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Q UESTION 1. D ESIGN OF THE PHASE LEAD & LAG COMPENSATION USING ROOT LOCUS APPROACH ................................ 1 Q UESTION 2. D ESIGN OF THE PHASE LAG COMPENSATION USING FREQUENCY DOMAIN APPROACH ................................ 6

Q U E ST I O N 1. D ESI GN

O F T HE P H AS E L EA D

&

L AG CO MP EN S AT I O N USI N G RO O T LO C US AP P RO A CH ( )

S T EP I: D ET ER MI N AT I O N

O F T HE R EQ UI R E ME N T S O F T H E SY ST E M

)(

From the design specifications of the system the damping ratio and undamped natural frequency may be obtained:

Therefore the choice is =0.52 and The desired root positions are the following:

It can be clearly seen from the root locus that the desired roots cannot be obtained using the simple gain adjustment.

S TE P II: I N T R O DU C T I O N O F T HE L E AD

CO MP EN SA T O R T O M E E T T H E R EQ UI R E M EN T S :

( ) Since the desired roots have to appear on the root locus of the compensated system, the angle condition has to be satisfied: ( ) ( ) Placing the zero just to the left of the first two (dominant) real poles 0 and 6 gives z = 6.2.

( ( ( ) )

( (

) )

( ) The gain K0 can be obtained from the magnitude condition to assure that the desired roots are placed appropriately on the root locus branches of the compensated system: | | | ( ( ( )( )( ( )( )( ) ( ) ( )| ) )( )( ) | ) |

However K=2272 has been chosen as an adjustment made after running a simulation in Matlab; the gain has been reduced in order not to change significantly the dominant poles of the closed-loop system. ( ) ( ) ( ( )( )( ) )

( ) ( )( )( ) )( )

( ( )( )( )

S T EP III : I N T R O D U CT I O N

O F T HE L AG CO MP EN S AT O R T O A S S UR E T H AT T H E S YS T E M

M E ET S T H E V E LO CI T Y F A CT O R CO N DI T I O N

This steady-state specification cannot be obtained by adding simple gain compensator since it would shift the position of the roots on the root locus branches and the satisfying transient response of the desired roots would be lost.

( ) ( ( )( ( ) )( ) )

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

Choose the values of zero and pole for a lag compensator close to the origin of s-plane to ascertain that the negative angle of GLAG(s) will not affect considerably the root locus achieved by adding the lead compensator.

( )

Root Locus Editor for Open Loop 1 (OL1) 10 0.68 8 0.84 X: -3.771 Y: 6.115 Z: 3 0.95 2 2 -100 G.M.: 17.9 dB Freq: 19.1 rad/sec Stable loop -150 -90 2 0.95 -4 -135 0.54 0.42 0.3 0.2 0.09 8 50 Open-Loop Bode Editor for Open Loop 1 (OL1) 100

10

-50

Imag Axis

-2

-6

-180

0.84

-8 0.68 -10 -10 -8 0.54 -6 0.42 -4 Real Axis 0.3 0.2 -2 0.09

-225 8 -270 10

-4

-2

10 0

10 Frequency (rad/sec)

10

10

1.4

1.2

Step Response From: Input To: Out(1) System: cl I/O: Input to Out(1) Peak amplitude: 1.21 Overshoot (%): 20.6 At time (sec): 0.529 System: cl I/O: Input to Out(1) Time (sec): 0.891 Amplitude: 1.04

0.8

Amplitude

0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0

0.5

2.5

Unfortunately this lag compensator decreased the desired phase margin influencing significantly the design. For further improvement and achievement of better performance the positions of zero and pole of the lag compensator can moved even closer to the imaginary axis.

Therefore ( ) Open loop transfer function is the following: ( ) Closed loop transfer function:

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

( ) ( )

( ( )( )(

)( )(

) )

( )

( ( )( )( )(

)(

) )( )

Step response of the system with the lag and lead compensators (after adjustment of the lag pole and zero)

Step Response From: Input To: Out(1)

1.4

System: x I/O: Input to Out(1) Peak amplitude: 1.19 Overshoot (%): 19 At time (sec): 0.536

1.2

System: x I/O: Input to Out(1) Final Value: 1 System: x I/O: Input to Out(1) Settling Time (sec): 0.84

0.8

Amplitude

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.5

1.5

2 Time (sec)

2.5

3.5

Overshoot of the step response is 19%. Settling time (within 2%) is 0.84s.

100

X: 100 Y: 99.98

80

60

40

20

20

40

60

80

100

Steady state error of the unit ramp is 100-99.98=0.02, so less than satisfied.

The compensated system does not meet all the design specifications; however the responses are satisfactory enough for those compensators to be chosen and implemented.

Q U E ST I O N 2. D ESI GN

O F P HA S E L A G CO M P E N S AT I O N USI N G FR EQ U EN CY DO MAI N AP P RO A CH

S TE P I: D E TE R M I N A T I O N O F R E Q U I R E M E N TS O F T HE S Y S T E M

( )

)(

By converting the time-domain specification of percentage overshoot to frequency domain obtain the value of the required damping ratio and hence the phase margin:

It can be clearly seen on the bode diagram that the uncompensated system G(s) does not meet this requirement. Therefore the gain KA has to be adjusted to shift the magnitude plot up so that it intersects 0dB where the desired PM occurs.

S TE P II: I N TR O D U C T I O N O F TH E G A I N K A :

First find the frequency that gives frequency ( ) ) ( ) . ( ) which will become the new gain crossover

Solving:

Total gain of the gain compensated system KAG(s) should be 0 dB, which implies: | ( )| ( | ( ) ( ) With dominant roots at: ( )( ( )( ) )( ) ) |

S T EP III: D E SI GN

O F T H E P H A SE L AG CO MP EN SA T O R

Design of the phase lag compensator is needed to assure that the system meets the velocity factor condition Kv=40, maintaining required transient response characteristic of 15% percentage overshoot: ( )

( ) ( )

)(

Placing the zero at a decade below ( ) Open loop transfer function is:

gives:

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (

( ( )( )( (

)( )(

) ) )

)( )

The compensated system does not meet the overshoot specifications. The overshoot of a step response rises to 26% which is high above requested 15%. Adding a lag compensator introduces a zero in the closedloop transfer function T2(s) which moves the dominant roots thus affecting the transient response of the system. Its negative effect can be decreased by addition of about 5 12 degrees to the phase margin requirement and iteration of the design steps.

S TE P IV: I N T R O D U CT I O N O F T HE P R E - FI LT E R T O M EE T T H E RE Q UI R EM EN T S :

The other solution is using a pre-filter which cancels this negative effect of zero.

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) () (

( )( )( )(

)

)

The compensated system with a pre-filter meets all the design specifications.

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