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21

27

37

41

51

1.1

51

1.2

53

1.3

59

1.4

62

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2.1

69

2.2

75

2.3

77

2.4

80

2.5

83

87

3.1

87

3.2

88

4.1

95

95

4.2

100

4.3

105

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115

5.1

115

5.2

117

121

1.1

121

1.2

123

127

2.1

127

2.2

136

2.3

138

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3

141

3.1

141

3.2

145

3.3

151

3.4

154

155

4.1

155

4.2

157

165

1.1

165

1.2

172

1.3

179

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183

2.1

183

2.2

190

195

3.1

195

3.2

199

201

4.1

201

4.2

202

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207

1.1

207

1.2

210

1.3

211

1.4

212

215

2.1

215

2.2

225

2.3

237

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249

1.1

249

1.2

256

1.3

259

267

2.1

267

2.2

278

2.3

281

2.4

285

291

293

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7

Part

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t r = r (t +

t)

r (t)

v=

r
r
=

t
t
r
r
= lim
v = lim
t
t
t 0
t 0

v = lim

t 0

s
s
=

t
t
r
x
y
z
=
i+
j+
k = vx i + vy j
v =
t
t
t
t

v = |v| =

+ vz k vx, vy, vz x, y, z
a =

a = lim
t 0

2
v
v
v
v
v
r
=
= 2 a = x i + y j + z k
t
t
t
t
t
t

= ax i + ay j + az k ax, ay, az x, y, z
x = x0 + vt s = x

x0 = vt

v = v0 + at
x = x 0 + v 0t +

1 2
1
at s = v0t + at2
2
2

v2 = v20 + 2as
x0 v0 s t a

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v = gtv0 = 0y =

v = v0

gty = v0t

1 2
gt
2
1 2
gt y
2

v0

1-1 t
vx = v0
vy = gt

1-1

v =

v2x + v2y tan =

vy
x
vx

t
x = v0t
y=

1 2
gt
2

t
1 g 2

y=
x
2 v20

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v0

1-2
v0x = v0 cos
v0y = v0 sin
t
vx = v0 cos
vy = v0 sin

gt

1-2

v =

v2x + v2y tan =

vy
x
vx

t
x = v0 cos t
y = v0 sin t

1 2
gt
2

t
g
y = tan x
x2
2
2v0 cos2

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(02)2705-5066

t=

v0 sin
g

t
H=

v20 sin2
v2 sin 2
s = 0
2g
g

= lim

t 0

z 1-3

1-3

v =

= lim

t
t 0

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Galilean transformation of coordinates


x' = x
y' = y
z' = z
t' = t
v' = v

ut

x = x' + ut'
y = y'

z = z'
t = t'

u v = v' + uv u S'

S v'
fmax =

0 N 0 N

f = N N
F = ma = m

x, y, z

vx
t
v
Fy = may = m y
t
v
Fz = maz = m z
t

Fx = max = m

n t
F = ma = m

v2

F = ma
F F a

a

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(02)2705-5066

F12 = F21

F = ma0a0

Coriolis force

F = 2mv'

= ma

a a = 2v'

F=G

m1 m2
G G = 6.67 10
r2

11

kg2/m2
Coulomb force F = k

q1q2

r2

k k = 9109 Nm2/C2

dA = Fdrcos = Fdr A =

r2
r1

Fdr dr

F dr
P =

Fdr = 0

F = grad E =

F=0
E
A =

r2
r1

Fdr =

(E

i+

j+

E )

E = mgh + CC

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8

(02)2705-5066

1 2
kx + C
2
mm
E = G 1 2 + C
r
1
E = mv2
2
E =

E = E + E
A = E
A = E2

F=

E 1=

1 2
mv
2 2

1 2
mv
2 1

E1

p
mv
=
t
t

Fdt = dpp = mv

F t
F = 0 p =
i
M = r F = x
Fx

j
y
Fy

k
z
Fz

Mx = yFz

zFy

My = zFx

xFz r

Mz = xFy

yFx

j
y
mvy

k
z
mvz

i
L = r mv = x
mvx

Lx = ymvz

zmvy

Ly = zmvx

xmvz

Lz = xmvy

ymvx

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Mx =
M =

L
t

Lx
t

Ly

t
L
Mz = z
t
My =

M
= 0 L =
N m1, m2, , mN
r1, r2, , rN

r =

mi r i

mi

x =

y =

z =

mi r i
m

mi x i
m
miyi
m
mi zi
m

m = mi
i

p = pi = mi vi = mvC
i

F =

t
F = 0

p =
F = ma a

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10

L = ri pi = ri mivi
i

M =

M = 0

L =
r =

r m
m

r dm

x =

y =

z =

J = mi r 2i J =

x m
m
y m
m
z m
m

r2dmr dm

Jz = J + md 2J

d z

Jz = Jx + Jy Jz z

Jx Jy x y

M = J M J

z z

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11

Lz =

rvdm =

r2dm = Jz r dm

v z
M =

L
M
t
M = 0

L =

E =

1
J
2

E =

1
J
2

1 2
mv
2

J m v
E = mgh h m

dA = Md

M d

A =

1
J
2

2
2

1
J
2

2
1

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12

x
+ x = 0 =
t2

A =

x20 +

v20

m
= arctan

v0

x0

x = Acos ( t + )A


T = 2

l
l
g

Compound pendulumT = 2

J
J O
mgl

l C O
T = 2

m
k
k
= 2 /T = 2

x
= A sin ( t + )
t
2
v
x
= 2 = A 2cos ( t + )
a =
t
t
1 2 1
E = mv = m 2 A2sin2 ( t + )
2
2
1 2 1
E = kx = m 2A2cos2 ( t + )
2
2
1
E = E + E = m 2A2
2
2
2
x
x
x
x
+
+2
m 2 = kx
t
t
t
t2
k
2
2 = 0
0=
m
m
v =

x = A0 e

cos ( t +

2
0 x = 0

0
0

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13

<

T =

2
0

2
x
x
+ Hcos t = m 2
t
t
k
H
Driving forceF = Hcos t 20 = 2 = h =
m
m
m

Forced vibration

kx

x
+2
t2

x = A0 e

x
+
t
t

2
0x = h cos

cos (

A =

2
0

2
0

t+

H/m
2 2
+4

0) + A cos
2

( t + )

= arctan

2
2
0

x1 = A1cos ( t +

1)x2 = A2cos (

t+

2)

x = Acos ( t + )

A=

A21 + A22 + 2A1A2cos

= arctan

A1 sin
A1 cos

1 + A2 sin

1 + A2 cos

1 = 2k

k = 0, 1, 2,

A = A1 + A2 + 2A1A2 = A1 + A2

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14

1 = (2k + 1)

A21 + A22

A=

k = 0, 1, 2,

2A1A2 = |A1

A2|

x1 = A cos (

1t +

)x2 = A cos (

2t +

x = x1 + x2 = 2Acos
A = 2Acos
2

2+

) (

t cos

2+

t+

x = A1cos ( t +

1)y = A2 cos

( t+

2)

x2
y2
2 +
A1 A22

y 1
=
x2 u2

2xy
cos (
A1A2

1) = sin

1)

y
y u
t2

y (x, t) = Acos ( t +

kx) k = 2 /

x
x
y (r, t) =

A1
cos ( t
r

kr)r

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(02)2705-5066

15

u=

T l

u=

E Young's modu-

lus

u=

G Shear modu-

lus G < E

u =

K bulk modulus

2
1
1
mv2 =
VA2 2 sin2 t +
x
2
2
y 2
2
1
1
E = E
V=
VA2 2 sin2 t +
x

2
x
2
2
E=
VA2 2 sin2 t +
x m

E =

( )

V E
E
2
x
= A2 2 sin2 t +
V
1 T
1 2 2
wdt =
A
w =
T 0
2
2
x
P = uSw = uS A2 2 sin2 t +

w =

P w
S

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16

(02)2705-5066

1
uS A2
2

P = uS w =
1
I = P = wu =
S
2

2 2

A u

y = y1 + y2 = A0 cos

x + A0 cos

t+

( 2 x)cos t
2
t 2A cos ( x) x
y = 2A0 cos

cos

( 2 x) = 1

cos
x=k

k = 0, 1, 2,

cos
x = (2k + 1)

L = n

( 2 x) = 0

k = 0, 1, 2,
n

n = 1, 2, 3, n n

n = 2L/n F

u
n = 0, 1, 2,
2L
I
Sound intensity levelL = lg I0 = 10
I0
n=n

12

Wm 2

L I BBell

1/10
dB1B = 10dB
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(02)2705-5066

17

L = 10lg

I
dB
I0

v v

v < u v

u+v
u v

t'

t=
1

u2
c2

u v
u+v

t' S'

t S

Length contraction

L L0

L = L0

u2
c2

L0 L
Lorentz transformation

t
t' =

ut
y' = yz' = z
u2
1
c2

u
x
c2

u2
1

c2

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18

x' =

(02)2705-5066

vx, vy, vz S S'


S x u
v'x =

vx
1

vy
vz
u
u2
u2
1
1
v'y =
v'z =
2
uvx
uvx
uvx
c
c2
1
1
2
2
2
c
c
c
m0
m=
m0 m
v2
1
c2

v
p = mv =

m0
v2
c2

E = mc2 = E + m0c2E0 = m0c2

E 2 = p2c2 + m20c4

p'x = px
E' = (E

cpx) =

u
1
=
c
1

Fx' +
Fx =

E
p'y = pyp'z = pz
c

F'v'
Fy'
F'z
Fz =

Fx =
1 + v'x
1 + v'x
1 + v'x
c
c
c
c

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19

t=T

273.15

t t = 32.0 +

T = 273.16

9
t
5

pV
K
pV

V
K
V
p 0
p
K
V T = 273.16 lim
p
p 0
pV
M
= CC pV = RT pV =

T
p T = 273.16 lim

RTM, mole
R
n
M1 , M2 , , Mn 1,

2,

V p T
pV =

(M

pV = ( 1 +

M2

++

Mn
n

2 + + vn)RT =

) + RT
RT

1 2
mv
2

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21


/ , , .
-- . -- : , 2012.05
;

ISBN 978-957-11-6653-7()
1.
330

101006849

5BF5

Handbook of college physics

106 339 4

(02)2705-5066 (02)2706-6100

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