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IntroductoryMaterial
(ChristophersonCha1)

I. BriefHistoryOfGeography:

Threedrivingforces:TRADE,MILITARY,andCURIOSITY HOWtogettoaplace WHATthatplacewaslike. WHYthatplacewasdifferent Pregeography:Geographyhasprobablybeenpracticedsincehumansfirstwereabletouse toolsandcommunicate.

II. DefinitionsofGeography

A. Geography (fromgeo,"Earth,"andgraphein,"towrite,")isthescience thatstudiestherelationshipamonggeographicareas,naturalsystems, society,culturalactivities,andtheinterdependenceofalltheseover space(spatialanalysis).CHRISTOPHERSONINGEOSYSTEMS B. PhysicalGeography centersonspatialanalysisofallthephysical elementsandprocessesthatmakeuptheenvironment:energy,air, water,weather,climate,landforms,soils,animals,plants,andtheEarth itself. III. WhyGeography?
A.Importanttounderstandtheworldaroundus;thewayitworks. B.Humanenvironmentinterrelationshipsareincreasinglyimportant. 1.Humansareaffectedbytheenvironment 2.Humanscangreatlyaffecttheenvironment. 3.Technologywillnotsaveus;onlyhelpus... Whatdogeographersdo?Careers:Outstandingfoundationtomanycareerchoices! Looksatthebroadperspective.Trendinbusinesstohirestudentsfromotherbackgrounds.

IV.

A. Teaching Alllevels : B. EnvironmentalandResourcePlanning :


Meteorologist(WeatherForecaster) FieldBiologist(EnvironmentalImpactReports,EcologicalRestoration) ForestRanger,ParkRanger CityPlanner(Wheretobuild?Water?StableFoundations?NaturalHazards?) Hydrologist(Watermanagers,floodcontrol) Farmer(Cropchoice)

C. SiteLocation Location,Location,Location.Areaknownaslocationalanalysis. :

Locateabusiness,what'simportant?Customers,energy,supplies,workers,transportation routes. veryimportanttoday,justasinthepast.However,todayGeographicInformationSystems (GIS)havesupplantedstaticmapsformuchofwhatusedtobejustcartographicmaps. TherearemanyGIS/cartographyapplicationstoday,asbusinesses,scienceinstitutions,and governmentsbegintoseetheutilityofspatialdatabaseslinkedtonewmappinganddisplay technologies,includingsatelliteimagery,aerialphotography,GPSnavigation,etc.Thisisa verycuttingedgeandwellpaidcareerfield,bothnowandintotheforeseeablefuture.

D. Cartography(theartandscienceofmakingmaps) Accuratemapsare :

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EnvironmentalSystems
whichislinkedbymovementsofmatterandenergy.Systemscanbelargeor small,dependingonhowonewishestostudythem. **Insteadofstudyingtheenvironmentpiecemeal,wenowtrytolookatalltheelementsastheyinterrelate.

System=Adistinctandinterrelatedsetofcomponents(livingandnonliving)

I. TypesofSystems A. ClosedSystems:Closedwithrespecttotransferofmatter,butnotenergy.Rarein
nature.BiosphereProject.

B. OpenSystems:Includestheflowofbothenergyandmatter.Allenvironmentalsystems areopensystems.Examples:Automobile,Lake,Forest,TheEarth?? II. SystemConcepts A. Feedback:Whenoneportionofasystemaffectsanother. NegativeFeedback:Feedbackwhichdiscourageschangeinthesystem.(human


respiration) PositiveFeedback:Feedbackwhichencourageschangeinthesystem.(??)

B. Equilibrium:Thetendencyofasystemtomaintainstructureandcharacterovertime. 1. Steadystateequilibrium:Remainsextremelyconstant(Cave) 2. Dynamicequilibrium:Fluctuatesaroundanaverage.(Prairieandfires) 3. Metastableequilibrium:Occasionallychangesdrastically.(Mt.St.Helen's) C. InputsandOutputs:Thesearetermswhichrefertoenergyormatterenteringasystem


(inputs)andexitingasystem(outputs).

III. ModelsofSystems:Modelsareattemptsbyhumanstosimplifyanddisplaythefunctionsofa

system.Theyareonlyourbestguessandtheyareneverperfect.ExamplesincludeBlackBox(not descriptive,onlyrecognizesasystemassuch),GreyBox(intermediatelevelofdescription),and WhiteBox,(Anattemptatthehighestlevelofdescriptionofcomponents,structures,andprocessesof asystem.).

IV. TheEarthasaSystem:MajorComponents A. Atmosphere:GaseousenvelopesurroundingEarth. B. Hydrosphere:Water,includingice(cryosphere) C. Lithosphere:SolidpartoftheEarth(rocks,minerals,soil) Biosphere:ThelivingportionoftheEarth,madepossiblebytheotherthree.

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UnitsofMeasure
I. LengthExamples A. 1inchisabout2.5centimeters(cm) B. 6feetisabout1.8meters(m) C. 1footisabout30centimeters(cm) D. L.A.toSac.isabout400milesor660kilometers(km) E. 1yardisabout1meter(m) II. WeightExamples A. 100poundsisabout45kilograms(kg) B. 1poundisabout450grams(g) III. VolumeExamples A. 1quartisabout1liter(L) B. 1gallonisabout4liters(L) IV. TemperatureComparisons
ColdestDayonRecord:Antarctica FreezingPointofWater: ChillyDay: RoomTemp: HotDay: HottestDayonRecord: BoilingPointofWater: (89C=129F) (0C=32F) (10C=50F) (20C=68F) (40C=105F) (58C=136F) (100C=212F)

V. ConversionExample
Howmanykilometersis3000feet? 3000feet x 1mile 5280feet x 1.6kilometers 1mile

=0.91kilometers

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GeographicInformationSciences
I. Cartography:Cartographyistheartandscienceofmakingmaps. A. Map:AmapisaflatrepresentationofthesphericalEarth.Theonlytrulycorrect
representationoftheshapesoftheEarth'slandmassesisaglobe.

B. Projections(seewebsiteonclasspage):Amapisactuallyaprojectionofa
sphericalsurfacetoaflatsurface.

1. TypesofProjections: a) Cylindrical:Trueshape,truedirection;distortedarea.Areasofland b)

massathighlatitudesappearmuchlargerthantheyactuallyare.(Mercator Projection) Planar:seetext

c) Conic:seetext 2. Projectionscausedistortionof: a) Shape b) Area(orSize):MercatorProjection c) Distance d) Direction C. Scale:AmapisareducedpictureofthetrueEarth.Scaleindicatestheamountof


reduction.

1. WrittenScale:Expressedinwords.Ex:"oneinchequalsonemile" 2. GraphicScale:Alinewithdivisions 3. RepresentativeFraction:Expressedasafraction,(Ex.1:24,000)Indicates


theamountofreduction.

SelfStudy

Whichislargerscale,aroadmapofSanDiegooraworldmap?Understandlargeand smallscale.

Hint:Thinksmallscale>largeareaandviceversa...

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II. GeographicInformationTechnologies:(ExpandingTechnologies) A. RemoteSensing:Airandsatelliteimagery;mostlypassiveimaging(exceptradar) B. GlobalPositioningSystem(GPS):groundreceiverwhichcommunicateswith


satellitesandcalculates/displaysexactlocationaldata.

C. GeographicInformationSystem(GIS)(seeAppendixII):Acomputersystem
forentering,storing,manipulating,analyzing,anddisplayingspatialdata.Alldataisdigital!!! andmetadata.

1. DatabaseofInformation:(RowsandColumns)Datawithspatialcomponents

2. Digital"Georeferenced"Map:Mapinformationisstoredinrealworld
coordinateslikelatitude/longitude.

3. Example:TrivialExampleTask:FindingtheperfectresidenceinSanDiego
PotentialHomedata ID# Price Pool Yard

Bedrooms

Bathrooms

SquareFeet

Garage

QuerytheDatabasetoselectonlythehousesyouareinterestedin Allotherhomeseliminatedonthemap... Comparewithothermaps(Overlay):Thisispossiblebecauseallofthedatais georeferenced. Schools,Libraries,Parks,Malls(Shopping),EmergencyMedicalFacilities PoliceStation,Incidentsofviolentcrime,Freewayaccesspoints,BusStops Bufferandincludeorexclude FloodDangerZones EarthquakeFaults

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TheEarth:Space,Location,andTime
I. TheEarthinSpace A. MilkyWayGalaxy:Groupofover100billionstarsarrangedinaflat,swirlingdisklike

collection.(120,000lightyearsacross)Oursunisamediumsized,ratherordinarystarin theMilkyWayGalaxy. Lightyear:Thedistancelighttravelsinoneyear. 300,000kilometerspersecond(186,000miles). LightcouldtravelaroundtheEarth71/2timesinonesecond.(CircumferenceofEarth= 40,000kmor25,000miles) Overamillionyearsonajetplane Howmuchisonebillion?Fillup30averagesizeclassroomswithjellybeans

B. SolarSystem:Therearenineplanetsorbitingaroundthesun,formingwhatwecallthe solarsystem. C. TheEarthBasicFacts:


Thethirdplanetfromthesun Averages150millionkm(or93millionmiles). Lightfromthesunactuallytakesabout8minutestoreachtheEarth Theshapeisanoblatespheroid(orellipsoid),meaningthatitisessentiallyaround spherewhichisslightlybulgingattheequator.Thisiscausedbytheoutwardforceofthe earth'srotation.

D. TheRevolvingEarth:Theearthtakesanellipticalpatharoundthesun,whichit

completesonceevery3651/4days.Weaccountforthisquarterdaybyaddinganextraday onceeveryfouryears.WeaddFeb.29everyfouryears(leapyear).

SelfStudy

WhatisPerihelionandwhendoesithappen? WhatisAphelionandwhendoesithappen? Dotheseeventscauseseasonstooccur?(Theanswerisno;youshouldunderstandwhy.)

E. TheRotatingEarth:Theearthrotatesonitsaxis,whichisanimaginarylinepassing

throughtheearthfromthenorthpoletothesouthpole.Ifoneislookingattheearthfromthe side,withthenorthpoleatthetopandthesouthpoleatthebottom,thenthedirectionof rotationwillbefromlefttoright.

Rotatingreferenceframe(thesurfaceoftheearth)introducesnewapparentforces(eg, theCoriolisForce).

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II. LocationTheGeographicGrid:Inordertobettermeasuretheearthandevaluateglobal

environmentalphenomena,humanshaveimposedagridsystemovertheentireglobe(graticule). (Theactualshapeoftheglobeiscalledanoblatespheroid,meaningflattenedsphere.)Thesearethe parallelsoflatitudeandthemeridiansoflongitude.

A. ParallelsofLatitude(Figure1.10):ImaginaryCirclesdrawnontheglobe
perpendiculartotheaxis.Lat=Flat

1. Equator:TheonewhichperfectlybisectstheglobeiscalledtheEquator,anditis
designatedas0Latitude.Definegreatcirclesandsmallcircles

2. AngularDistance:MeasuredindegreesnorthorsouthoftheEquator

Thereare90degreesfromtheEquatortoboththeNorthandSouthPoles. Eachdegreeoflatituderepresentsapprox.110km(70miles). Sacramento,CAliesatapprox.39NorthLatitude.

ParallelsofLatitude
(examples)

NORTH POLE

30 North Latitude Equator (0 Latitude)

30 South Latitude

SOUTH POLE

B. MeridiansofLongitude(Figure1.12):ImaginaryCircles.Eachcircleintersects
boththeNorthandSouthPoles.Theycrossallparallelsoflatitudeatrightangles.

1. PrimeMeridian:Thisisthemeridiandesignatedas0Longitude.Decided
arbitrarily.PassesthroughtheoldRoyalObservatoryatGreenwich,England.

2. AngularDistance:MeasuredindegreeseastorwestofthePrimeMeridian.
FromthePrimeMeridian,thereare180degreestotheEastand180degreesto theWest.(360degreestotal) Sacramento,CAliesatapprox.121WestLongitude. Eachdegreeoflongitudeisapprox.110km(70miles),butonlyattheEquator. TheyconvergetowardthePoles.

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MeridiansofLongitude(examples)

North Pole

90

Prime Meridian (0 Longitude)

90 West Longitude

Note:AcorrectlocationonthegeographicgridmustgiveLatitude(NorthORSouth)AND Longitude(EastorWest).Sacramento,Californiaislocatedatapprox.39NorthLatitudeand 121WestLongitude.

III. Time A. OneFullRotation:approx.24hrs;15degreesperhour. B. SolarNoon:Technically,nooniswhenthesunisatitshighestpointinthesky.Butthisis


differentdependingonexactlywhatyourlongitudeis.

C. TimeZone(Figure115):Political(human)designationswhichdividerough

longitudinalzonesintounitswhichallfollowthesametime.Thereare24timezones,each being15 oflongitudewide(manycountriesmodifythissystem).Eachtimezonehasa controllingmeridian(theplacewheresolarnoonandclocknoonarethesame)

D. CoordinatedUniversalTime(UTC):Specialaccurateatomicclockswhichprovide

anofficialreferencetimeforthewholeworld.UTCtimealwaysreferstothetimeatthePrime Meridian.ThisusedtobecalledGreenwichMeanTime.

E. InternationalDateLine(Figure116):Atapprox.180degLongitude.
Traveleastwardacrossitandloseaday. Travelwestwardacrossitandgainaday.

F. DaylightSavingsTime:Inthesummermonths,thispolicymovesourwaking/working
hoursintotheactualdaylighthours.So,ifthesunnormallygoesdownataround7:00pm duringthesummer,peoplewillbeginturninglightson.But,withdaylightsavingstimewe movetheclocksaheadsothatthesungoesdownaround8:00pm.Thiswaywesavean hour'sworthofenergybynotturningonlights.

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ReasonsfortheSeasons
(ChristophersonCha2)

I. TheTiltedEarth(Inclination):Theearth'saxisistilted23.5fromarightanglewiththeplane
oftheecliptic;theaxisisalwaysdirectedtoafixedpointinspace(Polaris,sameastheNorthStar).

TheTiltedEarth

North Pole
23.5

Plane of the Ecliptic

South Pole

II. comingSolarRadiation(alsocalledInsolation):TheEarthinterceptsSolar In
Radiation.

A. SolarConstant:TheaverageamountofenergyreceivedatthetopofEarth's

atmosphere,beforeitactuallyenters.Thevalueis1372Watts/m2.Generally,thisvalue doesn'tchange.

B. DistributionofRadiation:Dependingonlatitudeandtimeofyear,theamountof
insolationreceivedattheEarthdiffers!

1. HoursofInsolation:Lesshoursofinsolationmeanlesstotalinsolation. 2. AngleofIncidence(orSunAngle):Thisistheangleatwhichthesuns
rayshittheearth.Itiscriticalisindeterminingseasons. DirectRay(orVerticalRay):Whenthesunrayscomefromdirectlyoverheadat a90degreeangle.Thesearethestrongestrays!!! LowerAngleRays Whensunrayscometoearthatalowerangle;inotherwords,whentherays comefromlowerinthesky. Raysbecomeprogressivelyweakerwhentheanglebecomesless. Theseraysalsopassthroughmoreatmosphere,resultinginmorefiltering.

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SunAngles
SUN

SUN SUN Highest Angle / Highest Energy (Direct Ray) Medium Angle / Medium Energy Lowest Angle / Lowest Energy

C. SeasonalityofInsolation(Reasonsforseasons) 1. SubsolarPoint:ThepointontheEarthwherethesunisperfectlyoverhead,or
thepointwherethesun'srayshittheearth'ssurfaceabsolutelyperpendicular.

2. Declination:Thelatitudeofthesubsolarpoint.Itchangesthroughouttheyear. 3. CircleofIllumination:Thehalfoftheglobewhichisreceivingthesun'srays.
Itisalwaysexactlyonehalfoftheglobe.

4. TheKeyFactor:

Theaxisalwayspointstothesamepointinspace.Thismeansthatastheearthorbits thesun,thedeclination(seedefinition)migratesnorthandsouthbetweentheTropicsof CancerandCapricorn.Thismeansthatthesunsmostpowerfulraysmovebackand forthbetweentheNorthernandSouthernHemispheresduringthecourseoftheyear.

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DecemberSolstice (aroundDecember 21)

SummaryofSeasonalChangesinEarth/SunRelationships

MarchEquinox (aroundMarch21) JuneSolstice (aroundJune21)

SeptemberEquinox (aroundSeptember 21)

*Declination23.5SouthLat.(Thislatitudeisreferredtoas theTropicofCapricorn.Thisisthehighestlatitudeinthe SouthernHemispherewhichreceivestheSun'sdirectrayon atleastonedayoftheyear.) *24hrs.darknessnorthof66.5NorthLat.(Thislatitude, referredtoastheArcticCircle,representsthelowestlatitude intheNorthernHemispherewhichexperiencesatleastone daywith24hrsofcontinuousdarkness.) *24hrs.lightsouthof66.5SouthLat.(Thislatitude,referred toastheAntarcticCircle,representsthelowestlatitudeinthe SouthernHemispherewhichexperiencesatleastonedayof 24hrsofcontinuoussunlight.) *CalledWinterSolsticeinN.Hem. *HoursANDanglesofinsolationhighestthroughoutSouthern Hem.,causingSummer! *HoursANDanglesofinsolationlowestthroughoutNorthern Hem.,causingWinter! *DeclinationEquatorat0Lat *AllpointsonEarthreceive12hrs.light/12hrs.dark *CalledVernalEquinoxinN.Hem. *Declination23.5NorthLat.(Thislatitudeisreferredtoas theTropicofCancer.Thisisthehighestlatitudeinthe NorthernHemispherewhichreceivestheSun'sdirectrayon atleastonedayoftheyear.) *24hrs.lightnorthof66.5NorthLat.(Thislatitude,referredto astheArcticCircle,representsthelowestlatitudeinthe NorthernHemispherewhichexperiencesatleastonedayof 24hrsofcontinuoussunlight.) *24hrs.darksouthof66.5SouthLat.(Thislatitude,referred toastheAntarcticCircle,representsthelowestlatitudeinthe SouthernHemispherewhichexperiencesatleastonedayof 24hrsofcontinuousdarkness.) *CalledSummerSolsticeinN.Hem. *HoursANDanglesofinsolationlowestthroughoutSouthern Hem.,causingWinter! *HoursANDanglesofinsolationhighestthroughoutNorthern Hem.,causingSummer! *DeclinationEquatorat0Lat *AllpointsonEarthreceive12hrs.light/12hrs.dark *CalledAutumnalEquinoxinN.Hem.

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Problem:Itisvaluabletoknowwhatthemaximumangleofthesunwillbeonagivendayatany
location.Highermaximumsunanglesproducehighinsolation;conversely,lowermaximumsun anglesproducelowinsolation.Thisimportantanglecanbecalculatedforanylocationbyfirst calculatingthetotaldifference(indegrees)betweenthelatitudeofyourchosenlocationandthe declinationforthatday.Then,subtractthisnumberfrom90 Calculatethemaximumangleof . thesuninSacramentoonthefollowingdates: Difference (seeHints below*)

Sacramento's Latitude JuneSolstice? September Equinox? December Solstice? MarchEquinox? 39North 39North 39North 39North

Declination

MaximumSun Angle

*HINTS:Thisdifferenceisindegreesonly;itisnotalatitude!Also,youwillneedtobecareful whenthedeclinationisintheSouthernHemisphere.Underthiscircumstance,youmayNOT subtracttofindthedifference.THINK!

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TheAtmosphere
(ChristophersonCha2)

Atmosphere:ThecollectionofgasessurroundingtheEarth.Heldinplacebygravity.
Differentpartscanbecategorizedindifferentways.

I. Heterosphere(80kmandhigher):Wheregasesarenotevenlymixed.Filtersoutdamaging
radiation.

II. Homosphere(080km):Wheregasesareevenlymixed. A. Composition 1. Nitrogen(78%):generallyinert;doesnotreadilyreactwithothergasesor


elements

2. Oxygen(21%):highlyactive,involvedinoxidationreactions,importantfor
biologicalactivity.

3. Argon(approx.1%):inert 4. Carbondioxide(0.033%):veryimportantasanabsorberoflongwaveenergy
intheatmosphere.Calledaradiativelyactivegas.

5. Watervapor(approx.1%):varies,alsoimportantasanabsorberof
longwaveenergyintheatmosphere.Calledaradiativelyactivegas.

6. Ozone(<.001%) a) Ozonosphere(1555km):Layerwhereozoneisfound. b) Function:Importantinabsorbingdangerousultraviolet(UV)rays. c) Problems


Levelsdropping Losseshighoverpoles Incidencesofcancerandsunburnincreasing ReasonsareChlorofluorocarbons(CFCs);usedinindustry.

B. Dividedintothreetemperaturelayers 1. Mesosphere(8050km) 2. Stratosphere(approx.1450km) 3. **Troposphere**(0approx.14km):


Contains90%ofallatmosphere. Whereourweathertakesplace. Warmestatsurface,coolingtowardspace. Thetopiscalledthe"tropopause."

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C. PollutionintheTroposphere 1. Sources a) Natural:Forestfires,volcanoes,duststorms.Mostpollutionisnaturally b) Anthropogenic:Majorsourcesareautomobileexhaustandcoal


burning. occurring.

2. SpecificPollutants a) Ozone:Createdwhensmogisbrokendownbysunlight.Dangerousatthe b)
surfaceoftheearth AcidRain:Rainwhichmixeswithindustrialsmoketocreateaslightly acidicsolution.Canbeespeciallydamagingtoplants,amphibians,and invertebrates.

3. ComplicatingFactorTheTemperatureInversion:Inthissituation,a

layerofwarmairsitsoveralayerofcoldair.Thistrapspollution.Causedbycoldair drainageand/orradiationcooling.

TemperatureInversion

Warm Air Layer (colder air above and below) Pollution trapped

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EnergyBudgets
(ChristophersonCha3)

ElectromagneticRadiation:TounderstandenergyrelationshipsintheEarth/Atmosphere

system,onemustfirstunderstandthenatureofelectromagneticradiation. Electromagneticradiation(alsocalledradiantenergyorjustradiation)isemittedinthe formofwaveswhichtravelquicklyawayfromthesurfaceofALLobjects(thesun,rocks, ice,trees,soil,etc).

I. RadiationWavelengthReview:Wavelengthdecreaseswithincreasingtemperature.Hotter
objectsemitshorterwavelengths.Welumpradiationintotwotypes.

A. Shortwave(Solar) 1. Wavelengths<3m(peaksat0.5m)(mstandsformicrometers) 2. Alsocalled"insolation":(shortforincomingsolarradiation) B. Longwave(Terrestrial) 1. Wavelengths>3m(peaksat10m) 2. Alsocalled"thermalinfrared" II. ImportantRadiationTerms A. Emitted:Givenoff. B. Transmitted:Allowedtopass;unchangedbyatmosphereorwater C. Reflected:Boundedintheoppositedirectionbyatmosphereorwater D. Absorbed:Changedintoheatenergy.

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III. RadiationBudgetfortheEarth/AtmosphereSystem:Averagedovermanyyears,
incomingradiationEQUALSoutgoingradiationfortheearth/atmospheresystem.(Bankaccount example!!!)Inotherwords,INPUTequalsOUTPUT;theearth/atmospheresystembalances!!!

RadiationBudgetfortheEarth/AtmosphereSystem
RADIATIONINPUTS 100unitssolarradiationreceivedattop ofatmosphere(shortwave) RADIATIONOUTPUTS 30unitssolarreflectedbacktospace calledalbedo(shortwave)
6units(reflectedbyatmosphere) 20units(reflectedbyclouds) 4units(reflectedbythelandseasurface) reviewtheconceptofalbedobelow

64unitsemittedbyatmosphereto space(longwave) 6unitsemittedbytheearthdirectlyto space(longwave) 100unitsofInput Input=Output RadiationBudgetfortheEarth/AtmosphereSystemBalances!!!


Albedo=shortwavereflecteddividedbytotalshortwavereceived AveragefortheEarth: Asphalt: Forest: Dryconcrete Water: FreshSnow: 30% 510% 1020% 1727% 1060% 8095%

30+64+6=100unitsofOutput

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IV. RadiationBudgetfortheSurfaceoftheEarth:Radiationbudgetatthesurfaceofthe
Earthdoesnotbalance:

RadiationBudgetfortheSurfaceoftheEarth
RADIATIONINPUTS 55unitsshortwavereceivedat Earth'ssurface 95unitslongwave(fromthe atmosphere)absorbedatsurface 55+95=150unitsofInput InputexceedsOutputby30units!!! RadiationBudgetfortheSurfaceoftheEarthdoesnotbalance!!! Thereisa30unitsurplusofradiationattheEarth'ssurface!!! ImportantPoints:
WhentheEarthisheatedbyinsolation(solar),itbeginstoemitlongwaveradiationbacktowardthe atmosphere. LongwavefromtheEarthisthenabsorbedbytheatmosphere(CO2andH2Ovapor)andreradiated backtowardearth(calledcounterradiation). Becauseofthis,itiscorrecttosaythattheatmosphereisactuallyheatedfrombelow.Itisheatedby thelongwaveradiationemittedbytheearth. Thisissimilartoacaronahotdaywheretheshortwavecanenterthroughthewindows,butthe longwavecannotescape;thus,thecarheatsup.Greenhouseeffect.

RADIATIONOUTPUTS 4unitsshortwavereflectedbackto space 116unitslongwaveemittedbythe surfacetowardspace 4+116=120unitsofOutput

V. EnergyBudget(includesheatandradiation)fortheSurfaceoftheEarthBalances!The
EnergyBudgetincludesbothheatenergyandradiationenergy

TotalEnergyBudgetfortheSurfaceoftheEarth
(includesheatANDradiation)

ENERGYINPUTS 30unitssurplusradiation(see previouscalculations)

ENERGYOUTPUTS 23unitsLatentHeat:Theheatenergy
trappedinevaporatedwater(watervapor). Wedonotfeelit.

7unitsSensibleHeat:Sensibleheatisthe 30units(net)Input
heatwefeelandtheheatmeasuredby thermometers.

23+7=30unitsofOutput

Input=Output EnergyBudgetfortheSurfaceoftheEarthbalances!!! VI. PolewardHeatTransport:


Radiationsurplusesoccurgloballyatlowlatitudes(between36NorthandSouthLatitude)

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Sensibleandlatentheatissubsequentlyproducedatlowlatitudes Thisheatflowspoleward(towardthehighlatituderadiationdeficitareas)

VII.EnergyBudgetforSpecificLocations A. NetRadiation 1. NetSurplusofRadiation:INPUTSOFRADIATIONgreaterthanOUTPUTS


OFRADIATION(resultsinheatingatthesurface)

2. NetDeficitofRadiation:OUTPUTSOFRADIATIONgreaterthanINPUTSOF
RADIATION(resultsincoolingatthesurfacecalledRADIATIONCOOLING)

B. Latentvs.sensibleheat:

Netsurplusofradiationwillproducesomeformofheat Ifthereiswateravailable,evaporationwilloccurandlatentheatwillbeproduced. Sensibleheatwillbeproducedifthereisnowateravailable Thatiswhydryenvironmentscanbehot.

Problem:Assumeyoumeasurethefollowingforanunknownsurface:
80unitsshortwavereceivedatsurface(input) 40unitsshortwavereflectedbysurface(output) 110unitslongwavereceivedandabsorbed(input) 120unitslongwaveemitted(output)

RadiationDiagram

QUESTIONS: Isthisasurplusordeficit? Howmanyunitsofsurplusordeficit? Isthesurfaceheatingorcooling? Isthisinthedaytimeornighttime? Whatisthealbedo?

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AirTemperature
(sensibleheat)
(ChristophersonCha3)

I. Whatdeterminessurfaceairtemperature? A. TheProcess:

Surfacetemperaturedeterminesairtemperature Surfacetemperaturedeterminedbyradiationsurplusordeficit. Coldsurfacewillcooltheairthroughconduction Warmsurfacewillheattheairthroughconduction

B. AirTemperatureLag:Becauseittakestimetoheattheair,thewarmesttimeofthe

daywillfollowthemaximumperiodofsurplusofradiationbyseveralhours.Thisisalsotrue fortheannualmonthlypattern.Thehighestannualtemperatureswillfollowthehighestsun anglesbyacoupleofmonths.

C. NormalLapseRate:Onaverage,tempdropsatanaveragerateof6.4C/1000
meters.Calledthenormallapserate.

II. MeasuringAirTemperature:AirTemperatureisameasurementofsensibleheat,themotion
oftheindividualmoleculesofatmosphere. liquidorsolid.

A. Thermometer:Generallymeasurestemperaturesbytheexpansionandcontractionofa B. Thermistor:Anelectricthermometer.Measureselectricalresistanceatdifferent
temperatures

III. FactorsAffectingSurfaceAirTemperature A. Latitude:Highlatitudesreceivelowersunangles;thustheyhavelesstotalinsolationthan


lowlatitudes.Lessinsolationmeanslowertemperatures.

B. Altitude:Onaveragetemperaturedecreaseswithincreasingaltitude.Callednormallapse rate. 1. ThinAtmosphere:Emitslesslongwave,sothemountainreceivesless. 2. NormalLapseRate:Recallthatairtemperaturedropswithincreasingaltitude C. CloudCover 1. DayClouds:Insolationblocked;resultsinlowermaximumtemperatures.i.e.,It


doesn'tgetashotasaclearday.

2. NightClouds:CloudsradiateincreasedlongwavetowardEarth;resultsinhigher
minimumtemperatures.i.e.Itdoesn'tgetascoldasaclearnight.

3. DailyTemperatureRange:Differencebetweenthemaximumandminimumis
lowinacloudysituation.

D. Land/WaterHeatingDifferences:Waterhascertainpropertiesascomparedtoland.
Itheatsandcoolsmoreslowlythanland!!!!!!

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Water(Maritime)

Heatsandcoolsmoreslowlyandtolesserextremes. Generallyiscoolerinthesummerandwarmerinthe wintercomparedtoland.

Land(Continental)

1. SpecificHeat:Waterhasahighspecificheat,

whichmeansthatittakesmoreenergytoheatwater thanlandthesamenumberofdegrees.Soittakes longertoheat.Italsotakeslongertocooloffbecause ittakestimetoloseallofthestoredheat.

Heatsandcoolsrapidlyslowlyandto greaterextremes. Generallyishotterinthesummerandcolder inthewinter. Landhasalowerspecificheat,soittakes lessenergytoheatit.Thus,itheats faster.Italsocoolsfasterbecausethere isverylittlestoredheat.

2. Transparency:Sinceinsolationpenetratesandis Sinceinsolationisabsorbedentirelyat
absorbedatdepth,theheatisdispersedwidely.For thisreason,ittakesalongtimetodissipateinwinter.

surface,allheatisconcentratedthere.For thisreason,itcanalsoescapequicklyin winter. Oncethelandsurfaceheatsup,theenergy travelsveryslowlyintothedeeperground. Thus,thesurfacestayshot

3.Mixing:Waterheatsslowlybecauseitmixeswith
cooler,deeperwater.Thus,thewholeoceanis heating,notjustthesurfacelayer.

4. Evaporation:Evaporativecoolingconstantly
keepsoceanwatercoolinthesummer.

Landusuallyhaslittlewatertoevaporate,so allsurplusenergygoestosensibleheat. Theairgetshot.

SpecialNote:Oceansarelikeanenergystoragebank.Duringthesummer,theyabsorbthesurplus
ofenergy,keepingmaritimelocationscoolerthancontinentallocations.Duringwinter,theyemitthat storedenergy,sothesamemaritimelocationsarekeptslightlywarmerthancontinentallocations. MARITIME: Locatedbytheocean Coolerinsummerandwarmerinwinter. Lowannualtemperaturerange. CONTINENTAL: Locatedfarfromtheocean Hotterinsummerandcolderinwinter. Highannualtemperaturerange.

**LookatFigure3.23.Doesthisgraphseemtomakesenseinlightofthe informationpresentedhere?

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IV. GlobalTemperatureMaps Isotherm:Alineonamapconnectingpointsofequaltemperatures. TransectandGradient(Intrototheseterms) TemperatureGradient:Changeintemperatureoverdistance.

IfthetemperaturechangesquicklyasItravelfromoneplacetothenext,wesaythatthisisa hightemperaturegradient. Hightemperaturegradientsareindicatedbycloselyspacedisothermsonthemap. Ifthetemperaturedoesn'tchangeasItravelfromoneplacetothenext,wesaythatthisisa lowtemperaturegradient. Lowtemperaturegradientsareindicatedbywidelyspacedisothermsonthemap.

A. June/JulyWorldAirTemperaturePatterns
SELFSTUDY Ingeneral,howdoestheEquatorcomparetothePoles? Wherearethecoldestwintertemperatures?(Highorlowlatitude;overoceansorland surfaces?) Comparecoastalandcontinental(inland)locationswiththesamelatitude;whichoneis colderinwinter?Whichiscolderinsummer? Whichseemstohavethewarmersummers,NorthernorSouthernHemispheres?Why? (HINT:Seemaritimevs.continentaldiscussion.)

B. AnnualTemperatureRange(differencebetweenyearlyhighandlow)
SELFSTUDY Whathappenedtotherangeaslatitudeincreases? Wherearethehighestranges?(Highorlowlatitude?;overoceansorlandsurfaces?) Wherearethelowestranges?(Highorlowlatitude?;overoceansorlandsurfaces?) Howdorangescomparebetweencoastalandinlandlocationsofthesamelatitude?

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AtmosphericandOceanicCirculation
(ChristophersonCha4)

I. AtmosphericPressure:Atmosphericpressureistheforceexertedbyairmolecules.Since
theatmosphereisfluid,thisforceactsinalldirections.Itisapprox.1kg/cm2.Theoretically,ifwe weretotakeaperfectlyverticalcolumn1cm2atthebaseandrisingtospace,thecollectiveweight wouldbe1kg.

A. RelationshipBetweenMolecularDensityandAtmosphericPressure:
Highdensitymeanshighpressure;lowdensitymeanslowpressure. Atmosphericpressureishighestatsealevelanddecreasesrapidlytowardspace. Thisisbecausegravityisholdingthemoleculesinplace.

B. RelationshipBetweenTemperatureandAtmosphericPressure:
Heatedairbecomeslessdense:Moleculesmovefasterandspreadoutward.Resultsin LOWpressure. Cooledairbecomesmoredense:Moleculesmoveslowlyandstaycompact.Resultsin HIGHpressure. ThesearecalledTHERMALhighandlowpressures.

C. MeasurementofPressure AverageSeaLevelAtmosphericPressureValues 1. a) 29.92inchesHg b) 760millimetersHg c) 1013.2millibars(mb)(thisistheonewewilluse) 2. MercurialBarometer:Thismethodinvolvesthefluctuationsinthelevelof


mercuryinatesttube.Thefluctuationsarecausedbychangesinairpressure.

3. AneroidBarometer:Thismethodinvolvestheexpansionorcontractionofa II. Wind:ThehorizontalmotionoftheairwithrespecttotheEarth'ssurface.


Theatmospherehasaconsistentlyirregularpatternofairpressure. Sinceanyflowingfluidstrivestoreachauniformpressure,theatmosphereisconstantlyin motion(wind). Movementisfromhightolowpressure(sodacan)

small,sealedmetalchamber.Thechamberexpandswithloweredexternalpressure andcontractswhenexternalpressureincreases.

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A. ThePressureGradientForce:Theforcegeneratedbythepressuredifferences
betweentwopoints.

1. Isobars:Onamap,thesearelinesofequalpressure. 2. Closelyspacedisobars:Indicateahighpressuregradientandhighwind
speeds

3. Widelyspacedisobars:Indicatealowpressuregradientandlowwindspeeds 4. DirectionofForce:Thepressuregradientforceactsperpendiculartothe
isobars.

B.

TheCoriolisForce:Anapparentdeflectionofwindandoceancurrents.(The singlehardestthingtounderstandinPhysicalGeography.Ifnothingelse,memorize this) NorthernHemisphere


totheRIGHT

Deflectionofwinds andoceancurrents:

SouthernHemisphere
totheLEFT

1. WindSpeed:ThestrengthoftheCoriolisForceincreasesaswindspeed
increases.

2. Latitude:ThestrengthoftheCoriolisForceincreasesaslatitudeincreases. 3. NoforceatEquator
Thisapparentforceoccursbecause,asawindoroceancurrentissetinmotionina particulardirection,theearthbasicallyrotatesoutfromunderit.Thismakesitseemas thoughthewindoroceancurrenttakesaleftorrightturn,dependingonthehemisphere. Tounderstandthis,youwillhavetoreadthissectioninthetextcarefully.Wemayhave aninclassdemonstration.

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C. CyclonesandAntiCyclones:Spiralingwindsystems(NOTstorms) 1. Cyclones(LowPressure):Inwardspiralingwindsystems!
NorthernHemisphere(SideView) SouthernHemisphere(SideView)

ascending converging

ascending converging

LOW

LOW

NorthernHemisphere(TopView)

SouthernHemisphere(TopView)

NorthernHemisphere(SideView)

2. Anticyclones(HighPressure):Outwardspiralingwindsystems!
SouthernHemisphere(SideView)

descending diverging

descending diverging

HIGH

HIGH

NorthernHemisphere(TopView)

SouthernHemisphere(TopView)

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III. GeneralAtmosphericCirculationModel A. InterTropicalConvergenceZone(ITCZ)orEquatorialLowPressure Trough:Highinputsofinsolationalongtheequatorcausewarmingand B. C.

D. E. F.

G. H.

convectionallifting(THERMALLOWPRESSURE).Windsareweakhere(called Doldrums);pressureislow.Lotsofrain!!! HadleyCell Thiswarmairrisestothetroposphereandthenturnspolewardinboth : directions.Atapprox.30N&SLatitudethesecurrentsdescendfromthetropopause towardearth.ThecirculationiscalledaHadleyCell. SubtropicalHighPressureCells: CreatedwheretheHadleyCelldescendsto Earth.Centerswithgenerallyfair,warmweather.Windisweakhere;(calledHorse Latitudes).Theseareanticyclones.(SincetheyareNOTdirectlycausedbyheatingor cooling,theyareconsideredDYNAMICHIGHPRESSURE.) TradeWinds NortheastandSoutheasttradewindscreatedasairspiralstoward : EquatorawayfromSubtropicalHighPressureandintotheEquatorialLowPressure Trough.Foundbetween525N&SLatitude(roughly) Westerlies CreatedasairspiralsawayfromSubtropicalHighPressuretowardthe : Poles.Foundbetween4060N&SLatitude(roughly) SubPolarLowPressureCells: UsuallysynonymouswiththePolarFront, whichisadistinctboundarybetweenwarmandcoldairatabout60N&SLatitude. Associatedwithstormyweather.Steeptemperaturegradientexistshere.Important zoneofmixing.(SincetheyareNOTdirectlycausedbyheatingorcooling,theyare consideredDYNAMICLOWPRESSURE.) PolarHighPressureCells Bittercold,denseairdescendsatthepoles,creating : highpressure(THERMALHIGHPRESSURE). PolarEasterlies:Cold,drywindathighlatitudes(70+NorthandSouth.).Spirals outofthePolarHighPressure

AtmosphericCirculationACloserLook:

Thesepatternsarecomplicatedbythedifferentsurfacesoftheearth. ThepressuresystemsusuallytaketheformofCELLS(aconcentrationofpressure).

PressureandWindSystemsMigrate:PressureandWindSystemsMigrateNorthand
SouthDuringtheYear,roughlyfollowingthenorthandsouthmigrationoftheSubSolarPoint

1. ITCZExample:NotethemovementoftheITCZbetweenJulyandJanuary. 2. SubtropicalHighExamples a) PacificSubTropicalHigh:CenterednearHawaii.Farthestnorthin


Julyandthenheadssouth.

b) AzoresSubTropicalHigh:CenterednearAzores(offthecoastof
Portugal).HasthesameeffectasthePacificSubtropicalHigh.

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P O L AR H I G H PRESSURE

S U B - P O L AR L O W P R E S S U R E

S U B - T R O P I C AL H I G H P R E S S U R E Hadley Cell

ITCZ ITCZ
S U B - T R O P I C AL H I G H P R E S S U R E

Hadley Cell

S U B - P O L AR L O W P R E S S U R E

P O L AR H I G H PRESSURE

Dynamicvs.ThermalPressureSystems:Thermalpressuresystemswilldevelop

overhotorcoldlandmasses.Theyaredrivenbyextremetemperatures.TheHIGHSarecold, descendingairoverlandmassesinthewinterhemisphere,whiletheLOWSarewarm,ascending airoverlandmassesinthesummerhemisphere.Pressuresystemswhichdevelopwithout temperatureextremesarecalleddynamicpressuresystems.

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PressureSystemReviewTable
Subtropical Highs(also Associated Temperature Cycloneor Anticyc. Directionof Spiral(N.Hem) BasicCause Movementof Air Associated Weather WhereFound Warm SubPolarLows
(alsocalledDynamic (usuallyonland) Lows)

ThermalHighs

ThermalLows
(usuallyonland)

calledDynamic Highs)

CooltoCold Cyclone

VeryCold Anticyclone Clockwise

Warm Cyclone CounterClockwise

Anticyclone Clockwise

Counter Clockwise GeneralCirc.ofAtmosphere Descending andDiverging Clearand Warm OverOceans atapprox. 30NorSLat (always present, migratesome northorsouth) Stable Ascendingand Converging Cloudy,Rainor Snow OverOceansat approx.60Nor SLat(generally travelwestto east) Unstable AleutianLow, IcelandicLow

SurfaceCooling SurfaceHeating Descendingand Ascendingand Diverging Converging ClearandFreezing Warmand Thundershowers AtPolesandOver OverContinentsin Continentsin SummerHigh WinterLowSun SunSeasonand Season AlongtheInter Tropical Convergence zone(ITC) Stable Unstable PolarHighs SiberianHigh, CanadianHigh AsianLow, EquatorialLow PressureTrough

Stability ExamplesinN. Pacific Hem. Subtropical High,Azores High

IV. UpperAtmosphericCirculationFeatures A. GeostrophicWinds:


Extremelyhighspeedsreachedabovethesurface(lackoffriction) TheCoriolisForceactsstronglyonhighspeedwinds.TheymovesofastthattheCoriolis Forceactuallycausesthemtoflowparalleltotheisobars. Theydon'tflowfromhightolow;theyflowbetweenhighandlow.

B. PolarJetStreamExample:GeostrophicwindatthePolarFront
Westtoeast"pipe"ofwind 350450km/hr. Thepolarfrontjetstreamroughlymarkstheglobalboundarybetweencoldpolarairand warmtropicalair. Itisacrossthisboundarythatmuchglobalenergytransferoccurs. RossbyWaves(Fig.416):Hugeundulationsinthepolarjetstream.Pocketsofcoldair arebroughtsouthwhilepocketsofwarmairarebroughtnorth.

V. LocalWinds(Windsonasmallerscale)

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A. LandandSeaBreezes:Windsarealwaysdesignatedbywheretheyarecomingfrom;
ifyouarestandingatthebeachfacingtheoceanandthewindisinyourface,thisisasea breeze. Duringawarmdaythelandsurfaceheatsmorerapidlythantheseasurface, generatingathermallowpressureonland. Asheatedairascendsbyconvection,avacuumiscreatedandcoolmarineair convergestofillthevoid. Thelandbreezeoccursatnightasthereversehappens(thelandcoolscausingthe airaboveitbecomescooleranddenser.Thisgeneratesathermalhighpressure.) SeeFig.418.

SeaBreeze

LandBreeze

B. MountainandValleyBreezes:Mountainslopesheatrapidlywhenheatedbythe

sun.Convectioncreatesupvalleybreezes.Conversely,thecoolingatnightcreatesdown valleydrainagewinds.Thisisbecausethecoolairisdenseandflowsdownhill.Thegeneral termforthiscoldairflowingdownhillundertheforceofgravityiskatabaticwindorcoldair drainage..

ValleyBreeze

MountainBreeze(alsocalledCold AirDrainageorKatabaticWind)
Cooled air

Heated air

C. MonsoonalWindsSouthAsiaExample:Similartoalargescaleseabreeze.

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1. December/January:......theITCZiswellsouthofsoutheastAsia,andthearea
isdominatedbytheSiberianHigh(thermalhigh).Windblowsoffshore(outtosea)

2. June/July:Thermallowpressuredevelops(theAsianLow).Thisthermallow
mergeswiththeITCZ.Thisthermallowpressureservesasavacuumforwarm, moist,tropicalairofftheIndianOcean.Precipitationissubstantial.

VI. OceanCurrents A. FactorsDeterminingDirectionofCurrent 1. AntiCyclones(creategyres):Surfacewindsactuallypullsurfacecurrents

alongthroughtheforceoffrictionbetweenthewaterandair.Thesubtropicalhigh pressurecenters(anticyclones)formhugecirculatingoceancurrentscalledgyres.

2. CoriolisForce:DeflectscurrentstotherightintheNorthernHemisphere. B. RoleinEnergyTransfer: 1. Warmwaterstransferredpoleward 2. Coldwaterstransferredequatorward 3. Globaltheenergybalancemaintained C. Examples 1. WarmCurrents:Foundoneasternsidesofcontinents;canservetomoderate otherwisepotentiallyverycoldclimates. a) GulfStream(orFloridaCurrent):EventuallybecomestheN.


AtlanticCurrent,warmstheBritishIslesandScandinavia.

b) KuroshioCurrent:WarmsJapanandEastAsia. 2. ColdCurrents:Foundonwesternsidesofcontinents;canservetomoderate otherwisepotentiallyverywarmclimates. a) PeruChileCurrent:Coldcurrentwhichtravelsnorthupthewestcoast


ofSouthAmerica.

b) CaliforniaCurrent:Coldcurrentwhichtravelssouthdownthecoastof
California.

c) "Upwelling"andtheCaliforniaCurrentExample:

Coldwaterisdenseandgenerallysinkstotheoceanbottom. Withupwelling,thedeep,densecoldwatersarebroughttothesurfaceby theactionofwinds.

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Upwelling

VII.ElNio(seeFocusStudy,pg220):

Thisisnotaviolentstormorlargewaves. Inthestrictestsense,anElNinoeventoccurswhenthetradewinds,whichnormallypushwarm PacificwateralongtheEquatortowardAustraliaandIndonesia,weaken. Thisallowsthewarmwatertoflow(or"slosh")backtowardSouthAmerica(CoastalPeru).Thenet resultisthatalargebodyofunusuallywarmwaterformsoffthecoastofSouthAmerica. Thisraisestheatmosphericwatervaporcontentinthisarea;someofthisgetschanneledtoward Californiacausingheavyrains.Conversely,AustraliaandIndonesiaexperiencecooleroceanwaters anddryerweatherthannormal.