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CIP Composites - Engineering Manual

The information guide in this engineering section enables the designer to establish parameters which will provide maximum performance of a bearing in the application. Columbia Industrial Products provides technical assistance on material selection and overall design.

During composite bearing selection there are many effects on the bearing to take into consideration including: CIP Composite bearings operate at different press fits and running clearances than bronze or other metal bearings; Composite bearings require a heavier press fit to retain the bearing in the housing; and running clearances are larger in order to reduce heat buildup in the bearing.

Recommended shaft materials are stainless steels or hardened steel. The suggested minimum hardness is Rockwell 80B. The surface finish should be from 4-32 micro-inches (0.7 Ra). Hard chrome plating may cause premature wear and should be avoided. Holes in the shaft for greasing should also be avoided as the edge of the hole could cut the bearing. The bearing housing should have a chamfer for lead-in. The installer should use a press-in, draw-in or freeze-in method. Do not hammer-in; bearing may become damaged. Bearing wall thickness is very important. The correct wall thickness gives the bearing the proper strength to stay in the housing. Use Table E as a guide for proper wall thickness. The following Calculation pages and Tables will guide you through sizing a composite bearing.

The first step in sizing a bearing is to gather the correct information. Use the Application Questions sheet for this task.

CIP Custom Bearings Engineering Manual - Oct. 2010

Application Questions - CIP Composites

Application/Type of Machine_______________________________________ Current Bearing being used_________________________________________ Shaft Diameter Max _______________________ Min____________________ Shaft Material____________________ Shaft Finish_____________________ Housing Diameter Max ______________ Min ________ Length__________ Housing Material_________________________________________ What Kind of Environment? Wet (water) _______________ Dry _____________ Caustic ____________ Dusty _______Other_________________ Temperature at bearing____________ Shaft RPM __________________ Load in Pounds_________________ Hours of operation per day _______ Intermittent _______________ If intermittent, how often does shaft stop ___________________________ OR, how often does the shaft operate, ___________ times per ___________min Rotation 360 __________ or Oscillating __________ How many bearings ______________ How Soon Needed____________________ Your name & phone #________________________________________________

Engineering Manual - Oct. 2010

Bearing Size Calculations

Shaft Diameter Housing Diameter

Max ____________ Min ____________ Max ____________ Min ____________

Consult Table A for Press Fit dimension:____ Table B for Min Running Clearance dim: ___ Consult Table C for Machining tolerances: _____ Thermal Expansion as Required: ______ Consult Table D for Bore closure percentage absorbed: % A=__________ Value A = _______ Absorbed is, interference or press (say .004 (0.1mm) for a 3 1/2 (89mm) shaft with .40 (10.1mm) wall) minus 20% of the .004 (0.1mm) or .0008 (0.02mm). The .0008 (0.02mm) is the amount that the interference or press will be reduced from the 100% or .004 (0.1mm). So the ID will shrink by .0032 (0.08mm) not .004 (0.1mm). The wall thickness is the control over the amount of press absorbed.

Calculations (MT = Machine To)


Housing Max + Press Fit = Bearing OD Min(MT) + machine Tolerance = Brg OD Max(MT) __________ + ________ = _____________ + ______________ = __________ Shaft Max+(Brg OD Max - Housing Min)+(Min Clear + Thermal) - Absorbed Bore)= Brg ID Min (MT) ______ + (_______ - _______) + (_______+_______) - _______) = __________ Brg ID Min + Mach Tolerance = Brg ID Max (MT) ________ + ___________ = ___________ Brg ID Min - (Brg OD Max - Housing Min) + Absorbed Bore Close = Brg as Fit ID Min ________ (________ - _________) + ________________ = _______________ Brg ID Max - (Brg OD Min - Housing Max) = Brg as Fit ID Max ________ (________ - ________) = _______________ Brg as Fit ID Min - Shaft Dia Max = Clearance As Fit Min _____________ - __________ = ___________ Brg as Fit ID Max - Shaft Dia Min = Clearance As Fit Max _____________ - __________ = ___________ See Table E and Check Wall Thickness Minimum Brg OD Max - Brg ID Min = Wall Thickness MaxBrg OD Min - Brg ID Max = Wall Thickness Min ________ - ________ = ________________________ - ________ = ____________

Engineering Manual - Oct. 2010

Calculation Tables A

Engineering Manual - Oct. 2010

Calculation Table B

Engineering Manual - Oct. 2010

Calculation Tables C
General Machining Tolerances

Length (inches) *

.50 - 3 3-7 7 - 12 12 - 17 17 - 32

.50 - 4 +/- .002 +/- .002 +/- .002 +/- .003 +/- .005

4-8 +/- .002 +/- .002 +/- .002 +/- .003 +/- .005

8 - 12 +/- .003 +/- .003 +/- .004 +/- .004 +/- .006

12 - 18 +/- .004 +/- .004 +/- .004 +/- .004 +/- .006

18 + +/- .005 +/- .005 +/- .005 +/- .005 +/- .007

Diameter (metric)

Length (metric) * 12.7-101.6 101.6-203.2 203.2-304.8 +/- .051 +/- .051 +/- .076 12.7-76.2 +/- .051 +/- .076 76.2-177.8 +/- .051 +/- .051 +/- .101 177.8-304.8 +/- .051 +/- .076 +/- .101 304.8-431.8 +/- .076 431.8-812.8 +/- .127 +/- .127 +/- .152

Diameter (inches)

304.8-457.2 +/- .101 +/- .101 +/- .101 +/- .101 +/- .152

457.2 + +/- .127 +/- .127 +/- .127 +/- .127 +/- .178

* For calculating bearing size, use machining tolerance total. Total tolerance is equal to twice the tolerance in the chart. (For bearing .75 x 2 x 7 the total tolerance for calculation = 2 x .002 or .004)

Engineering Manual - Oct. 2010

Calculation Tables D

Engineering Manual - Oct. 2010

Calculation Table E
TABLE E

Minimum Wall Thickness


INCHES
Shaft OD
.38 to 1.00 1.10 to 2.00 2.10 to 3.00 3.10 to 4.00 4.10 to 6.00 6.10 to 8.00 8.10 to 11.00 > 11.10

MM
Min Wall Thickness
.06 .10 .14 .20 .25 .30 .40 .48

Shaft OD
9.6 to 25.4 27.9 to 50.8 53.3 to 76.2 78.7 to 101.6 104.1 to 152.4 155 to 203.8 205.7 to 279.4 > 280

Min Wall Thickness


1.52 2.54 3.56 5.08 6.35 7.62 10.16 12.2

Engineering Manual - Oct. 2010

PV - Limits - CIP Composites

Engineering Manual - Oct. 2010

Thermal Expansion - CIP Composites

Series 100 & 200 Grades Operating temperature range . -40 - 200 F (-40 - 93C) Coefficient of thermal expansion .... 68 - 200F (20 - 93C) Normal to Laminate (bearing diameter) ..... 3.5 x 10-5 / F (1.9 x 10-5 /C) Parallel to Laminate (bearing length) . 1.8 x 10-5 / F (1.0 x 10-5 /C) Series 300 Grade Operating temperature range . -40 - 400F (-40 - 204C) Coefficient of thermal expansion 68 - 400F (20 - 204C) Normal to Laminate (bearing diameter) . 4.0 x 10-5 / F (2.2 x 10-5 /C) Parallel to Laminate (bearing length). 2.0 x 10-5 / F (1.1 x 10-5 /C)

Example Thermal Expansion Calculation


Material: CIP 100 Running Temperature: 200F (93C) Wall Thickness: 0.250 (6.35mm)

T = Running Temp 68F(20C) T = 200F 68F = 132F change 2 2 2 x Wall Thickness x x 0.250 x x 6.35mm x Coefficient 0.000035 0.000019 x T x 132F x 73C = Additional Clearance = 0.0023 = 0.018mm

______________________________________________________________________________

For operating temperatures exceeding Series 100 & 200 grades, use Series 300 to 400 F (204C) with a compressive strength of 35,000 PSI (241 MPa). Series 300 is available with the same solid lubricants as the standard grades. As is common with all resin bonded fabrics, CIP has a low thermal conductivity. Under normal circumstances frictional heat is removed via the mating metal surface. However, in cases where shafts or housings are conducting heat to the bearing assembly, the lubricant must be sufficient to remove both frictional and conducted heat. The removal of frictional heat may be improved, particularly in dry running applications, by using the housing as the main heat conductor. The wall thickness of bearings should be kept to a minimum in order to improve heat dissipation. Thermal expansion of CIP material is greater than that of most metal alloy bearings and the characteristic must be taken into account in designs for higher temperature applications.

Engineering Manual - Oct. 2010

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Machining - CIP Composites


CIP Composites are readily machinable by conventional machining techniques and, as a general guide, may be treated as bronze, but should be machined dry without coolant. For turning, tungsten carbide-tipped tools should be used to obtain a fine finish. To achieve a fine finish use 3M Scotch-Brite Finishing Flap Brush Grade 5A VFN #01162. High-speed steel tools can be used for machining where accuracy below .005 (.12mm) is not required and for small quantity production. CIP composites are completely non-toxic, 100% bearing material with no fillers (calcium carbonate). It is advisable to use adequate dust extraction when machining CIP composites. __________________________________________________________________ Cutting Angles of Turning Top Rake Side Rake Front Rake US - Speeds for Cutting Normal for surface finish US - Speeds for Feed First pass/roughing Last pass/finishing Metric - Speeds for Cutting Normal for surface finish Metric - Speeds for Feed First pass/roughing Last pass/finishing .38 to .89 mm per revolution .25 to .38 mm per revolution
Engineering Manual - Oct. 2010

0 to 6 5 to 8 4 to 5

__________________________________________________________________ 22 to 26 feet/second .015 to .035 inches per revolution .010 to .015 inches per revolution

__________________________________________________________________ 6.71 to 7.92 m/second

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Sample Application Questions CIP Composites


Application/Type of Machine_________Test Bearing_________________ Current Bearing being used_________________________________________ Shaft Diameter Max ______2.500___________ Min____2.498___________ Shaft Material____316 SS_______ Shaft Finish___32 (0.7Ra) or better____________ Housing Diameter Max __3.004______ Min _3.000__ Length__3.0____ Housing Material__Cast Steel____________________________ What Kind of Environment? Wet (water) _________ Dry _____X_____ Caustic ____________ Dusty _______Other_________________ Temperature at bearing___130F (55C)____ Shaft RPM ____45________ Load in Pounds___680 lbs / 308 kg__________ Hours of operation per day __18___ Intermittent __No; Constant__ If intermittent, how often does shaft stop ___________________________ OR, how often does the shaft operate, ___________ times per ___________min Rotation 360 __Yes___ or Oscillating _No_____ How many bearings __200_____ How Soon Needed___4 weeks__________ Your name & phone #________________________________________________

Engineering Manual - Oct. 2010

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Sample Bearing Calculations CIP Composites


Shaft Diameter Housing Diameter Max: 2.500 Max: 3.004 Min: 2.498 Min: 3.000

Consult Table A for Press Fit dimension: 0.006 Table B for Min Running Clearance dim: 0.006 Consult Table C for Machining tolerances: 0.004 Thermal Expansion as Required: 0.0018 Consult Table D for Bore closure percentage absorbed: % A= 10% Value A = 0.015
Absorbed is, interference or press (say .004 for a 3 1/2 shaft with .40 wall) minus 20% of the .004 or .0008 . The .0008 is the amount that the interference or press will be reduced from the 100% or .004 . So the ID will shrink by .0032 not .004 . The wall thickness is the control over the amount of press absorbed.

Calculations (MT = Machine To)


Housing Max + Press Fit = Bearing OD Min(MT) + machine Tolerance = Brg OD Max(MT) 3.004 + .006 = 3.010 + .004 = 3.014 Shaft Max+(Brg OD Max - Housing Min)+(Min Clear + Thermal) - Absorbed Bore)= Brg ID Min (MT)
2.500 + (3.014 3.000) + (.006 +.0018) .0006 = 2.5212

Brg ID Min + Mach Tolerance = Brg ID Max (MT) 2.5212 + .004 = 2.5252

Brg ID Min - (Brg OD Max - Housing Min) + Absorbed Bore Close = Brg as Fit ID Min 2.5212 - (3.014 3.000) + .0006 = 2.5078 Brg ID Max - (Brg OD Min - Housing Max) = Brg as Fit ID Max 2.5252 (3.010 3.004) = 2.5192 Brg as Fit ID Min - Shaft Dia Max = Clearance As Fit Min 2.5078 - 2.500 = .0078 Brg as Fit ID Max - Shaft Dia Min = Clearance As Fit Max 2.5192 - 2.498 = .0212 See Table E and Check Wall Thickness Minimum Brg OD Max - Brg ID Min = Wall Thickness Max Brg OD Min - Brg ID Max = Wall Thickness Min 3.014 - 2.5212 = .246 3.010 - 2.525 = .242

Engineering Manual - Oct. 2010

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CIP Material Grades

Description for how to formulate CIP Composite materials


CLOTH/TEXTILES Polyester 100% Polyester & PTFE 50/50 Nomex 100% PTFE 100% = = = = 1 2 3 4 ADDITIVES/LUBRICANTS None Graphite Moly PTFE Graphite & PTFE PTFE & Moly = = = = = = 0 1 2 3 4 5 RESIN/SYSTEMS Standard Marine High Temp = = = 1 2 3

Enhancement = A Enhancement = B

In following section you will find five (5) examples of CIP Composites and their physical properties. These are the most commonly used textile/resin combinations for bearings and wear pads. For additional material codes and physical properties please contact Columbia Industrial Products directly.

CIP Materials - Oct. 2010

CIP Enhancement A & B

Columbia Industrial Products offers an additional additive to the resin mixtures:

ENHANCEMENT A and ENHANCEMENT B.


Both enhancements are nonflammable, chemically inert polymer additives which increases the performance of CIP Composite materials specifically in its physical properties. Benefits Wear & Abrasion Resistance Flex & Fatigue Resistance Increase Tinsel Strength Lower Coefficient of Friction Increases UV Thermal Stability Easier Machining Abilities

ENHANCEMENT B offers additional emphasis, over ENHANCEMENT A, on the materials physical properties to help reduce noise and squeaking; also with increasing ease of movement and overall part life. For additional information, please contact Columbia Industrial Products directly.

CIP Materials - Oct. 2010

CIP Material Grades

CIP Series 111


CIP 111 is manufactured from medium weave polyester fabric with excellent mechanical strength. The lubrication additive is Graphite. The resin is polyester.

Applications
Use CIP 111 for general purpose bearing and wear pad applications, conveyor chain guides, wear rings, screw conveyor hanger bearings and thrust washers.

Physical and Mechanical Properties (dry running)


Tensile Strength Compressive Strength Normal Maximum (Breaking) Compressive Strength(parallel) Hardness Rockwell M Density Water Absorption Operating Temperature Range 35,000 psi 50,000 psi 13,500 psi 100 .045 lbs/in3 <.1% of wall thk -40 to 200 F 9,500 psi

Tests were performed on sheet material.

CIP Materials - Oct. 2010

CIP Material Grades

CIP Series 121


CIP 121 is manufactured from medium weave polyester fabric with excellent mechanical strength. The lubrication additive is Moly. The resin is polyester.

Applications
Use CIP 121 for general purpose bearing and wear pad applications, conveyor chain guides, screw conveyor hanger bearings and wet installations.

Physical and Mechanical Properties (dry running)


Tensile Strength Compressive Strength Normal Maximum (Breaking) Compressive Strength(parallel) Hardness Rockwell M Density Water Absorption Operating Temperature Range 35,000 psi 50,000 psi 13,500 psi 100 .045 lbs/in3 <.1% of wall thk -40 to 200 F 9,500 psi

Tests were performed on sheet material.

CIP Materials - Oct. 2010

CIP Material Grades

CIP Series 131


CIP 131 is manufactured from medium weave polyester fabric with excellent mechanical strength. The lubrication additive is PTFE. The resin is polyester.

Applications
Use CIP 131 for general purpose bearing and wear pad applications, conveyor chain guides, hydraulic wear rings and wet installations.

Physical and Mechanical Properties (dry running)


Tensile Strength Compressive Strength Normal Maximum (Breaking) Compressive Strength(parallel) Hardness Rockwell M Density Water Absorption Operating Temperature Range 35,000 psi 50,000 psi 13,500 psi 100 .045 lbs/in3 <.1% of wall thk -40 to 200 F 9,500 psi

Tests were performed on sheet material.

CIP Materials - Oct. 2010

CIP Material Grades

CIP Series 151A


CIP 151A is manufactured from medium weave polyester fabric with excellent mechanical strength. The lubrication additives are Moly and PTFE for reduced friction. The resin is polyester. Enhancement A has been added to increase performance in strength, wear and abrasion.

Applications
Use CIP 151A for general purpose bearing and wear pad applications, conveyor chain guides, screw conveyor hanger bearings, thrust washers and wet applications.

Physical and Mechanical Properties (dry running)


Tensile Strength Compressive Strength Normal Maximum (Breaking) Compressive Strength(parallel) Hardness Rockwell M Density Water Absorption Operating Temperature Range 35,000 psi 50,000 psi 13,500 psi 100 .045 lbs/in3 <.1% of wall thk -40 to 200 F 10,500 psi

Tests were performed on sheet material.

CIP Materials - Oct. 2010

Machining CIP Composites

CIP Composite materials are easily machined by using conventional tooling and methods. You can use the same methods as you would for Aluminum or Brass. CIP Composites are machined dry. Dust mask and or work area air suction is suggested. For lathe work, carbide or diamond tipped tools can be used to generate a fine surface finish. Diamond tool tips do not produce as much heat when cutting and are suggested for best results. CIP Composites are 100% bearing material with no fillers. To achieve a fine finish us 3M Scotch-Brite Finishing Flap Brush Grade 5A VFN #01162. Cutting Angles of Turning Top Rake Side Rake Front Rake Speeds for Cutting 0 to 6 5 to 8 4 to 5

Normal for surface finish


Speeds for Feed First pass/roughing Last pass/finishing

22 to 26 feet/second 6.71 to 7.92 meter/second


.015 to .035 inches per revolution .38 to .89 mm per revolution .010 to .015 inches per revolution .25 to .38 mm per revolution

Machining - Oct. 2010

Material Safety Data Sheet


MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET

Page: 1 of 4 Prepared: 8 March 2000

CHEMICAL PRODUCT AND COMPANY INFORMATION TRADE NAME: Fiber Reinforced Thermosetting Laminate 29538 Airport Road Eugene, Oregon 97402 EMERGENCY PHONE: MATERIAL Resin mixture with the following: Graphite Molybdenum Disulfide Polytetrafluoroethylene 7782-42-5 1317-33-5 9002-84-0 2 mg/M3* 10 mg/M3* NA 5 mg/M3* 10 mg/M3*
*Respirable dust

MANUFACTURER: Columbia Industrial Products

1-800-998-6822 SECTION I - HAZARDOUS INGREDIENTS CAS NO. PERMISSIBLE AIR LEVEL ACGIH OSHA

NA

Other ingredients are considered Trade Secrets as stated in OAR 437-155-035/1926.69(1) in the Hazard Communication Rules book published by the Oregon Department of Insurance and Finance Accident Prevention Division. Access to trade secret chemicals identified will be provided to Health professionals who provide occupational health services to employees. (437-155-035(2)/1926.59(1) (2) & (3). The cured product is defined by OSHA as an article which is formed to a specific shape or design during manufacture which has end use function dependant upon its shape or design ...does not pose a physical hazard/health risk This product is completely non-toxic in its solid form. This MSDS is being provided for customers who might otherwise machine, cut, or burn this material (See Section III). MSDS - Oct. 2010

Material Safety Data Sheet


SECTION II - PHYSICAL & CHEMICAL DATA Physical State: Specific Gravity: Appearance: Solid .045 #/cu in White to Grey Shape: Odor:
Solubility in Water:

Varies No odor
Insoluble

SECTION III - FIRE, REACTIVITY & EXPLOSION DATA Flash Point: Extinguishing Media: Flammable Limit: Special Fire Fighting Procedures: Unusual Fire and Explosion Hazards: Stability: Incompatibility (Materials to Avoid) Hazardous Decomposition Products: Hazardous Polymerization: Conditions to Avoid: Cutting, grinding, burning: Perform machine operations in a well ventilated area. Mill or machine cured product dry without coolant with tungsten carbide tipped tools. Unusual fire and explosion hazards (Hazardous combustion products): TOXIC FLUORINE COMPOUNDS, CO, CO2, and NO2, can be released when involved in fire. Avoid concentrations of airborne dust particulate that can develop into an explosive condition. Fire Fighting Procedures: Extinguishing media: Use dry chemical, foam, or CO2, or water spray. Emergency special equipment required: Wear a NIOSH approved self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). The solid form is stable and non-reactive except when exposed to strong alkalis. Stable Strong Alkalis None Will not Occur Excessive Heat NA Water NA None None

MSDS - Oct. 2010

Material Safety Data Sheet


SECTION IV - HEALTH HAZARD DATA General: Toxicological information is not available for this composite. This health assessment is based on the information available for the components involved in this Fiber Reinforced Thermosetting Laminate. Graphite Powder: Acute exposure: High concentrations of graphite dusts may be irritating to the eyes, skin, mucous membranes and respiratory tract. Chronic exposure: Inhalations of high concentration of graphite dusts over prolonged periods of time may cause pneumoconiosis. Symptoms may include cough, shortness of breath, and a decrease in pulmonary function. Pre-existing pulmonary disorders may be aggravated by prolonged exposure of high concentrations of graphite dust. Molybdenum Disulfide: References do not report ill health effects as a result of acute or chronic exposure. Molybdenum Disulfide is a naturally occurring compound. Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE): Warning: Heating this material above 500 F can produce harmful fumes - toxic gases can be formed. NOTE: Inhaling fumes of decomposition products can cause temporary influenza-like symptoms described as Polymer Fume Fever and may include fever, cough, and malaise. No toxic effects are known to be associated with inhalation or ingestion of dusts. SECTION V - PRIMARY ROUTES OF ENTRY Airborne particles when machining and sanding may cause irritation. See Section IX for protection SECTION VI - PERMISSIBLE EXPOSURE LIMITS No exposure limits are exhibited by the cured product in its stable form SECTION VII - CANCER HAZARD NO: X . This products ingredients are not found in the list below Yes: Federal OSHO___ NTP___ IARC___ APD___

MSDS - Oct. 2010

Material Safety Data Sheet


SECTION VIII - PRECAUTIONS, SPILLS Shipping Information: None Precautions for handling & storing: Store in cool location. Other Precautions: Avoid contact with excessive heat and strong alkalis Action if released or spilled: . Large accumulations cuttings and grindings should be vacuumed in order to minimize dust generation and recovery for proper disposal. This residual material is NOT a RCRA hazardous waste (40 CFR 261.). Dispose of solid waste material in accordance with applicable Federal, State and Local regulations. DO NOT incinerate. Disposal in an EPA approved landfill is recommended. Keep all products out of sewers and public waters. SECTION IX - CONTROLS, PROTECTION Precautions During Use: Ventilation & Engineering Controls: Respiratory Protection: Protective Gloves & Cloths: Eye & Face Protection: Other Protective Equipment: None Local dust extraction while machining Non-Toxic particle face mask when machining Not Required Safety Glasses when cutting Not Required

SECTION X - FIRST AID & EMERGENCY PROCEDURES If irritation of the eyes, nose, or respiratory tract occurs, remove from exposure, and call a physician. Eyes: Inhalation: Ingestion: Skin: Use eye wash with water for at least fifteen minutes. Remove to fresh air Seek medical attention Wash with mild soap and warm water if redness, itching or a burning sensation develops. In the event of thermal burns, cool with water and seek medical attention. SECTION XI - ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS Molybdenum Disulfide - Was reported on the initial EPA TSCA inventory. PTFE Resin - All ingredients appear on the EPA TSCA inventory. SECTION XII - ADDITIONAL COMMENTS INFORMATION The data in this MSDS relates only to the cured product designated herein and does not relate to its use in combination with any other material or process. Since the use of this information and the conditions of use of the product are not within the control of the manufacturer, it is the consumers obligation to determine the conditions and its safe use. Although the manufacturer believes the statements, technical information and recommendations contained herein are true and correct, they are given without warranty or guarantee of any kind, express or implied, and we assume no responsibility for any loss, damage, or expense, direct or consequential, arising out its use/misuse. MSDS - Oct. 2010