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#3 MAY 2008

In the analysis of a golf shot, smash factor is referred to increasingly in the golng community. This in-depth interview with Fredrik Tuxen CTO at ISG and the inventor of TrackMan touches upon the relevance, measurement, and maximization of smash factor. Even though you may impact the ball dead-center on the club face, so the ball departs on a line that goes directly through the Center of Gravity (CoG) of the club head, there are 3 more factors that determine the maximum obtainable smash factor: 1) coefcient of restitution between club and ball (COR), 2) the SPIN LOFT the angle between club face orientation and club head direction (see TrackMan newsletter #1 and #2), and 3) the mass ratio between ball weight and club head weight. The equation below shows the maximum obtainable smash factor assuming a dead-center hit:

What is the smash factor? The smash factor is the ratio between ball speed and club head speed.

What does smash factor tell a golfer about a shot? As a parameter, it is an expression of the players ability to generate ball speed based on a given club speed. Technically, the smash factor says a lot about the centeredness of impact and the solidity of the shot - there is a strong correlation between the degree of centeredness at impact and the obtained smash factor.

For the coefcient of restitution, USGA and The R&A have limited golf clubs and balls to a maximum COR of 0.83. While the spin loft could theoretically be 0 deg, it is impractical since this would mean something like a 0 deg lofted driver with a zero ex shaft producing 0 rpm of spin! The lowest realistic spin loft for a driver is around 8 deg. As for the ball, the maximum allowed mass is 45.93 g, with no lower limit. However, it turns out that almost all golf balls have a mass above 45 g since the heavier weight makes the ball slow down less during ight (due to air resistance). For the club head mass, there are small variations among drivers. They typically range from 197 to 201 g, with tour pros using 202-207 g. The heaviest driver head I have heard about is 212 g. By inserting realistic numbers in the equation above for maximizing the smash factor (COR 0.83, SPIN LOFT 8 deg, mass ratio 45/212), the highest realistic smash factor is 1.494. A word of caution, before you start putting lead tape on your driver to make it heavier, that the heavier the club head the harder it is to generate club head speed. Maximum ball speed for a 45 inch driver is obtained for most people with a club head weight around 200 g. See Search for The Perfect Swing by Cochran and Stobbs for a study on how the club head speed varies with club head weight.

How important is smash factor as a launch parameter? It is very important and to be honest, it is much more important than many think. Especially for those amateurs that try to swing too hard at the ball. By trying to achieve a high club speed, they lose control and dont obtain a solid, centered impact, resulting in a relatively low smash factor, far from what is optimal. When working with TrackMan, the amateur and the pro should focus a lot more on ball speed and the smash factor in order to improve their ball striking. This is the reason why we have deliberately taken club speed away from the rst page on the TrackMan screen and moved it down to page 3. We want players to focus on what is really signicant to improve in their swing. Let me give you an example. With a club speed of 100 mph and a smash factor of 1.40, the ball speed is 140 mph. But if the golfer could obtain a smash factor of 1.48 with a more controlled swing having a lower club speed of 98 mph, the ball speed would be increased to 145 mph i.e. an additional 5 mph ball speed by swinging slower. Since 1 more mph ball speed (all other things equal) will generate 2 more yards carry, an extra 10 yards is added to the drive in this case by swinging with more control! Further, the more controlled swing will most likely have a very positive effect on dispersion.

What is a good smash factor? This depends highly on what club you are looking at and what ball type you are playing. For a driver with a premium ball, as an amateur, your smash factor should be above 1.42 and if you have elite ambitions, you should not be below 1.47. Tour pros should aim for nothing less than 1.48 as a minimum. (continues)

What is the highest smash factor you can obtain? The laws of physics do put some limitations on what is possible.

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(continued) In general, both the PGA and LPGA players seem to be right at the optimal smash factor - and sometimes actually slightly above. In particular on the shorter irons, the pros are achieving a higher smash factor than what is reasonably expected from the club loft. The likely explanation for these high smash factors is that the spin loft is actually lower than the club loft which will be the case if the ball is impacted with the hands leading the club head. Another interesting observation in Table 2 is that LPGA players seem to generate higher smash factors for the longer irons in particular. A possible explanation for this is that there is a small increase in club/ ball COR at lower club head speeds. Also the ladies tend to use more cavity back type of clubs which has slightly higher COR and slightly lower loft than corresponding blade type which is preferred by most PGA Tour players.

But do note that if you are hitting the very common high durability range balls the effective COR can easily be as low as 0.73 which will limit the smash factor realistically to about 1.41!

How much does the smash factor vary from club to club? By using the equation above and assuming standard loft as being the SPIN LOFT and average male club head weights, the theoretical optimal smash factor throughout the set is shown in Table 1. For illustration, the corresponding club head speed and ball speed is shown where the club head speed has been scaled to match the average for the PGA TOUR.

Have you come across any smash factors on the pro scene that stand out, positive or negative? One thing I have found very remarkable is how consistently the tour pros are able to produce smash factors of 1.48 and above with their drivers. Table 1: Optimal smash factor from spin loft. Assuming premium ball being used. One of the biggest concrete surprises I have had was when we had the Danish European Tour player Mads Vibe-Hastrup in front of TrackMan with his driver. Mads initially had a smash factor of 1.42 (110 mph club head speed, 156 mph ball speed)! Interestingly enough, he was launching the ball at 14 degrees with a spin rate of 2500 rpm, so if you only looked at the ball speed, launch angle and spin rate, the data would look very close to optimal. But by measuring club head speed and ball speed independently, thus having a fully measured smash factor result, we could immediately see that something was very far from optimal. It turned out that Mads was hitting signicantly down on the ball and impacted the ball high on the club face, slightly towards the heel. As you can read elsewhere in this newsletter, Mads achieved the 1.48-1.49 smash factor with a signicant distance increase in return for his hard work on TrackMan. Another surprise was LPGA player Natalie Gulbis during Wendys 3-Tour Challenge in 2007 (see also newsletter #2). She was consistently getting smash factors around 1.42. So despite her very nice positive attack angle, she was at this event losing about 12 yards carry compared to her potential.

The results in Table 1 agree very well with our observations of male and female tour pros for longer irons and woods. Some examples are presented in Table 2.

(continues)

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#3 MAY 2008

(continued) where on the club face the ball is impacted, so this will be 100 mph for all the 5 different impact locations. In the table below, an example of a realistic variation of the COR variation across the club face has been used. Maximum ball speed is obtained with impact of an inch towards the toe despite the lower COR of 0.81 at this point on the club face.

How does TrackMan actually measure smash factor? While the calculation of smash factor is simply the ratio between ball speed and club head speed, there are some details that are worth noticing. The ball speed is very well dened, and TrackMan measures the ball speed directly within 0.1 mph. However, with the club head speed things are not quite as simple. It might be a surprise to many golfers, but the club head speed actually varies signicantly depending on where on the club face you are looking. On average there is a 14% difference between heel and toe speed. This means that if you have 100 mph club head speed in the center of the club face, the speed of the heel will be around 93 mph and the toe 107 mph. This is primarily due to two things: 1) the further distance from grip to the toe of the club compared to the grip to heel 2) the rotation of the club head during the downswing. Likewise, the club head speed low on the club face is higher than high on the club face. TrackMan always refers to the club head speed at the center of the club face, but because of around a 3/8 inch uncertainty of the location of the radar reection point on the back of the club face, this leads to an accuracy of the club head speed measurement of the TrackMan of 1 mph with reference to the center of the club face.

Table 3: Smash factor variation across club face. Assuming no club head rotation due to off-center hits. If the smash factor was calculated from straight theory (last column in table 3): ball speed divided with the club head speed at point of impact, the smash factor producing the highest 150.3 mph ball speed would come out as 1.463. Since ball speed (together with launch angle and spin rate) is what matters for the ball ight, by using the center of the club face as reference for the club head speed measurement, maximizing your TrackMan smash factor means also maximizing your ball speed for a given physical strength. This means that in the case the ball is impacted towards the toe (higher club head speed) but still with a high COR and no loss of energy due to twisting of the club head during impact, the theoretical maximum smash factor might be 1.48, but the TrackMan smash factor could come out higher.

Figure 1: Typical club head speed variation across the club face. Let me give you an example of how this affects your smash factor measurement: Let us assume a club head speed of 100 mph (in the center of the club face) with a dead center ball impact producing 148 mph ball speed. This should theoretically give a smash factor of 1.48. However, due to the uncertainty of the exact location of the club head speed reading of the TrackMan, the smash factor might be measured somewhere between 148/101 and 148/99 (1.465 to 1.495). Let us then take the other case where the ball is impacted at the 5 different locations indicated on the club face above but having the club delivered with the same speed and spin loft to the ball (Figure 1).The club head measured by the TrackMan is independent on

Are there more smash factor discoveries left to make? We have so far spent most of our time looking at smash factors for drivers. We have now started looking at smash factors for irons. The tour pros seem to generate a slightly higher smash factor with their irons, especially the shorter ones, than what you would expect from the loft of the club. So we are currently analyzing the tour pros club delivery in particular attack angle and dynamic loft to understand more precisely what the worlds best ball strikers are doing. The results of this will be very valuable for both tting and instruction.

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Determinants of Distance

Clubhead Speed and Mass

Here are a few rules of thumb on how the grossest measurements of a club affect the distance the ball will travel. The first place I ever saw these is a June 1992 posting by Sean D. O'Neil reporting on a talk by James Paul (founder of Airflow Research). But, as I've read more on the subject and done a little original analysis, I've seen basically the same information in all the classic places. 1. Holding everything else constant, distance is a strong positive function of clubhead speed. (I.e.distance increases markedly with clubhead speed.) 2. For most golfers, clubhead speed is a negative function of swingweight. (I.e.- clubhead speed decreases as swingweight increases.) 3. For a given clubhead speed, distance is a weak positive function of swingweight. (I.e.- if you can get the clubhead speed in spite of the swingweight, the extra clubhead mass will increase distance slightly.) These rules of thumb are consistent with the Golfsmith "philosophy" of lighter weight for more distance. For instance, quoting from the 1993 Golfsmith catalog: "Two basic facts about golf clubs and the swing: 1. Greater clubhead speed results in greater distance. 2. Lighter weight clubs permit greater clubhead speed. Our relatively simple cause-effect sequence was confirmed for us by USGA Technical Director Frank Thomas. If a club is shafted with graphite 'lighter than steel by two ounces, then all else being equal, clubhead velocity will increase by up to three feet per second -- which will result in approximately five yards increase in distance.'" For the mathematically inclined, distance is a monotonically increasing function of ball speed. In everyday terms, that means that every time you increase ball speed you increase distance, all other things being equal. Now that we know that the secret is ball speed, the exact formula for ball speed is easily derived from freshman college physics, or just pulled from the appendix of Cochran and Stobbs' book.

1 + e Vball = Vclubhead * ---------

http://www.tutelman.com/golf/design/physics4.php

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1 + (m/M)

where: e= An efficiency measure of momentum transfer called the Coefficient of Restitution (COR). Typical values are: 0.67 at the time Cochran & Stobbs' book was written, with a then-typical ball and a rigid clubface. 0.78 for a modern ball and a rigid clubface. 0.83 for a spring-face driver with the maximum legal COR. (The USGA and R&A have decided to measure and limit COR.) m = Mass of the ball (typically 46 grams or 1.62 ounces). M = Mass of the clubhead (typically 200 grams or 7 ounces for driver).

To see how differently the clubhead speed and the clubhead mass effect the ball velocity, consider that A 10% increase in clubhead speed with no change in clubhead weight increases ball velocity 10%. A 10% increase in clubhead weight with no change in clubhead speed increases ball velocity only 1.7%. So clubhead speed is about six times as effective as clubhead mass in producing ball speed, which translates into distance. That supports the statements at the top of this chapter. This formula assumes a low-loft club like a driver. The higher the loft, the more the "leakage" of ball speed, as more of the energy of impact goes into producing spin instead of speed. It's interesting to look at some of the things people think are important to distance (gauged from recent posts in rec.sport.golf), and compare them with facts: Square clubface and direction of clubhead travel: Right on! The equation assumes that the clubface is square to the direction it is traveling. If not (due to improper swing or a lofted clubface), a lot of the momentum will be transferred to sidewise motion and spin, instead of ball speed. Center impact on the clubface: Right on! Every club has a "sweet spot" somewhere near the middle of the face. The equation above assumes you hit the sweet spot. If you miss it, you lose ball speed. I have seen estimates as high as 7% loss of distance for every half inch you miss the sweet spot. Strength or weight of the golfer holding the club: Simply not a factor! If the golfer couldn't convert strength and weight into clubhead speed, then there's nothing that they can do during impact to increase distance. As we saw in the section on vibrational frequency, the clubhead is swinging free at this point, with little more connection to the grip than if it were on a string. Actually, that's an overstatement. The shaft is infinitesimally stiffer than a string. If you do something at the grip during impact, 1/10,000 of that effect will reach the clubhead while the ball is still there. But that's all. In other words, and in summary: Distance is a strong function of clubhead speed.

http://www.tutelman.com/golf/design/physics4.php Page 2 of 4

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Distance is a weak function of clubhead weight. If you can't swing a heavier clubhead very nearly as fast as a lighter one, the heavier head will cost you distance. If you can't bring the clubhead into the ball with good impact (center of clubface, with clubface square to the path of the clubhead), you will lose more distance than you might imagine.

The information here is qualitatively well known. But recently, I've been able to do a little quantification as well, using a computer program written by Max Dupilka. Here are a few surprising facts about how loft affects distance: Air, while presenting drag to slow the ball, also presents lift to a ball with backspin. This keeps it in the air longer, and lets it go much further. A ball struck by a driver in a vacuum will travel less than 2/3 the distance it will in normal earth atmosphere. In seeming contradiction, drives go further at altitude where the air is thinner. It really isn't a contradiction, though; as air gets thinner, distance peaks at about 90% of the density at sea level, and drops off pretty sharply at less than 80% of the sea level density. The distance peak is only a few percent better than sea level. The more clubhead speed you generate, the lower you want your driver loft (down to some reasonable minimum). Conversely, the less your clubhead speed, the more loft you want on your driver. Now that I've run some curves on Max's program, I have a better feel for what's going on here. First the curves, which show carry distance (no roll) vs loft, for several clubhead speeds. Note that the higher the clubhead speed, the lower the loft that achieves maximum carry. For a 120mph clubhead, the maximum carry occurs at 10 degrees of loft. For a 80mph clubhead, the maximum carry occurs at 16 degrees. The reason is that ball speed "amplifies" the lifting effect. Moreover, a higher clubhead speed puts more spin on the ball to produce lift. Between the two, a high clubhead speed can use lift to keep the ball in the air; it doesn't need as much loft. Before you dive right in and use these numbers directly for clubfitting, let me remind you that: They are for carry only, and don't include roll. They don't include shaft flex, which changes the effective loft at impact. But the effect of loft and lift are clear from the graph.

http://www.tutelman.com/golf/design/physics4.php Page 3 of 4

5/9/12 10:01 AM

Let me end this section by dispelling a common myth, based on a misinterpretation of a well-known "law" of physics. As many of us learned in Physics 101, an object travels furthest if launched at an angle of 45 degrees. Why does this not seem to apply to the design of golf clubs? We all know that a 45 loft is about that of a pitching wedge, and a 45 launch angle requires considerably more loft than that. From experience, we all know that clubs with that much loft don't hit the ball nearly as far as the lower-lofted clubs. Here is what's happening: The Physics 101 problem assumed that the ball starts at the same speed, no matter what the angle of takeoff. This is a true assumption for artillery, which is where the problem originated. In artillery, you change the launch angle by tilting the cannon up or down, which doesn't hurt the "ball speed" at all. But, for the golf model, increasing the launch angle usually involves increasing the loft. As noted above, this causes ball-speed "leakage", as more of the impact energy is turned into spin instead of ball speed. By the time you get to a 45 launch angle, you are hitting a very high-lofted wedge with lots of height and rather little distance. In order to duplicate the "artillery model" with a golf swing, it would require you to cause the 45 launch by using a tee more than a foot tall, and hit the ball with a low-loft driver on a 45 upswing. I hope that made sense.

Last modified Oct 6, 2006 Copyright Dave Tutelman 2012 -- All rights reserved

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