaluating water erosion.

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THE GEOSITE CENSUS IN THE MOLISE REGION: FIRST RESULTS


1 Dip. Scienze per lAmbiente, Universit di Napoli Parthenope, Napoli 2 Dip. Scienze e Tecnologie per lAmbiente e il Territorio, Universit del Molise, Pesche (IS) 3 Servizio Geologico - Regione Molise, Campobasso 4 Universit del Molise, Campobasso Corresponding author: Carmen M. Rosskopf, e-mail: rosskopf@unimol.it P.P.C. Aucelli1, V. Amato2, S. Baranello3, L. Brancaccio4, F. Filocamo2, C. Maglieri2, R. Monaco3 & C.M. Rosskopf2

The present works aims to illustrate the first results concerning the geosite census in the Molise region, currently in progress. Main purposes of this census are to contribute to the preservation and valorization of the regional geological heritage and to the implementation of the Geosites Italian Inventory (ISPRA). Thanks to its geological-structural, altitudinal and climatic features, the Molise region is characterized by a high geo-diversity, referring to high mountain, hilly and coastal sectors, respectively. Several protected areas (national, regional and natural parks, ZPS special protection zone, SIC site of community interest), mainly purposed to the preservation of the biotic heritage, are present and cover about 23,43% of the regional territory. On the basis of pre-existing data, cartographic analysis and first surveys, a list of potential geosites was implemented. To provide the description and evaluation of potential geosites two types of forms were defined, related to the survey and to the characterization of each single geosite (Geosite Information Form), respectively. All identified potential geosites have been georeferenced within a Geographical Information System (software Arcview Gis 3.1) using as basis the topographic sheets in scale 1:25,000, edited by I.G.M. The implemented GIS project allows to consult the information recorded for each geosite and in particular to view the Geosite Information Form and to query the linked database which gives information on the territorial context (geographic location, administrative context, territorial constraints, etc.). The GIS project permits furthermore to link the geosite to thematic maps and to illustrate its relationship to various territorial aspects (i.e. altitude, geology, climate, land cover, archaeological sites, road network, life lines etc.). During this first phase of our research, attention was focused on the Matese area which represents one of the most representative sectors of Molise region as to its geo-diversity. The Matese massif is located along the boundary between the Molise and Campania regions and is essentially made of carbonate rocks of Mesozoic to Tertiary age referring from shelf to slope domain. Its actual geologic-geomorphologic setting is the result of the complex interaction between tectonics, litho-stratigraphic framework and climate. The Molise sector of the Matese area interests both the provinces of Campobasso and Isernia. It is totally included in protected areas (ZPS, SIC and WWF oasis), and can be subdivided into two main sectors: the high mountain area which hosts the highest peaks of the massif together with various structural depressions; the northern structural slope that connects the first sector to the alluvial plains (Boiano-Sepino-Morcone basins) located north to the Matese massif.

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The census we carried out in the Matese area has allowed to individuate a significant number of geological and geomorphologic evidence, most of which are characterized by a high scientific and didactic value. In particular, thanks to its geologicstructural setting, a large number of geomorphosites was identified. The latter gives evidence about the diversity of environments and local climatic/paleoclimatic contexts that allowed the formation of landforms and deposits of glacial to fluvial origin. Among them, the glacial landforms that characterize the high mountain environment (i.e. the M. Miletto glacial cirque, the moraine deposits of Campitello plain), landforms due to gravity in periglacial environment (i.e. the well developed scree slope that characterizes the northern flank of the Civita di Boiano ridge), and spectacular fluvial landforms (i.e. the Quirino river gorge and the Campochiaro alluvial fan). In the high mountain sector are furthermore well represented exokarst and endokarst landforms (i.e. the doline field of Serra Le Tre Finestre and the Pozzo della Neve and Cul di Bove caves). Finally, a number of important structural features (related alternatively to active or passive structural control or influence) as for example the Coste della Defenza fault scarp and the hanging Pleistocene lacustrine succession of S. Massimo, are present. At the same time, various paleontological and stratigraphic geosites have been detected. Important paleontological evidence is represented by the outcropping Mesozoic limestone units as the Rudist-bearing Cretaceous successions (i.e. San Polo outcrop) which testify various facies within the carbonate shelf domain.

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THE DIDACTIC VALENCE OF A COMPLEX FLUVIAL GEOMORPHOSITE: DENDROCHRONOLOGY, VEGETATION, PETROGRAPHY AND HISTORY AS TOOLS FOR AN INTEGRATED LANDSCAPE READING
1 Dip. Scienze della Terra A. Desio, Universit di Milano 2 Dip. Scienze della Terra, Universit di Pavia Corresponding author: Manuela Pelfini, e-mail: manuela.pelfini@unimi.it I. Bollati1, M. Pelfini1 & L. Pellegrini2

A complex river may represent a precious occasion to understand the dynamicity of a multi disciplinary geomorphosite. The Trebbia River, located in the Northern Apennines, is one of the Po tributary flowing towards NE, through Liguria and Emilia Romagna regions. It is well differentiated along its course, so that several geological topics can be analysed in depth through an integrated landscape analysis, conferring the river with a high didactic value. The institution of three SICs (Community Important Sites) along this river represents a starting point that witnesses its importance from a naturalistic point of view as the different morphologies generated by different lithotypes, exemplary of those natural processes that modelled the Earth surface through geological times. The good accessibility to the different scientific and cultural emergences represents in addition an indispensable feature, especially for scholars didactic purposes. Imaging to create an itinerary, particularly addressed to young students, some stops have been chosen to explain the geological and geomorphological setting, vegetation and anthropic settlements characteristics of this fluvial environment. Through the different tools at disposal (dendrochronology, petrography and vegetation) it is possible to configure some exercises to touch by hand the elements constituting the landscape. At last but not the least, the scenic impact of some elements and locations are definitely indisputable and probably means the easiest way to grow curiosity in the public, scholars and not, involved in any didactic or geotourist experience. The upper part of the valley is characterized by two SICs, both instituted in 1995: the San Salvatore Meanders (IT4010006) and the Bobbio-Perino area (IT4010011). This river portion develops across the Bobbio tectonic window and it is characterized by some spectacular scenic valued meanders set on the alternation of the miocenic Arenarie di San Salvatore and Argilliti di Brugnello belonging to the Toscana Nappe. The Trebbia passage through the Bobbio tectonic window, a morphology generated by the concomitant action of the fluvial erosion and tectonic uplifting processes, represents a scientific valence for its geohistorical importance as central tool for the investigation regarding the Northern Apennines thrust belt structure. At the same time it can become a meaningful occasion especially for scholars to approach one of the more complex tectonic concepts in a simplified way. At the NE edge of this structure the Barberino Gorges allow the observation of the Ligurian Succession ophiolites relieves. They highlight the linking between geodiversity and biodiversity. The differences in the vegetation that

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grows on different lithology, as in the specific case on the ophiolites (serpentinofite: Euphorbia spinosa ssp. Ligustica, Sempervivum tectorum), is an evidence of the relation existing between geological substratum and biological diversities, covering the site of an ecological value. The lower valley, from Perino as far as the confluence with the Po River, is characterized by a wider braided riverbed, recognized as a SIC (IT4010016) in 2002. It is a site well predisposed to the examination of the recent evolution of the fluvial terraces and bars through dating of the different geomorphologic surfaces by dendrochronology. Here dendrochronological analysis carried out on trees growing on bars and at the terrace edges allow to reconstruct the recent river evolution. Some dendrochronological exercises predisposed for the scholars permit them to experiment the scientific methods using the results as a control-instrument. The linkage between geomorphology and human settlements is evident in the case of both the selected cultural emergences located in Bobbio and Rivalta. They allow some reflections on the particular strategies adopted in the settlements choices during medieval and roman times. The scientific attribute, with its geomorphological model, geohistorical, ecological and didactic valences, together with the cultural and scenic attributes, reveal the sites along the Trebbia River to be ideal in order to propose an integrated reading of a river landscape, addressed to different kinds of public.

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FLOOD RISK AND LAND PLANNING IN BELBO VALLEY (SOUTHERN PIEDMONT)


Dip. Scienze della Terra, Universit di Torino Corresponding author: Luciano Masciocco, e-mail: luciano.masciocco@unito.it A. Bove, N. Fonte, L. Masciocco & M. Nicolino

Its been over ten years since the Piedmont Region was heavily affected by the extreme flood of November 1994. From that time, many studies have been performed for modeling hydrologic phenomena and decreasing the vulnerability of fluvial region by means of river barrages and embankments. The heavy economic and social damage has put the government in the need to address, in a balanced and aware way, the complexity of environmental issues involved in the development of an urban center. The national and regional legislation recently approved requires that, in the planning of the territory, no longer the natural risk is put into the background. The study aims to critically examine how the present urban land planning in the fluvial region has conformed to the new regulatory framework. The Belbo basin (Southern Piedmont) severely affected by the Piedmont flood of November 1994 has been considered. The watershed, laying in the hilly area between the Tanaro and Bormida Rivers (Langhe and Alto Monferrato Hills), is geologically related to the Tertiary Piedmont Basin, an Oligo-Miocene marine sedimentary basin, whose formations are represented principally by marls and sandstones with subordinate conglomerates. Despite to an average annual rainfall ranging between 650 and 950 mm, high intensity rainfalls may represent a geomorphological hazard in the study area. Significant were the 24 hours rainfall of 250 mm recorded in Treiso pluviometrical station on November 1994. The survey places emphasis on the major urban centers affected by past flooding (Rocchetta Belbo, Cossano Belbo, Santo Stefano Belbo, Canelli, Nizza Monferrato and Incisa Scapaccino). The examined urban plans and the field surveys had shown how the verification of natural hazards framework, promoted by the national and regional rules, has been widely and responsibly implemented. The usual approach for the flooding risk mitigation it focused on man-made structures (e.g. embankments), rather than the relocation of buildings. Some cases suggest, however, that the concepts of hazard, vulnerability, potential damage and risk havent been correctly utilized in the local land-use planning. For instance, inside Rocchetta Belbo and Santo Stefano Belbo municipalities, the implementation of fluvial longitudinal and transversal structures by the Belbo Creek network seems to justify the urbanization of river banks, with little consideration for flood hazard. Rocchetta Belbo (282 m a.s.l.) is situated on the alluvial fan of the Annunziata Stream, left tributary of the Belbo Creek. Historical documents (maps and photographs) show how the urban centre was affected by several phenomena of flooding coarse sediment transport (years 1926, 1948, 1951, 1968 and 1994); along the Annunziata Stream transversal and canal structures has been built. Insufficient specific studies of the geomorphological hazard confinement and the complex bu-

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reaucratic process for the passage of urban land planning seem to be in contrast with the recent urban development. Santo Stefano Belbo (175 m a.s.l.) is located in the middle Belbo valley. The geomorphological hazard of this area is connected with both the Belbo Creek and the Tinella Creek, his main tributary. Historical data show how in the past the town had been affected by several floods (years 1926, 1948, 1951 and 1968) and how the event of November 1994 caused considerable damage because of the recent urbanization of all valley floors. By the survey of Santo Stefano Belbo urban land planning seems emerge that fluvial areas, affected by the natural disaster, are actually addressed to the urban expansion, through the strengthening of the longitudinal structures. The present land planning laws show some limitations regarding the hydraulic management of the watercourses and the urbanization of future expansion areas. The introduction of compulsory insurance and a greater share of the choices of urban planning between local authorities and the population could improve land management in areas affected by natural disasters.

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CULTURAL GEOMORPHOLOGY FEATURES OF THE PONCI VALLEY (FINALESE KARSTIC AREA, LIGURIAN ALPS)
1 DISAM - Dip. Scienze dellantichit, del medioevo e geografico-ambientali, Universit di Genova 2 Soprintendenza per i Beni Archeologici della Liguria, Genova 3 Consultant geologist , Genova Corresponding author: Pierluigi Brandolini, e-mail: brando@unige.it P. Brandolini1, F. Bulgarelli2, F. Faccini1 & A. Robbiano3

The Finalese is an area of great geomorphological and cultural value, with major scientific, landscape, socio-economic and historical features that offer opportunities for investigating the relationships between issues concerning geodiversity and land use. This paper presents the geomorphological and environmental profile of the Ponci Valley which is located in the Finale Ligure (Savona) hinterland and its relationship with the presence of some artefacts of Roman age (13-12 B.C.). The Ponci Valley which is mainly composed of bioclastic limestones and secondarily of underlying dolomite limestones is included in the more extensive Finalese karstic area where the presence of various plateau is evident (i.e. Manie, Camporiundu and Bric dei Frati). They represent the relict remnants of a single karstic plateau that was the consequence of the uprising, erosion and following dry-up of a more extensive post-Miocenic erosion surface with weak inclination to South. Its existence is suggested by the correlation of present peaks surfaces. The plateau has later been incised by allogenic fluvial valleys, and the Ponci Valley is a clear example of this incision. Such an origin explains the existence of an extensive valley floor in the Ponci Valley that is not consistent with the current basin landform and size (5.9 km2); the basin has been filled with alluvial deposits that have formed during a stasis stage of the relative uprising. The resumption of the relative uprising led to the current situation of hanging valley through a remounting erosion that has caused the region rejuvenation. Thus the Ponci Valley represents the relict of a palaeovalley that was more extensive than the current surface and that was spread to north past the Sella di San Giacomo and was later captured by the Sciusa and Corealto adjacent streams. The lithological features, geomorphological evolution and morpho-structural relationships between the outcropping lithotypes through a marked infiltration of rainfall and an underground flow caused the formation of karstic epigeous and hypogeal phenomena whose evidence is provided by the presence of cockpits, dolines and uvalas and several shallow-holes, springs and caves; the latter are mainly located along the contact between the dolomite and bioclastic limestones. Along the Ponci Valley five Roman bridges can be observed three of them are still well-preserved embankment protection structures and some remains of road parts: they represent one of the best evidences of the Via Iulia Augusta, a peculiar example of the ancient Roman roads system that can still be observed in western Liguria.

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These artefacts were built with stones mainly in huge blocks whose size is sometimes in meters range and the remnants of the ancient quarries both on the surface and underground where they have been mined can still be observed. Favourable climatic conditions all over the year, together with the valuable landscape and environmental aspects, led to a growing interest in terms of tourism and sport and the consequent creation of excursion and mountain bike trails, in addition to the well-known practice of speleology and climbing. This site has a geomorphological, environmental and archaeological value and in all it can be acknowledged as a geosite of Mediterranean importance. Thereby it represents an asset of high cultural and landscape value for which protection and enhancement measures must be undertaken so as to preserve it and, at the same time, to promote a sustainable tourism.

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LANDSLIDE SEDIMENT TRANSFER IN FORMERLY GLACIATED, MOUNTAIN DRAINAGE BASINS


1 Dip. Scienze Geologiche e Geotecnologie, Universit di Milano Bicocca Dept. of Geography and Environmental Studies, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada 2 Dept. of Geography, University of British Columbia, Canada Corresponding author: Francesco Brardinoni, e-mail: francesco.brardinoni@unimib.it F. Brardinoni1 & M.A. Hassan2

We examine basin-wide colluvial sediment dynamics in the Tsitika and Eve Rivers (about 600 km2), coastal British Columbia, Canada. The colluvial sediment cascade is documented by classifying landslide types, characterizing the dominant sediment sources, and identifying preferential sites of colluvial delivery across the landscape. The study is based on the compilation and analysis of a 70-year landslide inventory. This analysis reveals that open-slope landslides delivering material to seasonal or perennial channels and fluvial terraces are the dominant source-to-sink pathways. This finding indicates high instability of the headwaters drainage network and its ongoing adjustment after generalized sediment recharge occurred in the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). To quantify interactions between colluvial and fluvial processes the landscape has been subdivided into geomorphic domains, which include planar slopes, unchannelled valleys, erosional (source) and depositional (sink) colluvial channels, as well as fluvial channels. In the study period, landslide activity across landscape components has generated net sediment degradation on planar slopes and source colluvial channels, whereas unchannelled valleys, sink colluvial channels and fluvially-dominated channels have been accumulating material. The newly-developed scaling relation of the landslide sediment yield appears to be controlled by the spatial organization of relict glacial structures. It follows that landslide yield is highest in unchannelled topography, decreases at the scale of channel initiation (drainage area (Ad) about 0.002 km2), and remains constant for scales where source colluvial and hanging fluvial domains overlap (0.002 < Ad < 0.06). Landslide sediment injections start declining consistently beyond areas larger than 0.6 km2 (the scale of relict trough initiation), where fluvial environments are still partially connected to adjacent hillslopes. Cumulative daily yield indicates that landslide sediment redistribution across the landscape is limited to relatively small drainage areas; specifically, 90% of the colluvial load is released at scales smaller than about 0.6 km2. Evaluation of the studied landslide yield trend in conjunction with British Columbia fluvial sediment yield allows us to identify landscape scales of sediment aggradation and degradation, hence to infer preferential scales of contemporary sediment storage.

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AN APPLICATION FOR GEO-TOURISM IN THE NORTH-WEST COAST OF MALTA: THE CASE STUDY OF IL-MAJJISTRAL NATURE AND HISTORY PARK
1 Dpto. Ciencias de la Tierra y Fsica de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Cantabria, Spain 2 Dip. Scienze della Terra, Universit di Modena e Reggio Emilia 3 The Heritage Parks Federation, Valletta, Malta Corresponding author: Viola Maria Bruschi, e-mail: viola.bruschi@unican.es V.M. Bruschi1, P. Coratza2, D. Piacentini2, D. Saliba3 & M. Soldati2

The Island of Malta, which is situated in the centre of the Mediterranean Sea, is a high tourist vacational area especially sought after for its cultural heritage and outdoor activities such as hiking and trekking. Moreover, although the Island is intensively built up, it still conserves remarkable geomorphological features. These are mostly found along the coastal areas, which maintain high aesthetic qualities of the natural landscape. In the north-west coast, Il-Majjistral Nature and History Park represents a protected area with natural, cultural and touristic interests. The park was registered in 2007 and is characterised by a landscape dominated by blue clay and limestone. The geomorphology is distinguished by faults and contrasting lithologies of the outcropping rock formations. The cultural features of the area are closely linked to its geology and geomorphology. Published studies related to the geology and geomorphology of the Maltese archipelago are not abundant. As regards geomorphosites, in spite of evident geologicalgeomorphological features along a large part of the Maltese coasts, published works do not exist. Documentation about the cultural and biological aspects of the park has been extensively treated, but there was no analysis for the identification of geomorphological features that can be observed in the area and that could be useful for touristic and educational purposes. In order to analyse these features, a fieldwork has been carried out in the park area. The results obtained are shown in a map indicating sites of geomorphologic interest specifically compiled for the park area. This task represents the first step of a general study that includes identification, quantitative assessment and valorisation of the geomorphological heritage of Malta. The completed research will constitute an indispensable basic knowledge for the successive enhancement activities, which should be carried out by public institutions responsible of the protection of the Maltese territory. These issues are of current relevance, due to the fact that Malta has the highest population density in Europe, besides a considerable tourist influx, which results in a high degree of vulnerability.

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SMALL CATCHMENTS EVOLUTION IN A CLAYEY LANDSCAPE OF THE PERI-ADRIATIC BELT (CENTRAL ITALY) SINCE THE LAST GLACIAL MAXIMUM
1 Dip. Geotecnologie per lAmbiente ed il Territorio, Universit G. dAnnunzio Chieti-Pescara 2 Dip. Scienze della Terra, Universit di Camerino 3 Dip. Scienze della Terra, Universit G. dAnnunzio Chieti-Pescara Corresponding author: Marco Materazzi, e-mail: marco.materazzi@unicam.it M. Buccolini1, B. Gentili2, M. Materazzi2 & T. Piacentini3

This study analyses geomorphological evolution during the last 20,000 years in two areas representative of the peri-Adriatic belt of central Italy: Mount Ascensione, in the high hilly sector (600-1100 m a.s.l.) and the Atri district in the hilly-coastal sector (up to about 500 m a.s.l.). In both areas the lithostructural setting is characterized by an east-verging monocline mainly composed of clayey formations. The two areas are compared in relation to morpho-chronological aspects and geomorphological dynamics. The study, using dating methods, has been investigated chronology of continental deposits to reconstruct a reliable Holocene morphodynamic outline in a hydrographic network developed on clayey slopes. The results suggest two fundamental evolutionary phases: 1) About 20,000 yrs B.P. sedimentation occurred along the main valleys and the middle to upper portions of slopes were covered by colluvial deposits. 2) At the beginning of the Holocene, the climatic amelioration triggered erosion along rivers, which are still active, producing deep valleys with narrow water divides. Estimated denudation rates during the last 20,000 yrs are 7.8 mm yr-1 for the Mount Ascensione area and 2.43 mm yr-1 for the Atri district, reflecting frequent landslides and fluvial erosion. The rates are consistent with the data available in literature.

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MOUNTAIN FRONT LANDSCAPE EVOLUTION: INSIGHTS FROM NUMERICAL MODELING


1 Dip. Geologia e Geofisica, Universit di Bari 2 Istituti di Studi sui Sistemi Intelligenti per lAutomazione, ISSIA CNR Bari Corresponding author: Domenico Capolongo, e-mail: capolongo@geo.uniba.it D. Capolongo1, E. Giachetta1 & A. Refice2

We use SIGNUM (Simple Integrated Geomorphological NUmerical Model), a multiprocess TIN-based landscape evolution model, to simulate geomorphological mountain front evolution in thrust tectonic settings. The TIN-based, modular process structure of SIGNUM allows us to reproduce the development of complex tectonic structures. By varying regional uplift, thrust propagation velocity, precipitation rates coupled with stream power based river incision and hillslope diffusivity, we are able to reproduce realistic first-order topographic features, convincingly analogous to real-world active mountain fronts. We performed different scenarios at different timescales, letting our synthetic landscapes evolve for periods ranging from 0.3 to 1 My. Results reproduce quite common features of linear mountain fronts, such as regular valley spacing or drainage diversion; we observe that the appearance and evolution of these characteristic morphological tracts are controlled mainly by the competing different rates of river incision and growing thrusts. The results help us to speculate about some still poorly answered questions, for example what factors control the regular valley spacing observed worldwide in several mountain fronts.

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GEOMORPHOLOGICAL STUDY OF CALANCHI SLOPES OF THE SCILLATO BASIN, NORTHERN SICILY


Dip. Geologia e Geodesia, Universit di Palermo Corresponding author: Chiara Cappadonia, e-mail: cappadonia@unipa.it C. Cappadonia, C. Conoscenti & E. Rotigliano

The investigated area is located in northern Sicily, into the central sector of the Imera Settentrionale River basin, and consists of a small piggy back basin (named Scillato basin), where fluvio-delta deposits, made up of conglomerate, arenitic and silty clays facies (Terravecchia Fm.., middle-late Miocene), outcrop. The syncline structural setting of the area is responsible for structurally controlled slopes that, where the strata outcrop, are densely marked by linear water erosion landforms (both rills and gullies) which are ordered to form typical calanchi (badlands) fronts. The slopes are characterized by lateral variations of lithofacies that produce a different response to erosion processes, testified by the distribution of landforms mainly shaped by concentrated runoff and piping phenomena. Since 2006, a detailed study of the area allowed to investigate a set of factors that control the development and spatial distribution of erosion landforms on slopes. Two sample portions of the area have been monitored in order to quantify the variation of the topographic surface produced by erosion and deposition phenomena; the data collected by the surface altitude measuring stations were then compared to the temporal trend of rainfall intensity. Analysis of the chemical and physical properties of outcropping rocks have been carried out at the aim of characterizing the triggering conditions of morphodynamic processes affecting the area; these data were also used as a tool to define the spatial relationships between landforms and the geographical variability of the investigated parameters. The choice of this approach is related to the high variability of frequency and typology of erosion landforms; even if the slopes have small extensions and are characterized by similar topographic, climatic and litho-structural conditions; they, in fact, show an interesting diversification of calanchi and piping landforms types and dimensions. These observations were used as a criterion to individuate the location and methodology of sampling; the laboratory analysis allowed to define the granulometric composition of samples, which resulted to be mainly clayey silts, and the mineralogical phases of the granulometric fractions. The latter showed that quartz and calcite are the dominant phases of the silt and sand fractions, while the clayey one is mainly constituted by illite and kaolinite and subordinately by smectite, that makes clayey deposits more susceptible to cracking phenomena. Moreover, samples resulted to be highly alkaline, with high pH values and low carbonate content variation. Differences of plastic index, even if low, seem to be determining for the triggering of shallow gravitative phenomena on tops of the slopes. Variability of the investigated parameter along slopes has been also related to the erosion rates observed from the surface altitude measuring stations.

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RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN LINEAR AND AREAL EROSION: AN EXAMPLE IN SANNIO AREA (CAMPANIAN APENNINES, SOUTHERN ITALY)
Dip. Studi Geologici ed Ambientali, Universit del Sannio, Benevento Corresponding author: Elena Cartojan, e-mail: elena.cartojan@unisannio.it E. Cartojan & A. Valente

In recent years, numerous studies dealing with landslides were carried out. In particular, landslides represent one of the most important morphodynamic processes affecting the Sannio landscape (Campanian Apennines, Southern Italy). Evidence of water-induced linear erosion are also widespread in this region. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationships between landslides and linear erosion in the Tammarecchia Torrent basin, having an area of 124 km2. The mean annual suspended load (Tu) and the landslide index (IF) were selected as parameters indicative of linear and areal erosion intensity, respectively. From a lithological standpoint, the substratum of the study area mainly consists of poorly-cemented sandstones and, subordinately, of silty marls and marly clays. The physical and mechanical characteristics of these rocks are qualitatively poor in terms of both cohesion and denseness. Besides, most of them are involved in landslides and this still further increases their erodibility by running waters. Geomorphologically, the local landscape is of hilly-type, dominated by gently-sloping relieves, whose slopes display widespread evidence of erosional processes, both water- and gravity-induced. The altitude ranges from 294 to 915 meter a.s.l. From the land-use point of view, agricultural areas strongly predominate over forests and urban areas. The mean annual rainfall is about 840 mm. Rainfalls are mainly concentrated in the autumn and winter months. The wet climate, together with the semi-coherent nature of the substratum, makes the fluvial sediment transport by suspension the dominant type, as already found by several Authors. Consequently, they also stated that the rate of sediment transport by suspension is a reliable parameter in evaluating the intensity of water-induced linear erosion. The studied basin was first subdivided into 32 sub-basins of 3rd and 4th hierarchical order. Quantitative geomorphic analysis was applied to each sub-basin with the aim to calculate the drainage density (D) and the hierarchical parameters needed to estimate the mean annual suspended load. The calculated values were introduced into a GIS and a statistical analysis was carried out on a significant population, representative of the trend. Both the correlation between IF and log(Tu) and between IF and D showed a Pearson correlation index of 0.94. These parameters also presented a fitting with the following linear regression equations: IF= 2.25log(Tu)-0.47 and IF=0.07D-0.05, expressed by a determination coefficient R2=0.89. The data were very well distributed alongside the equation of linear regression. This highlights a dependency between the considered variables: when IF increases, both D and Tu also increase.

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However, because landslide index, drainage density and, likewise, sediment transport by suspension are strongly dependent on the extension of the sub-basins, it was considered as appropriate to compare two further parameters, i.e. the cumulative length of the watercourses and the total surface affected by landslides. The correlation has a determination coefficient of 0.993. No significant relationships were found between the selected parameters and other geo-environmental features, such as land-use, slope or relief energy. They seemed to vary randomly within the identified populations though landslides mainly occurred in cultivated areas, possibly favoured, among others, by non-conservative agricultural practices. The obtained results suggest a strong relationship between linear erosion and landsliding. Both these phenomena are affected by the semi-coherent nature of lithologies. The intense linear erosion, pointed out by the high Tu values, favours the triggering and/or reactivation of landslides. In turn, these latter often dam the watercourses, increasing linear erosion and suspended load transport rate. Therefore, a positive feedback is induced. In conclusion, the results are both geomorphologically and statistically coherent and could be the starting-point to implement a methodology, based on quantitative geomorphic analysis, aimed to assess the propensity to landsliding in semi-coherent lithologies.

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FROM GLACIAL TO PARAGLACIAL ENVIRONMENT IN THE DOLOMITES: THE GHIACCIAIO DELLUOMO CASE STUDY
1 Dip. Geografia, Universit di Padova 2 Dip. Scienze della Terra, Universit di Pavia Corresponding author: Alberto Carton, e-mail: alberto.carton@unipd.it A. Carton1, M. Meneghel1 & R. Seppi2

South of the Marmolada Group (Dolomites), at the head of the San Nicol valley (Val Ombert) a small glacier called Cima dellUomo Glacier was present until the first years of the XX Century. It has been mapped in the D.Oe.A.V. map Marmolada at 1:25,000 scale in two editions (1905 and 1926). Again it has been mapped (still as a glacier) in the Italian cartography (I.G.M. maps at scale 1:25,000 F 11 II S.O. Passo di Valls). From the first to the last edition of this map (from 1920 to 1960 ca) a reduction of the bare ice of the glacier is reported. In 1924 B. Castiglioni describes this small glacier: it was then developed to an extension of about 20 ha, 89 of which covered by debris. The snout of the glacier was at an altitude of about 2423 m (lowest point of the glacial drift covering the snout). In the Italian glacier inventory, compiled in the 60s the glacier is classified as extinct and in the place are reported few avalanche cones. Now an evident huge moraine ridge is marking the maximum extension of the glacier. On the south-west the arch is advanced and closes the valley reaching a small rounded relief in the northern slope of the valley. The north-eastern moraine has a S shape and in his higher portion delimits a less advanced sector of the glacier. This configuration fits perfectly with the map sketched by Castiglioni. On the more advanced lobe some ridges are present; they suggest that the glacial debris is still in motion and that an active rock glacier is currently developing from it. The evolution from a debris-covered glacier to an active rock glacier is not common in the mountain ranges composed of carbonate rocks such as the Dolomites, but it has been already described for the Ghiacciaio della Croda Rossa. A preliminary survey carried out in April 2009 by BTS measurements showed that in some places of the debris tongue the ground surface temperatures are below 3 C. This could be interpreted as the presence of glacier ice still preserved under the debris or of patches of permafrost. Topographic measurements, geophysical surveys and ground surface temperature analyses are planned to investigate the dynamics of the debris, the presence of permafrost and the extension and distribution of the residual ice in the ground.

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THE NEW GEOMORPHOLOGICAL MAP OF THE AREA OF MT. CIMONE (NORTHERN APENNINES, ITALY)
Dip. Scienze della Terra, Universit di Modena e Reggio Emilia Corresponding author: Doriano Castaldini, e-mail: castaldini.doriano@unimore.it D. Castaldini, P. Coratza & M. Panizza

This paper describes a new geomorphological map implemented in the area of Mt. Cimone which is located in the high Apennines of Modena Province, Italy. The extent of the study area is about 20 km2 and its elevation range from about 1300 m a.s.l. to the top of the Mt. Cimone, which attains the altitude of 2165 m a.s.l. (the highest peak of the Northern Apennines). The Mt. Cimone area is one of the most important winter and summer tourism resorts of the entire Apennines. With its typical pyramid-like shape, Mt. Cimone rises isolated and shifted to the north with respect to the Apennine watershed. From a geological point of view it is ascribable to the overthrust of an overturned outlier of Mt. Modino Sandstones with the underlying Argille di Fiumalbo (Upper Oligocene-Lower Miocene?), on top of the Sequence of Mt. Cervarola Sandstones (Lower-Middle Miocene). The landforms and deposits of the study area may be mainly defined according to the following groups of morphogenetic factors and processes: glacial landforms and deposits, cryogenetic and nivation landforms and deposits, structural landforms, slope landforms and deposits due to gravity; landforms and deposits due to running water, anthropogenic landforms; they are shown in a new geomorphological map at the 1:10,000 scale. By examining the main features of the Mt. Cimone area, the presence of glaciers during the Tagliole glacial period (this term refers to the last glacial expansion occurring in this sector of the Apennines) is witnessed by small cirques and vast moraine deposits modeled in the shape of ridges. Many others glacial forms could have been erased by erosional processes linked to the intense uplift occurring from the Middle-Upper Pleistocene to date. Post-glacial slope landforms and deposits due to gravity are very common. The landslides are of various types, essentially inactive and, in some cases, controlled by tectonics. Worthy of note for their dimensions are some mass movements on the eastern sector of the study area; inside the body of one of them, the Lake della Ninfa, a very popular tourist resort, is found. In addition, in the Mt. Cimone area other small perennial or temporary lakes of structural, glacial and artificial origin are found. Finally, among mans activities which modified the landscape, the construction of large parking areas, refuges and ski tracks should be mentioned. The novelty of this work, beside the fact that it is the first geomorphological map which covers the entire sector of Mt. Cimone, is that many zones mapped as landslide or talus heap in previous works, have been here considered as moraine deposits. Therefore the extent of the glacial features in the Mt. Cimone area is much wider than it was believed before.

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Moreover all the landslides, also of huge extent, are of post-glacial age as they involve or covers the glacial deposits. The main, or at least one of the most important, triggering factor of the Mt. Cimone mass movements, could be the slope debuttressing due to the significant ice loss (glacial debuttressing) as it has been detected in other sector of the Northern Apennines, in the Italian Alps as well as in other mountainous areas of the world.

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In the past decade several papers, research projects and scientific meetings have been carried out at an international level for the preservation of Geologic Heritage (whose elements are defined, according to the various authors, as Earth science sites, Geologic Assets, Geotopes, Geosites or Geomorphosites) and its diffusion and appraisal also outside the realms of academic research. This article describes the contribution of geomorphologic documents and the criteria and methodology used for the implementation of Geo-tourist maps and TouristEnvironmental Map in Mt. Cimone area (Modena Province, Northern Apennines). The study area extent is about 20 km2 and its elevation range from about 1300 m a.s.l. to the top of the Mt. Cimone, which attains the altitude of 2165 m a.s.l. Mt. Cimone is the highest peak of the Northern Apennines. This area is one of the most important summer and winter tourism resorts of the entire Apennines; along its slopes many ski lifts have been constructed and 50 km ski runs developed. The Mt. Cimone area is located in the Frignano Park, which was established in 1988 by the EmiliaRomagna Region. The landforms and deposits of the study area may be mainly defined according to the following groups of morphogenetic factors and processes: glacial landforms and deposits, cryogenetic and nivation landforms and deposits, structural landforms, slope landforms and deposits due to gravity; landforms and deposits due to running water, anthropogenic landforms. In a first step, a new geomorphological map has been realized. Moreover a QuickBird Satellite Image has been overlapped to a Digital Terrain Model (DTM). In a second phase a Geo-tourist map was derived (with appropriate simplifications and integrations) from the Geomorphologic map. The Geo-Tourist map combines the most evident geomorphologic features with fundamental tourist information (e.g. parking places, excursion trails, picnic areas, overnight-stay sites etc.). The goal was to produce a map that could be easily interpreted by tourists and help them to understand the landscape. The Geo-Tourist map and the DTM are the cartographic documents characterizing the Tourist- Environmental map which is thematic pocket foldable map printed on

1 Dip. Scienze della Terra, Universit di Modena e Reggio Emilia 2 Dip. Museo di Paleobiologia e dellOrto Botanico, Universit di Modena e Reggio Emilia 3 Dept. Geography, University of Bucarest, Romania 4 Dip. Biologia Animale, Universit di Modena e Reggio Emilia 5 Serv. Tecn. ambientale e Vigilanza, Parco Regionale Alto Appennino Modenese, Pievepelago (Mo) Corresponding author: Doriano Castaldini, e-mail: doriano.castaldini@unimore.it

D. Castaldini1, P. Coratza1, D. Dallai2, C. Del Prete2, R. Dobre3, M. Panizza1, D. Piacentini1, L. Sala4, E. Zucchi1 & L. Bartoli5

THE TOURIST-ENVIRONMENTAL MAP OF MT. CIMONE (NORTHERN APENNINES, ITALY)

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both sides with illustration notes. In addition, the Tourist-Environmental map contains a synoptic description of the geological, geomorphological, botanical and zoological aspects, accompanied by photographs and information on park recommended itineraries. The Tourist-Environmental map is part of the initiatives adopted for improving the knowledge, fruition and appraisal of the environment of this protected area and was carried out in cooperation with the financial support of the Frignano Park. This study witness how geomorphological investigations can effectively contribute to the elaboration of maps utilizable in the field of environmental tourism.

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GEODIVERSITY AND GEOTOURISM AS A CHALLENGE BETWEEN SCIENTIFIC CULTURE OF GEOLOGICAL LANDSCAPE AND NEW OPPORTUNITY OF WORKS
1 Dip. Scienze della Terra, Universit di Modena e Reggio Emilia 2 Dip. Scienze della Terra, Universit di Camerino 3 Dip. Scienze della Terra, Universit G. dAnnunzio Chieti-Pescara Corresponding author: Piero Farabollini, e-mail: piero.farabollini@unicam.it D. Castaldini1, P. Coratza1, P. Farabollini2 & E. Miccadei3

The geological and geomorphological landscape of Italy represents a beautiful example of variety and complexity of processes and phenomena that characterize and make unique the whole national territory. The coexistence of tracks of an evolutionary history still active in study and definition has made many Italian regions (among which Emilia Romagna, Marche and Abruzzi regions), a world fame gym for geologists and geomorphologists. The complex palaeogeographies of the past find their expression in the main ridges of these regions whose rocky cliffs allow the researchers imaginary trips through ancient tropical heavens with lagoons, coral atolls and deep seas. Valleys of glacial origin, alluvial fans, terraced deposits, soils and palaeosoils preserve the memory of past worlds. The landscape itself, now rough and steep in the chain area, decreasing gradually in the piedmont, now smooth in the hilly relieves up to the alluvial and coastal lowlands, is a witness of the different morphological processes that have modelled the territory in the Quaternary age and which are acting today under different climatic conditions. The geological-geomorphological information become the starting point to discover how the natural environment influences the social and economic development of the different populations, the specialization of arts and works, the installation of peculiar commercial and industrial activities. Thus the territory goes out of the classical role of simple scenery of the human history and becomes integral part of the different cultures that develop in it and that interact with it. The growth of interest in the geological and geomorphological thematic of the territory is bringing about the maturation of a strong sensibility toward a geologic tourism both from the institutions and the private citizens. All these activities can represent job opportunities in the field of tourism for the graduates in Geological and Natural Sciences and in Cultural Heritages.

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GEOMORPHOLOGICAL SURVEYS TO ASSESS PROPAGATION OF ROCK FALLS IN THE VILLAGE OF CIMOLAIS (WESTERN FRIULI VENEZIA GIULIA, ITALY)
1 Dip. Ingegneria Civile e Ambientale, Universit di Trieste 2 Dip. Scienze della Terra, Universit di Modena and Reggio Emilia 3 Corock s.r.l., Trento 4 Dip. Scienze Geologiche, Ambientali e Marine, Universit di Trieste Corresponding author: Stefano Devoto, e-mail: stefano.devoto@unimore.it E. Castelli1, S. Devoto2, M. Camin3, F. Podda4 & D. Piacentini2

The Municipal Authorities of Cimolais have entrusted the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering of the University of Trieste with a detailed study aimed at designing safety measures against possible rock falls. This was due to the presence of large potentially unstable rock masses along the steep rocky slopes of Crep Savath, near Cimolais (Province of Pordenone) and to the need for a scientific appraisal of the risk these masses imply for the village of Cimolais and its inhabitants. The western Alpine area of the Friuli region is often theatre to rock fall phenomena. These are due to the presence of mountain ranges characterised by strong relief energy and to abundant rainfall, reaching 1500-2000 mm/year, which favour quick and active morphological dynamics with intense slope erosion and degradation processes. Relevant surveys will include preliminary Lidar and photogrammetric surveys and a surveying campaign aimed at producing a series of detailed geomorphological maps on which further studies and rock fall simulations will be based. Wall observations showed that the potentially unstable rick volumes exceed 400 cubic meters. The high and constant steepness of debris cones at the foot of Crep Savath rocky slopes, combined with the lack of ledges and the poor high forest vegetation present, suggests rock fall trajectories for the boulders on Crep Savath directly leading to the village, which would cause serious damage to people and things. A first assessment of the possible transit and stop areas of boulders has been obtained through in-depth surveying activities carried out by several academic professionals and experts in geological and engineering sciences. The study area, which includes the limestone aguille of Crep Savath, belongs to the group of Western Carnic Prealps and falls within the park of Friuli Dolomites. The area is bounded by Mt. Lodina to the north-west, by the pristine Val Fersena to the West and is located on the right bank of Torrente Cimoliana, close to the trunk leading to the Vajont Valley and to Cimolais, at an altitude of 800-1000 m a.s.l. The rock falls are caused by the structure of the rock mass, as the interaction among discontinuity sets can lead to the isolation of boulders exceeding a hundred cubic meters. The intense tectonic activity of the past, which caused the fragile Vajont Limestone to thrust over the ductile Red Scale, originated the jointing structure of the limestone that forms the top of Crep Savath.

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The project was launched in September 2008 and included different phases: - Lidar survey - Geomorphological survey of the area from where rock falls originated and of the debris cones at the foot of the slopes (transit area). - Identification of unstable boulders and assessment of their volume. - Analysis of trajectories and maximum run-out distances of boulders. The technical surveys conducted on the slope walls have highlighted a high hazard environment, also due to the presence of a slab-shaped rock mass of some hundred cubic meters, free on both sides and held at the basis by poor-quality rock bridges. The team of professionals involved has created a set of detailed geomorphological maps (1:1000) based on Laserscan surveys, which proved a fundamental starting point also for further analyses. As a preliminary measure, a series of active measures can be proposed to immediately mitigate risks. This proposal takes into account the high volume of blocks, which in case of fall would render the passive mitigation measures already in place at the back of Cimolais worthless.

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GIS TECHNIQUES AND DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS TO REDUCE LANDSLIDE RISK: THE CASE STUDY OF CORVARA IN BADIA
1 DISAT Dip. Scienze dellAmbiente e del Territorio, Universit di Milano-Bicocca 2 CNR-IDPA, Istituto per la Dinamica dei Processi Ambientali, Milano A. Cavallin1 & S. Sterlacchini2

Integrated methodologies to manage critical hydrogeological events takes advantage of available GIS tools, decision support systems (DSS), and mobile technology. Moreover, these methodologies have to be settled up and tested in different environmental systems, with high level of hydrogeological hazards and risks, to evaluate their real effectiveness. Social and economic systems have to be considered to verify their applicability according to national, regional and local laws. Moreover, each methodology has to be accepted and recognized by the stakeholders (public administrators, economic planners, lawmakers, people responsible for civil protections, relief and emergency services) and by the general public too, as a tool to manage landslide hazard and risk. A methodological approach starts with landslide susceptibility and hazard assessment in order to geographically define specific hazard scenarios, by statistical and deterministic models, historical records, expert knowledge, and the set of laws in force. After that, detailed analysis (1:2000) have to spatially identify and characterise vulnerable elements (people, infrastructures, activities, public and private services, etc.), and define the possible physical effects on exposed elements. A detailed social and economic characterization of the area has to be performed. At the end, potential risk scenarios may be assessed as areas characterised by high susceptibility/hazard values and by the presence of vulnerable elements. An estimation of the potential social and economic damage (direct and indirect) has to be carried out for each specific risk scenario. Contingency plans to manage interventions in the aftermath of disasters have also to be defined. Decisional processes workflow (according to the rules) has to be set up and uploaded in a Decision Support System (implemented in a GIS) for a real-time management of prospective emergency situations. This approach may support local decision makers to define the type and magnitude of the expected losses due to a dangerous event. The knowledge of the prospective physical effects and economic consequences may help to allocate economic resources for prevention and mitigation measures and to decide how to manage resources during the aftermath of critical hydrogeological events. Anyway some crucial drawbacks may undermine the consistency of the framework above mentioned: - the return period of the expected event; - the expected magnitude of the event; - the prospective economic losses.

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This methodology permits to estimate the potential losses (the number of fatalities, injured people, and the impact to buildings and infrastructure) within pre-defined hazard and vulnerability scenarios. People responsible for urban and territorial planning may build up realistic scenarios, characterized by physical, social, and economic parameters related to the event, to the risk elements, and to the environment system. The Corvara in Badia case study will be presented.

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GEOHERITAGE AND GEOHAZARDS OF THE VANCOUVER 2010 OLYMPIC AREA


1 Dept. of Earth Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, Canada 2 Dip. Scienze della Terra, Universit di Torino Corresponding author: Marco Giardino, e-mail: marco.giardino@unito.it J. Clague1 & M. Giardino2

The spreading of knowledge on the geological environment is a relevant contribution from Earth scientists to society. Books, maps, posters, and other geoscience products are very helpful not only for educators and students but also for professionals and the general public, as happened for volunteers and visitors to the 2006 Winter Olympics in Torino, Italy. Based on this we have initiated a project to produce relevant Earth science information to 2010 Olympic volunteers and visitors in Vancouver area. The three objectives of the project are to (1) produce a booklet and website showcasing the geology and geologic issues of Vancouver, Whistler, and the Sea-to-Sky corridor; (2) provide information on the geoheritage of the area for 2010 Olympic volunteers; and (3) educate Olympic volunteers to maintain a safe natural environment. As conceptual framework, some interpretative keys are offered here to people who want to approach Geoheritage and Geohazards of the Vancouver 2010 Olympics Area. First, we invite people looking to the surrounding landscapes with the eyes of an Earth scientists. Which means: conducting interrogative observations, always trying to recognize geological and geomorphological features, collecting information on their characteristics (dimension, shape, type of constituent material etc.) and (possibly) understanding their meaning in term of agents and processes responsible of their formation, factors controlling the environment where they formed, and elapsed time since their formation. This is the fundamental step towards the geological knowledge on a landscape. But could be insufficient in order to understand the possible relationships between the geological environment and the Man and the Society. In order to make clear view on this important topic, and offer a second interpretative key to the readers, a further conceptual framework is proposed here, derived from scientific literature. Following this scheme, possible connections and interactions between these two main actors of the Global Scene (and of the Vancouver one, too) are differently interpreted, based on their passive or active roles. For the geological environment, this means acting as Resources (GeoHeritage) or GeoHazards, with respect to the Man and the Society, who behaves as a vulnerable territory or performs human activities. From those relationships, some negative consequences can arise by active roles of geological environment and the Man and the Society, in term of IMPACT of human activities on Geoheritage, or RISK induced by GeoHazards on vulnerable territory. Still, some positive attitudes can be developed by Man and the Society such as geoconservation measures for reducing impacts or preparedness activities for preventing risks.

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The relevant geoscience information we collected for the handbook and the website summarize, in lay terms: (1) geoheritage of Vancouver, Whistler, and Sea-to-Sky corridor, and (2) natural processes, including hazardous ones, that operate in the area. Some sites have been selected for better illustrating these contents:
Introduction: Geotectonic setting of the Cypress Lookout Pacific Coast, major physiographic Seismic hazards units of the Vancouver area Porteau Cove Hove Sound, Submerged moraine BC Mining Museum Site (1) Geoheritage (2) Geohazards

Rock falls from fractured granite Britannia Flood, 1921 (risks connected to climbing activity)

Britannia Town

Stawamus Chief Cliff, Glacial feature The Barrier

Clinker Peak lava flow (Garibaldi lake, Landslide, Debris flow Mt. Garibaldi Volcano) (1855 and recent)

Brandywine falls Lava Flows, Postglacial river network Whistler and Blackcomb Mistery Creek Glaciated area of Fitzsimmons Range Post glacial modeling of slopes

(risks connected to tourism activity )

Debris Flows and prevention measures Rock avalanches

The handbook and website will include maps, photos, simple block diagrams, and descriptive text to allow volunteers and visitors to easily understand the local geology and the natural processes that have shaped the landscape. The intent is also to train volunteers to better answer questions from visitors on the geology of the Olympic area.

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The Tessina landslide, first triggered in October 1960, is a complex movement featured by an upper source area of rotational slides turning into a mud flow, that moves through a steep channel lapping the village of Funes and stretching into the Tessina valley down to the village of Lamosano (north-eastern Alps). In the 1960s, several reactivations involving about 5 million m3 occurred, causing the filling for a thickness of 30-50 m of the Tessina valley. These movements seriously endangered the village of Funes, which is situated on a steep ridge facing the valley. At that time, Funes was hanging relatively high above the valley, but now it is at nearly the same level as the mud surface. In spring 1992, two large rotational slides occurred after a very long rainy period, causing the collapse of a 70,000 m2 wide area, with a volume bigger than 1 million m3. The dismembered material from this area was channelled along the valley where, due to the continuous remoulding and increase of water content, it formed a large hazardous mud flow, inducing the local Authority to evacuate temporarily the inhabitants of Funes and Lamosano. In 1994, a long tunnel was excavated in the calcareous mass behind the slope, to possibly reduce the water infiltration from the fractured rock mass into the sliding area. After 1992, some other minor collapses leaded to the formation of smaller mud flows, characterized by an occurrence interval of about 3 years and a hazard level never exceeding that reached in 1992. Recently, the displacement rates monitored in a left hand-side area hanging above the valley, considered stable up to some years ago, suggested a possible future big collapse, thus raising up the risk level. The instability problems affecting this sector could lead to a mobilisation of a huge sector on the left-hand slope of the valley involving some million m3 of material. Further investigation activities, such as geophysical surveys and displacements monitoring by means of GPS and conventional topographic techniques have been carried out in order to better define the volume of the moving mass and the interrelationship among the most significant factors affecting its possible collapse. Moreover numerical simulation using FLAC 2D code based on finite difference method has been carried out. The results of numerical simulation carried out using an elasto-visco-plastic model proved that highly unfavourable atmospheric conditions

1 Dip. Ingegneria Idraulica Marittima Ambientale e Geotecnica, Universit di Padova 2 Istituto di Ricerca per la Protezione Idrogeologica, CNR-IRPI, Padova Corresponding author: Alessandro Pasuto, e-mail: alessandro.pasuto@irpi.cnr.it

S. Cola1, N. Calabr1, G. Marcato2, A. Pasuto2, S. Silvano2 & P. Simonini1

NEW EVOLUTIONARY SCENARIOS ON THE TESSINA LANDSLIDE (NORTH-EASTERN ALPS) AND POSSIBLE MITIGATION MEASURES

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(high precipitation, melting of thick snow cover) could result in a substantial decreasing of rock mass mechanical properties. It could cause sudden acceleration of the movement and eventually the failure of entire slope in a very short time. The results of these studies showed some measures that may be applied in order to improve the overall stability and reduce the risk in the valley.

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HOLOCENE ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE IN NORTHERN APENNINES: THE MT. CUSNA PALEOSURFACE


1 Dip. Scienze della Terra A. Desio, Universit di Milano 2 IDPA - Istituto Dinamica Processi Ambientali, CNR Milano 3 Dip. Biologia, Universit di Milano Corresponding author: Chiara Compostella, e-mail: chiara.compostella@unimi.it C. Compostella1, L. Trombino1,2 & M. Caccianiga3

The aim of this study is the reconstruction of the Holocene environmental changes of the Mt. Cusna paleosurface through the analysis of soil data coming from field observation, soil micromorphology and anthracological analysis. The study area is located on the northern slope of Mt Cusna (2120 m a.s.l.), above 1700 m. The climate is sub-mediterranean with abundant and well distributed precipitations (2000 mm/y), showing a summer minimum. The bedrock consists in turbiditic sandstones and marls, with intercalated sequences of claystones and limestones. The geomorphological processes that have shaped the area are glacial and periglacial, slope, fluvial, karstic and anthropic processes. At present, the most important ones consist in mass movements and diffuse and channeled water erosion. The present vegetation is characterized by a deciduous forest dominated by Fagus sylvatica, up to 1700 m (potential treeline: about 1730 m). The areas above the treeline host herbaceous vegetation and Vaccinium-dominated heathland. The area was settled during the Boreal and Atlantic by mesolithic hunters; occasional frequentation in the Subboreal, Iron Age and Roman Age has been recorded. Soils can be grouped into two types. In the lowermost area (up to 1900 m) Entisols, Spodosols and Inceptisols can be observed. Paleosols, relict and buried by colluvial deposits, also occur, with frequent sedimentological and pedological discontinuity and stone lines; recent soils are developing on these colluvial deposits. In the uppermost area, podzolization is the most important process, but its development is frequently limited by erosion. Buried paleosols in the lowermost area characterize an ancient surface, the Mt. Cusna paleosurface, extensively glacialized during the glacial maxima, then subjected to pedogenesis and finally superficially eroded and buried during the Holocene. In the present study we individuated and described 10 soil profiles between 1700 and 2000 m; samples were taken from each soil horizon for physical and chemical analyses and a selective sampling was performed with Kubiena boxes to obtain soil thin sections. Wherever found, charcoals were sampled, identified through optical and electron microscopy and prepared for radiocarbon dating. In all the sampling sites the profiles show recent and shallow topsoil and a more developed and thicker buried soil (i.e. paleosol). The two soils are separated by a dark brown horizon, limited upward by a discontinuity surface. This situation has been already observed on the Mt. Cusna paleosurface, but it has been never found before

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above 1800 m. These newly discovered buried soils could thus belong to the paleosurface that should be extended upwards. Moreover, evidences of brunification in the buried soil suggest the occurrence of a past forest cover well above the present treeline. In this light, charcoal analysis allowed the reconstruction of the past vegetation and the fire history. The most common charcoals in the area, sampled in the buried soil, derived from Laburnum, Juniperus and Abies wood. Fagus, the main species presently occurring at the treeline, is not represented in the charcoals. The AMS radiocarbon dating of a Laburnum charcoal sample to 3920-3700 y cal BP allowed to assign this vegetation to the Subboreal. Previous dating of the deciduous species charcoal suggested the decrease of mixed deciduous forest and the successive spread of Fagus during the first anthropic frequentation phase (Boreal and Atlantic); on the contrary, our charcoal analysis date the fire event and the lowering of the treeline within the Subboreal, the period of the second anthropic frequentation phase. Our results suggest the permanence of the forest at high altitude for a longer time than expected and could give a minimum age for the colluvial episodes and the burial of paleosols.

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SUSCEPTIBILITY ASSESSMENT FOR FLOWS LANDSLIDE IN THE UPPER SALSO RIVER BASIN (SICILY)
Dip. Geologia e Geodesia, Universit di Palermo Corresponding author: Christian Conoscenti, e-mail: conoscenti@unipa.it C. Conoscenti, F. Quagliana, A. Rizzitello & E. Rotigliano

A landslide susceptibility assessment has been carried out in the upper sector of the Salso river basin, which drains from the Sicilian Apennines chain southward to the Sicilian channel. The investigated area extends for 157 km2 and is characterized by the outcropping of carbonate, siliceous-carbonate and siliciclastic successions, whose structural setting is the results of the compressive phase that, starting from Oligocene, built up the Sicilian chain. Rainfalls, having an annual average value of 710 mm, concentrate from September to March, while are less than 30 mm during the summer season. Field surveys carried out in 2008 allowed to recognize 413 landslide bodies, 397 of which are classified as earth- or debris-flows. In the largest part of the cases the depth of the deformed volumes is limited to some meters. The activity of the mapped landslide is typically linked to rainfalls that are responsible for the water content increasing of the sandy-clayey complexes. In order to assess the landslide susceptibility of the investigated area, a multivariate approach constrained to physiographic mapping units, has been implemented and submitted to validation. A 40 x 40 m DEM of the area has been extracted from contour lines and elevation points, vectorized from 1:10,000 topographic raster coverage. The DEM allowed to compute both the flow direction and the flow accumulation grids that were exploited to semi-automatically subdivide the area in a number of 1410 slope units. These are morphodynamically considered as independent spatial domains, made up of territory cells strictly interconnected. Each slope unit is limited by a water divide at the head, and a stream at the foot. In light of the extension of the DEM cell, small units have been created with a width threshold value of at least 100 m. As the intention was to apply a multivariate approach, in order to produce enough populated groups of equivalent slope units, the number of factors and classes was to be kept as low as possible. The slope units have been characterized with respect to four controlling factors: mean steepness (STP), mean stream power index (SPI) at the foot, slope unit length (LNG) and outcropping lithology (LTL). The first two parameters have been directly computed for each slope unit by means of zonal statistics functions applied to the DEM derived slope angle and stream power index grids. Three classes have been adopted for the steepness, while only two ones are adopted for SPI at the foot and LNG. Finally, the outcropping lithology was derived from available vectorized geological maps, that were before field checked, characterizing the slope units according to the single or to the association of lithologic complexes (lithologies outcropping for less than 20% of the slope unit extension have been neg-

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lected). In such a way a number of 120 Unique Condition Slope Units (UCSU) was obtained. Each mapped landslide body was represented by a single point, automatically located as its centroid, and an intersection between slope units and landslide centroids was performed. Each UCSU was so characterized in term of the ratio between number of landslide centroids and its area, assuming this as the landslide susceptibility function. A multivariate susceptibility map was finally produced and submitted to a validation procedure. The landslide centroids have been split in a training and a test subset and the capability of the susceptibility model, which was derived by using the training centroids, to reproduce the spatial distribution of the test centroids has been evaluated. The validation procedure, whose results are analyzed in the domain of the success and the prediction curves, are largely satisfactory, demonstrating how the 50% of the test landslide centroids falls on the 18% of the most susceptible predicted UCSU.

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THEMATIC ITINERARY AMONG THE GEOMORPHOSITES OF SUPRAMONTE (CENTRAL-EAST SARDINIA, ITALY)


1 Dip. Scienze della Terra, Universit di Modena-Reggio Emilia 2 Dip. Scienze della Terra, Universit di Bologna 3 Dip. Teorie e Ricerche dei Sistemi culturali, Universit di Sassari Corresponding author: Valeria Panizza, e-mail: valeria@uniss.it P. Coratza1, J. De Waele2 & V. Panizza3

The study of geomorphosites in karst areas has already brought our research team in many parts of the Island (Gulf of Orosei, Iglesiente-Sulcis, Tacchi, Monte Albo etc.) Thanks to different national and international projects, our team has intensified these researches, and in this paper the results of a study in Supramonte, the most important karst area of the Island, are presented. Supramonte is a fascinating carbonate massif of 170 km2 located in the central-eastern part of Sardinia composed of Middle Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous dolostones and limestones. The carbonate rocks, especially the limestones, are affected by intense karstification processes that have created particular and sometimes spectacular landforms and subterranean morphologies. Supramonte in a whole constitutes a unique landscape unit in which natural aspects largely overrule the human imprint on the environment and its great naturalistic value has been recognised at a national level. The area was inserted in the National Park of Gennargentu, legally defined but unfortunately never put into practice. In this paper several itineraries involving the most important superficial and hypogean geomorphosites of Supramonte are proposed, with regards to their geological and geomorphological interest. Some of these sites can be classified as International (Flumineddu-Gorropu canyon, Tiscali collapse sinkhole, Su Gologone resurgence, Su Sercone doline) and others as National Geomorphosites (Su Bentu-Sa Oche cave system, Sa Cheia doline etc.). The proposed itineraries have been constructed in order to involve a well defined number of geomorphosites that allow to understand and to explain the geological and geomorphological evolutional context in all its stages. In many cases the pathways can be closely related to human settlements and artefacts, such as old abandoned mule-tracks and cuiles (sheep-folds), Neolithic and Nuragic settlements or simply legends and tales. Also natural elements such as monumental trees, fauna and flora occupy an important place in the description of the pathways. The archaeological researches have found traces of ancient settlements going way back to the Upper Paleolithic, in particular archaeological excavations in Corbeddu cave have revealed the presence of Man since 13,000 years B.P., representing the oldest clearly documented human presence in Sardinia. The fact that not only scientific aspects are taken into account, enlarging the view also to the cultural and human components of the landscape, enriches the proposed itineraries and makes the fruition culturally more complete and wide. This important natural and cultural heritage should be properly used for a sustainable tourist development bringing new life into the local economy and enhancing the protection of the geomorphosites.

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GEOMORPHOLOGICAL PROCESSES IN THE CENTRAL SAHARA DURING THE HOLOCENE. RESPONSE OF FLUVIAL LANDFORMS AND HUMAN ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE: THE CASE OF THE WADI TANEZZUFT
Dip. Scienze della Terra A. Desio, Universit di Milano Corresponding author: Mauro Cremaschi, e-mail: mauro.cremaschi@unimi.it M. Cremaschi, A. Zerboni, A. Perego & C. Pizzi

The wadi Tanezzuft is a nowadays ephemeral fluvial course located in the SW Fezzan, an hyperarid region of the Libyan central Sahara. During the wet Holocene (10 to 5 Kyr BP) the pattern of wadi Tanezzuft was dominated by large gravel meanders, and it ended in a large lacustrine basin through a delta system located some 200 km northward from its catchment basin, close to the dune of the Ubari sand sea. In the same period the wadi Tanezzuft fed through a secondary branch the lake of Garat Ouda (some 80 km2 wide). In the region the transition to arid conditions occurred at c. 5 Kyr BP and the main consequence of climate change was the evolution of the fluvial pattern of the wadi Tanezzuft to a progressive more endorheic system. Distal and lateral delta-lake systems dried out in a very short time and therefore preserved almost intact the older geomorphological and sedimentological features representative for higher water discharge. The main river reduced its length of an half and changed its sediments from a gravel to a silt dominated deposit; furthermore it fed a narrow alluvial plain along its bed, which hosted an oasis. The extension of the oasis reduced progressively its size up to 1.5 Kyr BP, when the main oasis system collapsed and it broken up into several minor green areas, almost coincident with the still existent oasis of Ghat, Barkat and Feuet. During the early and middle Holocene wet period, the banks of the wadi Tanezzuft, the branches of the deltas, and the lakes shores were intensively inhabited by Epipalaeolithic and Mesolithic hunters and gathered and later by Pastoral-Neolithic communities, whose sites were found in number of hundreds. After the complete desiccation of the region, Late Pastoral-Neolithic and Garamantian communities settled the alluvial plain of the wadi Tanezzuft. Archaeological sites were mainly related to alluvial silts inside the oasis, promoting new strategy of soil exploitation and introducing agriculture, while the boundary between the oasis and the desert landscaped were marked by funerary monuments and concentrations of tethering stones, related to a marginal exploitation of the arid margins of the fertile alluvial plain.

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The Regional Landuse Plan of the Friuli Venezia Giulia Region has been recognised geosites as important environmental sites. The Department of Geological, Environmental and Marine Sciences of the Trieste University (DiSGAM-UniTs) on the behalf of the Friuli Venezia Giulia Geological Survey has created a database of 214 geosites amongst the preliminary list of 458 areas proposed by authorities and experts. The geosites have been divided into points, lines, areas, multiple and complex ones. Each geographical area has been made based on land surveys, references, geological and geomorphological aspects, aerial photos and/or geological maps. A point geosite has an area of less than 1 hectare and is characterised by a well defined stratigraphical and/or palaeontological site (e.g. the Dinosaur footprints of Casera Casavento), a spring (Fontanone di Barman), a waterfall (Cascata del Rio Cjampeit), a mountain cliff (Campanile di Val Montanaia), or a small area (the entrance of a cave). The area geosite has a surface of more than 1 hectare and has been mapped including its different characteristics: inside the same geological Formation (Formazione di Carnizza) and/or of the same morphological structure. During the mapping of this kind of geosites, the contour lines (the Lago Minisini lake), the steepness of the mountain (Rupe di Cesclans), the crest lines (Circo glaciale di Cima Cacciatori) have been taken into consideration. Tectonic lineaments have been found using a buffer that includes all the geological information related to that specific geosite including contacts between different lithologies (the Linea della Val Bordaglia fault). Some buffer areas have been made also for coastal and marine areas (Delta dello Stella). Other geosites include geological and morphological characteristics that link them, that may be considered alone but that make a geosite only if joint them together (limestone pavements of Campi solcati di Borgo Grotta Gigante). Linear geosites have been made as lines and they represents gullies, mountain rivers, fluvial terraces (Terrazzi fluviali di Claut), vertical slope outcrops (Formazione del Calcare di Monte Cavallo) and of any other linear morphologies (Spartiacque di Camporosso). Several multiple geosites have the same geological and geomorphological characteristics that may be found in different areas such as the Livenza springs in which

1 Dip. Scienze Geologiche, Ambientali e Marine, Universit di Trieste 2 Dip. Scienze della Terra e Geologico Ambientali, Universit di Bologna 3 Dir.ezione centrale ambiente e lavori pubblici, Servizio geologico, Regione FVG, Trieste 4 Museo Friulano di Storia Naturale, Udine 5 Dip. Geografia, Universit di Padova Corresponding author: Franco Cucchi, e-mail: cucchi@units.it

F. Cucchi1, L. Zini1, F. Finocchiaro1, G.B. Carulli1, B. Figus1, C. Venturini2, C. Piano3, A. Mereu1, B. Grillo1, S. Gerdol1, G. Muscio4, R. Marocco1, G. Tunis1, N. Pugliese1, M. Ponton1 & A. Fontana5

FRIULI VENEZIA GIULIA GEOSITE DATABASE

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each spring is a distinct geosite and the Fusine lakes in which it has been grouped together the glacial lakes and Pirona glacial rocks. When inside a geosite area, there are other different geosite types the term complex geosite has been proposed. An example of a complex geosite is the Altopiano di Foran del Muss that is an example of an alpine karst as well as is characterised by several other important scientific aspects (paleokarst caves, sedimentary dikes, Val Resia thrust and the fossils of the Dachstein Limestone). All these geosites have been subdivided into: more than national, national, regional, local interest. The geosite with an interest more than national are 15 and their importance is well known in Europe (the adrosaur of Villaggio del Pescatore is the only one complete in Europe). The geosites with a national interest are 33 and represent important geological and morphological areas of Friuli Venezia Giulia (Torrioni di Monrupino, Sorgenti del Livenza, Gruppo di Raibl). 166 geosites with regional interest have been mapped. These areas are very important for several aspects such as their rarity, their scholastic importance, their connection with other scientific fields: i.e. archaeology and environmental sciences. A good example of that are: the Raibl Mine, several caves and the gully of Cosa River.

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MORPHOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF DOLINES IN THE CARBONARA MASSIF (MADONIE MOUNTAINS - NORTHERN CENTRAL SICILY)
Dip. Geologia e Geodesia, Universit di Palermo Corresponding author: Giuliana Madonia, e-mail: madoniag@unipa.it V. Culotta., G. Madonia & M. Vattano

A study on karst landscape of the Carbonara Massif has been carried out through morphometric analysis of dolines. The Carbonara Massif occupies the Eastern sector of the Madonie mountains, in the Northern Central Sicily; it is made up mainly of Mesozoic platform limestones of the Panormide Units and it is affected by NWSE and NE-SW fault systems. Morphometry of dolines has been conducted by the analysis of several parameters directly acquired or derived by mathematical calculations. These parameters include maximum and minimum diameter, maximum and minimum depth, circularity index, orientation, area, depression density. The data have been obtained from large scale (1:10,000) topographic maps and aerial photographs, and from field surveys, in order to measure height data not obtainable from maps. In the karst area, 23.8 km wide, 434 dolines have been surveyed. The karst depressions develop mainly over 1600 m a.s.l., on sub-horizontal surfaces or along gentle slopes, occupying a total area of 23.8 km with an average density of 18 dolines/ km. The dolines are very different in size ranging from 19 m to 465 m in mean diameters and from 3 m to 110 m in depth; the perimeter vary from circular to elliptical or irregular. The analysis and the correlation between different parameters (e.g., diameter, depth, perimeter etc.) show that most of the depressions are solution dolines characterized by a well distinct closed perimeter and by a bowl or saucer shape. Nevertheless asymmetrical slope dolines, pit-like dolines, open dolines, shallow depressions with irregular shape and perimeter, complex dolines derived by coalescence of more depressions are present as well. Most of the dolines, showing circular perimeters and eccentricity value close to 1, develop on sub-horizontal surfaces, whereas elongated depressions or open dolines generally occur along steeply slopes. On planar surfaces, dolines with elliptical and/or irregular perimeter have been also analyzed; their maximum diameter is oriented in NW-SE and NE-SW directions, along the main tectonic discontinuity lines. Dolines differently elongated or with irregular perimeter are linked to the junction of more fracture systems or to inhomogeneous dissolution processes probably due to the snow staying longer along only one slope. Structural control does also influence the spatial distribution of karst depressions; dolines systems oriented along the same tectonic directions have been recognized. This study represents the first attempt to provide detailed geomorphological and quantitative data in order to define the genesis of karst depressions and to reconstruct the evolution of karst landscape in this sector of the Madonie mountains.

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MORPHOTECTONIC ANALYSIS OF THE FLUVIAL LANDSCAPE OF ABRUZZI PIEDMONT AREA (CENTRAL ITALY)
Dip. di Scienze della Terra, Universit G. dAnnunzio Chieti-Pescara Corresponding author: Enrico Miccadei, e-mail: miccadei@dst.unich.it L. DAlessandro, E. Miccadei & T. Piacentini

The piedmont of Abruzzi region is characterized by Mio-Plio-Quaternary terrigenous deposits, related to sin- and late-orogenic phases of the Apennines, and by post-orogenic Quaternary marine regressive deposits and fluvial continental deposits. The marine and continental sedimentary dynamics and the geomorphologic dynamics have been controlled by the linkage of different factors: Plio-Quaternary tectonics, regional uplift (since Early Pleistocene), climate changes, and eustatic variations. Erosive and depositional stages and tectonics have controlled and still control the morphostructural setting and the landscape, particularly in its most evident superficial expression: the drainage system. This work is the result of a research carried out on the morphogenesis of the central Adriatic piedmont of the Apennines, in response to Quaternary tectonic inputs. The study is focused on the timing of the drainage network evolution. It is based on the correlation of morphometric analysis of topography and drainage network, geomorphologic and morphostructural surveys, Quaternary continental deposits surveys in some drainage basins of the Abruzzi piedmont. From north to south: Vibrata CreekSalinello River, Tordino River, Pescara River, Sangro River and Osento River. These rivers show directions that, from WNW-ESE in the upper part of the valleys, turn into SW-NE in the lower ones, with some segments N-S or E-W striking. The drainage basins can be divided in sectors with different morphostructural and geological setting. The long profile analysis shows that the link between different sectors is marked by sharp long gradient changes. In the lower part of the valleys fluvial terraces are generally set in different orders with convergent geometry. The drainage was first outlined in a changing environment, from transitional to continental, with the setting up of an embryonic network, at present preserved only in remnants as paleo-network, hanging some hundreds meters above the present valley floors and showing clear plano-altimetric incongruence to the present flow directions. Then it has evolved following differential uplift and local tectonics, valley incision and widening, new depositional moments and valley fill, with the formation of SW-NE consequent main valleys occupied by convergent fluvial terraces. Secondary valleys are mainly NW-SE and markedly straight; they show clear fluvial bends, and counter flow junctions on the main valleys. The investigation on fluvial terraces and related deposits outlines the formation of a rectangular drainage network in late Middle Pleistocene. Such a pattern is controlled by fractures and low displacement faults mostly NW-SE joined to the ongoing uplift. Then, geomorphological analysis and morphostratigraphic correlation between different orders of alluvial terraces show that fluvial captures, of Mid(?)-Late Pleistocene age, have induced a strong rearrangement of the drainage systems of the lower parts of the valleys defining the present day configuration.

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CARATTERISTICHE GEOMORFOLOGICHE DEL GRAN SASSO DITALIA NELLAREA COMPRESA TRA CORNO GRANDE-CORNO PICCOLO E PIZZO INTERMESOLI
1 Universit G. dAnnunzio di Chieti-Pescara 2 EIM - Ente Italiano della Montagna, Roma Corresponding author: Massimo Pecci, e-mail: massimo.pecci@eim.gov.it P. DAquila1 & M. Pecci2

Lo studio geomorfologico di dettaglio, presentato nella relativa cartografia, rientra in una ricerca pi ampia, che comprende lanalisi delle condizioni meteoclimatiche, geomorfologiche, glaciologiche e nivologiche dellarea del Gran Sasso, finalizzato prevalentemente alla caratterizzazione e mitigazione dei processi geomorfologici attivi in alta quota e connotati da evoluzione rapida, quali le valanghe e le frane, in particolare in roccia; con il presente lavoro si completa lo studio dellarea di vetta del Gran Sasso dItalia, gi pubblicato per il settore Corno Grande-Corno Piccolo nel 2003. La zona in studio posta a ridosso del fronte di sovrascorrimento della catena del Gran Sasso dItalia che presenta forme controllate principalmente dalla struttura geologica e dai processi glaciali; infatti, sono state identificate importanti ed evidenti morfostrutture legate al diretto effetto della tettonica che condizionano, alla macroscala, i principali allineamenti vallivi, oltre che promuovere, grazie alla presenza di elementi strutturali attivi nel tempo geologico, la diffusione dei fenomeni gravitativi, nonch le diffuse forme legate allazione dei ghiacciai quaternari. Limpronta glaciale risulta evidente nelle numerose forme inattive di erosione e di accumulo riconducibili allUltimo Massimo Glaciale e nella presenza del Ghiacciaio del Calderone che, pur se suddiviso in due placche a partire dal 2000, ancora considerato lapparato pi meridionale dEuropa. Diffuse sono anche le forme riconducibili ai processi crio-nivali e, subordinatamente, ai processi fluviali, fluvioglaciali e di versante dovute al dilavamento e legati al carsismo e allalterazione meteorica. La presenza delluomo risulta sporadica, ma pu individuare condizioni di rischio quando interagisce con la dinamica gravitativa legata a frane in roccia, come quella del Paretone del 22 agosto 2006, o alle valanghe. I dati di terreno presentati nella cartografia geomorfologica di questarea di alta montagna appenninica sono stati studiati effettuando un rilevamento di dettaglio dellarea alla scala 1:5.000, anche tramite lutilizzo di GPS (Global Posititon System), e sono stati restituiti alla scala 1:10.000. Al rilevamento di terreno seguita la digitalizzazione, elaborazione e restituzione cartografica dei dati in ambiente GIS (Geographic Information System).

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ON THE AGE OF CAVE SYSTEMS IN SARDINIA


Dip. Scienze della Terra e Geologico-Ambientali, Universit di Bologna Corresponding author: Jo De Waele, e-mail: jo.dewaele@unibo.it J. De Waele

At present, more than 3,000 caves have been documented in Sardinia thanks to the extraordinary efforts of local and extra-insular caving associations in the past 60 years. The Island hosts some of the most important karst systems of Italy, such as Codula Ilune cave system (Urzulei, more than 42 km of surveyed passages), the Bue Marino cave (Dorgali, 17 km), Su Bentu-Sa Oche cave system (Oliena, 17 km), Sa Rutta e SEdera cave (Urzulei, 12 km) and several others. The most important karst areas are the Mesozoic carbonates of Supramonte region, the Gulf of Orosei, Monte Albo, the Tacchi region and the Nurra of Alghero, the Palaeozoic carbonates of Iglesiente-Sulcis and the Miocene limestones in Sassari province. Many caves are still active today and host important underground streams, while others are located far above or below the local base level (valley floor or sea level). In the coastal karst areas important cave systems are submerged by the sea but show important speleothem formation up to 60 meters depth. The Late Quaternary age of these systems, however, can be deduced from their formation during periods of sea level oscillations. Many cave systems are also developed on several levels over a vertical distance up to 200 meters. Other caves have been discovered inside mine galleries and host important mineralizations, sometimes completely filling them. Cave development may have developed in different geological periods, when climatic and geographical situations allowed for dissolution of the carbonate rocks. Timing these karst events can be an extremely difficult task and is based on a combination of geomorphological, mineralogical and stratigraphic observations coupled with absolute dating methods. A cave can often not be directly dated, but its physical and chemical deposits sometimes can. This allows for a minimum age determination of the voids these deposits occupy. Up to recently caves older than Quaternary were believed to occur only in the Palaeozoic carbonates of Iglesiente-Sulcis. The Santa Barbara cave system, as we can see it today, is believed to have been formed during Carboniferous, with its famous barite crystals depositing during Oligo-Miocene and the calcite-aragonite speleothems only during the Quaternary. Other caves in the region, especially the deep ones found during mine exploitation, might be of the same age, and in any case are older than Quaternary. The discovery in the 70s of basalts in some karst conduits in the Bue Marino cave lead to the conclusion that karst development might have started before the onset of Quaternary. These basalts, attributed to the Plio-Pleistocene (K/Ar dating was done some 30 years ago), also fill conduits in the famous Golgo shaft (Baunei) and in a new cave discovered in Codula Ilune (Preda Molina). Cosmogenic dating of quartz sediments in one of the highest and thus oldest - levels in Su Palu cave (Codula Ilune cave system) have confirmed an age of 2 My,

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meaning these conduits predate Quaternary. The same method was used for the dating of some caves at different levels in the Taquisara valley (Gairo, Tacchi region) confirming all these caves, and thus the Taquisara valley incision, to be older than 2 x 106 years. All these data definitively confirm that underground karst development in several areas of Sardinia must have started before the onset of Quaternary. And it would not be surprising to find caves as old as Messinian, or even older. Further investigations (e.g. palaeomagnetism) might give further insights into this matter.

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Given its practical importance, the interest towards geomorphological hazard evaluation has been growing in time. This study proposes the improvement of an already tested quantitative geomorphic methodology for evaluating objectively the susceptibility of a given area to suffer the consequences of hazardous processes, as mass movements, accelerated erosion and flooding. Spatial prediction of hazardous processes must consider information on past events that produce a better probability evaluation with respect to the simple attribution of an a priori determination. Thus this study applies probabilistic Bayesian approach, and concepts linked to conditional probability, to assign a weight to the influence of each level of instability factors in causing hillslope denudation. To fulfil this aim, the spatial variations of parameters values have been analysed as function of the present areal distribution of hazardous processes. Map overlaying allowed to select those factors that - having been the most important in explaining spatial distribution of hazardous processes in the study area in the past - are the most likely responsible factors of future events. Some statistical parameters, as measures of inequality distributions and the Lorenz curve, have been applied for the purpose. Results of this analysis afford the numerical evaluation of the importance of the presence/absence in the study areas of each instability factor. Therefore, this procedure leads both to: a) selection of the instability factors and b) determination of the weight of each parameters value ranges. Moreover, the method allows the compilation of thematic maps showing the spatial distribution of the degree of susceptibility to each typology of dangerous process through a non-a-priori index computation. The results have been at last verified by means of a validation procedure in order to exclude randomness of the output. To this end, susceptibility evaluation method has been applied to a portion of the Orcia River basin (Tuscany), using long-period data about the effects of erosional processes.

Dip. Scienze della Terra, Universit di Roma La Sapienza Corresponding author: Marta Della Seta, e-mail: marta.dellaseta@uniroma1.it

M. Della Seta, M. Del Monte, P. Fredi, E. Lupia Palmieri & F. Vergari

A CONTRIBUTE TO THE UNBIASED EVALUATION OF GEOMORPHOLOGICAL HAZARD

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NEW EVIDENCE OF LATE QUATERNARY DIFFERENTIAL UPLIFT IN THE NORTHERN MARCHE APENNINES (CENTRAL ITALY)
1 Dip. Scienze della Terra, Universit di Roma La Sapienza 2 Dip. Scienze dellUomo, dellAmbiente e della Natura, Universit di Urbino Carlo Bo Corresponding author: Olivia Nesci, e-mail: olivia.nesci@uniurb.it M. Della Seta1, P. Fredi1, O. Nesci2, D. Savelli2 & F. Troiani2

A river terrace staircase, dating back from Middle Pleistocene to Holocene, characterizes the northern Marche main valleys draining the Adriatic sector of the UmbriaMarche-Romagna Apennines. Flights of river terraces cover heights ranging from less than 100 m up to 150-200 m above the present thalweg, highlighting for all the major rivers comparable late Quaternary incision rates. The direct connection between fluvial incision and crustal uplift is usually difficult to determine, since other factors, such as climate changes, are likely to influence fluvial incision rates. Nonetheless, terrace heights in the northern Marche main valleys often show such high values that can be regarded, at least in part, as the result of the documented regional uplift affecting the area. Late Quaternary averaged fluvial incision rates had been calculated along the northern Marche littoral sectors of the main valleys. The comparison among incision rates obtained for adjacent valleys suggested the occurrence of differential uplift, at least since late Middle Pleistocene. Reconstructed ancient valley longitudinal profiles referred to the middle Pleistocene and Upper Pleistocene fill terrace sequences provided some constraints, pointing out the existence of both knick-zones and lowered sectors, variously interpreted as the result of differential uplift and anticline growth. This work is aimed to provide new qualitative and quantitative geomorphic data for the inner sectors of the Foglia, Metauro, and Cesano river basins, in order to better estimate the late Quaternary fluvial incision rates. Obtained values were compared among adjacent valleys, along three topographic transepts. Estimation of the fluvial incision rates was coupled with the geostatistical analysis of the spatial distribution of the amplitude of relief, in order to better constrain the long-term fluvial incision within the orographic setting of the area. The final aims of this work are outlining both regional and differential forcing of crustal uplift on river terrace altimetric distribution, along the inner and lowermost sectors of three major river basins of the northern Marche, and provide for new data in order to discern the tectonic control from other possible factors influencing the river terrace distribution.

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PRELIMINARY STUDY OF THE SPECCHIE PHENOMENON IN THE MURGIA OF TARANTO


1 Ufficio di Piano Protezione Civile, Programmazione e Assetto del Territorio, Provincia di Taranto 2 IAMC CNR, Taranto Corresponding author: Sabrina Del Piano, e-mail: sabrina.delpiano@gmail.com S. Del Piano Pastore1 & M.A. Pastore2

The present paper is the study on the relation among the stone structures, so called specchie, and the landscape, in the Martina Franca country (Apulia, Southern Italy). Though the specchie are characteristic elements in the Southern Apulia, nevertheless a great number of them had been destroyed for different activity (land reclamation, road buildings etc.). On the contrary in the country of Martina, featured by means woods alternated to agricultural areas, the specchie are numerous and better preserved than elsewhere, structured on the Altamura Limestones, on which the karstification engraves with a lot of forms (sink holes, canyons, canyons dales, graves etc.). In such country we have to consider as the specchie as the trulli and the so called muretti a secco like anthropic factors. The specchia word, from latin specula, appears for the first time in medieval documents (DEI, V, p.3582, Florence 1966), with meaning of screwing stations or bordering signals. Antonio De Ferraris (1444-1517) was thinking the specchie as prehistoric tumuli, but Girolamo Marciano (1571-1628) interpreted them as local defensive works. Later, Cosimo De Giorgi (1842-1922) had deeming they were protohistoric stronghold works, along the Peninsula of Salento. Ciro Drago (1895-1960) proposed again the specchie as tumuli, comparing them with the necropolis of Glasinac plateau in Bosnia region near Sarajevo. Recently seven specchie in the country of Salve (Lecce district) were studied and archaeologists found remnants as pottery fragments, vases of Laterza and Gaudo style and human burnt rests, dated 2600-2300 b.C. (Bronze age - Iron age). In the present study we use the modern instruments of investigation as remote sensing and G.I.S., to produce a thematic cartography and a landscape reconstruction of the phenomenon. The data verification (still in course) allow us to state as the presence of structure models (subcircular or elliptic plants, with one or two levels; external steps to the top etc.) as, for a certain number of them, the worship function (presence of one or more subcircular holes on the top) besides the probable inhumation function. Also, we can state that the range of preferred shares is 350- 410 metres a.s.l.; the preferential distribution of a certain number of specchie in the same area is with NO-SE orientation; the middle basal diameter is 7-15 metres and the high 1.5-5 metres; moreover, when they are grouped in the same camp, their middle distance is 30 metres long; frequently they are building directly on the calcareous fold apparitions. Finally, the winning-post of the research is a deeper knowledge of the culture and the landscape, useful to protection, defence and improvement of this territory.

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GLI INDICI CLIMATICI PER LA CARATTERIZZAZIONE GEOAMBIENTALE DEL PAESAGGIO DELLAPPENNINO SANNITA (CAMPANIA)
Dip. Studi Geologici e Ambientali, Universit del Sannio, Benevento Corresponding author: Michele Sisto, e-mail: micsisto@unisannio.it A. Di Lisio, S. Lo Curzio, F. Russo & M. Sisto

Il territorio dellAppennino sannita corrisponde in massima parte alle province amministrative di Avellino e Benevento. Esso caratterizzato dal punto di vista tettono-stratigrafico da due regioni differenti. La regione occidentale contraddistinta dalla presenza di rilievi carbonatici di et meso-cenozoica con diffuse fenomenologie carsiche, caratterizzati da elevata altimetria e costituenti importanti acquiferi. La regione orientale, invece, per gran parte caratterizzata da litologie prevalentemente argilloso-sabbioso-marnose di et mio-pliocenica, ricoperte da materiali conglomeratico-sabbioso-limosi di et quaternaria. Il paesaggio si presenta con modesti rilievi a pendenza attenuata e cospicua rete idrografica, sviluppata al punto da influenzare levoluzione dinamica dei versanti. Tutta la regione, inoltre, contrassegnata da unelevatissima pericolosit sismica e idrogeologica. La molteplicit degli ambienti naturali presenti in questo settore appenninico d luogo ad una ricca variet di paesaggi, che solo negli ultimi decenni hanno subito una forte manomissione, non sempre rispettosa dei locali ambiti ecologici. Le aree alluvionali sono condizionate da una pressione antropica crescente e di forte impatto; al contrario, le aree collinari e montuose sono in massima parte abbandonate o in via di abbandono, con conseguente deterioramento della superficie del rilievo in termini di degradazione del suolo, a causa delle mancate pratiche conservative e di adeguate sistemazioni agro-forestali. Il clima della regione tipicamente mediterraneo a stagione secca ed esso condiziona fortemente il quadro territoriale e socio-economico locale. Tuttavia, una tale definizione climatica della regione sembra essere inappropriata, in quanto larticolazione del rilievo che in questa zona rappresenta lo spartiacque appenninico, e la diversa provenienza dei flussi meteorologici, sia dai quadranti occidentali che da quelli orientali, giocano un ruolo determinante nella definizione locale di assetti microclimatici non privi di peculiarit ecologiche, termo-pluviometriche, agrarie, che danno luogo a paesaggi talvolta prosperi, altre volte monotoni. In questo quadro fortemente influenzato dallassetto geomorfologico locale estremamente variabile si inserisce questa ricerca volta a definire, attraverso alcuni indici climatici, le caratteristiche climatiche di dettaglio di questo settore dellAppennino. I dati climatici analizzati si riferiscono a serie storiche di durata differenti (alcune decennali, altre pluridecennali) provenienti da diverse decine di stazioni distribuite, sia arealmente che altrimetricamente, su tutto il territorio appenninico esaminato. Dai dati sono ricavati indici climatici che pi appropriatamente descrivono lassetto geoambientale dellarea investigata: pluviofattore di Lang (IL); indice di aridit di

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de Martonne (IA); capacit erosiva del clima o indice di Fournier (K), modificato da Arnoldus e classificato dal CORINE-CEC; indice di aggressivit della pioggia R della RUSLE; indice di continentalit idrica di Gams (Cl); indici di continentalit di Gorczinsky (Ic), di Gottmann (IG), di Conrad, di Currey; indice pluviometrico annuale di Moral; indice di Emberger o quoziente pluviometrico (Q); indice igrotermico di Amann (H); indice xerotermico di Bagnouls e Gaussen; indice di Crowther (IC); evapotraspirazione secondo Turc e Thornthwaite; bilancio idroclimatico; indice bioclimatico (IB) di J. L. Vernet; indice di aridit UNEP. Per ciascuna stazione i dati relativi ad ogni serie sono stati tabulati al fine di definire attraverso gli indici le caratteristiche climatiche che esse documentano. Ciascuno di questi indici stato opportunamente trattato sia con tecniche matematico-statistiche, sia con tecniche empiriche per la produzione di unadeguata cartografia tematica maggiormente rispondente alle caratteristiche geoambientali dellarea esaminata. In particolare, alcuni di essi hanno mostrato unattitudine ad essere correlati allaltimetria e allacclivit del paesaggio se confrontati con un Modello Digitale del Terreno (con risoluzione di 20 m per pixel), che costituisce la base cartografica implementata in ambiente GIS. Tra questi particolarmente significativi si sono rivelati gli indici relativi a: 1) aridit come quelli di de Martonne (IA) e Crowther (IC), riferibili al rischio incipiente di desertificazione che pu colpire alcuni settori orientali della catena appenninica e ai risvolti sul regime colturale/irriguo; 2) capacit aggressiva della pioggia (indice di Fournier, mod. FAO), che pu essere relazionato anche soprattutto al rischio desertificazione valutando le condizioni alterative a cui sono sottoposti suoli gi stressati dalla siccit anche nei confronti degli eventi meteorici improvvisi e violenti; 3) aggressivit della pioggia R, sensu RUSLE, assai utile nella valutazione dellestremizzazione dei fenomeni, con rilevanti conseguenze sulla instabilit dei versanti.

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GEOMORPHOMETRY AND GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM FOR THE QUANTIFICATION OF THE EROSIVE EFFECTS IN MISCANO RIVER BASIN (SOUTHERN ITALY)
Dip. Studi Geologici e Ambientali, Universit del Sannio, Benevento Corresponding author: Antonio Di Lisio, e-mail: antoniodilisio@gmail.com A. Di Lisio, F. Russo & M. Sisto

The investigated area, the Miscano river basin in Campania (Southern Italy), is a territory interested by marly and clayey lithologies, whose prevalent land use is agricultural and woodland. In general, the area is characterized by a typically Mediterranean climate with rainy season during winter, and summer aridity in July and August. The monthly average temperature is included from a minimum of 3C and a maximum of 22C. The lowlands and hilly areas are characterized by a sub-humid to sub-arid climate; generally, the mountain areas are affected by a climate more humid. The mean annual unitary suspended sediment yield (Tu) is the principal parameter utilised to valuate indirectly the erosion rates. As its well known, the use of this approach is much faster since it requests few morphometric parameters calculable through statistic-mathematic method. To elaborate and to analyse the morphometric basin data collected, a software was used. This evaluation has been possible thanks to a creation of a dataset with attached database and of thematic maps. These instruments are able to give information in short time about relations between geo-environmental factors and Suspended Transport. To obtain these results two procedures were used. The first one is semi-automatic, while the second one is an automatic procedure. In the first case, the hydrographic network was derived, hand digitising in a GIS, through cartography and aereal photography analysis of the study area. Moreover, every hydrographic network was correlated to a database, which provides information to evaluate different index of geomorphic quantitative analysis, and to compose the thematic maps such as the one related to the Drainage Density referred to a subbasin scale or the mean annual unitary suspended sediment yield in the basin. Related to the automatic procedure, it was possible to calculate other geomorphic parameters, such as the Relief Energy or the Stream Power Index, only using the Digital Terrain Model (DTM). Furthermore, it was possible to calculate different value of Drainage Density for every single lithologic complex and land use unit (parameter of Drainage area Density), and the Drainage Density using a basin obtained from the DTM too. Also for this procedure, the elaboration and the analysis were presented in thematic maps. Accordingly, the hydrographic network, which have a Drainage Density value near to 6, are conditioned by the presence of hierarchical anomalies, both as the high SPI and the medium-high Er values. Furthermore, it was possible to define the stages of evolution of hydrographic network especially the young phase, according to Davis Cycle, and some cases of rejuvenation. Ultimately, its possible to affirm that thanks to GIS, the Quantitative Classic Geomorphic Analysis can be applied to river contexts far to normality, in according to the definition of Horton and Strahler. This application can be applied, spending short time, at a regional scale and can be useful to create cartographic maps easy to update and to consult.

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IL RUOLO DEI FENOMENI VULCANICI E DELLATTIVITA DELLUOMO NEL CONTROLLO DI PROCESSI EROSIVI NELLISOLA DI VULCANO
1 Dip. Geologia e Geodesia, Universit di Palermo 2 I.N.G.V., Sezione di Palermo Corrisponding author: Francesco Paolo Di Trapani, e-mail: f.ditrapani@unipa.it F. Di Trapani1, C. Di Maggio1 & P. Madonia2

Il versante nord-occidentale del cono de La Fossa, nellIsola di Vulcano, interessato da evidenti processi di erosione idrica influenzati sia dallattivit vulcanica sia dallattivit antropica. La presenza di un substrato facilmente erodibile e lassenza di vegetazione nelle aree sommitali del cono dovuta ad intensa attivit esalativa, favoriscono lintensa erosione dei prodotti vulcanici incoerenti dellultimo ciclo eruttivo, con formazione di numerosi e profondi gullies. Lo sbocco naturale della rete di gullies che solca il versante indagato una pianura deposizionale sulla quale sorge parte del centro abitato dellisola. La costruzione di una strada ai piedi del cono ha sbarrato e deviato loriginario deflusso delle acque, con frequenti episodi di inondazione e alluvionamento lungo larea di Vulcano Porto durante la stagione piovosa. La costruzione di un sentiero di accesso carreggiabile che attraversa lintero versante studiato fino alle aree sommitali e le continue opere di sistemazione e spianamento effettuate con mezzi dopera meccanici e senza un opportuno dimensionamento, ha modificato lazione dei processi idrici favorendo, localmente, il manifestarsi di fenomeni di erosione accelerata del suolo che, durante la stagione piovosa, causano la quasi totale distruzione delle opere di presidio e il danneggiamento del sentiero stesso. Studi geomorfologici e topografici condotti sia attraverso rilievi diretti utilizzando strumenti GPS, sia attraverso osservazioni fotogeologiche, hanno mostrato una continua erosione di prodotti piroclastici dellultimo ciclo eruttivo e la progressiva esumazione di sottostanti e pi antichi tufi cineritici. Questa erosione ha comportato un arretramento verso valle sia degli affioramenti delle piroclastiti pi recenti sia, conseguentemente, della linea di contatto fra queste piroclastici e tufi cineritici pi antichi. In particolare, dal 1980 al 2005 il perimetro di questo contatto ha subito un incremento del 31% e la superficie esposta dei tufi rossastri aumentata del 9.1%. Gli studi condotti hanno inoltre mostrano una tendenza allapprofondimento e ad un maggiore sviluppo lineare di alcuni gullies a danno di altri, con formazione di vere e proprie forre. Tali modificazioni si sono manifestate con una certa intensit a partire dal 1988, dopo la costruzione del sentiero di accesso. Il sentiero da una parte ha infatti funzionato da via preferenziale di scorrimento, alimentando alcuni gullies che si sono sviluppati maggiormente; daltra parte ha decapitato le aree di alimentazione di altre incisioni, con diminuzione delle loro portate e dellazione erosiva. I fenomeni esalativi dovuti ad attivit vulcanica, che producono processi di argillificazione nei materiali vulcanici, sembrano inoltre agire con un effetto di feedback negativo sui movimenti gravitativi, favorendo linnesco di movimenti gravitativi.

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CHANGING GLACIERS IN A CHANGING CLIMATE: HOW VANISHING GEOMORPHOSITES HAVE BEEN DRIVING DEEP CHANGES IN MORPHOLOGY AND ECOLOGY OF HIGH MOUNTAIN LANDSCAPE
Dip. Scienze della Terra, Universit di Milano Corresponding author: Guglielmina Diolaiuti, e-mail: guglielmina.diolaiuti@unimi.it G. Diolaiuti & C. Smiraglia

The worldwide retreat of glaciers, from Alpine areas to Antarctica, in the course of the last few decades is frequently mentioned as a clear and unambiguous sign of global warming. In the Alps the warming experienced since the early 1980s is synchronous with warming at the global scale, nevertheless its amplitude is greater and it represents roughly a two-fold amplification of the global climate signal. As a result of this rapid climate evolution, many small glaciers could disappear in the next few decades. These small glaciers, common in the Alps, are also important in terms of environmental (e.g. hydrology, vegetation) and economic systems (e.g. tourism, water management). The rapid disintegration of Alpine glaciers has already been discussed in previous studies; minor attention, instead, has been paid to their role as changing and potentially vanishing geomorphosites. The largest part of Alpine glaciers, in fact, with their present fast variations driven by climate are responsible of unexpected environmental impacts that in the Italian Alps were only partially investigated. In the present contribution we analyse and discuss features and evolution of two representative glacier geomorphosites included in the official Geosites Inventory of the Sondrio Province (Lombardy, Italy). In Lombardy (Italian Alps) 348 glaciers are located (c. of the whole Italian number) covering in 2003 about 92 km2. They were found to be decreased by about 21% of their area in the period 1990-2003.The analyzed geomorphosites are the Forni Glacier, at 12 km2 of area the largest valley glacier of the Italian Alps, and the Val Viola glacialized basin, where different small glaciers with their well preserved moraine ridges (dating back from the upper Holocene up to now) can be found. Both the geosites are located in areas identified as SICs (Sites of Community Importance) according to the 92/43/CEE; in addition the Forni Glacier is also located in a protected area, the Stelvio National Park. These glacier geomorphosites are well representative of the variations affecting all Alpine glaciers; they are not only driving deep changes in the morphology and ecology of the present mountain landscape, and at the same time they are shaping newly formed morphologies, which may develop themselves in actual smaller geomorphosites with relevant scientific and cultural values: among the others, termokarst features as kettles and supraglacial lakes, debris covered glacier tongues frequently without any direct connections with the actual glacier, rounded rock outcrops on the glacier surface, ice contact and moraine-dammed lakes where calving phenomena occur and icebergs are sailing, moraines affected by ice core melting with subsequent collapse and genesis of mud and debris flows.

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THE MEGAKARREN OF THE LOGUDORO LANDSCAPE (NORTHERN SARDINIA, ITALY): AGE, SIGNIFICANCE AND EVOLUTION
1 College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences. Oregon State University, U.S.A. 2 Dip. Scienze botaniche, ecologiche e geologiche, Universit di Sassari Corresponding author: Francesco Secchi, e-mail: secchig@uniss.it R. Duncan1, S. Ginesu2, F. Secchi2 & S. Sias2

The Logudoro region is mainly constituted by sedimentary succession of Miocene age covered in unconformity by lava flow of broadly basaltic composition referring to the Plio-Pleistocene anorogenic cycle and emplaced in the 4-0.1 Ma time span. The Logudoro landscape is dominated by wide basaltic and calcareous plateaux of different age; the sedimentary surfaces testified an ancient palaeo-landscape referable to the post-miocenic evolution, often showing the re-exhumation and the redefinition of pre-miocenic marine transgression. The realization of a new country road in the investigated region at the end of 90, evidenced a parallel fracture system crosscutting the calcareous levels of middle Miocene. The origin of megakarren observed in these levels, are likely related to the efficiency of karst processes favoured by observed fracture system. The age of flat surfaces, observed in the Miocene rock-successions, is constrained by the geomorphological evolution of Logudoro region and attributable to lower-middle Pleistocene. A more precise chronological position of megakarren formation is offered by contact field-relationships between karsified rocks of Miocene sedimentary succession and covering basaltic lava flows. The chronological position of megakarren was constrained on the basis of the age of basaltic rocks. Ar/Ar radiometric ages obtained on representative basaltic lava flow sampled at the contact with karsified rocks and indicate values of 2.02 0.04 Ma. Moreover, the megakarren observed on calcareous rocks, may be assigned to a karst cycle related to the upper Pliocene operating in a sub-tropical climate. The megakarren fractures are commonly filled by clay minerals produced by argillification processes of host rocks and likely related to the apex of hot climate.

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ENGINEERING GEOMORPHOLOGICAL MAP OF THE ENTELLA STREAM FLOODPLAIN


1 Dip. Scienze dellAntichit, del Medioevo e Geografico ambientali, Universit di Genova 2 Consultant geologist Corresponding author: Andrea Robbiano, e-mail: geotecam@libero.it F. Faccini1 & A. Robbiano2

The importance of geomorphological analysis for correctly planning the actions of area management and enhancement has already been acknowledged concerning both the town planning and building development and the environmental and ground protection. In the floodplain areas it is important to know landforms, processes and deposits related to the action of flowing waters that represent the dynamical items of landscape transformation. This paper presents the case-study of the Entella Stream floodplain that includes the final catchment area with a surface of 376 km2: this area is highly at risk due to the presence of the towns of Lavagna, Chiavari and Cogorno that together have 50,000 inhabitants. The investigation methodology consisted in bibliographic and historical maps research, including the floods of the Entella Stream that occurred over the past centuries. The geomorphological survey - which has been accurately conducted on the valley floor sector and along the belt jointing the slopes - has been supported by photo interpretation. The Entella Stream catchment has a complex geological setting that modified the geomorphological dynamics: rocks belonging to the external Ligurides and in particular to the Mt. Penna - Casanova - Mt. Veri complex (shales, sandstones and ophiolites) and lithotypes belonging to the Internal Ligurides in particular to the Mt. Antola (limestone-marly flysch), to the Mt. Gottero (shales, slates and sandstones) and Bracco-Val Graveglia (ophiolite sequence) Units can be identified. The final sector of the Entella Stream catchment can be divided into three areas: the first features shales and slightly steep slopes, the second is steeper and concerns slates and sandstones, the last regards the plain area with fluvial and marine deposits. The Entella Stream floodplain is 4.5 km long and its width ranges between 150 m and 400 m. On this area the riverbed flows among recent alluvial deposits along an almost straight line in a NNE-SSW direction; it features a deeper central sector and two alluvial areas that are highly built up partially hindering the hydraulic function of the stream. The stream flow when flooding is about 3000 m3/s and in the period since the 17th century to date more than fifty critical events have been recorded: they enable to determine a mean recurrence time for floods of about 10 years. Present-day deposits can be identified in the valley floor area corresponding to the current and active riverbed of the Entella Stream; recent terraced alluvial deposits

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can also be observed in the valley floor representing the plain areas along the stream and widening in the final sector; finally ancient fluvial terraces which are represented by small residual lens and located higher than the current valley floor can be identified in the valley floor. The transition area between the floodplain and the slopes features fans: their steepness ranges between 2% and 10% mainly in the central and southern sectors on the orographic left and more than 10% steep, less wide and mainly located on the orographic right. The entire area has been modified by human action: the original morphology has been altered by the spreading of built up areas for both residential, production and infrastructural purposes. Slopes have been modified by the ancient practice of building terraces made up of dry-stone walls and by farming whereas the coastal morphology has been altered by embankments and cliffs for protecting the coast. On the basis of the collected data an engineering geomorphological map (scale 1:10,000) has been compiled. In this map fluvial and slope landforms and their deposits, landforms and items of marine and human origin have been defined. On the basis of stratigraphical, hydrogeological and punctual geotechnical data two additional thematic schemes have been elaborated: a lithotechnical sketch of the soils and a hydrogeological sketch of the plain sector where the soils have been distinguished according to their geotechnical features and their permeability degree.

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LARGE-SCALE GEOMORPHOLOGICAL MAPPING AND HIGHWAY ENGINEERING DESIGN: THE CASE OF THE RAPALLOFONTANABUONA VALLEY TUNNEL (EASTERN LIGURIA, ITALY)
1 DISAM - Dip. Scienze dellantichit, del medioevo e geografico-ambientali, Universit di Genova 2 Consultant geologist, Genova 3 DIPTERIS Dip. Studio del Territorio e sue Risorse, Universit di Genova Corresponding author: Francesco Faccini, e-mail: Faccini@unige.it F. Faccini1, A. Lucchetti2, A. Robbiano2 & A. Roccati3

Geomorphological maps provide a comprehensive, integrated statement of landform and drainage. Consequently, they contain extensive information of potential value as far as land-use planning and construction projects are concerned. Engineering geomorphological mapping involves the recognition of landforms, together with their delimitation in terms of size and shapes. Many preliminary data can be obtained from aerial photographs. A field survey provides additional data that enable the preliminary views on the geomorphic processes to be revised. Further precision can be added to geomorphic interpretation by obtaining details from climatic, hydrological or other records, and by analysis of the landforms stability. Therefore engineering geomorphological maps should show how surface expression will influence a project and should provide an indication of the general environmental relationship of the area concerned. The aims of such a geomorphological survey have been summarized as follows: 1) identification of the general characteristic of the area; 2) identification of the factors outside the site that may influence it; 3) provision of a synopsis of geomorphological development of the area that includes a description of the weathering, classification of slopes based on their steepness, geomaterial, development, stability, a description of the location, pattern and magnitude of the surface and underground drainage features, a definition of the shape and extent of geomorphological units, the recognition of specific hazard; 4) location of suitable supplies of construction materials. This work presents the studies that have been carried out for supporting the preliminary project of Rapallo-Fontanabuona Valley tunnel: the geomorphological analysis of the area has enabled to compare different project solutions thus to select those with the lower geological impact. This study is summarized in an engineering-geomorphological map showing geological, geomorphological, hydrogeological and geotechnical characteristics of the area. This is located on the Ligurian Apennine, in the eastern sector of the Province of Genoa and it features a ridge parallel to the coast separating the maritime southern slope form the northern slope of the Fontanabuona Valley. The geological setting features the Mt. Antola Formations overlying the Val Lavagna Shales. The Formations are characterized by marly limestone with interlay-

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ers of clayey shales and crop on the southern slope and on the top of the Fontanabuona Valley. The Val Lavagna Shales, which are located mid-hill and at the base of the slopes and along the lower valley, are divided into Mt. Verzi Slates which are made up of slates and marls with interlayers of shales and siltstones and Manganesiferous Shales which are represented by dark manganesiferous shales and siltstones. The structural asset shows a dip direction towards S-SW with dip between 10 and 70; deformation tectonics formed complex folds occasionally associated with different systems of fractures and/or faults - which are oriented NW-SE, NE-SW and N-S - modifying the pattern of the hydrographical network, the valleys orientation and the ridge direction. Geomorphological characteristics influence the tunnel entrances: the studied area shows extensive slope portions that are characterized by gravity-driven covers. Upstream of these covers landslide scarps of variable height and degradational scarps can be observed. Most of the debris covers have been interpreted as relict or inactive landslides whereas gravity-induced events have been classified as dormant; only the kinematic mechanisms of complex type are active adjacent to Garbarini di Tribogna and S. Andrea di Foggia. An extensive portion of the northern sector of the Mt. Caravagli appears to be involved by deep-seated gravitational events whose evidence is given by various trenches and tectonic lineaments and by a disjointed bedrock. Running water phenomena frequently occur on the slopes owing to the erosive action of flowing waters that cause colluvial deposits often intercalated by covers of different origin. Watercourses are torrential and have an erosive action frequently eroding the slopes base and streams bank. With respect to the hydrogeological aspects, springs adjacent to tunnels can be altered depending on the excavation direction in relation to the layers position; furthermore the new structures outside the tunnels can influence the characteristics and dynamics of the underground water table.

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APPLIED GEOMORPHOLOGICAL MAP OF THE MAGNASCO AND CERISOLA AREAS BETWEEN THE MT. AIONA AND GRAMIZZA STREAM (AVETO NATURAL PARK, LIGURIAN APENNINE)
1 DISAM - Dip. Scienze dellAntichit, del Medioevo e geografico-ambientali, Universit di Genova 2 DIPTERIS - Dip. Studio del Territorio e sue Risorse, Universit di Genova 3 Dip. Ambiente, Settore Assetto del Territorio, Regione Liguria, Genova Corresponding author: Anna Roccati, e-mail: anna.roccati@unige.it F. Faccini1, M. Piccazzo2, F. Poggi3 & A. Roccati2

The applied geomorphological maps, of recognized scientific value, currently represent a useful tool also in application field for the correct land planning and management, the mitigation of natural hazards and the planning of works for environmental and soil protection. These maps show the major geomorphological landforms and processes that shape the territory, and group them according to their origin, state of activity and kinematic mechanism. This paper presents the case-study of the applied geomorphological map of the area bounded by the mounts Penna, Aiona, degli Abeti and the Stream Gramizza (Upper Aveto Valley). This area represents the most well-known and typical part of the Aveto Natural Park for its valuable geological heritage - not to mention the naturalistic, environmental and climatic heritage that features it. The interest in this slope portion is both scientific for its geological and tectonicstructural setting and geomorphological complexity and applicative, owing to the presence of a number of instability situations. These phenomena frequently interfere with man-made structures, as showed by the number of damages that can be observed on the buildings in the villages of Magnasco and Cerisola. The interpretation of the complex geomorphological setting of these areas is not easy and univocal because of the number of existing landforms and processes. Such a situation often led to discordant interpretations given by various Authors who studied this area in the past (i.e. the large covers featuring the entire slope that have alternatively been interpreted as either glacial deposits, landforms related to a crionival environment or gravity-induced accumulations). Similarly, the scarps that can be observed on the northern slope of the Mt. Aiona are still commonly interpreted as cirques, despite the scarce scientific evidences supporting the hypothesis of a landform evolution due to ice action. This complexity mainly depends on the particular geological and tectonic-structural setting: in this sector, indeed, turbiditic deposits, ophiolitic and ultramafic masses, associated with heterogeneous breccias and olistolithes, detached from their original substratum (Tectonic Unit Ottone External Ligurides), crop out. The field survey demonstrated that the entire sector features landforms, processes and deposits of various origin such as gravity, running and shallow waters, structural elements and crionival processes. These originated extensive landslide bodies,

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partly favoured by different geomechanical properties of the bedrock, highly fractured and jointed, due to the heterogeneous nature and structural features of the rock mass. It is hypothesised that the entire sector is characterized by a deep-seated gravitational slope deformation (DGSA);several morphological evidences of such a phenomenon have been detected (double ridges, crestal troughs, antislope scarps, closed depressions, etc), involving extensive ridge portions, remobilizing and revising accumulations of various origin. Some landform and deposit referring to crionival processes (wetlands, endoreic depressions, block stream etc.) show out that the environment has typical periglacial dynamics. The followed methodology includes a preliminary bibliographic and maps research, carried out both for applied geomorphological scientific notes and for land-planning tools; bibliographical data have been integrated by an accurate geological-geomorphological field survey. The photo-interpretation of aerial photographs and the development of digital stereoscopic models preceded the survey. Further indications for the interpretation of the kinematic mechanism and state of activity of the phenomena were obtained from the analysis of the satellite-monitoring data PSInSAR (Permanent Scatterers) radar interferometric technique. The obtained results have been included in the applied geomorphological map of the slope bounded by the mounts Penna, Aiona, degli Abeti and the Gramizza S. at a scale 1:10,000. The most recent legends suggested in the field of applied geomorphological mapping have been used for map compilation in order to highlight existing landforms, processes and deposits and to group them according to their origin, state of activity and possible evolution scenarios.

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RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CLIMATIC PARAMETERS AND MORPHOLOGY AND DURATION OF SNOW COVER AT MICROSCALE: PRELIMINARY STUDY IN TWO MAJOR SKI AREAS OF THE TERRITORY OF TRENTINO (ITALIAN EASTERN ALPS)
Dip. Scienze della Terra, Universit di Ferrara Corresponding author: Massimiliano Fazzini, e-mail: massimiliano.fazzini@unife.it M. Fazzini

The duration of stay of snow on the ground in areas of medium and high Alpine mountains, is very uneven and depends on many morphological variables, starting from the altitude and the exposure to hillside. In this study, it was decided to consider the longest continuous period during which snow remains on the ground at the different exposure finding a relationship between climatic parameters and morphological and morph metric parameters. Two sample areas that correspond to extended ski areas were investigated in deep; they are located in different areas of the Alps Tridentine: the area of Pampeago and the area of San Martino di Castrozza. In these areas, meteorological measurements and snow were considered relatively to the last four seasons, made since the first snowfall until the complete removal of snow on the ground. Statistical reports, researched by a multiple linear regression analysis show results in some respects surprising and very useful for climatologicaltourism applications in ski areas and for understanding the frequency and distribution of avalanches phenomena.

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INTERACTIONS BETWEEN GEOMORPHOLOGICAL PROCESSES AND LAND MANAGEMENT IN A DEVELOPING COUNTRY - EXAMPLES FROM THE NEPAL HIMALAYAS
PRODIG UMR 8586 CNRS, University Paris Diderot, France Corrisponding author: Monique Fort, e-mail: fort@univ-paris-diderot.fr M. Fort

Nepal is among the ten poorest countries in the world. During the last fifteen years, civil war together with globalization have stimulated road development, rapid urbanization and buildings constructions, resulting in an increased overall vulnerability of the population living in this geomorphologically, highly dynamic environment. In the mountains, any new roads opening is controlled by the Nepalese army, and most of the work is done by hand (dynamite perforation, gravel chopping etc.). These are dirt roads still irregular and steep, excavated into nearly vertical rock wall locally poorly consolidated (high density joints). They are prone to rock and debris slides and falls. They are often closed during the rainy season, and one may suspect they will rapidly deteriorate, all the more that the infrastructures (bridges, retaining walls) are often under-designed compared to monsoon peak discharge. Road cuts also reactivate old landslides, adding debris and hazards, causing more destruction and increasing the level of risk. Meanwhile, the need for construction material has changed the morphology of valley floors: gravels and sands are exploited and used for building purposes, hence subtracting bed load out of the rivers which in turn get more power to cut through their rocky floor and /or erode their alluvial banks where cultivated land and villages are settled. Good arable yet mechanically soft soils (mostly lacustrine deposits) of the Kathmandu valley are now turned into urbanized districts, where the poor quality of the construction makes the entire valley highly vulnerable to any future big earthquake to come. More generally, the natural hazards inherent to the functioning of the Himalayan Range hazards that in the past were empirically known and understood by the mountain populations-, have now become a major threat to populations and infrastructures in a country with very low economic and social capacity to adjust. A comprehensive geomorphological approach may definitely help improving the design of development projects and mitigating disaster impacts.

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TERRESTRIAL LASER SCANNER TECHNIQUE: 3D RECONSTRUCTION OF VENDICARI AND SAN LORENZO BOULDERS (SOUTHERN-EASTERN SICILY, SOUTHERN ITALY)
F. Gerardi1, A. Marsico2, C. Pignatelli2, A. Piscitelli2, C. Pirrotta1, M.S. Barbano1 & G. Mastronuzzi3

The study area is located in the southernmost part of Sicily along the Ionian Sea and it constitutes the emerged part of the Hyblean foreland domain of the Apennine orogen. The area is surrounded by seismogenetic coastal zones which have produced large tsunamis in historical times. Vendicari is a marine reserve located on the south-eastern border of the Hyblean carbonate Massif of Sicily, about 30 km south to the Siracusa city; San Lorenzo is an old farm surrounded by a summer village placed on the south of Vendicari Reserve. The coastal belt is characterized by flat landscape with beaches, gently sloping rocky coasts and low cliffs weakly incised by a poorly developed hydrographical network and tectonically controlled. Between the rocky coasts, actual beaches and marshes are present. The area is characterized by Late Pleistocene deposits, white to yellowish organic calcaranitic and calciruditic. Adlittoral zone is characterized by elevate roughness and a convex profile. Here, surface micro-topography shows small karstic landforms, shaped on the sub-aerially exposed calcareous sandstones; they are represented mainly by potholes, which became increasingly deeper and wider toward the coastline. In the spray zone potholes are coalescent, giving place to pinnacle-like forms (Spitzkarren). Calcarenitic bedrock presents very long fractures that become wider toward to the coastline. Several of these fractures are parallel to shoreline; some of these are also oriented to NE. The investigated area is characterized by a boulders field testifying a huge wave impact. In particular in San Lorenzo area a large boulder of about 100 tons is placed close to spray zone. This block was probably removed from the near submerged rock where the detaching niche is still visible. In Vendicari area the boulders field is characterized by elements with well preserved biological encrustation on their surface: this testified a recent scattering during last strong storms. In order to distinguish the probable mechanism of transport of these boulders a 3D model was built using terrestrial laser scanner technique. Using hydrodynamic equations it is possible to calculate the minimum wave height (for tsunami and for sea storms) able to transport boulders inland. Each boulder was surveyed with Leica Scan Station 2 using detailed scan density (horizontal and vertical spacing of 1 mm). During the field work scans from differ-

1 Dip. Scienze Geologiche, Universit di Catania 2 Dip. Geologia e Geofisica, Universit di Bari 3 LaGAT-Ta - Lab. Gis geo-Ambientale e di Telerilevamento, Universit di Bari, sede di Taranto Corresponding author: Antonella Marsico, e-mail: a.marsico@geo.uniba.it

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ent position were carried out in order to obtain a complete coverage of surveyed area. In the data processing, the point clouds of each scan are linked together trough tie points in order to obtain a virtual reconstruction of boulders. In order to reconstruct the surface morphology of each boulder, the point clouds were elaborated and interpolated using RapidformTM Software; this software allows to calculate surface and volume of 3D model.

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The Middle Tanaro Valley located in the South-East sector of the Cuneo Plain (Piemonte, NW Italy) is known for the rich geomorphological, stratigraphical and palaeontological features. The sector can be divided into two parts. The Southern part is characterized by river terraces presenting deep gorges in their distal sector, where marine deposits of the Piemonte Tertiary Basin outcrop. The NorthEastern one is characterized by a set of narrow and deep valley, locally known with the name of Rocche di Pocapaglia. All these landforms are due to the Pleistocene climate changes and the retrogressive river erosion consequence of Tanaro Rivers diversion triggered by neo-tectonic activity. In order to focus on one main character of the area, we pointed out the geomorphological phenomena, represented by 8 geomorphosites selected after an evaluation process. Then we developed a program of activities in order to exploit the geoheritage by promoting geotouristic itineraries. An interpretative geotourist map combining geo-scientific information about the evolutionary stages of this sector of Piemonte and useful tourist information has been designed. The map is intended for a general public not involved in the field of geoscience, and its main purpose is to promote the geoheritage, by focusing on the interaction between the landforms and the Tanaro River diversion. The map is divided in three sectors. The first one represents the primitive stage with the Tanaro River flowing to North confusing his water with the Po River nearby the actual towns of Caramagna located in the North of the study area. The second map shows the situation after the diversion phenomenon, with the Tanaro River flowing to NNE towards the subsiding Alessandria plain located to the East of the study area. In the third sector is represented the situation at the present day, where besides the main geomorphological features represented with a simplified legend, there are both basic tourist information and ecological, historical and cultural aspects, in order to present geodiversity from a holistic point of view. The entire map suggests the chronological succession of landforms, starting from the past events till to the present day. In order to promote the knowledge and the exploitation of geomorphosites selected in the study area, besides the production of a traditional map, a Web-GIS application has been developed. Using an Internet based geographical data service, the management of spatial and non-spatial data is allowed. The non-spatial data linked to spatial elements, can be efficiently managed using Relational Database Management System whose integration with Web-GIS allows sharing information among a wide range of users.

1 Dip. Scienze della Terra, Universi dit Modena e Reggio Emilia 2 Dip. Scienze della Terra, Universit di Torino 3 Museo di Scienze Naturali, Torino Corresponding author: Luca Ghiraldi, e-mail: luca.ghiraldi@gmail.com

L. Ghiraldi1, P. Coratza1, M. Marchetti1, M. Giardino2, L. Perotti2 & E. Debiaggi3

STUDY ON THE GEOHERITAGE OF THE SOUTH-EAST SECTOR OF THE CUNEO PLAIN

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The information have been organised in different groups in order to provide a complete and exhaustive frame where basic tourist information and geomorphological entities are located. Almost each layer in the map has an attribute table containing one or more hyperlink allowing getting information stored in the Web Server. Information include: detailed description of the itineraries; scientific information about geomorphological elements and the cultural, historical and ecological aspects of the territory; multimedia contents. In conclusion the use of Web-GIS application presents a lot of advantages if compared with a traditional map: - it should provide users with a complete instrument for a free on-line fruition; - it can easily deliver up-to-date information; - it supports hyperlinks setting to connect information on the web. On the other hand, there are some disadvantages too: - it requires stability and maintenance of the server; - it needs internet connection with high bandwidth; - it necessitates familiarity with GIS applications.

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CULTURAL GEOMORPHOLOGY: THE ALPS THROUGH DE MARTONNES SKETCHBOOKS


Laboratoire de Gographie physique, CNRS Meudon, Universit Paris-Sorbonne, France Corresponding author: Christian Giusti, e-mail: Christian.Giusti@paris-sorbonne.fr C. Giusti

Some of the original field notes of the geographer Emmanuel de Martonne have been preserved in Paris in a restricted repository at the Geographic Institute library, a building founded by de Martonne himself in 1923. These archives consist of 23 notebooks numbered 1 to 16 for the first group, A to G for the second. The classification is neither chronological nor thematic. In all likelihood it simply reflects the order in which the note- and sketchbooks were labelled by the library services. The poster presents a selection of drawings covering the period from 1907 (sketchbook n9) to 1935 (sketchbook n6), which shows that throughout his scientific career the interest shown by Emmanuel Martonne for the Alps never faded, and that this interest met with a wide public audience. For example, the small volume entitled Les Alpes. Gographie gnrale, originally published in 1926, was reprinted 5 times between then and 1955, and also translated into Spanish that same year. From the time of his thesis on the geography of Wallachia in 1902 and his second thesis on the geomorphology of the Transylvanian Alps in 1907, to the publication in 1930-1931 of the two volumes of the Gographie universelle devoted to Central Europe (translated into Spanish in 1931-1932) and the Physical Geography of France in 1942, de Martonne appears as one of the most competent observers of both Alpine and Carpathian landforms and an outstanding expert on the many geomorphological interpretation issues posed by these mountain ranges. Because they provide important clues to anyone concerned with the history and epistemology of European physical geography, de Martonnes field notebooks belong to the cultural heritage of geomorphology.

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THE ROLE OF GEOMATICS AND DATA MINING TECHNIQUES IN GEOMORPHOLOGY: AN APPLIED EXAMPLE TO GULLY EROSION
Geoenvironmental Research Group, University of Extremadura, Cceres, Spain Corresponding author: lvaro Gmez Gutirrez, e-mail: alvgo@unex.es . Gmez Gutirrez, S. Schnabel & F. Lavado Contador

During the last years, the availability and utility of modern spatial information technologies (such as remote sensing, Geographical Information Systems, photogrammetry, Global Positioning Systems, etc.) have increased exponentially. Parallel to this development, a set of new statistical techniques termed data mining have been developed. Data mining techniques are based on the extraction of knowledge from large datasets and allow i) analyzing complex multivariate problems and ii) constructing predictive models from large datasets. The combined use of these techniques, geomatics and data mining, has facilitated the elaboration of statistical models with a spatial component. These models have been rarely applied in geomorphology, however they present a great potential. The main benefits of these models are i) estimating the potential spatial distribution of a phenomenon, ii) predicting future changes on its allocation and iii) establishing the importance of each predictor in determining the distribution of the target variable. In this work, an application of these techniques to management in geomorphology is presented. Two different data mining techniques (Classification and Regression Trees and Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines) were applied to construct a model capable of predicting the location of a specific geomorphological phenomenon: gully erosion. Previous studies have shown the importance of gullying in degrading the valley bottoms and have pointed to the necessity to investigate the influence of the factors involved in order to be able to prevent further gullying or to propose conservation measures. Most soil erosion models focus on rill and interrill erosion at the hillslope scale and cannot be applied to gullying. The few models that have been developed for gully erosion focus on the estimation of soil losses or on the prediction of gully growth. However, for soil conservation purposes it is necessary to locate these features in the landscape or to determine areas with risk of gully formation. This explains the importance of developing a model capable of locating these linear features in the landscape. Such a model should be applicable at the regional scale, perform correctly and be simple in its conception and application. A large database was used to support the model. It is composed of a target variable (presence or absence of gullies) and 36 independent variables related to topography, lithology, soils, rainfall, land use and vegetation cover. The performance of the model was evaluated using the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve (ROC) for five external datasets. This approach ensures the independence of the validation method from the size of each case in the dataset. The model had high predictive power, with values for the area under the ROC curve of the external validation datasets varying from 0.66 to 0.98 (being 1 the value for

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a perfect prediction). The most important variables explaining the spatial distribution of gullies were altitude and annual rainfall in CART and lithology and soil type in MARS. Finally the model was compiled and implemented into a Geographical Information System to obtain maps of susceptible areas for gully erosion. These maps showed that approximately 7% of the study area presents favourable conditions for the development of gullies. The results demonstrate that MARS constitutes a valuable model in geomorphological research and could also be a useful tool for assessing the impacts of changing climate and land use on gully erosion.

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ANALISI GEOMORFICA QUANTITATIVA DEL BACINO IDROGRAFICO DEL F. VOLTURNO NEL TRATTO COMPRESO TRA LA SORGENTE E LA CONFLUENZA CON IL F. CAVALIERE
1 Dip. Scienze Ambientali, Seconda Universit di Napoli 2 Geomorphologist, Caserta Corresponding author: Nicolino Grassi, e-mail: nicolino.grassi@unina2.it N. Grassi1, M. Sirna1 & D. Sanseverino2

Questo lavoro ha lo scopo di delineare da un punto di vista prevalentemente geomorfologico, le caratteristiche del bacino idrografico del F. Volturno, nel tratto compreso tra la sorgente e la confluenza con il F. Cavaliere, al fine di valutare lentit dei processi erosivi espressi mediante il calcolo del Trasporto Torbido Unitario Medio Annuo (Tu), e di relazionarlo alle caratteristiche geoambientali dellarea indagata. Il F. Volturno ha una lunghezza di 175 km e sottende un bacino idrografico di circa 5558 km2 che si sviluppa in prevalenza nelle Regioni Campania e Molise, e in minima parte in Abruzzo, Puglia e Lazio. Questi numeri, insieme al valore della portata media che attualmente e di circa di 82,70 m3/s, rendono il Volturno il pi importante fiume dellItalia meridionale. Larea in esame delimitata a NNW dai Monti della Meta, a W dal massiccio delle Mainarde, a S dai Monti del Matese e ad E dallAppennino Sannita (massiccio della Montagnola); la sezione di chiusura del bacino posizionata in corrispondenza della confluenza con il F. Cavaliere, nei pressi della Valle Porcina. Da un punto di vista geologico il bacino idrografico coincide con unarea particolarmente complessa che ricade nella zona di contatto tra le formazioni calcareo-dolomitiche mesozoiche dellAppennino meridionale, riconducibili ad ambienti a sedimentazione prevalentemente carbonatica neritica (Piattaforma Appenninica), e i sedimenti di tipo pelagico appartenenti al Bacino mesozoico-terziario Molisano-Sannitico. Lo studio si sviluppato in tre fasi principali: caratterizzazione geoambientale del territorio, analisi geomorfica quantitativa della rete drenante e studio delle possibili relazioni intercorrenti tra il valore del Tu di alcuni sottobacini, opportunamente scelti, e le caratteristiche geoambientali dei medesimi. Il bacino idrografico analizzato ha unestensione areale di 592,48 km2, un perimetro di 142,79 km ed ordine gerarchico pari a 7. Il reticolo idrografico, desunto dalle tavolette IGM del 1957 composto da 3501 aste fluviali ed ha una lunghezza totale di 1586 km. La densit e la frequenza di drenaggio per lintero bacino idrografico sono pari rispettivamente a 2,68 e 5,91 mentre il Tu ha un valore pari a 273,76 t/km2/anno. Per lo studio della topografia stato realizzato un DTM (Digital Terrain Model) da cui stata derivata la pendenza. Linformazione geologica stata vettorializzata ed elaborata per ottenere la Carta Geolitologica da cui, con unulteriore semplificazione, si ottenuta la Carta della

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Permeabilit Relativa. Dallanalisi di questultima si evince che per il 42,5% il bacino insiste su depositi a permeabilit media, scarsa per il 36,1%, elevata per il 20,0% e litotipi praticamente impermeabili per l1,3%. Per completare lo studio sono state effettuate statistiche descrittive relative alla Carta duso del suolo CLC 2000 (al III livello), consapevoli dei limiti connessi alla rapidit evolutiva propria di questa peculiarit del territorio (incendi, disboscamenti, sviluppo urbano). Successivamente il bacino idrografico stato suddiviso nei tre sottobacini principali (F. Volturno, T. Vandra e F. Cavaliere, tutti con ordine gerarchico pari a 6) con lo scopo di valutare linfluenza di alcune caratteristiche geoambientali sul pattern idrografico e, di conseguenza, sulla stima del trasporto torbido unitario medio annuo. Infine sono stati individuati due sottobacini, il Rio Chiaro e T. Vandrella, con litologia il pi possibile omogenea ed al contempo diversa tra loro, per poter verificare le relazioni di questo fattore con gli indici morfometrici e soprattutto con il Tu. Le analisi effettuate evidenziano come valori del Tu pi bassi si riscontrino in bacini in cui prevalgono litotipi con una elevata permeabilit (calcari) ed una massiccia presenza di vegetazione di tipo arboreo/arbustivo. Oltre il lavoro prettamente geomorfologico, attraverso la sovrapposizione degli elaborati cartografici relativi ai diversi dati prodotti, sono state messe in luce, per lintero bacino idrografico e per ognuno dei sottobacini prescelti, alcune delle complesse relazioni tra i diversi fattori (acclivit, litologia, tettonica, permeabilit e uso del suolo) che influenzano lorganizzazione del reticolo idrografico e lentit dellerosione. E possibile concludere che in campo ambientale, come in qualsiasi sistema complesso, un determinato fenomeno (in questo caso lerosione) dipende sempre da pi fattori interagenti tra loro ed auto-organizzati.

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CURRENT ISSUES OF MAPPING THE RELIEF MICROFORMS WITHIN THE FLUVIAL-LAKE PLAINS (THE ROMANIAN PLAIN)
Dept. of Geomorphology-Pedology, Faculty of Geography, University of Bucarest, Romania Corresponding author: Florina Grecu, e-mail: grecu@geo.unibuc.ro F. Grecu

The mapping of the relief microforms within the Quaternary aggraded plains presents some features and difficulties imposed by the overall plain morphography and morphometry, but also by the relief microforms formed on Pleistocene and Holocene soft rocks. The simplest definition of the plain shows that it is a major relief form with absolute altitudes of up to 200-300 m. Obviously, this refers only to the altitude of the surface topography features, but not to the morphographic, morphometric, morphogenetic, economic-geographical ones etc. Morphographicaly speaking, the plain has a relatively flat-quasihorizontal aspect with extended surfaces of the interfluves area, with rivers whose stream channel slopes shows reduced longitudinal profile, but with well-developed flood-plains, with frequent divagations of the hydrographic network. The morphometric elements define the plain by the density of the hydrographic network, with low values of the slopes and energy relief, except for the banks and scarp of terraces, whose morphography and morphometry are specific to low altitude slopes. The actual extremely active dynamic of the relief microforms is also accelerated by the anthropogenic intervention, through agricultural or industrial use of the spaces. We believe that this is the reason why the geomorphological maps of the Romanian Plain were drawn up mostly in medium and small scales. The actual concerns, in doctoral theses and research contracts, are oriented to detailed mapping of both plain and flood-plains relief microforms. These orientations are imposed by the economic significance of the Romanian Plain, as one of the most important agricultural and oil exploitation area in Europe. The writing aims to present different types of maps, their scope and effectiveness.

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METODI NON TRADIZIONALI NELLA COMUNICAZIONE SCIENTIFICA E DIDATTICA DELLE SCIENZE DELLA TERRA
Dip. Scienze della Terra, Universit di Perugia Corresponding author: Lucilia Gregori, e-mail: lucilia@unipg.it L. Gregori

Gli orientamenti culturali, emersi dalla Geomorfologia culturale, hanno fornito linput per comunicare i contenuti delle Scienze della Terra con metodi e strumenti, non tradizionalmente usati, nelle comuni attivit scientifiche e didattiche. I risultati della ricerca scientifica sono riservati al mondo accademico e perci confinati allinterno di un ristretto ambito culturale; spesso quindi i valori scientifici del territorio e del paesaggio naturale (biotico ed abiotico) non sono condivisi con unutenza culturalmente ampia. Oggi possibile, invece, attraverso una sempre pi accettata trasversalit disciplinare, diffondere le ricerche allinterno di una platea dal diverso target culturale. La cesura concettuale, tra mondo delle discipline umanistiche s.l., e tecniche ormai superata e molti ricercatori invece, da entrambe le parti, si sono resi conto che raccontare il paesaggio e gli eventi, talora tragici, che lo hanno coinvolto possibile con eccellenti risultati, tramite contributi disciplinari, anche apparentemente distanti. Le opere classiche o moderne di scrittori e poeti comunicano, a chi sappia coglierli, gli elementi geologici e geomorfologici del paesaggio, talora con straordinaria precisione, attualit ed efficacia. Recepire questi messaggi, che a volte arrivano da lontano, unopportunit culturale che non va disattesa, ma perseguita ed incrementata. La lettura rivisitata dei classici come Dante o delleditoria contemporanea, spesso trasmette nella narrazione dei fatti un preciso contesto naturale o antropico, antico o attuale e, in ogni caso, lo sfondo fisico parte essenziale della storia e, insieme alle sensazioni e sentimenti dei protagonisti, delinea scenari di Geografia emozionale. Stessa opportunit dal racconto di artisti che permettono di ravvisare, nello sfondo delle scenografie rappresentate, paesaggi passati e meno immaginari di quanto si pensi, fare confronti e ricavare interessanti indicazioni paleogeografiche e/o ambientali. Perugino e Pinturicchio in Umbria, Leonardo e Gozzoli in Toscana hanno descritto un paesaggio oggi riconoscibile, e la suggestione di quellambiente passa inalterata. La lettura delle opere darte non , quindi, solo commento artistico o ricerca storiografica, ma riserva un approccio geologico ai luoghi rappresentati ed apre un costruttivo dialogo, ancora poco sperimentato, tra scienziati dellarte e della Terra. Nellepoca della cultura dei media e delle immagini, queste svolgono pertanto un grandissimo ruolo nella comunicazione non solo di panorami, ma dei contenuti scientifici in esse ravvisabili. Immagini che arrivano anche da films, da video musicali, da cartoons sono attualmente caratterizzate da un sempre pi ricercato rigore scientifico. I reali scenari naturali che seguono la narrazione dei fatti, offerti per esempio dalla cinematografia, talora non accompagnano semplicemente le vicende degli uomini, ma sono i veri protagonisti delle storie.

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Imparare a cogliere questi elementi, non solo permette di acquisire contenuti in modo critico, ma in particolare, permette di insegnare ad osservare e leggere il paesaggio, sia quello impattante di trailers e films sia quello pi banale, ma solo in apparenza, che si coglie nella quotidianit. Dal paesaggio naturale o urbano, emerge la storia geologica e levoluzione dei luoghi, se si addestrati a farlo. Sotto il profilo didattico, quindi, questapproccio molto convincente ed avvincente per docenti e discenti. Nella cultura delle immagini, inoltre, assumono un insospettato ruolo quelle acquisite in movimento: il paesaggio dal treno un panorama a parte, in cui non si percepiscono gli uomini, ma i segni del loro passaggio, mentre prevale limpatto degli elementi fisiografici e vegetazionali. Questo particolare paesaggio riesce a trasmettere, da uninsolita ma immediata prospettiva, informazioni di processi, di culture e comunica la storia dei popoli e del loro territorio. Le pianure, le depressioni tettoniche, gli ampi conoidi insieme alla tipologia delle colture e delledificato sono elementi tangibili dei luoghi e, spesso ci si sorprende quasi come viaggiatori dell800, incuriositi ed attenti ai paesaggi nel loro insieme culturale e colturale. Il paesaggio del vino, infine, rappresenta un nuovo obiettivo culturale, segno tangibile dellantica tradizione degli uomini, fortemente condizionato dalle vicende paleogeografiche e geologiche locali. Questa relazione, che dovrebbe essere scontata, sfugge ai pi, ma basilare per fare una seria comunicazione geologica del vino e quindi ancora delle Scienze della Terra. Liter concettuale esposto, originale e complesso nelle modalit di approccio e di contenuti, trova pertanto la sua naturale e migliore espressione allinterno della condivisa e sempre pi apprezzata Geomorfologia culturale.

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APPLICATIONS OF THE MULTISCALAR HIERARCHIC GIS-BASED GEOMORPHOLOGICAL MAPPING SYSTEM


1 Dip. Ingegneria Civile, Universit di Salerno 2 Dip. Scienze della Terra, Universit di Napoli Federico II 3 C.U.G.RI. - Centro inter-Universitario Grandi Rischi, Salerno 4 Dip. Studi Geologici ed Ambientali - Universit del Sannio, Benevento Corresponding author: Domenico Guida, e-mail: dguida@unisa.it D. Guida1, T. De Pippo2, A. Cestari3, V. Siervo3 & A. Valente4

Some applications of a new-symbol detailed geomorphological mapping system, based on a GIS procedure, and already used in several applications, especially in Campania Region, are presented. Such system foresee an early stage in which the representation use a symbolic-traditional legend of literature data, validated and deepened from field investigations and photoaerial analysis, and a later stage where the information of the previous map is transferred into digital objects (points, lines and polygons) based on qualitative and quantitative geomorphological characteristics (i.e. morphography, lithology, genesis, processes and age). In this new mapping system such characteristics can be studied individually, and the building of the map is piece-to-piece. Therefore, the forms recognized are bounded by defined limits, to varying degrees of certainty, and linked with a database. Also, for each form so automatically defined, the relations with any other adjacent element are made explicit. In order to define a legend, that should be adequate to the purposes of analysis and the resolution of the data to be represented, it is useful to recognize in each landscape, despite its complexity, a hierarchical system. Such system provides that each geomorphological category could be unbundled in simpler terms to increase the degree of detail, always keeping the structural congruence. Consequently, to each scattering will correspond a different scale of data representation. The described procedure was applied in various contexts in which could be represented i.e. the forms and processes typical of a mountain area, a river valley and, finally, a coastal zone. For a matter of space, only the application developed in a small area of the central Apennines, as Valle Roveta (Abruzzo), mostly characterized by mountain landscape are outlined. Firstly, the significant Morphological Units are identified within the Morphological Systems: i) Summit and ii) Slope, which represent the equivalent in the landscape of palaeosurface and the associated slopes. Such units are well represented in scale between 1:100,000 and 1:25,000. The Summit Morphological System could include isolated relieves, karst fields and ridges, which mark the bound of the top of the slope, without a superficial drainage, even if they converge to the head of the main valleys of slope. In the context of the Slope Morphological System, we distinguish two Morphological Units: i) Slope and ii) Pediment Fans. The first is connected to the highest system, while the second one to the valley bottom. The

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Slope Morphological Unit is particularly interesting to the comprehension of the morphological factors inducing debris-flow phenomena. It is subdivided into different sectors longitudinal and transverse, each distinguished by particular morphotype, better represented in a scale between 1:25,000 and 1:10,000. The section of upper slope is limited, at the top, from rocky steps evidenced by morphoselection, not always exposed, while, at the base, other steps are present more thicker and more continuous along the slope than the highest ones. The upper edge represents the knickline with the basis of the Summit Morphological Systems in progressive retreat. Below the lower edge, straight and V-shaped ravines are present, along which accumulation forms outcrop, due to both longitudinal and transversal supply. Such ravines are separated by stretches of straight slope profile or by secondary ridges as interfluvial, thus triangular-trapezoidal facets, more or less regular, are recognized. Descending in the valley, the Pediment Fans Morphological Unit occurs. It is characterized by different generations of fans, where the progradation of the fan often determined the cutting of the oldest one and the growth of the youngest fan inside it. Some landslide deposits are also distinguished in the most recent fan. In the alluvial cone deposits the same engravings of the main valley of the slope is observed, with a decreasing of deepening toward the bottom. Each morphotypes, derived from the scattering of the Morphological Unit, and may also be decomposed in Morphological Components (i.e. channel, ravine sides) at a scale upper to 1:10,000, which are further detailed in Morphological Elements (i.e. part of the channel) at a scale upper to 1:5000.

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GEOSITES-GEOMORPHOSITES VALUES IN METALIFERI MOUNTAINS, APUSENI SECTOR (ROMANIA)


1 Dept. of Geography, Tourism and Territorial Planning, University of Oradea, Romania 2 Faculty of Geography, University Babes Bolyai, Cluj Napoca, Romania Corresponding author: Ilie Dorina Camelia, e-mail: iliesdorina@yahoo.com D.C. Ilie1, L. Blaga1, A. Ilie1, I. Rus2 & N. Josan1

The landscape alone can constitute a component of the cultural or scientific heritage of a territory, having the same significance as the historical monuments or works of arts, sometimes being the concrete support of an architectural, spiritual, cultural etc. expression. By its particularities, relief can highlight or even amplify the value of a historical, cultural, spiritual etc. site. Metaliferi Mountains (Romania) in relation also of the great variety of geological-geomorphological structures done a large category of natural protected areas, very important at Romania as well as at European level. The study taking in account a quantitative and qualitative evaluation of the most important sites of geological and geomorphological interests, from the above mentioned area: the Vulcan Mountain with an 5 ha area (isolated massif on a Jurassic limestone klippen), the Grohot Natural Bridge, with an area of 1 ha, the Dealul Magura Limestones, with an area of 120 ha (various endo- and exo-karst forms), the Madei Gorges, carved on Jurassic limestones, the Bobalna Valley limestone tuff, result of the carbonate thermal springs activity from this sector, the Godinesti limestone, an area of 6 ha, the Boiu de Sus limestone, with an area of 50 ha and 27 caves, Magura Uroiului (Uroiului Hill, an area of 10 ha), composed from quartz andesite, with explosive breccias columns of Neogen age.

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TYPICAL GEOMORPHOSITES OF THE ITALIAN NATURAL LANDSCAPE: RIVERS WITH ENTRENCHED MEANDERS
Dip. Scienze della Terra, Universit di Pavia Corresponding author: Lamberto Laureti, e-mail: laureti@unipv.it L. Laureti

In the mountain or hilly areas it is not very difficult to observe incised valleys, generally developed with a straight course, often in accordance with tectonic or lithological discontinuities. On the contrary, it is less frequent the presence of entrenched (or incised valleys having a meandering course. This type of morphological items shows sometimes particularly spectacular aspects (as in the case of the river Trebbia on the Northern Apennines), but even if with more modest shapes (as along the Arno valley in the Gonfolina gully), nevertheless it can imprint a significant image to the landscape. In the Italian territory rivers with entrenched meanders are as a whole fairly numerous, both on the alpine chain and in the same Apennines peninsula, owing to the great variety of the tectonic and lithological conditions, but also to the complexity of the geological evolution. This work considers the main examples of valleys with entrenched meanders animating the geomorphological Italian landscapes, with particular interest for the must conspicuous and significant ones, observed also under the genetic point of view. A special attention is placed in the roll that such geomorphosites assume toward the same landscape, together with their enjoyment by those observers not being pure experts. The conditions and the opportunities about their protection and conservation are also considered. By this regard, some proposal in order to make a census (or a little atlas) of the Italian entrenched meanders is suggested, together with their insertion on the institution of specific certified sites.

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TREELINE ALTITUDE IN THE EUROPEAN ALPS: WHERE TO EXPECT STRONGER RESPONSES TO CLIMATE CHANGE
1 Dip. Scienze della Terra, Universit di Milano 2 ARPA Valle dAosta Corresponding author: Giovanni Leonelli, e-mail: giovanni.leonelli@unimi.it G. Leonelli1,2, M. Pelfini1 & U. Morra di Cella2

Treeline altitude in mountain regions is defined by the uppermost trees growing above continuous forest cover. Treeline ecotones are an important component of high altitude ecosystems and they have been widely studied worldwide in relation to climatic changes since they are recognized as sensitive climate proxies. In the last century a forest expansion towards higher altitudes and forest ingrowth have been reported for many mountain sites, as a consequence both of a warming climate and of other factors, like in the European Alps, the alpine-farming decline. Since the expansion of a forest cover may directly influence soil properties and also geomorphological processes like surface movements and erosion, it is important to detect climatic treelines at the regional scale and to describe the forest responses to climate in the recent past. In this study we analyzed about 260 km of treelines at the landscape scale, fixing the coordinates of about 430 trees growing at the highest altitudes: about 230 km of treelines (a tree every about 600 m of horizontal distance) were analyzed in the western sites, and about 30 km of treelines (a tree every about 500 m of horizontal distance) were analyzed in the central (peripheral) sites. Our results from six valleys in the inner and peripheral regions of the Italian Alps show that present-days treeline altitudes mostly depends on anthropogenic and orographic-geomorphologic factors. Climatic treelines were found in the Valpelline-Etroubles and Brembana-Gemelli valleys, with maximum altitudes reaching 2525 and 2260 m a.s.l., respectively. At Valpelline-Etrouble the climatic treeline is made by trees growing above an undisturbed forest and colonizing for 100 m length a regular slope of alpine grassland, whereas at Brembana-Gemelli valley the climatic treeline is made by isolated trees growing on a regular slope. Climatic treelines were limited to steep and inaccessible slopes and they resulted at higher altitudes and much further away from mountain peaks in the inner regions of the mountain range than in the peripheral region. Looking for sites where to study treeline responses to climate, we suggest to investigate the inner regions of the Alpine range since there treelines are further away from human disturbances and from geomorphologic constraints, resulting potentially more free to shift upwards under the recent more favorable temperature conditions. We also found that in the selected valleys human disturbance is mainly concentrated about 165 m below non-climatic treelines, suggesting a homogeneous influence on treelines, independent of geographic position. Inner regions of the Alps are those that will likely experience greater forest expansion at the treeline, with trees advancing in the alpine. This study was performed to detect most sensitive treelines within a region in order to develop future studies on climate change impacts on high-altitude forests and for providing accurate information to land management under global warming scenarios.

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MULTITEMPORAL SOIL EROSION MAPPING FROM REMOTE SENSING AND GEOMORPHOLOGICAL DATA: THE CASE-STUDY OF SACCIONE RIVER BASIN AREA
Dip. Studi Geologici e Ambientali, Universit del Sannio, Benevento Corresponding author: Sergio Lo Curzio, e-mail: sergiolocurzio@hotmail.com S. Lo Curzio & F. Russo

The aims of this study are the assessment of the multitemporal spatial distribution and the basinal mapping of the soil erosion geomorphological evidences desumed by integration of Landsat ETM 7+ data, interpretation resultances of panchromatic colour orthophotos and geomorphological surveyed data. These latter ones are consisting of recognition of land surfaces interested by areal (sheet and solifluxion processes) and linear (rill and gully erosion) erosional landforms (ELs). The study has been performed in the Saccione river basin (North Apulia), wide 228,6 km2, located in southern Italy. The first step of the study has been the digital thematic mapping of lithological, pedological and land-use features coming from literature data and characterizing the studied area. Then, the whole remotely sensed dataset regarding the studied area was co-registrated and processed using the RSI ENVI 4.4 software. For the registration of the first Landsat image (master image), ground control points (GCPs) were collected by GPS measurements. The other images (slave images) were co-registrated by GCPs image-to-image registration. The dataset was processing by application of contrast stretching, Principal Component Analysis (PCA), decorrelation stretching and RGB false colour compositing techniques. A field survey was carried out to characterize the geomorphological features detected on the imagery. Particular attention was given to the ELs, which were located using a GPS. In the second step the Regions of Interest (ROI) have been delimited on the Landsat ETM 7+ imagery, i.e. polygons representing the ground-truth related to the several land cover class occurring in the imagery. A simple statistical analysis was then conducted on the digital number (DN) values of the pixels enclosed in the ROI of the Els class to determine their spectral response pattern. The whole image dataset has been then classified using a maximum likelihood classification algorithm. The Els distribution maps of 1992, 1999, 2000, 2001 and 2004 years were generated respectively based on the classification results. The results of the classification process have been checked in the field and by photointerpretation on the base of random sampling. Finally, a spatial analysis was performed to temporal monitoring of the ELs shape and location. The field survey and the image processing have allowed to highlight that some classified Els-like objects, even if showing the same spectral response, could not be Els: this confirm the strategic importance of the field checking on the semi-automatically produced data. These mistaken objects have been deleted during the production of the multitemporal mapping of the Els, as a final result of the study. The multitemporal spatial analysis has showed the changes in the shape and position of the Els and, furthermore, how the highest frequency of the ELs is occurring

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on southern slopes. These slopes, displaying slope angle values ranging from 12 to 20, are cut on clayey-marly deposits covered by fine-textured and carbonate-rich Inceptisols. Furthermore, the comparison between seasonal different Landsat data of the same area has clearly evidenced the presence of ELs during the end of the summer period. Such results, verified in the field, are connect with bad and non conservative agricultural practices, suggesting that these practices could play an important role as triggering of erosion processes and their evolution.

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MULTIDISCIPLINARY APPROACH AIMING AT DEFINING LAND CRITICALITY OF AN ALPINE ALLUVIAL FAN: A CASE STUDY FROM FUSINE (VALTELLINA, CENTRAL ALPS, ITALY)
1 Istituto di Ricerca per la Protezione Idrogeologica, CNR-IRPI, Torino 2 Dip. Scienze della Terra, Universit di Modena e Reggio Emilia F. Luino1, M. Soldati2 & G. Esposito2

Alluvial fans are the seat of muddy-debris flows that can be as the most destructive instability processes in the Alps. Many villages are located on alluvial fans because of their favourable position. Some of these villages possess significant infrastructure facilities and can be treated as small towns. Their vulnerability has gradually been increased owing to urban extension occurred in the last decades. This has caused a rising risk for human life and properties. Every year in the Italian Alps, some urban areas located at the mouth of secondary valleys are affected by muddy-debris flows. Geomorphological studies show that more than 400 urbanised areas in the Alps, because of their location, can be affected by muddy-debris flows. On the basis of the numerous historical data collected at the CNR-IRPI archive of Turin, it can be stated that muddy-debris flows caused more than 500 casualties in the Italian Alps and provoked damages for thousands of million euros in the period 1801-2008. The present paper analyses the Madrasco alluvial fan (Valtellina, Central Italian Alps), where the Fusine village is partially located. The village was severely damaged on July 1987 by a muddy-debris flow. At first, a deep historical investigation was carried out in the municipal archive from which interesting information on floods and muddy-debris flows was found since 1816, with some even older references (15th century). This research has enabled to compare the severe event occurred on August 1991 with the previous case of 1987. Afterwards, the Madrasco basin (26.9 km) was analysed from a geomorphological point of view. A detailed field survey, along with photointerpretation of multitemporal aerial photographs (1954-2001), enabled the natural evolution of secondary basins affected by landslides producing a large quantity of debris to be verified. These instability processes are actually conditioning the Madrasco riverbed evolution in the valley sector. The eastern part of the alluvial fan (1.1 km) has been thoroughly analysed, defining the land use of the Fusine municipality and its vulnerability. From the study of the old photographs and questionnaire survey, the thickness of the deposits of the 1987 event was reconstructed. Superimposition of the three classes of vulnerability (high, medium and low) to the four categories of the land use destination (residential settlement, industrial and handicraft areas, sport areas/facilities/standards and agricultural areas) has enabled to define the land criticality of the urban area by a matrix. The results obtained could be taken into account by the municipal administration for future active or passive defences, for urban extension and the creation of a safe and efficient warning system for risk mitigation.

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LATE QUATERNARY ATMOSPHERIC DUST EVOLUTION FROM THREE ANTARCTIC ICE CORES
Dip. Scienze dellAmbiente e del Territorio, Universit di Milano-Bicocca, Corresponding author: Valter Maggi, e-mail: valter.maggi@unimib.it V. Maggi, B. Delmonte, F. Marino, S. Albani & C. Mazzola

From the beginning of the 90s, some deep ice core drilling projects were carried out in Antarctica. Among them, the European Project for Ice Coring in Antarctica (EPICA) allowed recovery of a ~3.3 km deep ice core at Dome Concordia (7506S, 123 21E), providing an undisturbed climate record covering more than 800 ka. Another deep (~2.7 km) ice core drilled in the framework of EPICA at Dronning Maud Land (75 00S, 00 04E) made available a very detailed climate record spanning the last ~150 ka. Recently, a ~1620 m deep ice core was recovered at the peripheral site of Talos Dome (7248S, 15906E) within the TALos Dome Ice CorE drilling project (TALDICE). The peripheral site of Talos Dome is located ca. 300 km from the coast (South Pacific and Ross Sea sectors of the Southern Ocean) and the climatic sequence obtained from the ice core spans about 250 ka. The atmospheric mineral dust sequences obtained from these three cores provide important records of mineral particles of aeolian origin reaching the interior of the Antarctic ice sheet from the surrounding continents. Concentration, size, geochemistry, mineralogy and model simulations of atmospheric transport patterns were performed in order to understand the changes of atmospheric dust load in the past. The measurements were performed by using different analytical techniques, from liquid counting to mass spectrometry measurements, both in on bulk samples and on single-grains. Similar analyses have been performed on target samples from the potential source regions of the Southern Hemisphere. We investigate the relationship between dust transport and the sources areas during late Quaternary glacial and interglacial stages, with particular focus on the last climatic transition (LGM to Holocene). Correlation with coeval climate and environmental records from the southern Hemisphere provide a clearer overview of past climate changes.

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CHANNEL ADJUSTMENT IN A SEMI-NATURAL VS AN ANTHROPIZED STRETCH OF THE CALORE RIVER (CAMPANIA)


Dip. Studi Geologici ed Ambientali, Universit del Sannio, Benevento Corresponding author: Alessio Valente, e-mail: valente@unisannio.it P. Magliulo, A.Valente & E. Cartojan

Recent detailed investigations on Calore River in Campania have highlighted relevant adjustments of its planform geometry. In this study, such adjustments, occurred in few decades, were investigated and compared in two sectors, placed in the middle and in the lowermost reach of the river course, respectively. More precisely, the former sector is located in the Benevento Plain, where the homonymous town is situated, and therefore is highly conditioned, both in its planform geometry and dynamics, by anthropic interventions. The latter sector is sited immediately upstream the Volturno River confluence and almost preserves its natural features. The Calore River, which is about 115 km long, mostly develops a wandering pattern with longitudinal and alternated side bars. Point bars are also present locally. In general terms, the evolutionary trend showed a decrease in the extension of the bars, an increase of their number and a reduction of both the channel width and the sinuosity. The research was carried out by comparing topographic maps and aerial photographs, dated back to different years, by means of GIS procedures. Field surveys allowed to check the present situation. The anthropized stretch of Calore River (i.e., the stretch flowing across the town of Benevento) is mostly confined between two artificial walls, several meters high, which were built with the aim to protect the town from floods, which damaged the town several times in the past (e.g., in 1949). Currently, eight bridges cross the river and, at their piles foot, isolated check-dams were built to avoid undermining processes. In correspondence of each bridge, a remarkable difference in the channel features is clearly evident: in fact, upstream to the bridge, the river is wider and no sedimentary body is detectable, whereas downstream the channel is narrower and several kinds of bars are present. Such a condition was observed also in the time span 1957-1998. Besides, the comparison between the channel geometry in 1957 and in 1998 pointed out limited adjustments in this strongly anthropized stretch, while just outside it, both upstream and downstream, more remarkable adjustments affected the channel. In 1957, the channel width ranged from 8 m to 73 m, whereas in 1998 the range was reduced from 4 m to 54 m. Moreover, in 1998 the number of both the mid-channel and side bars strongly increased, while their extension significantly decreased. Finally, although the sinuosity maintained a relatively high value (>1,7), the river is here characterized by straight reaches alternated with small-radius bends. In the considered time span, the semi-natural stretch (i.e., the stretch located just upstream to the confluence into the Volturno River) experienced remarkable changes in the channel geometry. For instance, between 1957 and 1998, the wide meander

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located just upstream to the confluence experienced a strong north-westward migration, which led to a shifting of the confluence of some 1 km. Furthermore, the sinuosity (1.35 in the 1957) decreased by more than 10% in this stretch. The width of the river in 1957 ranged from 113 m and 23 m, while in 1998 it almost halved, probably also because of the construction of a new bridge very close to the oldest one. The narrowing of the channel downstream to the bridges was also induced by the aggradation of several small-sized mid-channel and side bars, whose extensions ranged from 0.007 to 0.009 km2. Very probably, the above-described adjustments were also a consequence of quarrying activities, which stopped few decades ago. In conclusion, both the examined stretches showed a strong relationship between human interventions and channel adjustments. In the anthropized stretch, human interventions have prevented significant changes to occur. Some evident adjustments took place only immediately upstream and downstream to the town of Benevento. On the contrary, in the semi-natural stretch, the channel is not confined by artificial walls and, therefore, the channel adjustments are here remarkable.

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MONITORING SURFACE DEFORMATION BY NON-LINEAR ANALYSIS OF DRAINAGE NETWORK IN HINDUKUSH - PAMIR REGION
1 Remote Sensing Group, Institute of Geology, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Germany 2 Dip. Scienze della Terra, Universit di Modena e Reggio Emilia Corresponding author: Syed Amer Mahmood, e-mail: amerpakistan@gmail.com S.A. Mahmood1, F. Shahzad1, R. Gloaguen1 & S. Siddiqui2

The space filling nature of drainage network can be studied using nonlinear analysis to characterize the relative vulnerability of surface deformation. Fractals and scaling laws such as river networks and runoff series are abundant in nature, and geometry of river networks and basins is an epitome of this. The objective of this study is to exploit the drainage network of Hindukush-Pamir Region from Shuttle Radar Topographic Missions digital elevation data (SRTM-DEM-90m) using D8 algorithm. Fractal dimension of Pyanj, Kabul and Chitral Rivers using Box Counting method was calculated and their low fractal dimension values were associated with effect of neotectonic activity. The detailed textural analysis was carried out using Fractal, Lacunarity and Succolarity analysis. These methods are complimentary in nature i.e. objects with similar Fractal dimension can be distinguished with Lacunarity analysis and similarly objects with similar Lacunarity values can be distinguished with succolarity analysis. We prepared the fractal dimension distribution map using a sliding window with box counting method to identify highly vulnerable areas having low fractal dimension. A total of eight regions were identified with similar fractal dimension and the lacunarity analysis was used to distinguish between them using heterogeneities in the drainage system. Lacunarity plot revealed that four regions have similar fractal dimension and lacunarity values and thus succolarity analysis was used for further distinction. Results from the drainage network of Hindukush-Pamir Region from Pyanj, Kabul and Chitral river network and adjoining areas show that area along Tirch Mir Massif Region (Eastern Hindukush), Vanch-Yazgulem in Northwest Pamir near Main Pamir Thrust, Karasu fault Zone in south-eastern Pamir and Darvaz Fault zone is highly vulnerable to surface deformation.

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Avalanches have been always representing an hazard in the Alpine and Apennine regions; but, during the last three decades, the specific risk has exponentially increased, given the widespread human impact on the mountains, especially for tourist purposes. To face such problems, detailed studies were carried out in Italy and in other Alpine countries and the risk analysis maps as well underwent a considerable improvement. Staring from 1961, the Alpine Army School of Aosta produced the first 1:100,000 thematic maps obtained from field observations and from the information included in the Avalanche Cadaster reports. Beginning from the mid 70s, a modern cartographic methodology has been elaborated to single out the areas subjected to avalanche phenomena. The Map of Avalanche Likely Occurrence (M.A.L.O.) is a 1:25,000 basic thematic map that includes information about the maximum extension presumed for avalanche prone areas, detected locally, on the base of eye or archive witnesses, by means of the permanent parameters that indicate an avalanche prone site and from stereo pairs analysis. It is worth noticing that on this kind of maps, areas subjected in the past to avalanches are reported, though, recent modifications of the permanent parameters (e.g. growth of a bush forest in the detachment zone) may have succeeded in preventing further avalanching processes. Such cartographic information is very useful in the planning of prevention and mitigation actions that improved the site, but could induce an underestimate of the actual risk. The limitations of the cartographic tool consist, in fact, in the lack of any information about the frequency and dynamics characteristics (velocity, pressure, flow depth, maximum rest distance, return time interval) of the event. The M.A.L.O. cannot be considered an hazard map, hence it cannot be adopted as a constraining tool for the urban planning, but just as land preservation preliminary tool. In the last decade, in order to make easier to access the available data, several technical units of local administrations set up a GIS at different scales (as much as 1:2000) that allows to associate all the data with a high resolution DTM. The avalanche digital information consists substantially of a few paper supports such as: the avalanche cadaster, the M.A.L.O. or similar cartographic tools produced by regional institutions, the State Forestry Corp or Alpine army troops, using as cartographic base the 1:25,000 topo-sheets of the Italian Army Geographic Institute. In the second half of the 90s, a few of the regions and provinces of the Alpine territory produced the Avalanche-Prone Zones Plans (A.P.Z.P.). They are the most recent technical maps constructed on the base of a specific methodology to contour the avalanche prone areas. The final product is a avalanche risk map, that is an important tool for land planning.

1 Dip. Scienze della Terra, Universit di Ferrara 2 Servizio Urbanistica e tutela del paesaggio, Provincia Autonoma di Trento Corresponding author: Massimiliano Fazzini, e-mail: massimiliano.fazzini@unife.it

F. Mantovani1, M. Fazzini1, G. Tecilla2 & P. Billi1

AVALANCHE MAP EVOLUTION AS A TOOL FOR LAND PLANNING

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These are large scale (1:10,000 to 1:2000) maps that reports the avalanche prone sites and indicate, by means of dynamics studies, its potential expansion in the accumulations zone. In the A.P.Z.P. the risk evaluation is determined by specific physical-mathematical models that allow to quantify flow velocity and depth of avalanches, pressure transferred and distance after which is comes to an halt. Distinct areas are identified and characterised by three hazard levels according to the return time and the pressure impacted on a flat obstacle. For each area, urban planning restrictions are well defined.

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GEOMORPHOLOGY AND BRONZE AGE SETTLEMENT IN CENTRAL SARDINIA: THE RUINAS NURAGHE SITE (ARZANA, OG)
1 Dip. Scienze della Terra, Univesit di Cagliari 2 C & C, Quartucciu (Cagliari) Corresponding author: Rita T. Melis, e-mail: rtmelis@unica.it R.T. Melis1 & G. Cucca2

The relationship between natural and cultural factors has long been debated, and many authors correlate environmental and cultural change, even if under different perspectives. Multi- and interdisciplinary studies have shown relationships between morphologic context and prehistoric and historic settlements, emphasizing the human impact on geomorphological processes. In Sardinia, the Middle Bronze Age is marked by the development of the Nuragic civilisation, that was primarily characterized, throughout most of its existence, by the round stone towers called Nuraghe, many of which are still standing. Nuragic settlements are found in different landforms: coasts, mountains, plains, plateaus and hills. This paper shows the preliminary results of a research aiming to understand how the geomorphological context should have affected nuragic people in their choice to settle in the Nuraghe Ruinas spot. In contrast to Europe where more studies emphasized the geomorphological settings, in Sardinia studies concerning relationship between Bronze Age settlements are still very limited so that it is difficult to provide a coherent theory. The Nuraghe Ruinas site is formed of a Nuraghe with three towers and a village with about 100 circular huts. It is located in the Gennargentu mountains along a narrow ridge, at an altitude of around 1200 m a.s.l. The area is characterized by a Palaeozoic bedrock mainly represented by metamorphic and granite rocks affected by straight dikes and faults. The geomorphological context is strongly influenced by the litho-structural factors. Peneplain surfaces, buttes and ridges, separated by tectonic valleys, fault line valleys, are present. The morphological evolution of the landscape is characterized by intense erosive phenomena such as landslides and rills, which also affect the perimeter of settlements and threaten the conservation of these sites. The geomorphological hazard is also accentuated by the intense overgrazing. Integrated analysis between geomorphological and archaeological data suggest that the collapse of the Nuraghe tower was caused by erosive phenomena occurred presumably during Final Bronze age. The presence of relict palaeosoils and their intervening episodes of sedimentation and degradation may suggest possible periods of erosion and sedimentation affected by climate change and human impact. Preliminary findings lead to infer that geomorphological context should have been driving criteria in selecting the location for Nuraghe Ruinas. The granitic-rock out-

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crops were included in the tower walls, the relict peneplain, with fertile and deep soils suitable, for grazing and agriculture. Moreover, water availability was assured nearby springs and small ponds created by dike outcrops. The lithostratigraphic study within the Nuraghe towers, correlate with archaeological data and micromorphological analysis of natural and anthropic deposits, have also revealed that Nuraghe Ruinas was a seasonal site. Radiocarbon dating confirm that tower was inhabited from Middle Bronze (1336 50 cal BC) till Final Bronze (1046 63 cal BC).

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HIGH RESOLUTION DTM FOR THE ANALYSIS OF FLUVIAL AND ANTHROPOGENIC LANDFORMS IN THE ALLUVIAL PLAIN OF PADUA (ITALY)
P. Mozzi1, F. Ferrarese1, A. Fontana1, A. Ninfo1, S. Piovan1, S. Rossato1 & F. Veronese2

The alluvial plain around Padua results from the sedimentary activity of the Brenta and Bacchiglione rivers since the last glaciation to modern times. The inner and oldest part of the city developed on the banks of a former meander of the Brenta River, later occupied by a minor course, the Bacchiglione. Archaeological evidence in the area starts in the Neolithic and becomes increasingly important since the Bronze Age. The underground of the city centre consists of fine-grained alluvial sediments overlaid by Iron Age, Roman and Medieval archaeological deposits. The georeferenced database of spot heights of the Technical Maps at scale 1:1000 of the Municipality of Padua, made available by the Cartographic Office, has allowed the creation of a high resolution DTM of this territory. About 90,000 spot heights exist on an area of 9.3 km2. This DTM is coupled by a 2007 Lidar DTM always provided by the Municipality. The analysis of the DTMs, integrated with other data such as topographic maps from the 18th century onwards, geomorphological maps, aerial photographs, satellite images, alluvial and archaeological stratigraphies, has greatly improved our knowledge on the geomorphology and geoarchaeology of the area. NW and S of the city centre some meanders of the Brenta River are evident which were only partially mapped in previous studies. They probably date to the middle Holocene. Another important landform recognized in the DTMs is the fluvial ridge built by the Brenta river since the 2nd millennium B.C. to present day. The city centre consists of a large mound, about 10 m higher than the surrounding plain. The mound is entirely due to the superimposition of archaeological layers for maximum thickness of about 7 m. Two prominent elevations are present in the DTMs on the inner and outer banks of the meanders; some linear features seem to reflect the structure of the Roman town. A first estimate of the volume of the archaeological deposits corresponding to the mound has been attempted, as well as the mapping of their thickness. Archaeological literature indicates that the Iron Age levels in the underground of the city centre, regarded with some approximation as equivalent to the alluvial plain surface before the building up of the mound, is found at elevations ranging from 9 to 12 meters above sea level. The subtraction of the Iron Age surface DTM to the present day DTM allows the calculation of the volume of the mound. The areas where the archaeological deposits subsequent to the Iron Age are thicker generally correspond to the maximum elevations in the DTM. Nevertheless, the place of maximum thickness, located in the western meander, lies where the early Iron Age surface (that is, the pre-mound surface) presents a depression.

1 Dip. Geografia, Universit di Padova, 2 Archaeologist, Padova Corresponding author: Paolo Mozzi, e-mail: paolo.mozzi@unipd.it

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Further developments of the research are expected within the framework of an ongoing geoarchaeological project funded by Fondazione Cariparo, with the partnership of the Soprintendenza per i Beni Archeologici del Veneto. Investigations are being carried out on the geomorphology, shallow stratigraphy and palaeoenvironmental evolution of Padua and surroundings, with a focus on the reconstruction of the 3D geometry of the alluvial and archaeological sedimentary bodies in the city centre. A geological survey is being carried out, with manual and mechanical corings and the monitoring of ongoing archaeological surveys and excavations. Multisensor airborne surveys including Lidar, MIVIS and thermal camera are scheduled for next winter. All data acquired during the project and previous published and unpublished relevant information are stored in a dedicated geoarchaeological GIS.

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THE IMPORTANCE OF BASIN MORPHOMETRY ON FLOOD OCCURRENCE: A CASE STUDY OF HAVRAN RIVER BASIN (TURKEY)
Geography Dept., Istanbul University, Turkey Corresponding author: Hasan Ozdemir, e-mail: ozdemirh@istanbul.edu.tr H. Ozdemir

Floods are a constant hazard in many parts of the world with resulting in loss of life and damaging to property and infrastructures. The number of people affected by river floods has been increasing in recent years. When the compared with all other disasters in the past 30 years, it shows that the hazard of floods and windstorms is rapidly increasing around the world. There are a number of reasons for flood occurrences such as intensive rainfall, morphometric characteristics of basins, deforestation, land use change and sometimes misapplications on the river channels. All these reasons can play important role in flood occurrence individually or collectively. This study has been focused on the basin morphometry due to becoming a constant natural factor. The other factors both natural and manmade (e.g. intensive rainfall, deforestation, land use and misapplications on the river channel) change from time to time depend on different reasons. Every basin has its own geometric characteristic which is referred as the basin morphometry based on geology, geomorphology and climatic conditions. Evaluation of morphometric parameters necessitates the analysis of linear, areal and relief characteristics of the basin. These characteristics can be used to predict or describe geomorphic processes such as prediction of flood peaks, assessment of sediment yields and estimation of erosion rates. Basin morphometry can be applied to entire basin and interior sub-basins to deduce which sub-basin is more effective to produce flood on the main channel. The main goal of this study is to point out the importance of sub-basin morphometry on main channel flooding with apply it to Havran River basin. The Havran River basin is situated between coordinates 26 55 30- 27 22 30 E longitudes and 39 25 3039 43 30 N latitudes in the western part of Balikesir district, western Turkey. With a perimeter of 138.8 km, covering an area of approximately 570 km2, and having 8 sub-basins, basin elevation varies from 0 to 1290 m above sea level. Catastrophic floods occurred on the Havran River in the years of 1528, 1904, 1958, 1964, 1968, 1979 and 1981. Flooding has not occurred since 1981 on the river due to decreased of rainfall intensity. Moreover, some prevention measures have been taken on the river channel such as canalization and construction of weirs. Also a dam was constructed to decrease water income from sub-basin 4 (Gelin Stream) to main channel. To extract and evaluate the morphometric characteristics at basin and sub-basin scale, topographic maps scaled 1:25,000, a 10 m Digital Elevation Model (DEM), and discharge data of the tributaries in last 30 years and GPS measurements in the

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main channel were used. The drainage networks of the basin were extracted from DEM using Geographic Information System (GIS). Morphometric parameters such as ordering of the various streams (Nu), measurement of basin area (A) and perimeter (P), length of drainage channels (L), drainage density (Dd), stream frequency (Fs), bifurcation ratio (Rb), texture ratio (T), basin relief (Bh), ruggedness number (Rn) and time of concentration (Tc) were calculated at 8 sub-basins level. The results of morphometric parameters of the sub-basins were evaluated to measure the effectiveness on the main channel. Basin morphometry result was compared with produced hydraulic modelling results using Hec-GeoRas and Hec-Ras considered discharge data of sub-basins which join to main channel after the dam. This study reveals that evaluating the basin morphometry is of a great helps in analysing sub-basins effect on the main channel from the flooding point of view. Morphometric analysis results indicated that the sub-basin 4 has the fourth order influence on the main channel. This means that the sub-basins 1, 3, and 5, which join the main channel after the dam, have more influence on the main channel than the sub-basin 4. Hydraulic modelling results show that even if there is no discharge from the sub-basin 4, flooding will still occur on the main channel in spite of the canalization and the dam.

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GEOMORPHOLOGICAL MAP OF THE SURROUNDINGS OF CORVARA IN BADIA (DOLOMITES, ITALY)


M. Panizza1, L. Borgatti2, P. Coratza1, A. Corsini1, A. Ghinoi1, L. Keim3, M. Marchetti1, A. Pasuto4, D. Piacentini1, S. Silvano4 & M. Soldati1

Geomorphological investigations in the area of Corvara in Badia (Dolomites, Italy) have been carried out since the 1990s mainly within national and European research projects. This has enabled the researchers to define, on the one hand, the geomorphological evolution of the area and, on the other hand, the spatial and temporal occurrence of landslides, that are the most spread geomorphological feature of the studied area. Geomorphological investigations have also been finalised in a geomorphological map at 1:20,000 scale. The method used for the survey and mapping follows the guidelines issued by the Italian National Geological Service for the 1:50,000 Geomorphological map of Italy, with the exception of some changes due to the larger scale adopted. The geomorphological mapping process took advantage of the output of a series of investigations carried out during more than ten years in the Upper Badia Valley, such as multitemporal analyses of aerial and terrestrial photos and maps, annual fieldwork, as well as instrumental sampling and monitoring of several landslides. Particularly significant to reconstruct the geomorphological evolution of the area were about 50 radiocarbon organic samples generally collected into buried sites (many of them picked up from landslide bodies or lacustrine deposits) that gave important radiocarbon ages related also to pollen analysis. The Upper Badia Valley is located in the eastern Dolomites and surrounded by high plateaus such as Sella Group (Piz Bo, 3110 m a.s.l.), Gardenaccia Group (Col Dala Sone, 2633 m), Contourines (Piz Dles Contourines, 3064 m), Settsass and Lagazuoi Groups (Piz Lagazuoi, 2762 m). The area is linked to surrounding alpine valleys by famous alpine passes: Gardena Pass towards west (2150 m), Campolongo Pass towards South (1875 m), Valparola and Falzarego Passes towards southeast (2109 m). Water courses flow towards north and the main stream is Rio Gadera. During the Last Glacial Maximum, the whole area was covered by a thick ice cap, till about 2300 m a.s.l., flowing from north and partially linked to contiguous ice tongues through the main Alpine passes. During the Late Glacial Ice masses in the area were confined among the main Dolomite Groups and flux changed from Falzarego, Campolongo and Gardena Passes towards the north. Some moraine ridges witness the movement in the valley bottom. The geological structure of the area, characterised by an alternation of dolomitic

1 Dip. Scienze Terra, Universit di Modena e Reggio Emilia 2 Dip. Ing. Strutture, Trasporti, Acque, Rilevamento e Territorio, Universit di Bologna 3 Uff. Geologia e prove materiali, Provincia Autonoma di Bolzano 4 Istituto di Ricerca per la Protezione Idrogeologica, CNR-IRPI, Padova Corresponding author: Mauro Marchetti, e-mail: mauro.marchetti@unimore.it

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rocks (Triassic carbonate platforms) and successions of prevalently pelitic components, has markedly conditioned the morphological evolution of the slopes after the retreat of the LGM glaciers. The stratigraphical sequence outcropping in the area of Corvara in Badia covers a period of time ranging from Late Permian to Early Cretaceous. The Quaternary deposits, mainly deriving from landslide phenomena, are widespread inside the valley, masking the substratum and making the recognition of tectonic elements along the valley bottom particularly difficult. The slope morphology is softly degrading in the medium and lower parts where pelitic formations outcrop, while at higher altitudes subvertical dolomitic walls rise up, eventually interrupted by typical ledges, thick scree slopes, located in correspondence with more erodible formations. The whole area has often been affected by landslide phenomena of various types and of sometimes notable dimensions, some of which are still active today. As a result of the favourable morphological conditions, the area has witnessed progressive urbanisation, which has also been tied to an intensive tourist development.

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CARTA GEOMORFOLOGICA DELLE MASIERE DI VEDANA NEL VALLONE BELLUNESE


1 Universit di Padova 2 Geomorphologist, Bolzano Corresponding author: Giovanni Battista Pellegrini, e-mail: giovanni.pellegrini@alice.it G.B. Pellegrini1 & L. Caneve2

La carta geomorfologica rappresenta il vasto accumulo della frana delle Masiere di Vedana che si trova alla confluenza delle valli del T. Cordevole e del T. Mis nel Vallone Bellunese. La frana si stacc in pi fasi dalle pareti del M.Peron (1486 m), che sono costituite dai calcari delle diverse formazioni del Mesozoico. Nella zona della nicchia di distacco gli strati assumono una giacitura subverticale determinata dal sovrascorrimento della Linea di Belluno. Laccumulo di frana si sparso su unarea molto estesa (circa 5,5 km2) e si distribuisce in modo irregolare per pi di 5 km di lunghezza e 4 km di larghezza. Il volume complessivo stato valutato in circa 100 milioni di m3. Il materiale franato raggiunge, nella parte centrale, una potenza massima di 40 m. Nellarea daccumulo si sono riconosciuti due settori principali aventi caratteristiche morfologiche e sedimentologiche differenti. Nel settore pi lontano dal versante si osserva una morfologia di tipo glaciale, con dossi e avvallamenti. I depositi, un diamicton a supporto di matrice con alcuni massi del volume di parecchi metri cubi, sono costituiti essenzialmente da Calcare del Vajont, Rosso Ammonitico e Calcari di Fonzaso, rocce che affiorano nellarea della nicchia di frana,. Nel settore pi vicino al versante presente una topografia irregolare con frequenti cumuli e depressioni, che ricordano la tipica morfologia delle aree interessate da ghiaccio morto. In questo secondo settore si possono distinguere due aree: nella prima i detriti hanno dimensioni molto varie da piccole a medie e sono costituiti essenzialmente da Dolomie e Calcari del Vajont; nella seconda, i detriti, costituiti soprattutto da Calcari Grigi, hanno una granulometria assai varia con massi che, in prossimit della nicchia di frana, possono raggiungere il volume di almeno mille metri cubi. I diversi Autori che si occuparono di questo fenomeno gravitativo ritennero che avvenne quando il ghiacciaio del Cordevole occupava ancora il fondovalle, ma la sua lingua glaciale era gi separata da quella del ghiacciaio del Piave. Sulla base di nuove evidenze morfologiche, sedimentologiche e stratigrafiche possibile proporre una interpretazione che implica due principali fasi di evoluzione. Nella prima fase il materiale franato fu trasportato in avanti lontano dalle pareti del M. Peron dal ghiacciaio del Cordevole (le prove di questa fase sono documentate nel settore periferico della zona daccumulo). La seconda fase avvenne quando il fondovalle era ancora occupato da estese placche di ghiaccio morto (presenza dampie conche residuali: kettles), ma con le caratteristiche delle valanghe di roccia (intensa frammentazione delle rocce con apparente stratificazione in profondit, concentrazione e galleggiamento dei massi in superficie). Gli ampi scavi, che da molti anni si eseguono per sfruttare il pietrisco fornito da que-

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ste Masiere, hanno messo a giorno diversi affioramenti, permettendo una analisi dettagliata di questo fenomeno, e la ricostruzione della seguente sequenza stratigrafica presso Sass Muss (dalla base alla sommit): 1) Substrato in roccia; 2) Conglomerato di Roe; 3) Paleosuolo; 4) Depositi glaciali; 5) Sedimenti glaciolacustri, datati TL 19.700 3000 anni BP; 6) Depositi glaciali dellultima fase glaciale; 7) Depositi di frana trasportati dal ghiacciaio (Marocca del Cordevole), costituiti da Calcari di Fonzaso, Rosso Ammonitico e Calcare del Vajont; 8) Depositi di frana (rock avalanche) costituiti da Calcare del Vajont e da Calcari Grigi, con grandi massi. Non stato possibile ottenere una datazione diretta dei depositi della frana, ma le correlazioni stratigrafiche indicano che i depositi devono essere pi recenti dellultima massima espansione glaciale e let dei depositi di frana (7) dovrebbe essere molto prossima a quella dei depositi glaciali (6), perch non esiste traccia di un paleosuolo o di una superficie derosione fra i due depositi. Queste evidenze stratigrafiche e le analisi geomorfologiche mostrano che il fenomeno di frana inizi durante una delle prime fasi della deglaciazione alpina, ed in particolare quando il ghiacciaio del Cordevole era gi separato dal ghiacciaio del Piave. Questa fase stata recentemente datata fra 16.210 50 e 15.000 anni BP. Lultima fase (rock avalanche) potrebbe per essere addirittura olocenica.

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133

EXTENT AND IMPACT OF HYDRO-GEOMORPHOLOGIC DISASTERS IN PORTUGAL


Geographical Studies Centre, University of Lisbon, Portugal Corresponding author: Jos Luis Zzere, e-mail: jlzezere@fl.ul.pt I. Quaresma & J.L. Zzere

The record and analysis of statistical information on disaster occurrence, impacts and losses have been made worldwide in recent years. The development of natural disasters databases is crucial for risk management purposes, because it allows improving systems of indicators on disaster risk and vulnerability at national and sub-national scales. During the last century, Portugal was affected by several destructing natural disasters, namely of hydrologic (floods) and geomorphologic (landslides) origin. However, only recently risk prevention and management was assumed to be a national priority by the Portuguese Government. In addition, the basic information on past floods and landslides occurred in Portugal is disperse and incomplete and this is a shortcoming for the implementation of effective disaster mitigation measures. In this work we present a preliminary assessment of hydro-geomorphologic disasters occurred in Portugal since the beginning of the 20th century, based on the systematic survey of daily national newspapers, for a 107 year time period. We included into a database those floods and landslides that produced, alternatively, dead people, injured people, missing people, evacuated and homeless. A total of 1018 hydrogeomorphologic events were registered. In addition to physical and material damages, these events produced economic losses amounting to millions Euros. Our attention will focuse on the geographic distribution and the temporal dimension of disastrous floods and landslides occurred in Portugal, and the temporal trends of hydro-geomorphologic disasters will be presented. The preliminary results shown that disastrous floods and landslides have been more frequent on the most populated regions of Portugal: the metropolitan areas of Lisbon and Oporto. Moreover, the beginning of the 21st century has been characterized by the widespread territorial dispersion of losses resulting from hydrologic and geomorphologic phenomena, which is a probable consequence of the widespread inappropriate use of dangerous zones in several Portuguese regions. Finally, we assess the societal risk regarding landslides and floods in Portugal through the construction of F-N curves.

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VINEYARDS OF THE UPPER RHONE VALLEY (VALAIS, SWITZERLAND) AND GEOMORPHOLOGY


Institute of Geography, University of Lausanne, Switzerland Corresponding author: Emmanuel Reynard, e-mail: Emmanuel.Reynard@unil.ch E. Reynard, J.B. Bosson & S. Martin

Vineyards were introduced in the Upper Rhone valley (Switzerland) almost since the Romanian times. Since, due to climate (dry and sunny weather) and geological conditions, wine production has continuously developed. Since the end of the 19th century, the vineyard surfaces have doubled and are now more than 5200 ha. Within the framework of a project on the history of wine in Valais, mapping of historical changes of vineyard surfaces was carried out. Several typical situations (periurban vineyards, vineyards located in different geomorphologic contexts etc.) were studied. Precise mapping (scale 1:25,000) was carried out using topographic maps. Vineyard surfaces and other spatial elements were digitised and analysed within a Geographical Information System (GIS). Maps of landscape evolution and 3D representations of the rural landscape at several epochs were realised since the 1880s. A second step, carried out within a project called Stone and wine developed by the Geotechnical commission of the Swiss Academy of Sciences, consisted to digitise the whole vineyard surfaces in 1880 and 2000 and to produce a simplified geomorphological map of the Valais vineyards. The proposed poster will present the two maps (evolution of vineyards 1880-2000 and geomorphological map of Valais vineyards).

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HISTORICAL AND PRESENT-DAY ROCKFALLS AND DEEP-SEATED MOVEMENTS IN THE ESTREMADURA LIMESTONE MASSIF, PORTUGAL
CEG-UL - Geographical Studies Centre, University of Lisbon, Portugal Corresponding author: Maria Luisa Rodrigues, e-mail: rodrigues.mluisa@gmail.com M.L. Rodrigues

Located in central Portugal, 20 km far from the Atlantic Ocean, the Estremadura Limestone Massif (ELM) is formed by uplifted compartments with moderate altitudes (max. 680 m). Affected by tectonics (folds, faults, overthrusts), the pattern of joints (including bedding planes) is a decisive factor in the geomorphologic processes, such as karst phenomena and slope movements. The thick Dogger limestone complex is the most extensive outcrop controlling the development of the karst forms and rockfall events. However the bedrock formations complexity (from Infralias to lower Cretaceous) plays an important role in the spatial distribution of slope movements. Besides limestones, clay-evaporitic series, marly clays, marls and marly limestones form other units. These structural and lithological factors, connected with particular karst hydrologic conditions and with a vigorous morphology, explain the occurrence of different types of landslides, namely due to creep and lateral spread processes, rockfalls, topples and some slides. The study of instability was based on field surveys and geomorphologic mapping at a 1:2000 scale and, sometimes, this detailed analysis was complemented by case studies fulfilled at a larger scale. Several instability processes were identified, although they are responsible for different erosion rates and degrees of hazard. Among them are falls, mostly rockfalls, topples, some slides (namely rotational and translation movements), lateral spreads and slow flows (sometimes named creep movements), that correspond in the slopes to deep-seated gravitational slope deformations (DGSD). In this presentation we will focused on two types of slope movements: i) old rockfalls, corresponding to big old events triggered by earthquakes (Bergsturz, >106 m3 and cliff falls, 104 to 106 m3), and present-day rockfalls quite smaller, that are by far the most numerous events in the ELM, sometimes preceded by topples or small slide movements; ii) deep-seated gravitational slope deformational movements that rise a lot of problems related with land management. As rockfalls are events that operate discontinuously in time and space, is necessary to make spatial assessments of the movements and analyze the control and triggering factors. It is usual to classify rockfalls according to the size of the event. Indeed, as the time of occurrence its very difficult to predict, we can correlate the magnitude and the frequency of the events that occur in different time conditions. With regard to the temporal assessment a distinction was made between rockfall episodes related to the last glacial period, identified only by stratigraphic evidences, and those that have the whole or part of the morphology preserved. The last ones

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were classified in three major groups: old events of large magnitude and low frequency; recent events, more frequent but smaller (boulder falls and block falls), subdivided according to the freshness of the scarps. These morphological characteristics allow the distinction between movements younger and older than three years (the last ones show well preserved accumulation zone but the departure zone is already effaced). The field survey stressed the importance of lithology, tectonics and slope angle among the main controlling factors of falls, both in the spatial distribution and in the typology of movements. Therefore, besides classifying rockfalls according to its size, we made an adaptation of Crudens classification of rockslides adjusting the criteria and enlarging the typology of the movements. This procedure reveals interesting results in the spatial assessment of the areas prone to rockfalls. The typology of the slopes affected by rockfalls is: 1) cataclinal slopes, were the bedding planes dip in the same direction of slope angle, subdivided in: 1.1 cataclinal overdip slopes, were slope angle is greater than the inclination of bedding planes; 1.2 cataclinal dip slopes, were the slope angle and inclination of bedding planes are similar; 1.3 cataclinal underdip slopes, were slope angle is smaller than the inclination of bedding planes; 2) orthoclinal slopes, were bedding planes are perpendicular or slightly oblique to slope orientation; 3) anaclinal slopes; were slope angle is opposite to the inclination of bedding planes; 4) slopes formed by densely fractured rocks. In the studied area the rockfalls in orthoclinal slopes are dominant. However, though they have a high frequency, they show a small magnitude (mainly debris falls and boulder falls). Rockfalls in anaclinal slopes are also of small size. The rockfalls of greater magnitude occur in cataclinal slopes, particularly in dip and overdip ones, and mainly in the slopes formed by densely fractured rocks. In this last group of slopes were identified the major old and present rockslides. The study of rockfalls, deep-seated gravitational slope deformations, slides and other instability processes in the ELM, was the basis for the construction of hazard maps and other maps applied to land management.

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THE GLACIERS OF THE ADAMELLO PRESANELLA GROUP AND RECENT CLIMATIC VARIATIONS
1 Dip. Scienze della Terra, Universit di Roma La Sapienza 2 Dip. Scienze della Terra, Universit di Pisa 3 Dip. Geografia G. Morandini, Universit di Padova Corresponding author: Carlo Baroni, e-mail: baroni@dst.unipi.it M.C. Salvatore1, C. Baroni2 & A. Carton3

The over one hundred glacial bodies of the Adamello-Presanella Group are sensitive environmental indicators, which promptly responded to climate changes. Their sizes range from approximately 1800 hectares of the Ghiacciaio dellAdamello (in 1983 AD) to a few hectares of the smaller glaciers nesting in protected areas. Glaciers of the Adamello-Presanella retain a relevant and strategic water resource, available, easily accessible and not substantially polluted. The melting of these glaciers during the summer regulates the flow of rivers Adige, Oglio, Sarca, and Chiese, concurring to maintain balance in the levels of prealpine lakes (lakes Garda, Iseo, and Idro). The importance of glaciers, seen as a natural resource, is emphasized by their intensive exploitation for generating hydroelectric power, for agricultural purposes, for civil and industrial consume. Furthermore, glaciers are natural systems that can provide guidance on environmental history and climate on a given region. Finally, their past behaviour provides a key for interpretation to understanding the mechanisms that govern the dynamics and for predicting their future reaction to climatic and environmental stresses acting at present. Using data collected by operators of the CGI who, tirelessly and voluntarily each year since one hundred years, ensured to control glaciers frontal variation, we reconstructed detailed time distance curve of the monitored glaciers. Valuable control of the data comes from old photographs, multitemporal topographic maps and aerial photographs, and satellite images. Between the time of maximum glacial extension recorded in the first half of the nineteenth century (the final stage of the Little Age Ice Age) and 2007, the glaciers of Adamello-Presanella Group have experienced a net reduction in area of about 40%. Significant loss of volume accompanied the areal reduction, thereby significantly decreasing the water stored in the mass. Compared to the time of the Great War there was a lowering of the surface ice of more than 70 m, as documented by the position of refuge Ai Caduti dellAdamello compared to the present glacial surface. With reference to the Ghiacciaio della Lobbia, the variation of the limit of snow between the period of maximum expansion of the Little Ice Age and the Age 1983 indicating an increase of about 75 m. This increase, if only for a reported change in temperature, would correspond to an increase of about 0.45 C mean annual temperature between the Little Ice Age and the Age 1983. Moreover, in recent years, many glaciers have been found completely below the limit of perennial snow, suffering more significant areal and volumetric reduction.

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Only the inertia of the masses of ice against the merger has allowed them to overcome the most critical stages: the serious imbalance that seems to characterize glaciers compared to current climatic conditions suggests that if this situation will last, we should wait for further dramatic reductions in areal extension and thickness. What will be the consequences on water stored in glaciers? Which scenarios are we expecting in the coming decades? To these questions there is not a certain answer. It would be a greater awareness that only by a more precise knowledge of glaciers, their world and their history is clearly a better and proper opportunity to protect their lives and manage the rich resources that nature provides us.

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GEOMORPHIC MAP OF THE TASMAN GLACIER REGION, NEW ZEALAND


Department of Geography, University of Helsinki, Finland Corresponding author: Matti Seppl, e-mail: matti.seppala@helsinki.fi M. Seppl

Tasman Glacier is some 29 km long and 4 km wide valley glacier located on Southern Alps of New Zealand (4337S, 17012E). It passes the highest peat (3754 m a.s.l.) of the Alps, Mount Cook and flows south and east towards the Mackenzie Basin. A geomorphic map was prepared on the basis of field observations and aerial photographs of April 1971. The map covers also Hooker and Murchison Glacier valleys. About half of the glacier lengths are debris covered and already 38 years ago they had thawed a lot as indicated by the lateral moraines up to 100 m in height on the valley slopes. Annual vertical weathering rate of the rocks in this region are about 1 mm which explains the thick debris on the glaciers and very active galley erosion on slopes, rock slides and solifluction. Lower edge of Tasman Glacier is very special. The debris-covered part is full of small funnel-like pits showing the ice melting from this bottom and effect of the subglacial streams. This process will cause a very special hummocky moraine surface when ice is totally melting away. Subglacial streams drift the debris off from the pits and the untouched sites have thick debris cover which forms the hummocks. Geomorphic processes of this region are very active. Some remarks of glacier surges and landslides can be found on the map. Brained streams on outwash plains characterize the lower valleys. The map gives us an idea of the situation before rapid thawing of the glaciers. In 1971 there was no lake at the edge of Tasman Glacier. Dr. Martin Brook from Massey University has reported by 2008 a lake that was 7 km long, 2 km wide and 245 m deep existed at the glacier. Brook predicts that the glacier will eventually disappear with the new lake in 10-19 years.

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SURFACE DISPLACEMENT OF TWO ACTIVE ROCK GLACIERS IN THE ADAMELLO-PRESANELLA GROUP (CENTRAL ITALIAN ALPS): A 7-YEAR MONITORING SERIES
1 Dip. Scienze della Terra, Universit di Pavia 2 Dip. Geografia G. Morandini, Universit di Padova 3 Dip. Scienze della Terra, Universit di Pisa 4 Geomorphologist, Tenno (TN) 5 Servizio Geologico, Provincia Autonoma di Trento Corresponding author: Roberto Seppi, e-mail: roberto.seppi@unipv.it R. Seppi1, A. Carton2, C. Baroni3, M. Zumiani4 & M. Degasperi5

Active rock glaciers are among the most widespread periglacial landforms in the cryogenic belt of the Alps. They originate from the creep of perennially frozen debris (i.e. permafrost) and move downslope with typical velocities ranging from few cm to more than 1 m per year. The surface displacement of active rock glaciers is markedly variable from year to year, and in the European Alps a recent speeding up trend has been underlined on some landforms. The interannual variability of the surface motion seems to be related to climatic factors influencing the rock glaciers ground surface temperature, such as the air temperature and the thickness and duration of the winter snow cover. The dynamic response of permafrost landforms like rock glaciers is expected to change in the future due to the ongoing climate warming. In the Adamello Presanella Group (Central Italian Alps), two active rock glaciers (named Maroccaro RG and Amola RG) have been selected for carrying out multitemporal topographic surveys, in order to study their surface displacement rate and their dynamic behaviour. The rock glaciers are located at very different altitudes, and their lower parts (upper edge of the frontal slope) reach 2760 m a.s.l. and 2360 m a.s.l. respectively. The Maroccaro RG faces south-west, whereas the Amola RG faces north. The measurements started in 2001 and have been repeated in the late summer of the following years (2002, 2004, 2006, 2007, 2008). On each rock glacier, a monitoring network of 25 large boulders marked with steel bolts has been established and a laser theodolite has been used for performing the surveys. For monitoring the nearsurface ground temperature, miniature temperature data-loggers have been placed on each rock glacier since 2004. Detailed meteorological data (i.e. air temperature and snow thickness) covering the full monitoring period are available from automatic weather stations located near the studied landforms. The monitoring series shows an average horizontal velocity of about 0.13 m/year for both the two rock glaciers over the whole period of observations (2001-2008). The fastest boulders are located on the lower sector of each rock glacier and move with average velocities of about 0.20 m/year on the Maroccaro RG and more than 0.30 m/year on the Amola RG. Some areas with very slow rates of displacement (0.02

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0.06 m/year) can be observed on both the landforms. In particular, the more stable areas (i.e. inactive from a dynamic point of view) are the upper sector of the Maroccaro RG and part of the frontal sector of the Amola RG. The inactivity status of this lobe is supported by field evidences, such as a subdued morphology and an intense vegetation cover of the fine-grained debris slope. Concerning every interval of measurement, the average velocity shows an evident interannual variability, and both the rock glaciers display a nearly homogeneous and synchronous behaviour. Maximum values were recorded in the 2-year period 20022004 (no measurements available in 2003), with an average displacement of about 0.18 m/year (Maroccaro RG) and 0.19 m/year (Amola RG). The minimum velocity was recorded in the interval 2007-2008 on the Maroccaro RG (0.08 m/year) and between 2004 and 2006 (2-year interval, no measurement available in 2005) on the Amola RG (0.09 m/year). In this study, the rock glaciers surface displacement and the ground near-surface thermal regime will be compared with the major climatic parameters on the same period of time, and the potential relationships between the dynamic behaviour of the landforms and the local climatic conditions will be discussed.

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REMOTE SENSING ANALYSIS OF NEOTECTONIC DEVELOPMENT OF DRAINAGE NETWORK IN THE NORTHERN APENNINES (ITALY): PRELIMINARY RESULTS
1 Dip. Scienze della Terra, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia 2 Institute of Geology, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Germany Corresponding author: Saima Siddiqui, e-mail: saima.siddiqui@unimore.it S. Siddiqui1 & S.A. Mahmood2

The northern Apennines is one of the tectonically and geomorphic active regions in the world. The Apennine fold and thrust belt of peninsular Italy forms part of the Africa-verging mountain system in the Alpine-Mediterranean area. This area evolved within the framework of the convergent motion between the African and European plates. Northern Apennines tectonics is fairly well known for the PliocenePleistocene, and is dominated by thrusts which propagated northeastward towards the Po Plain. The main aim of this work is to analyse the morphology of Northern Apennines Po Plain side river basins in order to obtain information on the uplift and deformation style currently acting in the area. We used Landsat data and digital elevation models (DEMs) from Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission data (SRTM by NASA), USGS and Italian (INGV) earthquake seismology data to investigate the neotectonic activity in this region. Drainage network of the region has been extracted from the DEM in the form of longitudinal elevation profiles and catchment area profiles. Stream profile analysis was implemented in this region by using power law of scaling relation under steady state conditions (e.g. Uplift = Erosion). Concavity and steepness indices have been computed as they have a close relation with surface uplift with a set of specially designed Matlab Algorithms. From Concavity and steepness indices, uplift rate and Hack-SL index maps have been prepared from further analysis of drainage network and they show spatially variable relative uplift rates and gradients in this region. The DEM was further used for extraction of lineaments using Hough Transformation to make a mutual correlation with the local drainage network. The results show that the relative uplift rates (SRTM launching date) seem to be higher in Emilia contradicting the local seismicity and less or almost same in Romagna. This study needs to be further improved by using GPS and high resolution ASTER and SPOT data.

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In recent years, the interest in slope instability has increased significantly due to disasters occurring annually in different parts of the world, also as a result of climate change and modifications to the precipitation and aridity regimes. The research project here presented, funded by the Fondazione Cassa di Risparmio di Modena since December 2008, can be included within this context and aims at investigating coastal instability in the island of Malta. This aspect has been until now slightly dealt with, despite significant risk issues, as evidenced from a series of accidents and damages recorded after landslide events. These issues are of current relevance, due to the fact that Malta has the highest population density in Europe (1200 persons per square kilometre), an annual influx of one million tourists and some of the most popular recreational sites located underneath landslide-prone cliffs. Investigations are carried out by means of the collaboration between the Universities of Modena (Italy), Cantabria (Spain) and Malta with Italian National Research Council (CNR) and, in particular, thanks to the mobility of young researchers. The objectives of the project are pursued through multidisciplinary investigations which foresee a geomorphological and engineering geological approach. In order to achieve the aims, the research project is organised in a series of work packages including mapping, monitoring and modelling of landslides along the north-west coast of Malta. The first phase of the research consisted of a retrospective study on events of instability occurred within the research area during historic times. In conjunction with the retrospective study, the collection and analysis of historic climatic data has been carried out. The second phase foresaw a multi-temporal analysis of aerial photographs has been developed, with special attention given to landslide phenomena. To achieve this aim both the traditional stereoscopic techniques and digital photogrammetry techniques have been utilized. A geomorphological survey at a scale of 1:10,000 for the entire NW coastal region of the island of Malta is presently in progress. This phase will also lead to the production of a detailed geomorphological map at a 1:5000 scale for specific sites

1 Dip. Scienze della Terra, Universit di Modena e Reggio Emilia 2 Dpto. Ciencias de la Tierra y Fsica de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Cantabria, Spain 3 Mediterranean Institute - Geography Division, University of Malta, Malta 4 Istituto di Ricerca per la Protezione Idrogeologica, CNR-IRPI, Padova Corresponding author: Mauro Soldati, e-mail: mauro.soldati@unimore.it

M. Soldati1, J. Bonachea2, V.M. Bruschi2, P. Coratza1, S. Devoto1, A. Gonzlez-Dez2, O. Magri3, M. Mantovani4, A. Pasuto4, D. Piacentini1, J. Remondo2 & J.A. Schembri3

MULTIDISCIPLINARY RESEARCH IN THE OPEN-AIR LABORATORY OF THE ISLAND OF MALTA: AN INTERNATIONAL NETWORK FOR LANDSLIDE HAZARD ASSESSMENT IN COASTAL AREAS

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where hazard conditions are more relevant. Such a document, which will be performed by means of GIS technology, to manage better the collected geographical data, will represent a useful comprehensive basis as well as an original document for the area, since such documents do not exist for the island of Malta. Furthermore in specific sites, selected for detailed investigations, radar interferometric analysis, LIDAR and GPS surveys will be performed. Actually, a GPS monitoring network has been active on the north-west coast of Malta since 2005, consisting in two reference stations and more than 20 benchmarks spread all over the unstable areas. In order to guarantee the repetitiveness of the surveys, avoiding positioning errors, a forced centring device for the GPS antenna was realized at each benchmark. Moreover extensometers provided with data logger will be installed to monitor in continuous the displacements along the most active fractures. On the basis of the results achieved in the previous phases of the research, the evolution of landslide phenomena will be analysed, with particular attention to rock spreading and rock falls. Finally, from the critical review of the results obtained by the four research units taking part in the project, the last step will consist of the joint assessment and mapping of landslide hazard related to the study area. Significant methodological information can be obtained from the integrated use of these different techniques and models. Such information can be of interest for the entire scientific community and for institutions dealing with geomorphological risk issues, even for planning purposes.

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LANDSLIDE OCCURRENCE AS A PROXY OF CLIMATE CHANGE: EVIDENCE FROM THE ITALIAN DOLOMITES
1 Dip. Scienze della Terra, Universit di Modena e Reggio Emilia 2 Dip. Ingegneria delle Strutture, dei Trasporti, delle Acque, del Rilevamento, del Territorio, Universit di Bologna Corresponding author: Mauro Soldati, e-mail: soldati@unimore.it M. Soldati1 & L. Borgatti2

Landslides, and their concentration in different periods of the Holocene, have not been considered as climate proxies so far, though they could improve significantly the insight of the environmental context as a whole in the reconstructions of past climate changes. The key to answer the questions concerning how and why climate has varied on different time-scales is, in fact, to improve the documentation and understanding of natural variability for periods extending back beyond the instrumental record. Knowledge of past climate changes has to be gained from well-calibrated proxy data derived from different natural archives, that should provide accurate records of climate history, should be dated with annual precision on a calendar year time-scale and cross-correlated through time. Actually, no single archive encompasses such properties and information from different sources is to be merged in a multidisciplinary framework. In this context, when the geomorphological evolution of a slope can be described by way of surveys, radiometric dating, cross-sections etc., and climate is considered to be the main cause of its eventual past and/or present instability, temporal concentrations of events can become significant in a paleoclimatic perspective, especially if a relatively large number of landslides have been recorded. Within the research carried out since decades in the Dolomites (Italy), especially in the Upper Badia and Cortina dAmpezzo areas, the event statigraphy of past landsliding has been traced thanks to the availability of large number of natural and artificial trenches and boreholes, in which more than 70 organic matter samples has been collected and dated with the radiocarbon method. During the Holocene, notwithstanding the evident influence of the geological and structural factors on slope modelling in the study areas, a possible cause-effect relationship between the phases of active slope movements and climate changes taking place from the Lateglacial to date can be inferred. In particular, by analysing the data set, four periods of enhanced landsliding can be outlined in correspondence with environmental crisis periods described in literature: I. from 10,500 to 9500 cal BP, between Younger Dryas and the Preboreal; II. from 8000 to 7000 cal BP, during the older Atlantic; III. from 6000 to 4500 cal BP, between Atlantic and Subboreal; IV. from 3000 to 2000 cal BP, between Subboreal and Subatlantic. The first period of enhanced slope instability corresponds to the beginning of the Holocene, in the Preboreal and Boreal and reflects the response of the slope-system to the changes in the environmental forcing processes. The retreat of Late Glacial

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Maximum glaciers made the valley flanks more prone to an accelerated geomorphic activity. The response of the slope-system consisted on large rock slides, affecting the dolomite slopes after the withdrawal of Wrm glaciers and on complex movements (rotational slides and flows) involving the underlying pelitic formations. The slope movements ascribed to the following phases may likely be considered as reactivations of more ancient events, linked to more humid climate. At the moment, the records of landslide activity cannot be considered as comprehensive proxy archives, but if the dataset is large and the geomorphological context is well-constrained, they can give a significant contribution to the establishment of a multidisciplinary paleoclimatic multi-proxy database. In any case, the correlation of landslide activity records with the environmental context deduced from other proxies has validated the assumption that the process of landsliding in the Dolomites is an expression of slope-system sensitivity to climate changes.

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HYDRO-GEOMORPHOLOGY APPLIED TO FLOOD HAZARD ESTIMATION IN MEDITERRANEAN EPHEMERAL STREAMS (RAMBLAS)


Dpto. Geografia, Universidad de Valncia, Spain Corresponding author: Julin Soriano Garca, e-mail: jusogar@alumni.uv.es J. Soriano Garca & A.M. Camarasa Belmonte

Spanish Mediterranean coastal floodplains show a high concentration of population and economical activities. One of the most important features dealing with land management is flood risk estimation. Risk is a function of hazard and vulnerability and, within hazard delineation, hydro-geomorphology plays an important role. There are several methods to perform flood hazard mapping that, in general, can be grouped into four main categories: 1) historical and palaeo-hydrological methods, 2) hydro-geomorphological methods, 3) hydrological-hydraulic methods, and the recently developed 4) dendro-geomorphological methods. Mapping flood hazard should be performed using complementarily as many of these methods as possible. Unfortunately, in the case of ramblas, this combination is really difficult. On the one hand, palaeo-hydrological methods are not suitable for so small and torrential catchments as ramblas are and, on the other hand, hydrologicalhydraulic methods demand a large amount of hydrologic data, non available in most of these systems. In fact, many authors state the inadequacy of these methods to predict extreme floods in Mediterranean catchments. However, hydro-geomorphological method is nowadays achieving more relevance. It is based on the location and typology of landforms and sediments generated during floods in order to delineate flooding areas and identify hydro-geomorphic processes occurred in the past. It is a qualitative approach that gives a realistic image of the possible future processes and it is enough to make decisions, with a minimum effort, in the 80% of the instances. Studies developed in the Mediterranean region of southern France and north-western Spain have proved the effectiveness of this method in ephemeral streams, where channel and floodplain morphology are highly variable and changeable over time and, in addition, hydrological information is scarce or nearly inexistent. This work presents an application for mapping flood hazard in two Mediterranean catchments -Barranc del Carraixet and Rambla de Poyo- based on hydro-geomorphological interpretation. A synthetic hydro-geomorphological cartography was obtained with the support of previous studies and taking into account the forms and processes developed during the great flood event of October 2000. Thirteen different landforms related to flooding processes where identified and valuated in terms of hazard, ranking from levels 1 to 8, in which Level 1 represents the highest hazard (streams and critical points) and Level 8 the safety areas (mountains and longshore bars). Hydro-geomorphological method has proved to be highly effective for mapping flood hazard in this kind of torrential ephemeral streams, where standard hydrolog-

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ical and hydraulic methods do not work properly. This method can work with scarcity of hydrological data and, what is more, is quite adaptable to any change in flood area morphology (either natural or man made). As further applications, combining the resulting flood hazard map with a vulnerability map we will obtain a flood risk cartography. Analysis of risk from its constituents -hazard and vulnerability- makes possible the identification of different typologies of risk areas, depending on the intensity and quality of its selected factors. Thus, we get a synthetic cartography with a great utility in land use planning, because it enables a rapid diagnosis of the nature of the problem (natural factors, human factors) and helps decision making in management strategies.

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CHANNEL ADJUSTMENTS OF ALLUVIAL CHANNELS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR RIVER MANAGEMENT AND RESTORATION
1 Dip. Geografia, Universit di Padova 2 Dip. Ingegneria Civile e Ambientale, Universit di Firenze 3 Dip. Scienze della Terra, Universit di Pavia Corresponding author: Nicola Surian, e-mail: nicola.surian@unipd.it N. Surian1, M. Rinaldi2 & L. Pellegrini3

Most Italian rivers have experienced widespread channel adjustments over the last 200 years, mainly in response to a range of human activities. Our research has focused on: (i) reconstructing channel changes and understanding of their causes; (ii) implications of such changes for river management and restoration. Thirteen rivers have been studied using various sources and methods (historical maps, aerial photographs, topographic surveys, and geomorphological surveys). The selected rivers have undergone almost the same processes in terms of temporal trends. Initially, river channels underwent a long phase of narrowing (up to 80%) and incision (up to 8-10 m), which started at the end of the 19th century and was very intense from the 1950s to the 1980s. Then, over the last 15-20 years, channel widening and sedimentation, or bed-level stabilization, have become the dominant processes in most of the rivers, though channel narrowing is still ongoing in some reaches. Channel adjustments were mainly driven by human actions, but the role of large floods was also notable in some cases. Different human interventions have been identified as the causes of channel adjustments (sediment mining, channelization, dams, reforestation and torrent control works). Such interventions have caused a dramatic alteration of the sediment regime, whereas effects on channel-forming discharges have seldom been observed. Geomorphological approaches, specifically knowledge of channel evolution and sediment dynamics, have been increasingly used in river management over the last few years. We discuss three examples concerning (i) sustainable sediment management at basin scale, (ii) identification of potential channel recovery, (iii) definition and monitoring of hydromorphological status of rivers. The first example deals with solutions for promoting future sustainable management of sediment and channel processes in the Magra River catchment. Knowledge of channel evolution and its causes was used as a basis for defining channel and sediment management strategies, coupled with quantification of bedload transport and bed sediment budget, and the identification of areas most suitable for potential sediment recharge. The potential of channel recovery was analysed in five gravel-bed rivers of north-eastern Italy. After defining four categories of channel taking into account recent channel evolution, it was analysed how different sediment management strategies (reach and basin-scale interventions) could affect future channel dynamics. We concluded that even though both reach and basin-scale interventions may be carried out, it is likely that channels will not recover to the morphology they exhibited in the first half of

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the 20th century, since sediment yield and connectivity will remain less than during the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century. The third example concerns a new methodology designed for assessing the hydromorphological condition of Italian rivers and for monitoring their condition through time. This methodology is required in the context of the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) which aims to assess the ecological status of rivers not only using biological and chemical elements, but also hydromorphological elements.

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ON PLATE TECTONICS, LANDFORMS AND ENVIRONMENT OF INDONESIA IN THE CONTEXT OF DISASTER REDUCTION AND LAND MANAGEMENT
ITC, Enschede, the Netherlands Corresponding author: Herman Th. Verstappen, e-mail: hergraverstappen@planet.nl H.Th. Verstappen

The horizontal configuration and vertical dimension of the landforms occurring in the tectonically unstable parts of Indonesia result in the first place from plate tectonics. Most of them date from the Quaternary and endogenous forces are ongoing. Three major plates the northward moving Indo-Australian plate, the southeast ward moving SE-Asian plate and the westward moving Pacific plate dominate the tectonic situation. The narrow North-Moluccan plate is interposed between Asia and the Pacific and tapers out northward in the Philippine mobile belt. The greatest relief amplitudes occur near the plate boundaries: deep ocean trenches are associated with subduction zones and mountain ranges with collision belts. Belts of volcanic activity are associated with subduction zones. Absolute dating techniques, especially of raised coral reefs, have led to a reliable chronology of these tectonic events in the last 1000 Kyrs. Systematic GPS measurements are leading to the quantification of the present rates and directions of plate movements. The landforms of the comparatively stable areas of the plates date back to a more remote past and, where emerged, have a more subdued relief that is in the first place related to the resistance of the rocks to humid tropical weathering. The effects of Quaternary climatic fluctuations and related sea level changes are superposed on this morphostructural framework. They are in various ways clearly reflected in the geomorphology of the country and have also affected its environmental conditions in general. The monsoons, dominating the air circulation in SE Asia, were subjected to important fluctuations and the same applies to the oceanic thermo-haline circulation between the Pacific and Indian oceans in eastern Indonesia. It is not surprising, in view of the strongly dynamic character of tectonic and climatologic elements of the Indonesian environment, that many parts of the country are susceptible to a variety of natural hazards such as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, tsunamis, landslides, etc., that result in high-risk situations in densely populated areas. Strategies for disaster mitigation, land use planning and environmental issues thus have a high priority as to optimally protect endangered communities. Hazards of endogenous origin are particularly important but also exogenous factors have to be considered. The degree and mode of hazards of endogenous origin vary with the tectonic situation and the related geomorphologic development. In the westernmost part of the country, the Indo-Australian plate meets the SE-Asian continental plate at an oblique angle. Volcanic activity thus is moderated by the rather low subduction angle (30). Part of the tectonic energy, however, is released laterally by a major

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transcurrent fault system situated off the west coast of Sumatra. This provokes severe seaquakes and related tsunami, such as the one of December 2006, that caused a major disaster not only in nearby Aceh but also in more remote coastal areas of the region. Java stretches perpendicular to the movement of the Indo-Australian plate and transcurrent faults there are replaced by N-S oriented compartmental faults. The angle of subduction gradually increased during the Quaternary to 60 at present and the - high - volcanic activity, as a consequence, moved gradually southward. Volcanic hazards on this island thus are widespread and the risks incurred are great because of the high population density. The geomorphology of Java reflects a broad EW stretching geanticline where a depressed central zone, crowned by stratovolcanoes, is bordered to the South by an ocean-ward tilted limestone plateau and by a folded zone of Quaternary sediments to the North. However, these zones are disrupted and in part have collapsed under the influence of compartmental faulting. These geomorphologic characteristics demonstrate that seismic hazards and the related tsunami are also inherent to the geotectonic situation of Java. Sunda Strait, separating these two islands, is presumably a pull-apart structure developed at the transition between compartmental and transcurrent faulting. It has been the site of at least twelve plinian eruptions with caldera collapse in the last 1000 Kyrs. The ill-famed Krakatoa eruption of 1883, when the accompanying tsunami of volcanic origin killed about 36,000 people, was the most recent and comparatively mild event in this context. The SE-Asian plate tapers out eastward and this is reflected in the level of the nonvolcanic landforms. These reach a height of over 3000 metres in northern Sumatra and gradually disappear below sea level from Java onwards. Uplift becomes important again in the south eastern part of the country where the Australian continent has intruded and the geomorphologic situation consequently changes drastically. Collision phenomena replace the subduction features that dominate the scene in the West. A staircase of raised coral reef terraces along the north coast of the island of Sumba, an outpost of the Australian continent, exemplifies this. The reef is absent in the remainder of the island because this collapsed in a sub-recent phase of the uplift. This event illustrates a third case of tsunami phenomena: gravity tectonics. Volcanic hazards do not exist, however, in the absence of subduction. Even where plate movements abate, neotectonism may remain a potential hazard. The best example is Makassar Strait. It collapsed when the Australian plate blocked the westward Pacific pressure. Since then, however, the NW-SE ward stress exerted by the SE-Asian plate, has caused active transcurrent faulting, reflected in the landforms, and resulting in new seismic risk situations. Hazards of exogenous origin relate mostly to erosion and mass movements of unstable slopes in the uplands and to flooding of river plains and coastal lowlands. They are both strongly affected by deforestation and other human impacts and by inter-annual rainfall fluctuations, related to variations of the monsoon wind system around SE-Asia and the ENSO in the West-Pacific. Urban flooding is an increasing problem in several major cities. Groundwater extraction is an important causative factor. Proper management, based on good urban and rural land use planning, can contribute considerably to the solution of problems caused by hazards of exogenous

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origin. Hazards of endogenous origin require more specific approaches. Volcanic disaster reduction is rooted in hazard zoning and effective early warning systems. This is demonstrated by several examples. Disasters of tectonic origin are the most difficult to reduce because of the difficulties in predicting, locating and timing of seismic events. Site analysis of critical areas and the implementation of appropriate building codes are important elements. The development of effective early warning systems for tsunami disasters in Indonesia is fraught with difficulties. Equipment for recording seaquakes, of course, can be installed, but the short distance between the subduction planes, where the epicentres are situated, and the endangered coastal areas limits the warning period to 15-30 minutes. Another problem is that the long recurrence interval of major tsunami renders constant alertness of the endangered communities problematic. For assessing the effectiveness of all sorts of disaster reduction measures it is essential to consider all environmental and social factors involved, such as issues of sustainability and global change including sea level rise.

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MULTI-DISCIPLINARY SURVEYS FOR THE NEW GEOLOGICAL MAPS OF THE LOW FRIULI PLAIN (ITALY)
1 Dip. Scienze Geologiche, Ambientali e Marine, Universit di Trieste 2 Dip. Scienze della Terra, Universit di Modena e Reggio Emilia 3 Dip. Geografia, Universit di Padova Corresponding author: Enrico Zavagno, e-mail: enrico.zavagno@phd.units.it E. Zavagno1, I. Burla1, S. Devoto2 & A. Fontana3

The study site is located in the central area of the Friuli Venezia Giulia (Italy) and is covered by geological map sheets 087 Palmanova and 108 Lignano Sabbiadoro. The area under consideration extends between the spring horizon to the north and Marano lagoon to the south. It covers a total area of 760 km2. The zone under consideration is characterised above all by the presence of alluvial deposits dating back to the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM; 30,000-17,000 b.C.) and by the presence of deposits originated by the activity of resurgent rivers including Stella, Zellina, Corno and Aussa. The western sector of the Lignano sheet also includes deposits that can be ascribed to the post-LGM activity of river Tagliamento (last 17,000 years). Along the coastline post-LGM deposits reach a thickness of 10 m. Along the lagoon fringe there are territories that were reclaimed in the Twentieth century where lagoon deposits outcrop. The project was conducted within the framework of the GEO-CGT by the Regional Geological Survey DG Environment and Public Works of the autonomous region of Friuli Venezia Giulia and the University of Trieste and Udine. It involved the preparation of 1:10,000 geological maps of Friuli Venezia Giulia which integrated new geological data (surveyed and processed to this very aim) into already existing information. Reference criteria for the cartographic representation and digitalisation are those set by the Italian Government for the preparation of the new national geological cartography at a scale of 1:50,000 (CARG project). The Technical Geological Map (CGT) has been the primary source of grain-size and geotechnical information as far as the soil and the immediate subsoil of the areas taken into consideration. The bibliography collected has been integrated with the most recent studies and data on the geology and pedology of the areas involved. Also archaeological aspects have been taken into consideration to better define the history ad evolution of more recent deposits. The map representing microrelief, together with the observation of aerial photographs taken in different years and satellite images, has proven a useful tool to analyse and define the area of the most frequent morphologies connected with river erosion and deposition phenomena. This information has been subsequently cross-checked during surveying campaigns. More in detail, historic maps helped identify natural and/or man-made modifications of the hydrographic network ad of the use of soil in recent past. Some information on the age of the deposits were also taken from the numerous Roman archaeological sites present in the study areas.

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Field surveys were aimed at identifying geomorphological landforms and sedimentologic characteristics and at defining the age of deposits. As the areas observed are plain ones and no deep natural outcrops are present, particular attention was given to the stratigraphy of the deposits that outcrop along the walls of artificial excavations. In the areas with no significant outcrops and in the most interesting ones, borehole logging was performed by means of a manual Edelmann probe. These boreholes reached a depth of 2-3 m and sometimes 6 m. The sediment samples collected were tested for grain-size distribution and carbon-14 dating. Simultaneously, mechanical surveys were performed on the whole area reaching a depth of 10 m plus approximately a hundred static penetrometer probes reaching a 30 m depth. The comprehensive geomorphological, sedimentological and geotechnical data collected permitted to define stratigraphic units, sedimentation environments, texture of surface deposits and the main landforms that characterise the western low Friuli plain. The last surveying phase consisted in organising and processing the data collected thanks to the special functions of GIS. The entire project was conducted using a comprehensive set of hardware and software tools which permitted to maintain a close relation between the data collected on the field (database) and their digital georeferenced map representation (geo-database). Data could therefore be viewed and interpreted according the standards set within the framework of the CARG project.

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HUMAN IMPACTS ON THE CZARNY DUNAJEC RIVER (SOUTHERN POLAND) AND ISSUES RELATED TO ITS RESTORATION
Institute of Geography, Pedagogical University of Kracow, Poland Corresponding author: Joanna Zawiejska, e-mail: jzawiejska@gmail.com J. Zawiejska

The gravel-bed Czarny Dunajec constitutes the upper part of the Dunajec, the second largest river of the Polish Carpathians, starting in the high-mountain massif of the Tatra Mountains. Notorious for its floods, the Czarny Dunajec has been heavily impacted by various human activity including channelisation and intense gravel mining, followed by channel incision and increased bedload transport. Further engineering works undertaken locally to limit vertical channel instability led to the disruption of the longitudinal continuity of the river. Similar to several European mountain and piedmont rivers, the disturbances were accompanied by a decrease in the biodiversity of aquatic and riparian ecosystems. However, the Czarny Dunajec retained some semi-natural reaches, some of which are now located within Natura 2000 area. At present, the river exhibits high variability of geomorphological styles from a single-thread, incised or regulated channel to unmanaged, multi-thread channel, it also largely varies in its hydromorphological quality. Despite the changes in land-use, decrease in the population density along the river and the apparent transformation of the river channel over the last decades, the Czarny Dunajec is still perceived as a threat to people and property. The perception of the river as dangerous and historically, solely as a resource, as well as the lack of understanding of relationships between river geomorphology and the quality of its ecosystem, largely influences local land management impeding not only nature conservation but also creating new problems related to erosion and flooding. The presentation focuses on the changes that occurred on the Czarny Dunajec due to human impact and the possibilities (and barriers) for its restoration and improving the geomorphological and ecological conditions in the context of the conflicting attitudes of the local community, water authorities and environmentalists, and the necessity to attain good ecological status of the river by the year 2015 as required by the Water Framework Directive (Directive 2000/60/EC).

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Finito di stampare nel mese di settembre 2009

Finito di stampare nel mese di aprile del 2008 Composizione: Presso la SAP Societ Archeologica s.r.l. tipografia MastePrint - Mozzecane (VR)