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DHRUPAD ELEMENTARY EXERCISES: TABLE OF CONTENTS AND GUIDE TO THE MATERIALS Introduction Lesson 1 A D: Sargam syllables and the

e shuddh (pure, or major) scale E: Introduction to dhrupad syllables Sing exercises B, C, and D in the sequence B C D C B. Sing the syllables of exercise E on any comfortable pitches, particularly middle s!. Lesson 2 A: Expanded aum B C: Repeated notes and scale fragments D: Exercise for pitch accuracy A phonetic transcription of exercise As expanded aum is: a (in Devanagari: ) Lesson 3 A: Omission exercise: six-, five-, and four-note scales B: The komal (flat, or phrygian) scale C: Juxtapositions of shuddh and komal scales and tetrachords D: Chromatic exercise Lesson 4 A C: Scale fragment exercises involving chains and slopes of notes D E: Intervals F: The four varnas (types of melodic movement) G H: Exercises with repeated scale fragment and descent to pa I: Scales with one accidental See lesson 5, exercise A for an explanation of accidentals in Hindustani music. Lesson 5 A: Altered notes B: Range exercise C: Introduction to m!nd (Slow slides) 8 5 o u m 4 3 1 2

Sing the slides in exercise C should slowly and smoothly, though not mechanically; a graph of the change of pitch from one note sliding to the next looks more like

than the straight line of the scores glissando. Take a full breath for each slide. Lesson 6 A: Wedges B: Mind with larger intervals C: Gamak (ornament) exercises Again, the m"nd should be smooth: 9

rather than Gamak in exercise C refers to ornamentation with grace notes, not the complex vibrato characteristic of North Indian singing and also called gamak; see lesson 7 exercise B and the gamak exercise on page 16 for an introduction to the complex vibrato. Lesson 7 A: More gamak exercises B: Complex vibrato 9

Experiment with changing the parameters of exercise B to create other complex periodic sounds. Lesson 8 A: Polyrhythm exercises in dugun (double speed) and caugun (quadruple speed) B: Ornamented variations Lesson 9 A: Introduction to the nom-tom syllables 11

14

The exercises of lessons 9 and 10 introduce four model sequences of four syllables each, and then show how to expand these sequences into longer ones by adding ras and nas. The basic principles are expaning ra na into longer patterns by adding more nas, and appending ra na, ra na na, etc. to existing sequences. (For a more detailed description, please see Sanyal and Widdesss Dhrupad, page 152.) For example, ta ra ra na (the first model phrase) can expand to 1. ta ra, ra na na

ii

2. ta ra ra, ra na na (see note below) 3. ta ra ra, ra na na na 4. ta ra ra na, ra na na na (= ta ra ra na, ra na ra na; see note below) 5. ta ra ra na, ra na, ra na na For sequences starting with a three-note group, ra is inserted after the first two syllables, rather than na. The four-syllable pattern ra na ra na is structurally interchangable with ra na na nathis explains the transformation from step 4 to 5 in the example above. But ra na ra na is always sung as ra na na na, which explains the irregular form of the fourth model phrase. Appendix to the exercises Gamak (vibrato) exercise 17

This is a vibrato exercise from lesson 20. The first two lines show the melodic outline of the exercise, and the bottom line illustrates what the voice is doing to produce the gamak effect, which is to slide from a note (substantially) lower than the focal pitch to one (somewhat) higher. The simplified notation to show the approximate range of the slides is a little misleading: the individual slides blend into a smoother oscillating figure than appears on the page. (See Dhrupad, page 166, for a more literal transcription.) Even though the slides hide the exactly pitches of the melody, the melodic outline is still clear: as the melody ascends, so do the slides. The general range of the slide may be large or smallfrom a microtone to over an octavebut the slides tend to get relatively smaller as the melody ascends.

iii

Introduction Dhrupad singing lessons map out the Indian vocalists musical landscape in broad strokes before zeroing in on particular r!gs to fill in the details. I spent ten lessons learning simple musical exercises. Some of these focus on vocal technique and sound production. The ideal voice of a male dhrupad singer stretches, roughly, from low C to the G about middle Ctwo-and-a-half octaves, a range exceeding my natural capacity in both directions. The teacher emphasizes early morning practice to develop the bass register, and prescribes scalar exercises for the highest register. Glissando and grace-note exercises introduce the student to these dimensions of dhrupad ornamentation, which require the ability to move between pitches quickly and accurately. The teacher dictates exercises to develop the students vibrato, but in general, exercises are sung without vibrato, with pinpoint pitch accuracy.1 (The constant tonic-dominant drone of the tambura makes subtle variations of pitch and tuning easier to hear in Indian music than in tonal, modulating Western music.) All these exercises condition the students voice. The other exercises are not so physical; instead, they highlight different aspects of r!g construction, such as omitted notes, combinations of accidentals, and characteristic melodic movements. The most complex and difficult of these exercises builds on the simple foundation of ascending and descending scales, combined with the idea of varying some patterns while leaving others unchanged. The student can combine and overlap many of these exercises; this relieves the monotony of practicing the same thing again and again, develops mental flexibility, and provides insight into the relationship between these musical building blocks and an actual musical performance. Note on transposition In Indian classical music, the tonic pitch, or s!, is variable. My teachers middle s! is approximately the Csharp below middle C, which is fairly standard for Indian male vocalists. In my transcriptions, however, middle s! is always the C-natural below middle C, to minimize accidentals. Note on transliteration Finale 2001, the program Ive used for my transcriptions, doesnt support the diacritical marks that distinguish Devanagaris long vowels !, ", and # ( , , ) from the short vowels a, i, and u ( , , ). For this reason, Ive written the long vowels as aa, ii, and uu. Note on sargam Ive written sargam (Indian solfege) letters under the staff music to aid musicians who arent familiar with Western music notation. The shuddh notes are all upper-case (S, R, G, and so on), and altered notes, including t"vra ma, are lower-case. Notes in the upper octave (middle C to the B above) have an apostrophe after the letter (such as S R G) and note in the lower octave (from the C two octaves below middle C to the B above) have a period after the letter (such as N. D. P.). Thank you My guru-ji, Prof. Ritwik Sanyal, taught me these wonderful exercises. I am indebted to him for his knowledge, enthusiasm, and kindness.

Vibrato (gamak) in dhrupad is more variable than in Western classical music; in general, it is entirely absent, but may span an octave or more in heavy gamak.

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Dhrupad Elementary Exercises


Lesson 1

U U U U U U U U ?
S saa R re G ga M ma P pa D dha N ni S' saa

U , U , U ,U , U U U U U U U U U U U U ?c
S sing: saa N. ni D. dha P. pa M. ma G. ga R. re S. saa

Sargam (solfege) syllables with the shuddh ("pure") scale; a full breath for each note sim.

U U
N ni

S. saa

R. re

U U
P pa

G. ga

M. ma

, , , , ?
B
Four notes per breath (in tempo)

S' saa

D dha

M ma

U U U U
G ga R re S saa

P. pa

D. dha

N. ni

S saa

, , ? .. ..
C
Dugun (double speed): eight notes per breath

S N. D. P. M. G. R. S. S. R. G. M. P. D. N. S sim.

S R G M

P D N S'

S' N D P

M G R S

S N. D. P. M. G. R. S.

S. R. G. M. P. D. N. S

S R G M P D N S'

S' N D P M G R S

, 4 times , ? .. ..
D
Caugun (quadruple speed): sixteen notes per breath S N. D. P. M. G. R. S. S. R. G. M. P. D. N. S S R G M P D N S' S' N D P M G R S

?U w
(sa)

Some dhrupad syllables, and their spacial associations horizontal line vertical line

U w
aa

naa

U w

U w
rii

nom

U w

point

aum

U w

circle

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Lesson 2

Expanded "aum", with several vowels see "Guide to the Exercises" for phonetic transcription

smooth transition between vowels

aa

uh

aw

uu

ng

?c ? ?
S S S S R R R R G G G G M M M M S S S R R R G G G M M M P P P D D D N N N S' S' S' S' S' S' N N N D D D P P P M M M G G G R R R S S S S S R R G G M M (sargam) P P D D N N S' S' S' S' N N D D P P M M G G R R S S

Repeated notes Expand the following exercises by descending to low sa and returning to middle sa. accent a little

S' S' S' S' N N N N D D D D P P P P


M M M M G G G G R R R R S S S S Scale fragments

P P P P D D D D N N N N S' S' S' S'

? Two-note fragments
C

? Three-notefragments ! ... ! ! ! c ? ... ... ...


Four-note fragments S R G M R G M P S R G M P R G M P D S R G M P D N S' R G M P D N S' R' Try to go up to high ga or ma, and down to low dha or ni, but don't strain the voice S R G R G M G M P M P D P D N D N S' N S' R' S' R' G' G' R' S' R' S' N And so on, ascending and descending, until eight-note fragments: Five-note fragments

S R R G G M M P

P D D N N S' S' R'

R' S' S' N N D D P

P M M G G R R S

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?c U w
D
Pitch accuracy exercise S R G M P D N S' S

U w
S And so on, always raising the pitch of the final note by one step, until:

? U w
S R G M P D N S' G

...

U w 9 U 8 Jw
S' S

S'

? 15 U U w w 8 U w ?c
E
The same exercise, inverted S' N D P M G R S S' R G M P D N S' S R G M P D N S' R

Then repeating the exercise with the first note omitted:

... ...
etc.

S R G M P D N S' S' This process of omission continues until only the highest note of the scale remains:

15 8 c

U Jw

... ...
etc.

S' R

S' N D P M G R S

U w
N

Lesson 3

U U j j ?
(R) S G M P D N S' S' N D P M G S (G) S R M P D N S' S' N D P M R S

Omission exercise Sing scales leaving out individual notes in turn: first re, then ga, etc. up to ni.

...
bbb b

Then sing scales leaving out pairs of notes: re-ga, re-ma, etc.; then ga-ma, ga-pa, etc.; up to dha-ni (15 total).

...

... ...
w
M

w
P

Then leave out groups of three notes, from re-ga-ma to pa-dha-ni. There are 20 combinations.

... ...
w

(RG) (RM) (RP)

(GM)

(DN) (RGM)

(PDN)

? bb b w b
S

Komal (flat) scale

w
r

w
g

? b b c 1. n n 2. b b bb nn bb
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S r g M P d n S' S' N D P M G R S S R G M P D N S' S' n d P M g r S

d n S' Repeat all previous exercises with this scale. Exercise juxtaposing shuddh and komal scales and tetrachords

? b b b 3. n n n b n
S r g M


S' n d P S' N D P

? 4.
S R G

? b b 5. n n bb nn
S r g M P D N

bbb b
P d n

S'

bbb b
M g r S

n nnn bbb b

S'

n nnn

S'

bbbb


S' n d P


G R S

nn nn


G R S

? 6.
S R G

bb nn bb nn
P d n S' S' N D P

bb bb
M g r S

n nnn

b ? b b n n # b b n n b b # n b b
D
Chromatic exercise r S g R M G P m d P n D S' N r' S' N S' D n P d m P G M R g S r N. S

Lesson 4

?
A
Chain exercise

S R S R G R S R G MG R S R G M P MG R S R G M P D P M G R S R G M P D N D P M G R S R G M P D N S' N D P MG Continue up to ni, then invert the whole exercise

...

R G R G M G R G M P M G R G M P D P M G R G M P D N D P M G R G M P D N S' N D P M

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? ?
Then, starting from re, repeat this process:

Upward sloping steps First, starting from low sa, sing scale fragments of increasing length, until arriving at high sa:

S R S R G S R G M S R G M P S R G M P D S R G M P D N S R G M P D N S' Continue up to ni, then invert the whole exercise

...

R G R G M R G M P R G M P D R G M P D N R G M P D N S'

?
R S G R S M G R S P M G R S D P M G R S N D P M G R S S' N D P M G R S

Downward sloping steps This is similar to the preceding exercise, but each scale fragment is inverted

Continue up to ni, then invert the whole exercise

...

?
D
Intervals up This is also similar to "Upward Sloping Steps," but it removes all the middle notes of each scale fragment. S R S G S M S P S D S N S S' Intervals down

Continue up to ni, then invert the whole exercise

...

R G R M R P R D R N R S' Continue up to ni, then invert the whole exercise

?
E
R S G S M S P S D S N S S' S

...

?c

Exercise highlighting the four varnas, or elements of melodic movement


G G M G M


M M P M P

etc. up the octave, then invert

...

S S R S R R R G R G The four varnas are: level, or keeping to the same note (sthayi) ascending (aroha)

descending (avaroha) mixture of the above three (sanchari)

Gradually increase the melodic interval... ...until it emcompasses an octave: etc. up the octave, then invert

...

S S G S G

R R M R M

...

etc.

S S S' S S'

R R R' R R'

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U U U > > > > > > ? > > > > > >
G
Exercise with repeated scale fragment and descent to pa Ascending form:

[Filename]

etc. up the octave

... ... ...


etc. etc.

Descending form: > >>>

S R G S R G S R G R S N. D.P. R G M R G M R G M G R S N. D.P. G M P G M P G M P M G R S N. D.P.

G' R' S' G' R' S' G' R' S' N D P M G R S N. D. P. R' S' N R' S N R' S' N D P M G R S N. D. P.

U > > > U U


P.

? > > > > > >


S R G S R S G R G S R G R S N. D. Descending form:

The same, with permuted scale fragment Ascending form:

> > > > > > ? U


G' R' S' G' R' G' S' R' S' G' R' S' N D P M G R S N. D. P.

...
etc.

?C b nb
I
Scales with one accidental S R G M P D N S' S' N D P M G R S S r G M P D N S' S' N D P M G r S

?b n# nb ?b n b n ? .. . .
The same exercise, exapanded to two octaves Change key signature at the bottom, and repeat 6 times to cycle through all the one-accidental scales and arrive back at the major scale. S R G M P d N S' S' N d P M G R S S R G M P D n S' S' n D P M G R S S R g M P D N S' S' N D P M g R S S R G m P D N S' S' N D P m G R S

Accidentals in these non-standard key signatures hold for all octaves, just like those in standard key signatures.

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Lesson 5

?w

Altered notes

Aw

Aw

aw

Aw

Aw

S r/R g/G M/m P d/D n/N S' In the Hindustani music system, there are only five accidentals: flat re, flat ga, sharp ma, flat dha, and flat ni. This means that there are only thirty-two possible combinations of natural and altered notes: 1 pure scale, 5 scales with one altered note, 10 with two, and so on. In this exercise, sing all the scales.

? c
B
1.

Range exercise

?
2. 3. 1a.

S R S R G R G M G M P M P D P D N D N S' N S' R' S' S' R' S' N S' N D N D P D P M P M G M G R G R S R S (expand the exercise by descending to low sa and returning to middle sa)

...
etc.

? ... ... ?
2a.
S R G G R S R G M M G S R G M G R S R G M P M G R GM P D P M G

S R G R S R G M G R G M P M G M P D P M P D N D P D N S' N D N S' R' S' N S' R' G' R' S' High note of the original patterns sung twice:


G M P P M G

S R R S R G G R

G M M G

... ... ... ... ...

3a. ?
S R G M M G R S R G M P P High note of the original patterns sung four times: M G R

G M P D D P M G

?
1b.
S R R R R S R G G G G


G M M M M G

2b. ?
S R G G G G R S R G M M M M G R

?
3b.
S R G M M M M G R S R G M P P P P M G R

G M P P P P M G

G M P D D D D P M G

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? w ! w
S saa S re

Slow slides ("miind") Ascending form:

U w
R

R re

w ! w !

R ga

U w
G

, And so on, upwto ! w

...

U w
S'

N ni

N saa

? w

Descending form:

S' saa

!
Lesson 6

U w
N ni

w
N ni

U w
D dha

And so on, down to

...

R re

S saa

U w

? C
A
Wedges (practice in the upper and lower octaves seperately) Four notes each

S R G M S' N D P R G M P N D P M G M P D D P M G M P D N P M G R P D N S' M G R S Three notes each Two notes each

...

?
G M D P

S R G S' N D R G M N D P G M P D P M One note each

...

w w w w U w U w w U w wU w w
S' D D N P saa dha ni pa P D M dha ma N G D M P P M D G N R S' S

S R S' N R G N D

S'

w ? w wU ww U w wU w w
B
S S G saa ga G R M re ma M G P ga pa

Slide exercise of previous lesson with larger intervals

... ...

... ...

U U ? ww U w w w ww w w

N D S' dha saa

U www U w ww
R M S ma saa R G S ga saa

?2 4

S S M M R P P G D N P S' saa ma re pa ga dha pa saa Gamak (ornament) exercises C Do each exercise twice: first slow, then fast 1. One ornament j melodically taut and rhythmically even

w w w w U w U w w U w wU w w
S' P P N M saa pa ni ma M D G dha ga

And so on, with larger and larger intervals

S R S R G R G M G saa saa re re ga ga

j >

j >

>

...

S' R' S' saa saa

>

j >

j
>

S' R' S' N S' N D N D saa saa ni ni dha dha

>

... j
>

S R S saa saa

3 4

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?4 3

2. Two ornaments

S saa

j >

R S saa

j >

R S saa

R re

j >

G R re

j >

G R re

G ga

M G ga

>

M G ga

>

...
>

c 2 4 2 4

?c ?4 2

3. Three ornaments

S R S R S R S saa saa saa saa

j j j > > >

3 4

R G R G R G R re re re re

j j j > > >

G M G M G M G ga ga ga ga

>

j j j >

... ...

Repeat the above with sustained sargam vowel 2a. 1a.

S R S saa

j >

...

S R S R S saa

j j > >

...

3a.

S R S R S R S saa

j j j > > >

Lesson 7

Examples of other gamak exercises

?2 4 ?4 3 ?4 2 ?
4.

1. give more accent to larger intervals

S saa

R S saa

R re

G R re

These are model phrases that can be varied with more repetitions, like the first gamak exercise. Sing them slow and fast; practice them with sargam and sustained "a" vowel.

j
P

...
j
P

M G ga

M G ga

3 4 2 4

(Expansion:)

S saa

R S saa

R S saa

G R re

G R re

G R re

3.

j
M G ga

j
M G ga

...
j

M G ga

2.

N. S N. S saa saa

j j

N. R S R re re

... ...

5.

S G R G ga ga

S N. S saa saa

j
R S R re re

... ...

G R G ga ga

N. R S S G R saa re

RMG G PM ga ma

N. R S N.G R saa re

S MG R PM ga ma

An example of sustained complex vibrato, with a focal pitch and a range that extends above and below this pitch

focal pitch range

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.. .. !
P. aa R S R P. R S R P. R S R P. R S R

Lesson 8

[Filename]

?
Sing S S Clap

Scale patterns with two steps, in dugun and caugun Model: three-note pattern Dugun (2 notes per beat)

S'


S' N

S'

S'

S'

R'

N.

Caugun (4 notes per beat, doubling the speed of the pattern)

S P P S S R R R G G G M M M P P D D D N N N S' S' S' R' S' S' N N N D D D P P M M M G G G R R R S S N.

Perform each of the following patterns in dugun and caugun, while clapping the pulse:

?
Another three-note pattern

...
etc.

?
S S S R R R R R G G Six-note pattern

S R R R G G G M M S S R Five-note patterns (Written in 16th notes to clarify the grouping, not to imply that these patterns should be performed twice as fast) 1. 2.


Four-note pattern R R R G G G

...
etc.

G M M

...

G G G M M


S S R R R R R G G G

...

G G M M M

?
S S S R R R R R R G G


G G G M M M

...
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?
S S S S R R R R R R R G G G G G G G

Seven-note patterns 1.

... ... ... ... ... ...

M M M

?
2. S S S R R Eight-note pattern R R R R R G G G G G G G

M M M M

? ?
S S R G R R G M G G M P S S S S R R R Patterns with three steps Four-note patterns 1. R R R R R G G G G

G G G G M M M M

... ...

? 3.
S R G G R G M M G M P P

S R R G R G G M Five-note patterns 1.


2. G M M P


S S R R G R R G G M 3.

? 2.
S S R G G R R G M M G G M P P Six-note patterns

...


S R R G G R G G M M G M M P P

G G M M P

? 1. ... 2. ... ? ... ...


3. 4. S S R R G G R R G G M M G G M M P P S R R G G G R G G M M M G M M P P P

? 5. ... ...
S S R G G G R R G M M M G G M P P P S S S R G G R R R G M M G G G M P P

S R R R G G R G G G M M G M M M P P

S S R R R G R R G G G M G G M M M P 6.

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? ... ...
7. 3. ? 2. ... ... S SRRRGGRRGGGMM G G M M M P P S SRRGGG RRG GMMM G G M M P P P S S SRRGRRRGGM G G G M M P S S SRRGGRRRGGMM G G G M M P P

Seven-note patterns 1.

?
S 2. S S R R R G G R R R G G G M M G G G M M M P P

Eight-note patterns 1.

... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...


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? ? 3. ?
2. ? S S S R R R G G G R R R G G G M M M G G G M M M P P P S S R R R Nine-note patterns 1. G G G R R G G G M M M G G M M M P P P S S S R R G G G R R R G G M M M G G G M M P P P

? 3. ?
S S 5. S R R R R G G R R R G G G G M M G G G M M M M P P S S R R R R G G G R R G G G G M M M 4. G G M M M M P P P

R R R G G G G R R G G G M M M M

G G M M M P P P P

?
S S S R R G G G G R R R G G M M M M G G G M M P P P P

?
6.

... ...

?
S S S S R R R G G R R R R G G G M M G G G G M M M P P

S S 7.

S R R G G G R R R R G G M M M

G G G G M M P P P

For additional variations on the basic patterns, ornament them as in Lesson 6C and 7A. The following two exercises are particularly good practice (using the preceding nine-note pattern as an example): j

Every repeated note ornamented from above

S RS RS R S R GR GR G MG R G R G R G R G MG MG M P M saa saa saa saa re re re ga ga [sim.] Every note in the pattern after the first ornamented from above j j j j j j j j j j j j j j j j

j j j

j j j j j

... ...

?
Lesson 9

S R S R S R S G R G R G R MG M G R G R G R G R MG MG MG P M P M saa saa saa saa re re re ga ga [sim.] Introduction to the nom-tom syllables Four model phrases:

ta

1.

ra

ra

na

ri

2.

ra

ra

na

te

3.

ta

ra

na

ra

4.

na

na

na(a)

Basic exercise: practice these phrases in the bhairav scale, at normal speed, dugun and caugun, in one octave, two octaves, and ascending to ma and descending to pa. Examples:

? b b

One note per beat, in one octave

S ta

r ra

P ri

d ra

S te

N ta

d ra

P na,

M ra

G na

G ra

M na,

N ra

S na,

r na

S na;

? b b
Dugun, in one octave ta ra ra na, ri ra ra na, Clap

te ta ra na, ra na na na;

ta ra ra na, ri ra ra na,

te ta ra na, ra na na na;

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? b b
Caugun, in one octave ta ra ra na, ri ra ra na, te ta ra na, ra na na na;

ta ra ra na, ri ra ra na, te ta ra na, ra na na na;

? b b

ta ra ra na, ri ra ra na, te ta ra na, ra na na na;

ta ra ra na, ri ra ra na, te ta ra na, ra na na na;

? b b ? b b ? b b ? b b
B

One note per beat, over two octaves

ri

ra

ra

na,

te

ta

ra

na,

ra

na

na

ta

ra

ra

na,

na;

ta

ra

ra

na,

ri

ra

ra

na,

te

ta

ra

na,

ra

na

na

na;

One note per beat, ascending to ma and descending to pa

ri

te

ra

na

na

na;

ta

ra

ra

na,

ra

ra

na,

ta

ra

na,

ra

na,

ri

ra

ra

ta

ra

na,

te

ta

ra

na,

ra

na

na

na; etc.


ta ra ra na

Expansion of syllables into longer patterns (see the guide for a description of this process): Five-note patterns


ri ra ra na


ta ra na


na ra na na

na

na

te

na

ra

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? b b
Clap

Complex exercise in dugun and caugun, singing the five-note patterns while clapping the pulse: Dugun

ta ra ra na na, ri ra ra na na, te ta ra na na, ra na ra na na; ta ra ra na na, ri ra ra na na, te ta ra na na, ra na ra na na;

? b b

ta ra ra na na, ri ra ra na na, te ta ra na na, ra na ra na na; ta ra ra na na, ri ra ra na na, te ta ra na na, ra na ra na na;

? b b
Caugun ta ra ra na na, ri ra ra na na, te ta ra na na, ra

? b b
ra na na, ra na ra na na; ta ra ra na na, ri ra ra

na ra na na; ta ra ra na na, ri ra ra na na, te ta

na na, te ta ra na na, ra na ra na na; ta ra ra na

? b b
C

ri

ra

ra

na

na,

na,

te

ta

ra

na

na,

ra

na

ra

na

na;


ta ra ra ra na na ri ra ra ra na na te ta re ra na na ra na na ra na na

Repeat this exercise with these syllable patterns: Six-note patterns

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Lesson 10

A
1.


ta ra ra ra na na na 2. ri ra ra ra na na na te ta ra ra na na na ra na na ra na na na

Seven-note patterns


ta ra ra na ra na na ri ra ra na ra na na te ta ra na ra na na ra na na na ra na na


B
Eight-note pattern ta ra ra na ra na na na ri ra ra na ra na na na te ta ra na ra na na na ra na na na ra na na na

C
1.


ta ra ra na ra na ra na na 2. ri ra ra na ra na ra na na (etc.) te ta ra na ra na ra na na ra na na na ra na ra na na

Nine-note patterns

3. 4.
ta ra ra na ra na na ra na ta ra ra na na ra na na na ta ra ra ra na ra na na na

5.

ra

ra

ra

na

na

ra

na

na

6. ta ra

ra

ra

na

na

ra

na

na

ta

1. ta ra ra na na ra na ra na na

Ten-note patterns


2. ta ra ra ra na ra na na ra na

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? b b
gamak S r S r S r G r G r

Later lesson Gamak exercise

? b b


G M G M G M P M P M r' S' r' S' r' S' N S' N S' N d N d N d P d P d P M P M P M G M G M G r G r G r S r S r etc. Descending sounds like:

P d P d P d N d N d N S' N S' N S' r' S' r' S'

etc. ? b b Ascending sounds like:

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